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Contents

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Preface ............................................................................................................ xiii

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About the Computer Programs ........................................................................ xvii

List of Primary Symbols Used in Text .............................................................. xix

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Introduction ............................................................................................. 1
1.1 Foundations: Their Importance and Purpose ............................................... 1
1.2 Foundation Engineering ................................................................................ 1
1.3 Foundations: Classifications and Select Definitions ..................................... 3
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1.4 Foundations: General Requirements ............................................................ 6


1.5 Foundations: Additional Considerations ....................................................... 7
1.6 Foundations: Selection of Type ..................................................................... 9
1.7 The International System of Units (SI) and the Foot-pound-second
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(Fps) System ................................................................................................. 9


1.8 Computational Accuracy versus Design Precision ....................................... 12
1.9 Computer Programs in Foundation Analysis and Design ............................. 13
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2. Geotechnical and Index Properties: Laboratory Testing;


Settlement and Strength Correlations .................................................. 15
2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 15
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2.2 Foundation Subsoils ...................................................................................... 16


2.3 Soil Volume and Density Relationships ........................................................ 17
2.4 Major Factors That Affect the Engineering Properties of Soils ..................... 21
2.5 Routine Laboratory Index Soil Tests ............................................................. 24

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vi Contents

2.6 Soil Classification Methods in Foundation Design ........................................ 29


2.7 Soil Material Classification Terms ................................................................. 35
2.8 In Situ Stresses and Ko Conditions ............................................................... 39
2.9 Soil Water; Soil Hydraulics ............................................................................ 46
2.10 Consolidation Principles ................................................................................ 56

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2.11 Shear Strength ............................................................................................... 90
2.12 Sensitivity and Thixotropy ............................................................................. 112
2.13 Stress Paths .................................................................................................. 113

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2.14 Elastic Properties of Soil ................................................................................ 121
2.15 Isotropic and Anisotropic Soil Masses .......................................................... 127
Problems .................................................................................................................. 131

3. Exploration, Sampling, and In Situ Soil Measurements ...................... 135


3.1
3.2
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Data Required ................................................................................................
Methods of Exploration ..................................................................................
135
136
3.3 Planning the Exploration Program ................................................................ 137
3.4 Soil Boring ...................................................................................................... 141
3.5 Soil Sampling ................................................................................................. 145
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3.6 Underwater Sampling .................................................................................... 152


3.7 The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) .......................................................... 154
3.8 SPT Correlations ........................................................................................... 162
3.9 Design N Values ............................................................................................ 165
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3.10 Other Penetration Test Methods ................................................................... 166


3.11 Cone Penetration Test (CPT) ........................................................................ 167
3.12 Field Vane Shear Testing (FVST) ................................................................. 183
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3.13 The Borehole Shear Test (BST) .................................................................... 189


3.14 The Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT) .................................................................. 190
3.15 The Pressuremeter Test (PMT) .................................................................... 194
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3.16 Other Methods for In Situ Ko .......................................................................... 198


3.17 Rock Sampling ............................................................................................... 202
3.18 Groundwater Table (GWT) Location ............................................................. 204
3.19 Number and Depth of Borings ....................................................................... 205

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Contents vii

3.20 Drilling and/or Exploration of Closed Landfills or Hazardous Waste


Sites ............................................................................................................... 206
3.21 The Soil Report .............................................................................................. 206
Problems .................................................................................................................. 210

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4. Bearing Capacity of Foundations .......................................................... 213

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4.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 213
4.2 Bearing Capacity ........................................................................................... 214
4.3 Bearing-capacity Equations ........................................................................... 219

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4.4 Additional Considerations When Using the Bearing-capacity
Equations ....................................................................................................... 228
4.5 Bearing-capacity Examples ........................................................................... 231
4.6 Footings with Eccentric or Inclined Loadings ................................................ 236
4.7
4.8
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Effect of Water Table on Bearing Capacity ...................................................
Bearing Capacity for Footings on Layered Soils ...........................................
249
251
4.9 Bearing Capacity of Footings on Slopes ....................................................... 258
4.10 Bearing Capacity from SPT ........................................................................... 263
4.11 Bearing Capacity Using the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) .......................... 266
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4.12 Bearing Capacity from Field Load Tests ....................................................... 267


