Rainwater harvesting in the peri-urban areas of Accra: status and prospects

Anna Lundgren and Hanna Åkerberg
Supervisors: Associate Professor Jan-Erik Gustafsson and Dr. Nandita Singh Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden Co-supervisor: Dr. John E. Koku Department of Geography and Resources Development, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Stockholm 2006

Cover photo – Waterfall area in the Ho District, 2006, Anna Lundgren. TRITA – LWR Master Thesis ISSN 1651-064X LWR-EX-06-13

We would like to thank SIDA, for the scholarship we received through the Linneus-Palme foundation, for giving us the opportunity to travel to Ghana to conduct this Master’s Thesis. We also would like to thank our head supervisors Nandita Singh and Jan-Erik Gustafsson, at the Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering at the Royal Technical College of Stockholm, for their dedication and for supporting us throughout the work with valuable and useful advice. From the University of Ghana we would especially like to thank Dr. John E. Koku at the Department of Geography and Resources Development who spent numerous hours helping us with the thesis. Besides those we would also like to thank Marshall Kala, Vida Puplampu, Afia Acheampong, Berit Balfors, Prof. Gunnar Jacks, Johnny Nyametso and several more persons without whose help the conduction of the thesis would have never been accomplished.


Water is vital to every human community and is an essential resource for economic development, agricultural productivity, industrial growth and above all human well-being. The availability of a clean, safe and secure water source has been and will always be a major concern for human populations. Access to adequate fresh water is in this area scarce, yet crucial for the survival of the inhabitants. The appropriateness of rainwater harvesting as a possible and inexpensive alternative to more traditional water resources is discussed by scientists and researchers all over the world. Rainwater harvesting appears to be a promising alternative for supplying fresh water in the face of increasing water scarcity and escalating water demand in Ghana. The main objective with this study is to see if there is possible to implement or develop already existing Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH) in the periurban areas of Accra in a social, economical and technical aspect. The primary source of information has been data collected through a questionnaire survey performed in Abokobi, Adjako, Medie and Pokuase, all four located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, and interviews with three different stakeholders in the water sector. The secondary source has been data collected from relevant literature (articles, books etc.). Finally the data collected have been analysed through the software SPSS – Statistical Programme for Social Science and the Microsoft software Excel. The main conclusions are that the peri-urban areas of Accra are appropriate for DRWH, but only as a complementary source of water supply, and there is today an existing conflict between the stakeholders in charge and the consumers. This technique of collecting water is not considered safe enough from the side of the institution in the water sector and therefore they do not put any money into it meanwhile the people use rainwater when available and in many cases prefer it comparing to other existing water sources. Keywords: Domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH), alternative water source, Ghana, sustainable water management.


......................................... institutions and government.......................................................................................................................49 6.....................................................65 APPENDIX 3..............2 Regional Planning and Water Management in GAMA .........................................................................................37 3.......................................................... .....................................................9 1...................................................................................5........................................................................................54 8...................................................................6 1..................................................................2 Livelihood benefits............... .......................................3 Water management – stakeholders.....................................................58 REFERENCES .....10 1.....................................5 1........... INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION ...................................................................1..................................13 2.....................................................................................1 Introduction to Domestic Roof Water Harvesting (DRWH) ...........................................................................9 1...................................................................38 3.............................25 3........................................44 5................................................................................................................ .... GENDER DIMENSIONS IN DRWH .................................................... SOCIAL AND TECHNICAL ACCEPTABILITY AND LIVELIHOOD ISSUES ................................................. ................................................2 Hydrography......................Table of contents ABSTRACT .......66 APPENDIX 4............................................................................................ ...........................................................6 1.................................................................3 GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONS .............................5 Limitations................... ................................................................................................................ ....................................................49 6..57 8..........................................................60 APPENDIX 1.............67 APPENDIX 5.................................................................................. ...............................................................1 Climate ............................................................................................46 6...........1 Conclusions ............ .................51 7............................... CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................2 Hypothesis ...................... ...............................................3................ education................... ECONOMIC VIABILITY – COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS ................................................... ...52 7...........2 Aims of the study.................................................................................................................................2 Harvested Rainwater Quality vs..1 Background...........................................3.................................................14 2..................................................................................................64 APPENDIX 2..............................................................................................................................................................4 Methodology ............37 3........................25 3.............................. .....3 Results of water sampling and analysis............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 The development of the water sector of Ghana ...................................................................................................... Health Issues ............................................................54 8....74 - -4- .... ..................3 Recommendations.......... ...................................................................................................................1 Public participation – knowledge............ training..................13 2............................................................................................3 Objectives .................. INTRODUCTION ........................................................19 2.............................................................................................68 APPENDIX 6....................................................1 Technical and social assessments..52 7...................................... RAINWATER HARVESTING (RWH) ... .22 - 3.......5 Existing DRWH techniques in the peri-urban areas of Accra ........................11 2................... ............33 3..................................................................52 - 8...........1 Indigenous knowledge (IK)...........1 Results of the questionnaire survey ......4 Opinions of local stakeholders on DRWH.................................................................................................................................38 - 4..............................................................

Glossary and abbreviations CWSA DA DO DRWH Formal DRWH Informal DRWH Opportunist DRWH EPA ESA FCs GAMA GoG GWCL IK IWRM MDG MES MLGRD MOH MWH NGO NTU pH PRSP PURC RWH SIDA SPSS TOC Total N Total P UN WATSAN WHO WRC WRI WSDB Community Water and Sanitation Agency District Assemblies dissolved oxygen Domestic rainwater harvesting where at least 400 litres storage tank is installed. Greater Accra Metropolitan Area Government of Ghana Ghana Water Company Limited Indigenous knowledge Integrated Water Resources Management Millennium Development Goal Ministry of Environment and Science Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development Ministry of Health Ministry of Works and Housing Non Governmental Organisation Nephelometric Turbidity Units Potential of Hydrogen: the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen-ion concentration in gram atoms per litre. Environmental Protection Agency External Support Agency Faecal Coliforms. where no permanent equipment is employed. Bacteria originated from the faeces of humans and warm-blooded animals in addition found in soils and other natural sources. where minimal but permanent storage is employed. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Public Utility Regulatory Commission Rainwater harvesting Sweden International Development Agency Statistical Programme for Social Science Total organic concentration total amount of nitrogen total amount of phosphor United Nations Water and Sanitation Agencies World Health Organisation Water Resources Commission Water Research Institute Water and Sanitation Development Boards -5- .

correlated with the degree of planning and provision of adequate infrastructure. As a result availability. is also a prerequisite to good hygiene and sanitation and hence central to the general welfare of a household and its members. more than one billion people globally do not have access to adequate volumes of clean drinking water 1 . Figure 1. quantity and quality of water are subject to severe variations. for example divisions in wealth. The accumulation of waste 1 Brett Martinson. 2004). In the northern parts of Ghana there is one dry and one wet season per year. The Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA) (see Figure 1) ranks as the largest metropolitan area in Ghana with a population that is steadily growing.1 Background The water situation in many developing countries is grim and water scarcity is recognized as one of the root causes of poverty. potable and affordable. Introduction 1. al. and in the south and southwest parts of the country four separate seasons occur. There will also be exponential growth in the demand of water to assimilate pollution of water bodies in the city and in the peri-urban fringes. Among the more serious environmental problems in the GAMA area are waste accumulation and lack of adequate and safe water supply. Several different factors are related to insufficient water supply. Water is the key factor in changing the fundamental conditions for the existence and development of the poor areas. class and socio-economic status. The demand of water for drinking and sanitation purposes increases proportionally with population growth. Residential areas in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (Yankson et. Population growth impacts water demand in several ways. A supply of water. which is easily available. Thomas (2003) -6- . Currently.1.

Poor households in this area typically experience severe health problems. poor waste disposal. including Ghana. crowding and shelter poverty 2 . In this context water scarcity is not described as the absence of available water. upper respiratory tract infection. diarrhoea and skin diseases 3 . 2003). unsanitary conditions. combined with policy changes and proper education. leading to the pollution and their gradual extinction. Those environmental problems generate the greatest immediate health impact in terms of infectious and communicable diseases. for example: inadequate potable water supply. Economic growth increases the demand for a wide variety of environmental services related to water. Qiang. but the lack of sufficient amounts of clean and safe water. among the more common ones we find malaria. Flow chart of vicious circle of water.and the disposal problem has led to surface water bodies being the receptacles of such waste. Poor education Low income Food insecurity Excessive reclamation Uprooting straws Backward culture level Low and unstable productivity Mono-structure agriculture Environment deterioration Land degradation Water scarcity Soil erosion and vegetation deterioration Water insecurity Water resources deterioration Figure 2. Water scarceness is a problem that does not 2 3 Songsore (2002) Songsore (2002) -7- . As shown in Figure 2 water is the most important part in the vicious circle created in many parts of underdeveloped countries. insect infestations. Furthermore. Several of these environmental problems could be mitigated with an adequate water supply. land and environment (Zhu. economic conditions and poverty rates are two important parameters that can significantly impact water use practises and patterns.

Vainsencher (2005) 6 Mensah (1998) -8- . Vulnerability can be defined as the result of a combination of social. The aim of this study is to contribute to the preservation. despite the fact that it is not well distributed over time. Rainwater harvesting is an appropriate technology for GAMA since rain is relatively abundant in the region. Rainwater collection can be thought of as involving a system whose components are identified as catchment surfaces. Moreover. political and economical factors. It would contribute with 8 to 10 litres per person per day. Qiang (2003) Branco. The specific objectives are as shown in section 1. Rainwater harvesting can possibly be one of the solutions for the most vulnerable segment of society in terms of water supply. A storage tank with the capacity to hold 16 000 litres can provide a good complementary supply to other available water sources for the consumption of a family with five individuals during a period of 10 to 12 months 5 .equally affect a population as a whole. Suassuna. 4 5 Zhu. access to and management of water as a human right and a requirement of every citizen. The availability of water through a cistern also liberates women and children from walking long distances to fetch water. but rather tends to affect more profoundly the most vulnerable. research on supplementary water resources is required. which is half of the recommended ideal per capita consumption per day (20 to 25 litres/day/person) 6 . it can be considered realistic to mainstream rainwater harvesting in the integrated water resources management 4 . Past experiences show that rainwater harvesting techniques is an innovative approach for the integrated and sustainable development of the poorer areas. most components in this system must have associated means of protection against such hazards as contamination of water and mosquito breeding. One significant part is to especially stress the importance of education as the basis for all actions. In order to mitigate the problems of livelihood and wellbeing that water scarcity (in the context of clean water) might be the cause of. access to harvested rainwater protects the family members against illnesses related to waterborne diseases through consumption of contaminated surface water. When rain is adequately harvested. Furthermore. and where it is viable. conveyance systems and storage tanks. it can be sufficient to fulfil the needs of households during critical periods of drought.3 to study and evaluate the situation in the peri-urban areas of Accra in terms of water scarcity and the appropriateness of possible implementation of domestic rainwater harvesting.