4.13 Bearing Capacity of Foundations with Uplift or Tension Forces ................... 270
4.14 Bearing Capacity Based on Building Codes (Presumptive Pressure) ......... 274
4.15 Safety Factors in Foundation Design ............................................................ 275
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4.16 Bearing Capacity of Rock .............................................................................. 277


Problems .................................................................................................................. 280
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5. Foundation Settlements ......................................................................... 284


5.1 The Settlement Problem ................................................................................ 284
5.2 Stresses in Soil Mass Due to Footing Pressure ........................................... 286
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5.3 The Boussinesq Method For qv ..................................................................... 287


5.4 Special Loading Cases for Boussinesq Solutions ........................................ 296
5.5 Westergaard’s Method for Computing Soil Pressures .................................. 301
5.6 Immediate Settlement Computations ............................................................ 303
5.7 Rotation of Bases .......................................................................................... 310

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viii Contents

5.8 Immediate Settlements: Other Considerations ............................................. 313


5.9 Size Effects on Settlements and Bearing Capacity ...................................... 316
5.10 Alternative Methods of Computing Elastic Settlements ................................ 323
5.11 Stresses and Displacements in Layered and Anisotropic Soils ................... 326
5.12 Consolidation Settlements ............................................................................. 329

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5.13 Reliability of Settlement Computations ......................................................... 337
5.14 Structures on Fills .......................................................................................... 337
5.15 Structural Tolerance to Settlement and Differential Settlements .................. 338

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5.16 General Comments on Settlements .............................................................. 340
Problems .................................................................................................................. 341

6. Improving Site Soils for Foundation Use ............................................. 344


6.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 344
6.2
6.3
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Lightweight and Structural Fills .....................................................................
Compaction ....................................................................................................
346
347
6.4 Soil-cement, Lime, and Fly Ash .................................................................... 351
6.5 Precompression to Improve Site Soils .......................................................... 352
6.6 Drainage Using Sand Blankets and Drains .................................................. 353
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6.7 Sand Columns to Increase Soil Stiffness ...................................................... 356


6.8 Stone Columns .............................................................................................. 358
6.9 Soil-cement Piles/Columns ........................................................................... 360
6.10 Jet Grouting ................................................................................................... 363
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6.11 Foundation Grouting and Chemical Stabilization .......................................... 364


6.12 Vibratory Methods to Increase Soil Density .................................................. 365
6.13 Use of Geotextiles to Improve Soil ................................................................ 367
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6.14 Altering Groundwater Conditions .................................................................. 368


Problems .................................................................................................................. 369
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7. Factors to Consider in Foundation Design .......................................... 370


7.1 Footing Depth and Spacing ........................................................................... 370
7.2 Displaced Soil Effects .................................................................................... 373
7.3 Net versus Gross Soil Pressure: Design Soil Pressures .............................. 373

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Contents ix

7.4 Erosion Problems for Structures Adjacent to Flowing Water ....................... 375
7.5 Corrosion Protection ...................................................................................... 376
7.6 Water Table Fluctuation ................................................................................ 376
7.7 Foundations in Sand and Silt Deposits ......................................................... 377
7.8 Foundations on Loess and Other Collapsible Soils ...................................... 378

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7.9 Foundations on Unsaturated Soils Subject to Volume Change with
Change in Water Content .............................................................................. 380
7.10 Foundations on Clays and Clayey Silts ........................................................ 395
7.11 Foundations on Residual Soils ...................................................................... 397

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7.12 Foundations on Sanitary Landfill Sites .......................................................... 397
7.13 Frost Depth and Foundations on Permafrost ................................................ 399
7.14 Environmental Considerations ...................................................................... 400
Problems ..................................................................................................................
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8. Spread Footing Design .......................................................................... 403


8.1 Footings: Classification and Purpose ............................................................ 403
8.2 Allowable Soil Pressures in Spread Footing Design .................................... 404
8.3 Assumptions Used in Footing Design ........................................................... 405
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8.4 Reinforced-concrete Design: USD ................................................................ 406


8.5 Structural Design of Spread Footings ........................................................... 411
8.6 Bearing Plates and Anchor Bolts .................................................................. 425
8.7 Pedestals ....................................................................................................... 433
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8.8 Base Plate Design with Overturning Moments ............................................. 437


8.9 Rectangular Footings .................................................................................... 445
8.10 Eccentrically Loaded Spread Footings ......................................................... 449
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8.11 Unsymmetrical Footings ................................................................................ 465


8.12 Wall Footings and Footings for Residential Construction ............................. 466
Problems .................................................................................................................. 469
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9. Special Footings and Beams on Elastic Foundations ......................... 472


9.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 472
9.2 Rectangular Combined Footings ................................................................... 472

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9.3 Design of Trapezoid-shaped Footings .......................................................... 481


9.4 Design of Strap (or Cantilever) Footings ....................................................... 486
9.5 Footings for Industrial Equipment ................................................................. 489
9.6 Modulus of Subgrade Reaction ..................................................................... 501
9.7 Classical Solution of Beam on Elastic Foundation ....................................... 506

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9.8 Finite-element Solution of Beam on Elastic Foundation ............................... 509
9.9 Ring Foundations .......................................................................................... 523
9.10 General Comments on the Finite-element Procedure .................................. 531

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Problems .................................................................................................................. 534

10. Mat Foundations ..................................................................................... 537


10.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 537
10.2 Types of Mat Foundations ............................................................................. 538
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10.3 Bearing Capacity of Mat Foundations ...........................................................
10.4 Mat Settlements .............................................................................................
539
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10.5 Modulus of Subgrade Reaction ks for Mats and Plates ................................ 544
10.6 Design of Mat Foundations ........................................................................... 548
10.7 Finite-difference Method for Mats ................................................................. 552
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10.8 Finite-element Method for Mat Foundations ................................................. 557


10.9 The Finite-grid Method (FGM) ....................................................................... 558
10.10 Mat Foundation Examples Using the FGM ................................................... 565
10.11 Mat-superstructure Interaction ...................................................................... 576
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10.12 Circular Mats or Plates .................................................................................. 576


10.13 Boundary Conditions ..................................................................................... 587
Problems .................................................................................................................. 587
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11. Lateral Earth Pressure ........................................................................... 589


11.1 The Lateral Earth Pressure Problem ............................................................. 589
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11.2 Active Earth Pressure .................................................................................... 589


11.3 Passive Earth Pressure ................................................................................. 593
11.4 Coulomb Earth Pressure Theory ................................................................... 594
11.5 Rankine Earth Pressures .............................................................................. 601

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11.6 General Comments About Both Methods ..................................................... 604


11.7 Active and Passive Earth Pressure Using Theory of Plasticity .................... 609
11.8 Earth Pressure on Walls, Soil-tension Effects, Rupture Zone ...................... 611
11.9 Reliability of Lateral Earth Pressures ............................................................ 616
11.10 Soil Properties for Lateral Earth Pressure Computations ............................. 617

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11.11 Earth-pressure Theories in Retaining Wall Problems ................................... 620
11.12 Graphical and Computer Solutions for Lateral Earth Pressure .................... 623
11.13 Lateral Pressures by Theory of Elasticity ...................................................... 629

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11.14 Other Causes of Lateral Pressure ................................................................. 640
11.15 Lateral Wall Pressure from Earthquakes ...................................................... 640
11.16 Pressures in Silos, Grain Elevators, and Coal Bunkers ............................... 646
Problems .................................................................................................................. 653
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12. Mechanically Stabilized Earth and Concrete Retaining Walls ............
12.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................
657
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12.2 Mechanically Reinforced Earth Walls ............................................................ 658
12.3 Design of Reinforced Earth Walls ................................................................. 665
12.4 Concrete Retaining Walls .............................................................................. 681
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12.5 Cantilever Retaining Walls ............................................................................ 683