The current structure of stakeholders and institutions operating in the water sector. o How much information and to what extent are the inhabitants in these areas involved in the present water management? Assess what opportunities of limiting the burden of women in the provision of water supply through DRWH .1. existing constructions and climate) for successful implementation of DRWH? o What type of maintenance is feasible and necessary to sustain a required minimum level of water quality? o How effective are the current DRWH-systems? Examine the importance of public participation in water management of the communities.2 Aims of the study This study aims to examine the status of the water supply situation in the peri-urban areas of Accra. Adjako. To evaluate the appropriateness of domestic rainwater harvesting techniques in the peri-urban areas of Accra.How does DRWH fit in with existing patterns and what are the preferences of water collection and use in the community? To evaluate what socio-economic and technical factors influence the adoption and sustained use of DRWH systems at the household level? The objectives will be reached trough studying the following topics: • • • • The different domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) – techniques.To what extent do gender roles influence the adoption and sustained use of DRWH systems at the household level? Suggest strategies for ensuring sustainable water supply through domestic rainwater harvesting. Examine existing domestic rainwater harvesting techniques in the areas of Abokobi. The water resource situation in Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA). Medie and Pokuase. the extent of rainwater use and if these areas really are suitable for the implementation of formal (or informal) domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH)? 1.3 Objectives i. o Is the implementation of DRWH technically feasible in these areas? o What are the prerequisites (available materials. ii. • • • -9- . .

Pokuase and Medie. The results can be found in section 3. Adjako. Questionnaire survey: The existing domestic rainwater harvesting techniques in the peri-urban areas of Accra were examined through a sample selection and data collection. Water sampling: All water samples were put in pre-washed polyethene bottles.5. Five samples were collected in total and analysed for negative ions. conductivity and alkalinity. A literature review and a case study including fieldwork in Accra. These sites were selected due to the high amount of households there. The final interview was carried out at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) who regulates and enforces environmental quality laws. Adjako. The collected data were revised and analysed through the computer based Statistical Programme for Social Science (SPSS) and the results are presented in section 3. In addition. The interviewed households were selected randomly but only if they were already using rainwater as part of the household water supply. the Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) who are responsible for the supply of water and sanitation issues in the rural areas of Ghana was visited. Prior to sampling the bottles were washed with the water to be sampled. In-depth interviews were performed at four different communities in the peri-urban areas of Accra. To effectively implement a new water source in a sustainable way requires not only knowledge of existing water sources but also information of consumption habits and strategies of the affected persons in their everyday situations. The questionnaire survey was constructed with aim to answer the under objectives stated in section 1. Abokobi.10 - . using a formal questionnaire as the main research instrument. Medie and Pokuase in the peri-urban areas of Accra. Subsequently it was Mrs Muhammed at CWSA who recommended us to visit Water Aid. which use the DRWH-technique in an informal or formal way.3. Additionally. using a formal questionnaire as the main research instrument. John Koku from the University of Ghana.4 Methodology Overall methods: The overall research method is based on an interdisciplinary and integrated approach divided into two main interactive phases. where DRWH is frequently used.3. positive ions. Furthermore. In order to examine existing DRWH techniques and the overall opinion on rainwater in the peri-urban areas of Accra data was collected through an interview schedule. . The interviews were assisted by two persons with knowledge of the local language and customs. Primary sources include data collected through an interview schedule. Secondary sources consist of literature studies of published material and data from scientific journals in the area of interest. as well as policies and regulations relating to the control of pollution of water resources. market visits and direct observations were conducted in all four locations. The CWSA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) were both chosen due to recommendations from our supervisor Dr.1. Ghana. Interviews were carried out at Water Aid which is a NGO working in Ghana with financial and technical support through local organisations to implement projects within the water and sanitation area. relevant local and national water agency professionals were interviewed. The interviews comprised in total 80 respondents in an equal amount of households in the areas of Abokobi.

. queuing time etc. What different alternatives are available? What organisation or institute could contribute with economic aid such as subsidies for the most destitute inhabitants? Another area of interest could be focus group discussions to pinpoint the views and interests of the inhabitants of the specific study area since the importance of public participation cannot be emphasized enough. more emphasis should be put on investigation of the institutional network to identify which organisation has the ultimate responsibility for water management in the peri-urban areas of Accra. The volume has also been a limiting factor in terms of possible number of analysis done. It would also be interesting to conduct a complete economic evaluation of the possibilities to provide materials and parts for the implementation of sustainable DRWH-system. no one could estimate this since the answer depends largely on season. This. 1.• • 20 questionnaires were distributed at each location. preferably female since the women often have the overall responsibility for the water supply of the household. Further research: Further research within the water quality area is absolutely necessary given the present poor knowledge and interest in appropriate measures taken towards improved quality in harvested rainwater. We also asked if the interviewees would recommend DRWH to other household which was completely unnecessary since nearly everyone already practises formal or informal rainwater harvesting. Question number 16 about maintenance of the DRWH-system was also beside the point since these chores are more or less ignored and considered unnecessary by the majority of the respondents. since the bottles were so small no pHstudy has been carried out. Additionally. For the complete set of questions answered see Appendix 5. For example question number 12 where time spent daily fetching water was asked. Some of the questions in the survey turned out to be superfluous and irrelevant. the limited amount of available resources such as financial assets and technical equipment gave us serious problems throughout the field work and the subsequent evaluation of collected data.5 Limitations The limitations of this research can be described as numerous. Question number 20 concerned invested money on the DRWH-system could only be answered by very few since most of the systems were constructed by members of the household with readily available materials. First of all. Water sampling: The water samples were fetched in small plastic bottles with a volume of 50 ml. The samples were kept at a temperature above 30° C. the time constraints and the ineffectiveness with which things are dealt with in Ghana pose severe problems to the progress of research. since the samples may not have been representative for the complete water volume.11 - . number of household members present. Also. The small water volumes may have affected the result of the analysis. combined with the fact that nearly 30 days passed before the samples were analysed may have affected the quality of the result. 80 respondents were interviewed in total.

8% 40% 54 years 59‰ 54% 8.12 - . indicate that the population is likely to reach 27 millions by 2010. 2005). The population of Ghana increased over the period 1990 to 2000 from 15. and 33. A map over Ghana (Boateng. Year Population Average annual growth of population Poverty rate Life expectancy Infant mortality Literacy (age 15+) GDP 2004 21.2. The population can be described as a young: the 2004 census. Population density is currently 90 inhabitants/km2 Projections nationwide 7 . Ghana Ghana is situated in West Africa bordering the Gulf of Guinea. Togo and Côte d’Ivoire (see Figure 3).1 millions 1.8 million. 02/11/2002) Key Country Characteristics: Table 1.6 US$ billions 7 Aquastat .5 million to 19. as described in Table 1.FAO (2005) .7 millions by the year 2020. Key Country Characteristics (The World Bank Group. It is formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory. Figure 3. It was the first sub-Saharan country in old colonial Africa to gain its independence in 1957. showed that the life expectancy of the population is 54 years. in between Burkina Faso.

The cycle of the seasons follows the movement of the sun back and forth across the equator. fishing plus for agricultural and industrial purposes. Annual rainfall (FAO.4 billion m3 of which 38. 8 U. The wettest area is the extreme southwest where annual rainfall is over 2 000 mm. which blows from the northeast across the Sahara. The warm and humid climate of the country has a mean annual temperature between 26 and 29 °C.S Library of Congress (2005) . the surface water bodies in Ghana generally experience high levels of pollution. After a relatively short dry period in August. These rivers are utilised for abstraction of drinking water. 2004). About 70% of the total land area of Ghana is drained by the Volta River system through a number of smaller rivers and streams flowing directly into the sea. 8 As shown in Figure 4. The Volta Lake covers approximately 8 482 km2.13 - . another rainy season begins in September and lasts through November. before the longer harmattan season sets in to complete the cycle.2. particularly where they are located near human settlements. To the south and southwest four separate seasons occur. is followed by a wet period that reaches Figure 4.2 Hydrography Surface water resources: Ghana is comparatively well endowed with surface water resources. Even though plenty of water is available. but there is high irregularity in the amount of available water within the year and over several years. rainfall. The total annual runoff for the country is 54. rainfall in Ghana generally decreases from south to north. and humidity that govern the climate. The harmattan season from November to late March. To its north. industrial (including mining) estates and agricultural activities.3 billion m3 is accounted for by the Volta River. also called the Harmattan wind. its peak in late August or September. two distinct seasons occur. Heavy rains fall from about April through late June. The driest areas are in the extreme north and in the area around Accra where the annual rainfalls are less than 1 000 mm. and the opposing tropical maritime equatorial system heavily influence and give rise to variations in the key elements of temperature. 2.1 Climate The climate in Ghana is defined as tropical basically due to the proximity to equator and the absence of high altitude areas. The movement and interaction of the dry tropical continental air mass.

Declining groundwater levels have been observed in the rural areas of the Upper Regions where over 2 000 boreholes have been drilled since the mid-1970s to provide potable water to communities 10 .14 - . re-management of the sector agencies and administration. These efforts have failed mainly because of economical reasons. Groundwater is generally drawn from boreholes in most rural areas. 2. jointing and weathering.3 Water management – stakeholders. The stakeholders that are involved 13 in the water 9 Aquastat . 95% of the withdrawal for urban supply was from surface water and the remaining 5% from groundwater. security from crime and violence. Current water use for hydroelectricity generation something that occurs only at the Akosombo Dam. circa 652 million m3 were withdrawn for irrigation (66%).Groundwater resources: 9 Groundwater occurs primarily in the following formations: • The Voltaian formation which has little or no primary porosity and hence groundwater occurrence is primarily related to the development of secondary porosity caused by fracturing. a large proportion of the Ghanaian population still lacks access to adequate quantities of safe water (21% of the total population in 2004) 11 . o The intermediate aquifer is either confined or semi-confined and occurs primarily in the Red Continental Deposits of sand clay and gravel with depth variations from 6 to 120 m. shearing. Three aquifers occur in this formation: o The first aquifer is unconfined and is situated in the Recent Sand very close to the coast. Water use: The main consumptive water uses in Ghana are for industrial.FAO (2005) Aquastat . which is non-consumptive water use. Hence. • The Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments take place mainly in the extreme south-eastern and western parts of the country. institutions and government Numerous attempts to reform the water sector has been an ongoing project since Ghana gained its independence in 1957. irrigation and domestic purposes. The main water supply sources in the country are surface water bodies and groundwater. The groundwater yields in the Voltaian formation seldom exceed 6 m3/h. The current reformation of the water sector was initiated in the nineties as part of Ghana’s poverty reduction strategy 12 . The groundwater in this aquifer is fresh and arises under artesian conditions. is 37 843 km3/yr. It contains meteoric water and is between 2 and 4 m deep. In the year 2000. The average yield in this aquifer is approximately 184 m3/h. 235 million m3 for domestic purposes (24%) and 95 million m3 for the industry (10%). decent housing. Its goal is to reach a society where the whole population has access to basic social services such as health care. The water reform includes the creation of a new water sector policy.FAO (2005) 11 UNSD (2006) 12 ACP-EU Water Facility (2005) 13 ACP-EU Water Facility (2005) 10 . giving an overall water withdrawal of 982 million m3. delegation of responsibilities to districts and communities and a higher degree of the involvement of the private sector. In 2000. and the ability to participate in decisions that affect their own lives. potable drinking water. o The third aquifer is formed in the limestone and its depth varies between 120 and 300 m.

and Environmental Protection). Water Supply. The WRC consists of technical representatives from all the main stakeholders that work with the development and the use of the water resources of the country (i. the British department for international development (DFID). Figure 5 gives a brief visual overview of the stakeholders at national. due to the growth and development of the nation. which operate under the District Assemblies. see section 2.15 - . they have for example employees working in the Regional and District Water and Sanitation Teams (WATSANs). regional and district level. The Ministry of Health (MOH) is responsible for improving the health of the population of Ghana. Its goal is to mitigate negative impacts on the environment. The GWCL exercises management over water sources that are abstracted for 14 Danida (2003) . The Ministry of Environment and Science (MES) was established in 1994 when the former Ministries of Environment. the commission grants water rights for abstraction and wastewater discharges.1) guidelines were implemented with support from several international donors (the Canadian international development agency (CIDA). through formulating policies where they include appropriate science and technology for a sustainable environment in Ghana. A Water Directorate was set up in 2004 14 within the MWH. and advising the cabinet on water and sanitation issues. Stakeholders at national and regional level: The Ministry of Works and Housing (MWH) is in charge of creation of policies in the water sector and coordination between them.sector and their responsibilities can be found below. the Danish international development assistance (DANIDA). Science and Technology were merged. Hydrological Services. Its part in water issues is health education in water related hygiene. the German technical cooperation (GTZ). The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (MLGRD) is responsible for supervision of the District Assemblies. District Water and Sanitation Teams and District Environmental Health Units. Prior to this date.e. Water Research. Its responsibilities are to coordinate the water sector policy and develop an updated overall water sector policy. Additionally. The Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) is the result of the reformation of the urban department of the Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation (GWSC) as one of many steps for introducing the private sector to the management and operation of urban water supply systems. This institution was formed in 1996 when the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM. the management of the country’s water resources was fragmented among various institutions with no clear policy deciding who was in control. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank). Other responsibility areas for the MWH are to seek funding from external support agencies. monitor the water activities regarding supply and sanitation sector. Irrigation Development. The Water Resources Commission (WRC) is the main institution involved in regulation and management of the water bodies in Ghana.3.

including small towns. The financing does not always consists of economical funds. Water Aid and Action Aid. The Community Water and Sanitation Agency (CWSA) was set up in 1994 by an Act of Parliament from the former rural department of the GWSC. It also does research on hydrometerological and hydrological data for the planning of irrigation and rainwater harvesting techniques etc. They work in close alliance with the WRC on all water related issues. the EC Delegation. The main function of the commission is to inspect and agree on tariffs for supply of the different utility services (water. Among other things the WRI carry out investiagations on groundwater in terms of availability. The External Support Agencies (ESAs) finance different aspects of the project management cycle as well as related technical assistance. the World Vision. basically where the GWCL do not supply the communities with piped water 16 . the Canadian international development agency CIDA.16 - . all of them are coordinated from the Accra headquarter. The Water Research Institute (WRI) was formed in 1996 and has mandate to conduct research into water and water related resources. The Public Utility Regulatory Commission (PURC) is an independent body established in 1997 to regulate and supervise the provision of utility services. as well as policies and regulations relating to control of pollution of water resources 17 . The main ESAs within the water supply sector in Ghana are the World Bank. gas) in the urban areas. the French development agency AFD. The aim of the PURC is to guarantee the best interests for the consumers and at the same time maintain the balance between tariff levels and investment.treatment and subsequent distribution to consumers in the urban areas. The agency for example maintains and enforces standards for wastewater discharge into water bodies. They are also responsible for water quality monitoring. utilization and management of Ghana’s water resources. The CWSA is responsible for water supply and sanitation to rural areas of Ghana. electricity. The institute generates and provides scientific information. some of the ESAs provide for example education and assistance concerning management either during parts or under the whole lifecycle of a project (for example well construction). Up to now these regional teams have focused more on water supply than on sanitation. At present the GWCL controls approximately 80 different water schemes in Ghana 15 . through the concept of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) that negative impact of development projects are reduced through the monitoring of the companies’ mitigation plans. 15 16 ACP-EU Water Facility (2005) Muhammed Andani (2006) 17 The public affairs unit of Ministry of environment and science (2005) . quality and quantity. The ESAs include donors as well as NGOs. operation and maintenance costs of the utility services that will encourage private sector participation in provision of these services. It also ensures. the German International Development Bank KfW. strategies and services to the development. the Danish international development assistance DANIDA. The CWSA has a Regional Water Supply and Sanitation Team in each of Ghana’s 10 regions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates and enforces environmental quality laws.

The WSDB/WATSAN is made up of a chairman. who is in charge of water point cleanliness and is the caretaker of the facility. a treasurer. . − Sustain a clean and hygienic home environment. Their responsibilities are connected with the utilization of the water and sanitation facilities. Communities/consumers are the main beneficiaries of water and sanitation utilities. management of staff and vendors. reparations or extension of service level. Some of the WSDBs/WATSANs may contract the private sector for repair and maintenance and/or to operate the system on their behalf. regular reporting to the WSDBs/WATSANs and the DAs. work plans and periodic reports proposed by the WATSAN Committees. The WSDBs/WATSANs receive their mandate from the District Assemblies (DAs). The tariff collected should cover the operation and management costs and also allow the WSDB/WATSAN to save some money for future projects. They organize the hygiene and environmental education. The DAs as well agree to fees. budgets. and a women leader. − Keep the environment of the water and sanitation facilities clean. − Maintain water containers clean and ensure safe transport and storage of the water. − Use the facilities carefully. upgrading. preparing plans and budget for approval and internal monitoring.Stakeholders at district level: The Water and Sanitation Development Boards (WSDBs) and the Water and Sanitation Agencies (WATSANs) are responsible for control and maintenance of the water and sanitation facilities in small towns (with 3 000 to 20 000 inhabitants) and small villages (below 3 000 inhabitants) respectively. The majority of the obligations that are laid upon the citizens are associated with using the facilities properly. District Assemblies (DAs) are owners of the water supply system and responsible for monitoring the sanitation and the WATSAN Committee operating within their district. a secretary. larger system extensions. and use the facilities with awareness.17 - . Below are a number of their commitments listed: − Pay for the operation and maintenance fees. as well keep the surroundings clean. Private operators and operation staff of the WSDB/WATSAN are the ones carrying out the day to day work (operation and maintenance) of the water supply system. The WSDBs and the WATSANs charge a tariff which is regulated to some extent by the DAs. This includes financial management (billing and fee collection). with other words not to be careless when handling it.

.Institutional Network at National and Regional Level M. of Env. (MEST) Ministry of Works & Housing (MWH) External Support Agencies (ESAs) Environm. Science & Techn. Protection Agency (EPA) Water & Resource Institute (WRI) Water Resource Commitee (WRC) Urban sector Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) Com.18 - . 1998). Network over the institutional network in the water sector of Ghana (Mensah. Water & Sanitation Agency (CWSA) Rural sector Regional Water & Sanitation Teams Institutional Network at District Level District Assemblies (DAs) Private operators of the WSDBs Local WATSANs / WSDBs Communities/ Consumers Figure 5.

3. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM).1 The development of the water sector of Ghana In 1988. the responsibility for the rural water sector was taken from the Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation and given to the newly formed Community Water Sanitation Agency that was created to facilitate the development. Rural Water Supply and Sanitation. • The third part of the restructuring process is still going on.19 - .3 for further details): – – – – • The Public Utility Regulatory Commission (PURC) – In charge of regulation of tariffs and water supply operational performance. the regulatory institutions were identified and their responsibilities clarified (see section 2. In the 1993/4 the Government of Ghana began to separate rural and urban water services in line with the World Bank-backed policy to segregate the potentially profitable urban water supply systems from the unprofitable rural water systems. 18 WSRS (2005) . operation and maintenance of the water supply systems in the communities with help from the District Assemblies. 2. The Ghana Standards Board (GSB) – In charge of development of Drinking Water Standards.2. Urban Water Supply and Sanitation. The same policy also shifted responsibility for sanitation and wastewater management to the impoverished local governments. These private participates will be monitored by the GWCL who are responsible for urban water distribution. The Water Resource Commission (WRC) – In charge of regulation and management of water resources. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – In charge of environmental regulation of water supply operations. Urban water sector development: The restructuring of the urban water sector began in 1994 and the reform process has been realized in three phases 18 : • In phase one.3. The GWCL will continue to have the responsibility for planning future capital investments in this sector. during a limited time period. administrative and development responsibilities from the central government to the district assemblies. The water sector of Ghana is currently going through a reform including three main areas: 1. the Government of Ghana (GoG) began to decentralize the water sector in order to hand over certain economic. The GoG wants to establish private sector participation in the water supply area in order to enhance the efficiency in the water supply system. The private sector’s part in the water supply will be operation and maintenance of the urban water system. During phase two.

construction and maintenance to facilitating others to carry out these responsibilities. rather then wait for the government to do the work. It also includes paying for preservation and reparation if needed. Elements of the new rural water sector policy: − Administrative re-organisation.Rural water sector development: From the beginning of the nineties a big difference has emerged in how the rural water sector is governed. latrine construction and hand-pump repair to community mobilisation. − Delegation of responsibility. emerging from the former rural department of the GWSC. Hence.20 - . it was 19 20 The World Bank (2002) Dungumaro. The final element of the strategy was private-sector provision of goods and services to an unprecedented extent. Today the role of central governance has been reduced and changed from controlling the planning. They supervise the local governments and communities that today manage their own water facilities.) the Government of Ghana’s projects on restructuring the responsibility CWSA helped convert more than two thousand existing hand pumps to community-managed maintenance. the overall responsibility for the rural water supply. KfW. Madulu (2003) . construction and maintenance of the rural water supplies. etc. the private sector. and running the latrine subsidy programme. district administrations and communities has emerged as an important group of actors with main the responsibility for development of the rural water supplies. With the help of a numerous ESAs (CIDA. the district assemblies were in charge of processing and prioritizing community applications for water supplies. since 1994 when it was set up in an act of parliament. The involvement of the private sector in the water supply process range from drilling. construction and supervision. − Private-sector involvement. This means that the individual community should act for improvements of the water supply system if something does not work. DANIDA. In the new rural water sector policy the responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the water provision has been transferred from the government to the communities 19 . Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) 20 : During the Regional Conference on Water and Sustainable Development in Africa held in Accra 2002. Larger national NGOs are contracted to provide training and support to enable local NGOs to take on their new responsibilities. managed by the CWSA to implement the new policy in 26 districts (out of a total of 110 districts nationwide). awarding contracts for hand-dug wells and latrine construction. the government has withdrawn from drilling boreholes and today the CWSA contracts private firms for borehole siting. The major element in this re-organisation was the World Bank-supported Community Water and Sanitation Project. during which the activities within the water sector in Africa was reviewed. The CWSA has. Through the project. Around fifteen years ago the rural water management was primarily based on the central government and external support agencies that were responsible for planning. In the restructuring process of the administration.