12.6 Wall Stability .................................................................................................. 685
12.7 Wall Joints ...................................................................................................... 691
12.8 Wall Drainage ................................................................................................ 692
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12.9 Soil Properties for Retaining Walls ................................................................ 693


12.10 General Considerations in Concrete Retaining Wall Design ........................ 695
12.11 Allowable Bearing Capacity ........................................................................... 696
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12.12 Wall Settlements ............................................................................................ 696


12.13 Retaining Walls of Varying Height; Abutments and Wingwalls .................... 698
12.14 Counterfort Retaining Walls .......................................................................... 700
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12.15 Basement or Foundation Walls; Walls for Residential Construction ............ 701
12.16 Elements of ACI 318- Alternate Design Method ........................................... 702
12.17 Cantilever Retaining Wall Examples ............................................................. 704
Problems .................................................................................................................. 723

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xii Contents

13. Sheet-pile Walls: Cantilevered and Anchored ...................................... 725


13.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 725
13.2 Types and Materials Used for Sheetpiling .................................................... 728
13.3 Soil Properties for Sheet-pile Walls ............................................................... 732

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13.4 Stability Numbers for Sheet-pile Walls .......................................................... 737

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13.5 Sloping Dredge Line ...................................................................................... 738
13.6 Finite-element Analysis of Sheet-pile Walls .................................................. 741
13.7 Finite-element Examples ............................................................................... 747

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13.8 Anchor Rods, Wales, and Anchorages for Sheetpiling ................................. 771
13.9 Overall Wall Stability and Safety Factors ...................................................... 781
Problems .................................................................................................................. 782

14. Walls for Excavations ............................................................................. 785


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14.1 Construction Excavations ..............................................................................
14.2 Soil Pressures on Braced Excavation Walls .................................................
785
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14.3 Conventional Design of Braced Excavation Walls ........................................ 795
14.4 Estimation of Ground Loss around Excavations ........................................... 803
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14.5 Finite-element Analysis for Braced Excavations ........................................... 806


14.6 Instability Due to Heave of Bottom of Excavation ......................................... 811
14.7 Other Causes of Cofferdam Instability .......................................................... 815
14.8 Construction Dewatering ............................................................................... 816
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14.9 Slurry-wall (or -Trench) Construction ............................................................ 820


Problems .................................................................................................................. 826

15. Cellular Cofferdams ................................................................................ 828


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15.1 Cellular Cofferdams: Types and Uses .......................................................... 828


15.2 Cell Fill ........................................................................................................... 836
15.3 Stability and Design of Cellular Cofferdams ................................................. 837
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15.4 Bearing Capacity ........................................................................................... 849


15.5 Cell Settlement .............................................................................................. 849
15.6 Practical Considerations in Cellular Cofferdam Design ................................ 850
15.7 Design of Diaphragm Cofferdam Cell ........................................................... 853

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Contents xiii

15.8 Circular Cofferdam Design ............................................................................ 857


15.9 Cloverleaf Cofferdam Design ........................................................................ 864
Problems .................................................................................................................. 865

16. Single Piles – Static Capacity and Lateral Loads; Pile/Pole

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Buckling .................................................................................................. 867

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16.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 867
16.2 Timber Piles ................................................................................................... 869
16.3 Concrete Piles ............................................................................................... 875

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16.4 Steel Piles ...................................................................................................... 880
16.5 Corrosion of Steel Piles ................................................................................. 883
16.6 Soil Properties for Static Pile Capacity .......................................................... 883
16.7 Static Pile Capacity ........................................................................................ 885
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16.8 Ultimate Static Pile Point Capacity ................................................................
16.9 Pile Skin Resistance Capacity .......................................................................
891
898
16.10 Pile Settlements ............................................................................................. 907
16.11 Static Pile Capacity: Examples ...................................................................... 909
16.12 Piles in Permafrost ........................................................................................ 921
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16.13 Static Pile Capacity Using Load-transfer Load-test Data ............................. 925
16.14 Tension Piles – Piles for Resisting Uplift ....................................................... 928
16.15 Laterally Loaded Piles ................................................................................... 929
16.16 Laterally Loaded Pile Examples .................................................................... 948
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16.17 Buckling of Fully and Partially Embedded Piles and Poles .......................... 953
Problems .................................................................................................................. 963
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17. Single Piles: Dynamic Analysis, Load Tests ........................................ 968