IWRM has been widely recognised as a powerful and successful approach to ensure sustainable water resource management. (2002) 23 IMF (2004) . but additional 21 22 Mwanza (2003) van Eding et al. but also upon the interactions between water resource users and stakeholders. something that is experienced in most sub-Saharan countries including Ghana. Altogether DAs constructed 436 toilets and 45 incinerators across the country. Sixty-nine boreholes were made. Experiences and knowledge of local people is a strong weapon in solving local environmental problems. Continuing water scarcity. The technique is to a great extent dominated by the nature and degree of users and how they can possibly be solved. The ultimate aim of IWRM is to gain sustainable use of water resources mainly through multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary approaches. As a result of the study. There is an urgent need to establish or strengthen institutions for research and information sharing. in the context of both lack of adequate water sources and physical absence of water.” 21 Generally. extending from the international to the local level 22 . In order to achieve effective water resource management it is therefore crucial to strengthen local community involvement in identifying the problems that affect them and find strategies to solve them. including changes on water resources accessibility. According to the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Annual Progress Report (PRSP) of Ghana 23 the projects performed by the DAs regarding Water and Sanitation since the last report includes: -1290 new boreholes . necessitates the adoption of IWRM approaches. Another of the main reasons for ensuring community/public participation is to reduce conflicts and to help projects to reach its intended objectives. sustainability and support for the project. What have been done according to the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)? The Ministry of Works and Housing initiated in cooperation with the World Bank in 1995 the Water Resources Management Study to identify the major limitations of the Ghanaian water sector. institutional water reforms have been introduced.61 new hand-dug wells . IWRM is concerned with the management. The building of human and institutional capacities is crucial for the implementation of IWRM.stated that: “Actions should be undertaken to increase public awareness and strengthen the political will needed for sustainable development and management of water resources.21 - .115 renewed boreholes . Human populations respond differently to environmental changes. there are area specific water related problems and areas specific solutions to these problems. incinerators and refuse containers. demand and supply of water resources. The involvement of local communities in water management projects does not only ensure democracy but also acceptability. Hence.65 small community/town pipe systems Sanitation investments were used to provide safe liquid and solid waste management. toilet facilities for schools.

The Ga people founded Accra as a fishing village in the 16th century.22 - .ones are about to be constructed by the CWSA during a programme to eradicate guineaworm. 2004) 2. Construction activities have boomed since the early 1980s. where rural activities and mode of life are in rapid retreat and many forms of urban land use are being established. By 1984. The stagnation of the economy in the 1970s and early 1980s resulted in a breakdown of service provision and deterioration of the existing infrastructure. including Ghana. Looking on the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7 which concerns the environmental sustainability and where one of the targets is “to reduce and half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water by 2015” 24 Ghana is on the right way.2 Regional Planning and Water Management in GAMA Urban growth in sub-Saharan Africa. The area is characterized by mixed land uses. commonly happens in an unplanned manner creating extensive low-density development and uneconomic use of environmental resources. but after being chosen by the British as the seat of their administration in the late 19th century the city began to grow rapidly.3. Data shows that all the ten regions had an increase in the percentage of households with access to safe water (see Figure 6). the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA) had a population of nearly one million and it is currently approaching two millions 25 . Increase in percentage of the population having access to water (Source: IMF. Most urban areas in the region are faced with deteriorating environmental conditions and a weak public sector not able to offer adequate services. Access to Water 100 95 Percentage 90 85 80 75 70 National Region Greater Accra 1997 2003 Figure 6. 24 25 IMF (2004) Yankson. The PRSP report states that if the progress continues in the same way Ghana have a good chance to fulfil the MDG 7. Gough (1999) . The rural-urban fringe is very important and becomes a zone of interaction where urban and rural forces meet.

particularly in the peri-urban parts of Accra. Areas of land, which two decades ago was used for agricultural purposes, have now been covered with physical structures 26 . Ghana does not have a strong tradition of physical planning nor an effective urban environmental management planning. GAMA has developed in a disorderly manner creating a fragmented urban structure and an uncontrolled urban development pattern. GAMA comprises three administrative districts: the Accra Metropolitan Area, the Tema District and the Ga District. Residential development in these areas has occurred in a haphazard manner with barely sufficient infrastructure to support it. The zones are covered with a huge number of houses and sheds at differing stages of construction, the completion of which is often affected by the lack of financial means. Much of the peri-urban Accra lies within the Ga District Assembly’s responsibility, the organisation that is in charge of the overall development of the district including the provision of environmental services at the local level. The Ga District Assembly is currently doing very little in terms of the provision of services such as water, roads, drainage, waste disposal and electricity. No master plan has been developed for the district and the structure plan for GAMA does not include a clear policy to guide the development of the peri-urban area27 . The status of the water supply in the area does not match the water demand for the range of sanitary, religious, domestic and industrial activities which is correlated with the growing population. The main source of water supply in central urban areas is pipe-borne water, whilst streams, boreholes and handdug wells are found mainly at the fringes of the peri-urban areas. Inhabitants often dump their untreated and toxic effluents and domestic waste directly into surface water bodies while a large sector of peri-urban population still depends on natural water bodies for domestic supply. Many of the boreholes are subject to fluoride pollution and natural streams are almost extinct through pollution by industrial, agricultural and municipal waste. The pH-value, alkalinity and DO (dissolved oxygen) – levels, total water hardness and bacteria infection are such that the water is sometimes entirely unfit for human use. In the past, inhabitants of the indigenous villages surrounding Accra relied on streams and ponds for their supply of water. Due to increasing urbanisation, these natural water sources have either become contaminated or have dried up. In theory, the peri-urban areas of Accra should be supplied by piped water, but in practise this supply is generally poor and inadequate. The pipelines are often too small in diameter to convey the amount of water demanded. Even where the pipes are of an adequate size the demand for water often exceeds the supply. The increased demand often results in a pressure so low that the water sometimes does not flow at all; hence, some of the peri-urban areas are only served water one day a week and others not at all 28 . This have resulted in the vast majority of the households in the GAMA area no longer having access to a free supply of water, but are forced to pay for their water, usually by the bucket. The poorer parts of the population, who relies entirely on natural water sources run high risks of contracting illnesses as the sources often are polluted. The residents of peri-urban Accra have become increasingly aware that the environmental problems they are facing are not being adequately dealt with by the local state authorities. In the former indigenous villages, Town Development Communities, comprised of representatives of the chiefs and their elders, youth groups and women’s groups have
26 27

Benneh, Agyepong, Allotey (1990) Yankson, Gough (1999) 28 Yankson, Gough (1999)

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traditionally been responsible for the environmental management in the community. Their success in maintaining the environment was variable and usually dependent on how actively they manage to organise the local residents. In every community where piped water is not available a Water and Sanitation (WATSAN) Committee must be formed. The WATSAN is typically in charge of control and maintenance of the water and sanitation facilities as well as organization of hygiene and environmental education. The water supply, or rather lack of one, is the most acute problem for many residents of periurban Accra. The demand of water is also aggravated during the dry season due to several factors: 1. The drought situation causes amplified use of water. 2. Water sources that supplement piped water are dry. 3. The production of dust that goes together with drought creates a situation where a lot of water is needed to maintain environmental sanitation. 4. Treated water is at some places used for irrigation. Key conclusions of section 2.3: Water Management The responsibility for service provision is shared between national level agencies and the local district assembly. The exact distribution of their responsibilities is not perfectly clear though. There is lack of coordination between the involved departments and all of them suffer from insufficient financial resources. The peri-urban area of Accra has consistently been neglected by planners and aid agencies alike with severe consequences for the environment and its residents. The extent of the problem varies between areas in the urban fringe but is shared by new and old inhabitants alike. However, those who end up paying the highest price for their water are the poorest households, who buy water by the bucket.

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3. Rainwater Harvesting (RWH)
Rainwater harvesting (RWH) does not constitute a new technology. Small dams and runoff control means can be traced back to early history. The first rainwater harvesting techniques are thought to have originated in Iraq more than 5000 years ago 29 . DRWH is a common technology used as well in semi-arid and temperate parts around the globe. The technique is recognized as an effective and viable way to enhance the domestic water supply at a comparatively low cost. The systems normally used in developed countries are in general bigger and more elaborate when compared with small-scale constructions commonly found in the third world. Domestically collected rainwater is gaining popularity in Ghana. One factor of the increasing use of rainwater is probably the development of corrugated iron roofing and rectangular houses replacing the old, traditional circular thatched house, something that strongly affects the convenience and appropriateness of rainwater harvesting systems. Generally, RWH is the technology used for collecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, the land surface, steep slopes, road surfaces or rock catchments using simple techniques such as pots, tanks or cisterns as well as more complex systems such as underground check dams. The procedure is based on collecting the rainwater immediately it falls before large evaporation losses occur. Dry spells are common in Ghana, even during the long rainy season. RWH can mitigate the risk of intra-seasonal dry spells by bridging the gaps between rainfall events. The poor quality of some groundwater, the depletion of groundwater resources, high tap fees, and the flexibility of rainwater harvesting systems provides excellent reasons to harvest rainwater for domestic use. Rainwater is primarily valued for its purity and softness. Rainwater has nearly neutral pH and is virtually free from disinfection by-products, salts, minerals and other man-made or natural contaminants. The water commonly used for domestic purposes has often made its way to the watershed, through a reservoir and a public drinking water treatment plant and finally all the way through a distribution system before reaching the household. Being the universal solvent, water absorbs contaminants and minerals on its way, which sometimes gives the water undesired properties.

3.1 Introduction to Domestic Roof Water Harvesting (DRWH)
The term DRWH describes a broad range of techniques which collect rainfall runoff for different end-uses by linking a runoff-producing area with a separate runoff-receiving area. The rainwater can be collected and stored from rooftops, land surfaces or rock catchments.


Mbilinyi, Tumbo, Mahoo, Senkondo, Hatibu (2005)

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leaf screens and roof washers are often used by householders to remove contaminants and debris: • First-flush diverters discharge the first dirty amount of rainwater collected. • Where management of shared point sources has proved unsuitable. Additionally. Where piped water is laid into households. which is the very basic form of this technology.26 - . The rainwater can also be collected in gutters. • Formal DRWH – where at least 400 litres storage tank is installed. • Delivery system: gravity fed (most common) or pumped to the end-use. Catchment areas Rooftop catchments: Rainwater can be collected in vessels at the edge of the roof. • Leaf screens and roof washers are components which remove debris and dust from the captured rainwater before it goes to the tank. tanks can offer advantages in terms of convenience and individual control. which drain to the collection vessel through pipes. • Where the fetching of water is a particular burden on household members. Commonly used systems are. • Where the main alternatives are surface water sources. as shown in Figure 7. which may deteriorate the quality of the water. • One or more storage tanks (cisterns). constructed mainly of three principal components: • Catchment area. • Informal DRWH – where minimal but permanent storage is employed.Catchment Surface Conveyance Storage Delivery Filtering Treatment Filtering Figure 7. Regions where domestic roof water harvesting is an attractive option include: • Where groundwater is difficult to secure or inappropriate for human purposes. rainwater tanks are not likely to be considered. . Roof catchment areas need to be cleaned on a regular basis to remove dust. Gutters and downspouts channel water from the roof to the tanks. leaves and bird droppings. The amount and quality of the collected water is to some extent determined by the size of the area and type of roofing material. and will subsequently be referred to: • Opportunist DRWH – where no permanent equipment is employed. and finally the rainwater enters containers where particles can settle before the water is conveyed to the storage container for domestic use. but where water is distributed via public standpipes. • Treatment/purification: filters and other methods to make the water safe to drink. Three different types of DRWH exist. Process diagram of domestic rainwater harvesting system (DTU).

27 - . High turbidity due to dissolved organic material which does not settle. Unglazed tiles can harbour mould. Slightly porous so older roofs can harbour moulds and moss. The only common type of roof which is definitely not appropriate is a roof with lead flashings.2 • • • 30 31 Dr. aluminium or asbestos cement sheets. the smoother the better. Asbestos 0. Little first flush effect. Good quality water from glazed tiles. For potable systems is plain galvanized roof or metal roof with epoxy or latex paint recommended 30 .6 – 0. which are said to harbour sources of contamination. Poor quality water. Tiled or metal roofs are most convenient to use. No evidence of carcinogenic effects by ingestion. Table 2. Type Sheet metal Tile (glazed and unglazed) Runoff Notes coefficient > 0. Composite/asphalt shingle: Due to possible leaching of toxins.8 – 0. Caution is advised in many texts regarding thatched roofs. Contamination can exist in tile joins. Hari.9 Organic (thatched) 0. Galvanized corrugated iron. Slate has an ideal smoothness but can be very expensive. tiles and slates are definitely to be preferred above thatched roofs. (metal roofs get very hot and hence sterilize themselves) and may give the cleanest water. The quality of the captured water is function of roof texture. Cullis (1986) .9 • • • • • • • Excellent quality water. New sheets give good quality water. different run-off coefficients are shown in Table 2. Characteristics of roof types (DTU. Clay/Concrete tiles are easily available but very porous which may lead to up to 10% water loss due to the texture. Surface is smooth and high temperatures help to sterilise bacteria. • • • • Metal is commonly used.Roof Materials: Rainwater may be collected from any kind of roof but with different results in terms of water quality. shingles are not appropriate for potable systems. 2003). or painted with a lead-based paint 31 . Roofs with metallic paint or other coatings are not recommended since they may impart taste and colour to the collected water. but it is perfectly possible to use roofs made of palm leaf or grass thatch. Krishna(2005) Pacey. particularly a 55% aluminium and 45% zinc alloy in coated sheet steel.9 0.

When constructing formal DRWH (where at least 400 litres storage tank is installed) the choice of container system will depend on a number of technical and economic considerations. which makes them a popular alternative. in order to minimise the distance the collected water must be conveyed. are quite inexpensive and easy to clean. it was affordable and invited community participation 32 . as well as water for washing and laundry. The bamboo tanks usually have a large storage capacity (ca. The other is an excavated tank filled by overflow from the first tank as well as by runoff water from hard ground near the house. Figure 8. Between 1991 and 1993 ten thousands of these types of tanks were produced in Asia. animals or the environment adequate enclosure need to be applied. Lundgren. such as available space. cost of purchasing 32 Zhu.Collection devices Storage tanks are usually the most expensive part in a DRWH-system and may be located above or below the ground. concrete or polyethylene are considered most suitable.28 - . if possible. bacteria and fungus. pottery. A tight cover in order to prevent algal growth and the breeding of mosquitoes is also a prerequisite. To minimise contamination from humans. Otherwise a concrete pad should be constructed. The tank most commonly used in Ghana is the blue plastic barrel with a storage capacity of approximately 350 to 400 litres. The programme was a huge success due to several different reasons: the technology met a real need. 060225). One way to maximize the operation of the rainwater harvesting system is to have two tanks. The tank must also be positioned so that runoff will not undermine or erode the place where it is sited. local traditions for water storage. An advantage of concrete reservoirs (see Figure 8) is their ability to decrease the corrosiveness of rainwater by allowing the dissolution of calcium carbonate from the walls. Rainfall water containers: Battery tanks made of concrete. and should be placed on stable ground since they tend to become very heavy. Storage tank siting: The storage tank should be placed as close as possible to supply and demand points. Qiang (2003) . be protected from direct sunlight since this may deteriorate the water quality. One stands on the ground and collects water directly from the roof to provide water for drinking and cooking. 1000 to 2000 litres). Bamboo reinforced tanks have been tried but were quickly attacked by termites. In some areas sand or pea gravel over well-compacted soil may be sufficient for a small tank. A concrete tank with metal lid (Photo. The tank should also. this tank may provide water for irrigation.

Another constraint could be that the installation of gutters would be a job for the man in the household. they might appeal more strongly to men. one option may be to device ways of collecting water from roofs without them. locally available materials and skills. Opinions vary on the volume of water to divert but factors to be considered are the number of precedent dry days. With the flap. dirt and debris from the rooftop and gutters will be washed into the pipe. the high intensity of rainfall mean that gutters must be larger than in temperate regions if they are not to overflow. For potable water systems gutters made of lead cannot be used. If rainwater tanks were promoted as improvements to the appearance and structure of the house rather than simple a means of saving time spent carrying water. so only the later rainfall is diverted into the storage tank.new tank. preferred type of DRWH-system and whether the system will provide total or partial water supply 33 . twigs. Guttering seems to be a difficulty for many householders. Gutters/Down spouts: The most commonly used material is half-round vinyl. it is possible to direct the flow of water. seamless aluminium or galvanized steel pipes.29 - . cost of materials and labour for construction. Another problem is simply the weight of the gutter when running full with water. animal faeces. Dust. leaves. First flush diverters: When it first starts to rain. and it is usually women who are in charge of the water. pesticides and other airborne residues may have accumulated on the roof and is usually washed away within the first period of time during rainfall. The flow performance of gutters varies along its length resulting in a spatially varying flow. This is usually accomplished by connections to one or more pipes from the rooftop gutters to the collection device. Cullis (1986) 35 DTU – Domestic roofwater harvesting research programme . PVC. insect bodies. 33 34 ITDG (29/03/2005) Pacey. The first flush diverter routes the first flow of water from the catchment surface away from the storage tank. ground conditions. To solve this problem a down-pipe flap is commonly used. Overflow/bypass-systems: In order to safely fill the tank it is necessary to make sure that excess water can overflow and that blockage in the pipes or dirt in the water do not cause damage or contamination of the water supply. Gutters will need to be well-supported so that they cannot sag or be pulled away from their supports. blooms. clean water can only be collected some time later. however for a long gutter it can be approximated by the Manning formula 35 shown in appendix 1. Pump: can be used if it is considered necessary and economically feasible. Where there are practical obstacles to installing conventional gutters. In tropical areas. amount of debris. The slightly acidic quality of rain would dissolve the lead and contaminate the water supply. gutters with a crosssectional area of 200 cm2 (and a diameter of 16 cm) will be able to cope with the all but the heaviest rain 34 . rainfall intensity and roof surface material. The huge drawback of this system is that it needs continuous surveillance and manual operation of the flap. In general. Conveyance systems Conveyance systems are required to transfer the collected rainwater to the storage tanks.

UV-light and ozone. • Rainwater supply (local precipitation). The starting point is data for average monthly rainfall and measurements of the roof from which the rain is to be collected and its length and horizontal width.8. annual rainfall is not evenly distributed throughout the year in Ghana. The main question asked is “How big should the storage tank or cistern be?” This breaks down into three problems: • Matching the capacity of the tank to the area of the roof. • Possible supply of components from a central depot. For potable water systems treatment. • Personal preferences. membrane filtration (reverse osmosis) and chlorination are some of the commonly used methods. Sizing The amount of rainfall (monthly distribution) is generally the most important factor when sizing a DRWH-system. The volume of water (in litres) likely to be collected each month is then found by multiplying the average monthly rainfall by the horizontal area covered by the roof (in square metres) and then multiplying with 0. have to be installed to remove debris and ensure high quality water. • Organization of technical assistance. This can be achieved through filtration and disinfection processes. it is necessary to remove sediment and disease-causing pathogens. The basic rule is: “the volume of water that can be captured and stored (supply) must equal or exceed the volume of water used (demand)” 36 . • Design tolerance for bad workmanship. and accounts for water losses which occur 36 Dr. • Matching the capacity of the tank to the quantities of water required by its users.30 - . • Cost.Treatment and disinfection equipment Leaf screens: A series of filters. The latter figure is the runoff coefficient. Leaf screens must be regularly cleaned to be effective otherwise they may become clogged and built-up debris can harbour bacteria. • Availability of materials. Several other factors must also be taken into account when a rainwater tank should be installed: • The length of any dry spells. Most rainfall occurs seasonally. • The expected amount of rainfall. • Choosing a tank size that is appropriate in terms of costs. Cartridge filters. beyond the leaf screen. both before and after entrance of the storage tank. Hari. • Aesthetics. resources and construction methods. • Employment opportunities. • Catchment surface area. Rainwater harvesting is practical only when the volume and frequency of rainfall and size of the catchment surface can generate sufficient water for the intended purpose. Krishna (2005) . • Hydrology as a check on maximum capacities.