17.1 Dynamic Analysis .......................................................................................... 968
17.2 Pile Driving ..................................................................................................... 968
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17.3 The Rational Pile Formula ............................................................................. 973


17.4 Other Dynamic Formulas and General Considerations ................................ 978
17.5 Reliability of Dynamic Pile-driving Formulas ................................................. 985
17.6 The Wave Equation ....................................................................................... 986

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17.7 Pile-load Tests ............................................................................................... 996


17.8 Pile-driving Stresses ...................................................................................... 999
17.9 General Comments on Pile Driving ............................................................... 1003
Problems .................................................................................................................. 1004

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18. Pile Foundations: Groups ...................................................................... 1006

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18.1 Single Piles versus Pile Groups .................................................................... 1006
18.2 Vertically Loaded Pile Groups ....................................................................... 1006
18.3 Efficiency of Pile Groups ............................................................................... 1008

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18.4 Stresses on Underlying Strata from Piles ..................................................... 1011
18.5 Settlements of Pile Groups ............................................................................ 1019
18.6 Pile Caps ........................................................................................................ 1027
18.7 Batter Piles ..................................................................................................... 1029
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18.8 Negative Skin Friction ....................................................................................
18.9 Laterally Loaded Pile Groups ........................................................................
1029
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18.10 Matrix Analysis for Pile Groups ..................................................................... 1040
18.11 Pile Cap Design by Computer ....................................................................... 1051
Problems .................................................................................................................. 1053
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19. Drilled Piers or Caissons ....................................................................... 1055


19.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 1055
19.2 Current Construction Methods ...................................................................... 1055
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19.3 When to Use Drilled Piers ............................................................................. 1062


19.4 Other Practical Considerations for Drilled Piers ............................................ 1063
19.5 Capacity Analysis of Drilled Piers ................................................................. 1065
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19.6 Settlements of Drilled Piers ........................................................................... 1072


19.7 Structural Design of Drilled Piers .................................................................. 1075
19.8 Drilled Pier Design Examples ........................................................................ 1076
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19.9 Laterally Loaded Drilled Pier Analysis ........................................................... 1081


19.10 Drilled Pier Inspection and Load Testing ...................................................... 1086
Problems .................................................................................................................. 1087

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Contents xv

20. Design of Foundations for Vibration Controls ..................................... 1090


20.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 1090
20.2 Elements of Vibration Theory ........................................................................ 1090
20.3 The General Case of a Vibrating Base ......................................................... 1096

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20.4 Soil Springs and Damping Constants ........................................................... 1098

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20.5 Soil Properties for Dynamic Base Design ..................................................... 1104
20.6 Unbalanced Machine Forces ........................................................................ 1111
20.7 Dynamic Base Example ................................................................................ 1114

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20.8 Coupled Vibrations ........................................................................................ 1120
20.9 Embedment Effects on Dynamic Base Response ........................................ 1123
20.10 General Considerations in Designing Dynamic Bases ................................. 1125
20.11 Pile-supported Dynamic Foundations ........................................................... 1126
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Problems ..................................................................................................................

Appendix A: General Pile-data and Pile Hammer Tables ........................... 1135


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A.1 HP Pile Dimensions and Section Properties ................................................. 1136


A.2 Typical Pile-driving Hammers from Various Sources ................................... 1137
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A.3 Steel Sheetpiling Sections Produced in the United States ........................... 1139
A.4 Typical Available Steel Pipe Sections Used for Piles and Caisson
Shells ............................................................................................................. 1141
A.5 Typical Prestressed-concrete Pile Sections – Both Solid and
Hollow-core (HC) ........................................................................................... 1143
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References ..................................................................................................... 1144

Author Index .................................................................................................. 1165


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Index ............................................................................................................... 1169


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