there are limitations of the importance of hydrological analysis. • Purging the first-flush water. • Test water (rainwater used for drinking purposes should be tested. Cullis (1986) 39 Dr. It is realistic to think of people using their tanks according to a “rapid depletion method”. Taps should be placed at least 10 cm above the base of the of the rainwater storage tank. keep the water cool and reduce evaporation. Tanks in low-income countries are almost always smaller than the hydrological optimum. overshoot.season “extravagance”.1: Rainwater Harvesting Major advantages: • Rainwater is free of charge. especially for women and children. hydrology only provides an upper limit on the choice of tank capacities and other criteria are more significant. Specification of maintenance The benefits from owning a DRWH system are strongly affected by the way it is managed. Thus. the only cost is for collection and use. • Monitor tank levels. To collect good quality water from a rooftop catchment several maintenance procedures need to be conducted on a regular basis 39 : • Regularly cleaning roof. After the storage tanks are full. provided it remains undisturbed. It is nearly always a good idea to paint exposed water tanks white in order to reflect the sun’s heat. rainwater can be lost as overflow and if the flowthrough capacity of a filter type is exceeded spillage may occur. since the value of dry-season water is often a significant multiple of the value of wet-season water. splash-out. filtering systems and disinfection equipment. However. Key conclusions of section 3. Undisciplined management of a system (which is normal during the first years of ownership) often sacrifices dry-season delivery through wet.through first-flush. relieving the burden of carrying water. This predicts that members of the household take all the water they require from the rainwater tank for as long as it contains water and then turn to an alternative source 38 . • Deliver water directly to the household. this allows any debris entering the tank to settle on the bottom where it generally will not affect the quality of the water. • No need for complex and expensive distribution systems. washers and tanks. This illustrates the paradoxal choice which often has to be made between a large tank capable of meeting rationed rate of consumption over a whole year. and a small tank capable of providing for greater consumption on a rapid depletion basis. Cullis (1986) Pacey. • Maintaining pumps. assuming any particular type of roof. at a minimum for pathogens). Most installers assume an efficiency of 75 to 90% 37 . Hari. leaks and evaporation.31 - . It is unlikely that any household would draw exactly the same ratio from the tank every day of the year. 37 38 Pacey. Krishna (2005) .

Rainwater is sodium-free. High initial cost of materials. the inter-annual variability in the rainfall patterns are quite significant in this area and can pose serious limitations on the amount of water that can be captured. Most rainwater programmes do not tackle major problems of repair and construction of roofs.another source of water must be available. Severe diseconomies of scale – water is drawn and replenished more often with a small system. the installed cost per litre of storage capacity of large systems being lower than that of small systems. Major disadvantages: Rainwater harvesting is a niche technology and is usually only considered when all other options have been eliminated. Lack of knowledge • • • • • • • It is not suited to be used as a stand-alone water supply solution (at least not in the GAMA) . The skills and components needed to create a DRWH system are absent in many locations. • • • . Uncertainty of rainfall patterns. It is based on a finite volume of water that can be depleted if not well-managed. Uncertain quality 3. Cost effective (use of local materials and labours during implementation). The softness of rainwater helps prevent scale on appliances. The supply is limited. Inadequate roofing (in terms of quality and area) poses severe constraints on implementation. Rainfall collection systems are cost effective – especially if the initial investment does not include the cost of roofing materials and operation and maintenance costs are almost negligible. Rainwater systems are decentralized and independent of topography and geology. The problems come under four main categories: 1. Difficulty in implementation 4. Can be implemented quickly and modularly. High quality water can be collected from well managed rooftop catchments.32 - . but install tanks only where roofs are judged adequate as catchment surfaces. especially if the roof needs to be replaced or repaired. It is a poor candidate for community supply. There is ignorance of DRWH techniques amongst relevant professionals.• • • • • • • • • • • Rainwater can provide a water source where groundwater is insufficient. Very robust against risks of unexpected change. The independence of the DRWH systems makes them suitable for scattered settlement. unavailable or unacceptable. The technique reduces flow to storm water drains and reduces non-point source pollution and lessen the impact on soil erosion. High cost – because of a narrow view of quality. 2. Rainwater harvesting techniques are generally simple to install and to operate.

Since DRWH is classified as individual water harvesting systems there are no public health regulations for constructing and maintenance the system or for testing the quality of the collected water. Such disease agents are mostly carried in water (or in the air) and are some of the main sources of infection in West Africa. the greater the amount of pollutants 40 41 Buor (2004) Buor (2004) 42 Zhu. climatic conditions and the surrounding environment (air pollution). amoebiasis.7) as it dissolves carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the atmosphere. intestinal worms and typhoid are outstanding in Ghana 41 . such as colour. 3. Liu.• The water is usually lacking in mineral salts (including fluoride and calcium salts) whose presence in other water supplies is regarded as beneficial in appropriate proportions. Drinking domestically collected roof water can have direct health concerns due to biological and chemical contamination and indirect health issues due to disease causing insect vector breeding in the tanks. leptospirosis. the water quality of most systems is not known and usually varies greatly from system to system. Polluted water is the source of viral hepatitis. Water borne diseases. schistosomiasis. Water quality due to different roof catchments is a function of the type of roof material. Particulate matter – smoke. Contamination of rainwater systems has been linked with a number of human infections and chemical intoxication 43 . As a result. dracunculiasis. taste. dust. Hart. Debate sometimes arises as to whether rainwater tanks should be promoted for drinking water if freedom from contamination cannot be assured. Of diseases directly linked to water pollution. typhoid fever. echinococcosis. Theses diseases cause an estimated worldwide 12 million deaths a year 40 . safe and reliable water as long as the collection systems are properly managed more attention should be paid to quality variations of harvested rainwater since it is often collected and stored using existing structures not especially constructed for the purpose. animal or chemical wastes. Health Issues Biological. Rainwater acquires slight acidity (pH of around 5. Zhang. soot suspended in the air. cholera. The deposition of different pollutants from the atmosphere on the roof surfaces during a dry period significantly influences the run-off water quality from a roof catchment system. Most of the victims are children in developing countries.33 - .2 Harvested Rainwater Quality vs. also known as “dirty water diseases” are a result of using water contaminated by human. smell and hardness 42 . Chen (2004) 43 Ariyananda Tanuja (2003) . The longer the dry period in between rainfall events. particularly E. Coli and to aesthetic properties. diarrhoeal infections. physical and chemical agents in the human environment cause or contribute to millions of premature deaths and to the ill health and disablement of hundreds of millions. Although rainwater can provide clean. The following factors affect the quality of the collected water: • • pH (acidity/alkalinity). Currently. common health concerns for rainwater quality in developing countries are mainly related to bacteria. malaria and onchocerciasis.

water with relatively high quality can be collected though. Accounts of serious illness linked to rainwater supplies are few. any bacteria or parasites carried by water flowing into the tank will tend to die off. Coli numbers. Parker. and if organic debris is prevented from entering the water by means of suitable strainer or filter. The marine contribution to rainwater chemistry in GAMA is very low and the bulk chemistry is derived from terrestrial aerosols and soil suspension in the atmosphere 45 . Larger tanks generally record more zero readings than smaller ones in terms of E. especially trace metals. This in turn reduces the first-flush volume that needs to be diverted and water can be stored after shorter “cleansing period”. equipped with storage tanks with good covers and taps. Maintenance of storage tanks . Ghazali (1989) . Gunting. Greene (1993) 48 Yaziz. From properly managed rooftop catchments. High level of turbidity can protect micro-organisms from the effect of disinfection. changing its overall composition. The bacteriological quality of the water harvested from rooftop catchments. pesticides. Contrary to popular beliefs. It takes an average of 3. stimulate the growth of bacteria and give rise to significant chlorine demand. The suspended air particulates dissolve in rainwater. The wash-out process occurs faster for the roof surface with increased rainfall intensity. Rainfall intensity.5 to 4 days to achieve a 90% reduction in E. animals and humans. Krishna (2005) 47 Thomas. windy harmattan period. contains high levels of metals. other organic matter.• • • • deposited on the roof surface. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in rainwater. Thus water drawn from tanks several days after the last rainfall will usually be of better bacteriological quality than fresh rainwater. moulds.insect breeding. Biological risks: The bacteriological quality of rainwater collected from land surface or ground catchments are generally poor. are bioavailable and can be accumulated in the tissues of living organisms 44 . impervious. and made of non-toxic materials. algae. faecal matter. Chemical compounds – fertilizers. This water is typically suitable for drinking and commonly meets the drinking water standards of WHO (World Health Organisation). Effective disinfection requires that turbidity is less than 5 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity 44 45 Pelig-Ba. rainwater quality often improves with extended storage as bacteria and pathogens gradually die off. with proper storage tanks can definitively be clean enough for drinking. Coli levels. Conditions in the storage tank or cistern are more critical than conditions on the roof 47 . Sapari. originating from particulate matter suspended in the atmosphere usually range from 2 mg/l to 20 mg/l 46 . as long as the rooftop is clean. If a tank is completely covered. suggesting that rainwater harvesting technologies are effective sources of water supply for many household purposes. Price (2001) 46 Dr. Hari. Parker. as die-off is allowed to continue for a longer period of time. particularly during the dry. which can be toxic to plants. if no fresh contamination occurs 48 . Some of these metals. Risks due to Chemical and Physical quality: Physical and chemical quality of drinking water directly affects the acceptability to consumers. Catchment surface – bacteria. Airborne dust. Price (2001) Pelig-Ba. The roof should also if possible be located away from overhanging trees since birds and other animals may defecate on the roof.34 - .

Table 3 offers some examples of percentages of risk grades due to the WHO for both urban and rural water sources. Percentage of samples at WHO risk grades (WHO. Chen (2004) 51 Zhu. The alkalinity is reduced during the rainy season when water inside the tank is diluted and increases again during the dry season. national standards are expected to differ significantly from the guidelines50 . The World Health Organisation (WHO) Drinking Water Quality Guidelines: Drinking water supplied by a public water system is regulated and monitored for many contaminants to ensure compliance with drinking water standards. Zhang. stored in darkened tanks has a low nutrition level – too low to permit mosquito larvae to complete their development to adult form.100 FCs per 100 ml) 37% 40% High risk (101 . 2006). Earlier research has indicated that well-screened water collected from rooftop catchments. social economic and cultural conditions. it gradually decreases during the rainy season and increase again after the rain stops. The most important health precautions include ensuring that gutters do not contain depressions in which water is left standing. Risk category Roofwater Other rural water sources* Other urban water sources** 88% 10% 1% 1% Zero risk (0 FCs per 100 ml) 15% 8% Low risk (1 . Chen (2004) . **Other urban water sources are treated standpipes. Liu. The most recent edition of WHO guidelines for drinking water quality is not intended to serve as standards themselves. dengue and filariasis is prevalent in both rural and urban sites in Ghana the risk of mosquitoes breeding in the rainwater tank is of great concern. Table 3. Initial pH is usually high in the tanks. However. Risks from vector borne diseases: Since malaria. Liu. Coliform bacteria originate from the faeces of humans and warm-blooded animals in addition to be found in soils 49 50 Ariyananda Tanuja (2003) Zhu.Units). ideally mean turbidity should be below 1 NTU 49 . private water supplies are not regulated in many jurisdictions. Zhang. Hart. WHO Drinking water guidelines 51 • Total N and P – can promote algal growth in rainwater cisterns. and fitting a fine gauze on all openings to the tanks.10 FCs per 100 ml) 36% 40% Medium risk (11 . instead. Therefore.1000 FCs per 100 ml) 12% 13% * Other rural water sources include distributed groundwater. the guidelines provide a basis on which individual countries can develop standards or regulations in the context of appropriate environmental.35 - .5 for drinking water • Pathogenic organisms. Hart. the most widely used indicator is the coliform group in which faecal coliforms (FCs) is a common intestinal organism.5 – 8. Total N: 10 mg/l Total P: 2 mg/l • pH: 6. protected springs and shallow wells. such as overflow pipes.

.• and other natural sources. forming sediments. pesticides and other chemicals from the catchment surface. Parts of organic compounds adsorbed on the suspended solids slowly fall to the bottom of the cisterns. which can be removed from the water body. Public education about the cautious use of petrol. especially biodegradation. the occurrence of suspended solid sedimentation in the stored water body can reduce pathogenic organisms since particulates offer a hiding place for bacteria and organisms.36 - . • Water purification processes and evaluation of the freshness of the harvested water. Health Issues The presence of a DRWH system within a compound usually encourages households to use more water. Key conclusions of section 3. far no major health risks correlated with the consumption of rainwater have been identified but particular caution in terms of monitoring the quality of the harvested rainwater should be of major concern. self-purification mechanisms take place in the storage tank. Consequently. Laws on air pollution resulting from organic evaporation should be propagated and strictly adhered to. As rainwater overflows into the cistern. 10 FCs /100 ml Total organic concentration (TOC): The organic compound contents in rainwater collected right after raining are more complex than are long-period stored water because of self-purification mechanisms. fuel spills and leakage near rainwater catchment systems must be prevented. Most organic substances in water are biodegraded to varying extents. This is due to the proximity of the water supply. So. both in the wet and the beginning of the dry season. To successfully control the organic contamination of harvested rainwater. • Education and information on effective management and maintenance of the rainwater harvesting system. Many problems still remain when it comes to water quality issues: • Identification and judgement of contaminants. adsorption and biodegradation play a crucial role in improving the quality of the harvested rainwater. sedimentation.2 mg/l Self-purification processes Given a long duration. In particular. which strongly decompose some components. the storage capacity of the tank and the abundance of water during the rainy season. A more abundant use of water gives rise to improved health conditions and decreases the risk of water borne diseases. TOC – 0. These substances may be transported in the atmosphere for long distances and can pollute the rainfall in areas remote from the source of the pollution. A large proportion of organic contaminants found in harvested rainwater are associated with various sources of contamination.2: Harvested Rainwater Quality vs. combustion of fossil fuels and emissions from industrial plants. pesticides and fertilizers in rainwater harvesting areas should also receive particular importance. the quality of rainwater stored in a tank is improved with time. Organic compounds are introduced into the atmosphere as a result of evaporation from land surfaces. Rainwater also can dissolve and wash away any spilled petrol.

only some anions (Cl-. The second interview was held at Water Aid. The overall attitude of this agency is that DRWH is a perfectly feasible solution. 3. The results from the water sampling analysis are clearly shown in Appendix 6. SO42-) and some cations (NA+. To evaluate if the results of the water sample analysis make the water appropriate for human consumption or not. 3 and 4.3. at least as a complement to other available water resources at household level. The CWSA (Community Water and Sanitation Agency) is responsible for water supply and sanitation in rural areas of Ghana. The results are only indicative. No analysis has been performed on the biological and organic contents of the water samples. NO3-. Ca2+. For the complete set of questions and answers see Appendix 2. a NGO working with local NGOs in the water sector with technical and educational support. The performed analyses of the water samples are measurements on conductivity.4 Opinions of local stakeholders on DRWH During the fieldwork three different interviews were held with local agencies operating in the water sector. The interviewee was an environmental engineer with focus on water and sanitation and due to her the CWSA does not promote the usage of DRWH since it is considered an insecure and insufficient source of water. . including small towns.3 Results of water sampling and analysis Water sampling was performed at five different households during the field work in GAMA. Their opinions on rainwater coincide to a large extent with the CWSA . alkalinity and measurements on anions and cations. The analysis was not complete.37 - . further examination in terms of bacteriological content will be needed. Mg2+) have been examined. followed by balance calculations to check the accuracy of the measured ions.DRWH is not considered a viable way to support households with potable domestic water. The third and last interview was held at the EPA (Envirenmental Protection Agency) that regulates and enforces environmental quality laws relating to control of pollution of water resources. K+.

Many of the roofs are made of aluminium (80%). even though the tank is huge. Even along the thatched roofs rainwater is collected. It has a simple filter in order to remove major debris but that is the only type of purification process applied. (Photo Lundgren. The taps are connected to a big rainwater harvesting system at a community house (also financed by the Swiss) and the rainwater is used to dilute the very salty groundwater to make it viable for household purposes (see Figure 9). The families are generally large in Adjako and span from 5 to 15 members.38 - .5. Almost every house has gutters along parts of the roofs and some sort of collection tanks. and only a few roofs are thatched.1 Results of the questionnaire survey Figure 9. 060225). The boreholes were constructed in 1975 and financed by Swiss Presbyterian missioners (Zimmermann). This area has access to boreholes but the groundwater is very saline due to saltwater intrusion. slate. Study area 1: Adjako (part of Abokobi. and the main form of employment is petty trading. Those that can afford it go to the boreholes twice a day to collect water for which they pay 300 cedis for a bucket of 20 litres. although probably of questionable quality. Ga East) Half of the inhabitants of Abokobi answered yes to the question: Are you ever short of water? Still. Some people are so poor though that they cannot afford to buy water and rely heavily on DRWH. mainly rubber barrels and concrete cisterns with storage capacity ranging from 20 to 500 litres. or they can buy it straight from the water vendor who operates regularly in the area. The water is typically collected in small containers (buckets) and the task is performed mainly by the children. 75% considers the water supply situation satisfying in Adjako and the majority has received information of the WATSAN Committee operating in the area.5 Existing DRWH techniques in the peri-urban areas of Accra 3. The tapstand with the adjacent rainwater tank in Adjako. The RWH system is very straightforward. The tanks are .3.

without a lid and then to subsequently transfer the water to an indoor barrel equipped with a lid. at least occasionally Yes. Furthermore. first flush diversion and boiling the water before utilization are recognized as effective purification methods. Ga East Labourers Slate. 5% of the households being interviewed added Kamfer (small white balls) to the water in order to purify it and prevent insect breeding. main village. net. To the question “Do you use any type of filter/ purification method?” 63% said that they did. almost every household .usually small and the water is often used directly (the water is stored for maximum one week). but primarily as a supplementary water source. through a borehole Rainwater Yes. Maintenance of the DRWH system is thoroughly neglected even though the dirty first flush is recognized by some as a disadvantage. People use the rainwater for washing. Ga East The main village of Abokobi always has access to piped water. All of the households answered that they thought the water supply situation in the community is good. bathing. Site Characteristics: Abokobi o Location o Main forms of employment o Roofing materials in the community o Piped water supplies o Private water vendors o Public tapstand o Natural water sources (free of charge) o Experience of informal rainwater harvesting Abokobi. The majority of the inhabitants of Adjako leaves the water for some time to allow the dirt to settle. Despite this fact. “There is no reason to purify it” or “It’s a gift from God” was the most common answer of the respondents who does not use any type of filter or purification method. Approximately one third (26%) of the respondents allow the suspended dirt in the water to settle during some time (time period varies from household to household) before the water is used. Site Characteristics: Adjako o Location o Main forms of employment o Roofing materials in the community o Piped water supplies o Private water vendors o Public tapstand o Natural water sources (free of charge) o Experience of informal rainwater harvesting Abokobi. almost every household Study area 2: Abokobi. corrugated iron Yes No Yes. cooking and drinking.39 - . It is common to collect the rainwater in an outdoor cistern. Additionally. rainwater harvesting is used by the majority of the houses. The general opinion on rainwater is that is it very tasty and an overall good source of water since it is free of charge. but apart from that no other filter or purification method is generally applied. The second most common purification method applied (16%) was to let the water pass through a sieve before using it. but very saline Rainwater Yes. apart from occasions when the electricity is off. 68% of the interviewees use the rainwater for drinking purposes and the overall opinion is that collected rainwater is preferred since the taste and odour of rainwater is considered better when compared with piped water. The houses are more advanced compared to Adjako and the roofs are typically made of slate and corrugated iron. Ga East Petty traders Corrugated iron No Yes.

Some households only have access to DRWH and during the dry season these households experience constant water shortage. To the question “Are you ever short of water?” 71.Study area 3: Pokuase (part of Amasaman. Adequate quantities of good quality water per capita is obviously impossible to withdraw. Ga West Petty traders Slate. Site Characteristics: Pokuase o Location o Main forms of employment o Roofing materials in the community o Piped water supplies o Private water vendors o Public tapstand o Natural water sources (free of charge) o Experience of informal rainwater harvesting Amasaman. Rainwater is preferred during the dry season as well but the storage tanks are typically so small (they rarely exceed 500 litres) that the rainwater lasts for maximum two weeks. During the rainy season rainwater is preferred due to its taste and its freedom from contamination. In Pokuase people have to pay 350 000 cedis for a big polytank and 1 000 cedis per bucket.2% of the inhabitants in Pokuase are not satisfied with the water situation in the community. corrugated iron No Yes. and DRWH. cholera and skin ulcers due to parasites. Except for first flush diversion and some time allowed for the dirt suspended in the water to settle.40 - . The presence of a WATSAN Committee is much debated. The surface water from the streams is heavily contaminated. The implemented DRWH in this village tend to be opportunist DRWH-systems. at times No Surface water. pots or whatever containers are available when the rain starts. free of charge and has very good taste. barrels. rainwater Yes.4% answered yes and as much as 76. No piped water is available and the inhabitants rely on surface water (streams) often supplied through water vendors. More than one third of the respondents do not recognise any disadvantages when it comes to rainwater while some have experienced the development of mosquito larvae and that the first flush usually is dirty and needs to be diverted. Some private boreholes are scattered through the area but the groundwater is very saline. This is a very big and busy road. Ga West) The situation in Pokuase is very grim. Some days the vendors do not show up and some days the poorest inhabitants do not have enough money to buy water from them. no other filter or purification methods are generally adapted. Instead they collect the rainwater in buckets. Many of them would like to see the implementation of stand pipes whereas others simply require a general improvement of the accessibility and quality of the water in the community. The general opinion is that rainwater is an overall good source of water. washing and bathing. almost every household . The water vendors go by trucks across the road heading towards Kumasi. yet this water is used for both bathing and drinking. at times impossible to cross by foot. Approximately 90% of the respondents use the rainwater for drinking purposes and 100% use it for cooking. which gives serious health problems and rise water borne diseases such as bilharzia. With few exceptions no household has proper gutters or have access to a permanent rainwater tank. and hence many residents rely on the water vendors to meet their daily need for water. 33% says yes there is a WATSAN Committee and we regularly receive information from them and 67% claims there is no WATSAN Committee in this community.

A woman beside her private well. They would like to see in immediate reconstruction of the former pipelines and an overall improvement of the accessibility and quality of water. almost every household . Nets and sieves are used in some households but besides these two very basic forms of purification methods no further need for improvement of water quality is perceived. Rainwater is recognized as a very good source of water and is used for washing and bathing as well as for drinking and cooking. 060225). great. a committee whom 80% of the population in Medie has never heard of or received information from. Site Characteristics: Medie o Location o Main forms of employment o Roofing materials in the community o Piped water supplies o Private water vendors o Public tapstand o Natural water sources (free of charge) o Experience of informal rainwater harvesting Amasaman. Water is generally fetched by the women several times per day in buckets (34 litres storage capacity). The rainwater is collected mainly from corrugated iron roofs and stored in small containers. rainwater Yes.Study area 4: Medie (part of Amasaman. Contaminated surface water gives them skin ulcers and the suffering due to water shortage during the dry season is Figure 10. Some 80% of the respondents admit that selling water to other inhabitants of the village (Photo Lundgren. and only some of the households visited have access to private wells (see Figure 10). usually barrels with storage capacity ranging from 200 to 800 litres. Due to a land dispute there is currently no spokesman who can complain about the water supply situation to the local WATSAN committee.41 - . Ga West Petty traders Slate. The inhabitants of Medie that cannot afford to buy water from boreholes have to use the nearby stream. Ga West) Groundwater which is available through wells is very saline. at times Yes Surface water. The main form of purification method used is merely to let the water settle for some time. Practically every household in Medie collects rainwater. at times they are short of water and 70% thinks that the current water supply situation in the community is not satisfying. This village used to have piped water but during the maintenance of the main road the pipes were unfortunately destroyed. thatched No Yes. corrugated iron.

The yield of opportunist DRWH rarely exceeds 40 litres on a typical rainy day due to the absence of proper guttering and the limited water storage facilities52 .Key conclusions of section 3.5. and find this to be an excellent source of water. With few exceptions no direct objections towards this water source Likes about harvested rainwater are recognised and the interest and No likes appreciation of domestic roof water Good quality 3% 3% harvesting is great (see Figure 12). The majority of the roofs in these areas is made of corrugated iron (aluminium) and provides ideal conditions for DRWH to be performed. 2006). 52 Gift from God 4% Free of charge 8% Good for washing 11% Very tasty 32% Several advantages 20% Good source of water 19% Thomas.75 type of purification method are the most 30 common reasons that they do not use the 20 rainwater for drinking/cooking purposes 10 or they do not think there is any need for 0 Yes No it. Where informal DRWH is implemented the guttering. means of storage and of subsequent water abstraction is not very satisfactory.42 - . 2006). Despite the poor water harvesting conditions and the way the rainwater is Figure 11.25 enhancing the quality of the rainwater is 70 adding some sort of chemical that inhibits 60 the breeding of mosquito larvae in the 50 water (6%). Out of those who actually could make an assessment of the storage capacity approximately 80% had capacity less than one cubic metre (30 to 800 litres). When it rains the people who practise opportunist DRWH use whatever containers they have at hand to collect roof run-off. . Almost all of the respondents use the accumulated rainwater for drinking and cooking as well as for washing and bathing. sauce pans. The remaining 80% could only give us roughly estimated figures on the storage capacity of their rainwater tank. These containers have a capacity approximately ranging from 2 to 30 litres and include buckets. Open tops of cisterns and an overall ignorant approach towards water quality give rise to rapid deterioration of the water. 29% (see Figure 11). hazards linked to the consumption of rainwater are documented. 71% of the households apply some kind of filtration/purification method. out of which letting the water settle before using it is the most frequent. What the users likes about the rainwater (Field data. Use of filter / purification method % 20% of the respondents did not have any idea about the storage capacity of their rainwater tank. Out of the 29% not using any 40 28.1 Questionnaire survey Many households with a hard roof perform opportunist and informal DRWH. kettles etc. bowls. Kiggundu (2004) Figure 12. Percentage of interviewed that use any kind subsequently treated and stored few health of purification method (Field data. The second most utilized method is letting the water pass through a sieve (13%) and the third most common way of 80 71.

43 - . . Medie and Pokuase) almost 75% answered that it is the women and/or children that are the ones responsible for fetching water. it was in only 6% of the households the sole responsibility of the men (see Figure 13).25% of the households have access to a permanent concrete cistern for rainwater storage with capacity varying from 300 to 20 000 litres. Meanwhile. 2006). Adjako. etc. Out of the 80 Re sponsible for fe tching wate r households we found 35% out Not applicable of which nobody in the 10% household had the responsibility Anyone W omen for maintenance (cleaning.) of the DRWH and 26% of the respondents Men admit that this is the 6% responsibility of women. Out of our interviews made in 80 households in the four different villages (Abokobi. Responsibility for fetching water in the household (Field data. This means the period of time during which the water will supply the household also varies greatly (1 day to 4 months) but overall the stored rainwater is used rapidly in the households in GAMA (within a week) and is by no means able to bridge water shortages during dry spells. All DRWH systems that we have seen are financed through household money (or more commonly: not financed at all since opportunist DRWH is conducted). 10% 25% repairing. W omen and/or Children 16% Children 33% Figure 13.

44 - . in some regions around the world generally wellendowed with low-cost supplies. The high capital cost. especially during dry spells. The first question views DRWH through the eyes of the householder: • Is the benefit to a household. Using householders approximation of time saved as a result of owning a DRWH system. and the payment of school fees are more important than long-term investments. but in the more arid parts of the world. The size of this time can be assessed through: 1. it may be easier to mobilize household capital for a domestic rainwater tank than to secure large-scale investments in public supplies. The overall question boils down to: • Can DRWH produce and supply water at a cost lower than that of a conventional water source? Furthermore two “affordability” questions are dominant. Even where this cannot be claimed. 2. for a specific site. This is usually done by estimating a value on the time no longer spent on fetching water or queuing for it. of installing a DRWH system worth the cost? The second question views DRWH through the eyes of a water provider: • Can.4 km/h to the reported distance to and from the alternative point sources and its multiplication of the estimated number of trips made per day (including time spent queuing) 54 . DRWH is capital rather than operations intensive. Applications of an assumed walking speed of 2. coupled with a lack of information about low cost alternatives. an essential prerequisite for installing DRWH systems. Regular maintenance and operating costs are almost negligible but the first cost of the hardware is the major investment. In all such areas. such as the installation of a DRWH-system. together with limited access to credit facilities. or the expectation of high cost. the inclusion of DRWH in a water plan result in lower costs than if it is excluded? The cost per capita of installing DRWH is in general higher than of supplying the household from more traditional water sources53 . and so additional investments are limited to gutters and tanks. Economic viability – Cost benefit analysis Groundwater is in general much favoured for its freedom from contamination. mean that household expenses is under stress and purchase of essentials such as food and medicine. rainwater collection is frequently the “least cost” form of water supply. Many households in Ghana have invested in impervious roofs. is one of the major factors inhibiting a shift from opportunist DRWH to informal or formal DRWH. mainly because of the high costs of alternative water sources. One advantage for the household in collecting rainwater from its roof is that the roof is already paid for. Small incomes. rainwater collection may fill a gap in existing provision. Like many other forms of water supply.Domestic Roofwater Harvesting Research Programme . potable or abundant groundwater is not always available.4. In justifying DRWH it is therefore essential to take into account the extra convenience it offers over available point sources. Moreover. and already practise informal rainwater harvesting. Such investments may be more than 53 54 Kumar Dinesh (2004) DTU .

e. 55 56 Pacey. Householders tend to use three or four sources depending on demand and availability. If materials needed for the DRWH system cost more than 10 or 15% of what is needed to buy materials for a house.g. but it might be possible to argue that if families can afford one they can afford the other – or that similar level of financial support will be needed by those who can pay for neither. Even though the advantages of DRWH is proven to be plenty the financial benefits. At household level there is a dilemma between tank capacity. while obvious. that all water needs should be met by one source. Cullis (1986) . gutters may be attached only to one side of the building. Taking a general view of costs and methods of payment. durability. This means that water providers and NGO’s operating in the water sector have to be flexible and open to new and innovative approaches of organising the local water supply. and payback is of course best where fetching distances plus queuing times are high. A minimum size for a tank (of around 2000 litres) is necessary to make any significant impact on a household’s water fetching behaviour 55 . One way to check how realistic a proposed DRWH design might be is to enquire about the cost of building a house in the locality concerned. Key conclusions of section 4: Economic viability – Cost benefit analysis Part of the problem with the implementation of formal or informal DRWH is that water providers tend to think in terms of complete solutions i. but their house roofs are suitable for rainwater collection. It is overall not recommended to finance construction of the DRWH system with utility cost savings. of cement) as a means of negotiating lower prices. credit or saving schemes to make payment easier. strategies likely to be helpful include use of low-cost. This makes its funding or subsidy problematic for “community based” agencies. with housing unsuitable for DRWH.people can afford. where people cannot afford their own cisterns. the interest in permanent DRWH seems to be high but the absence of affordable systems is a constraint on their widespread use. bulk purchasing (e. Cullis (1986) Pacey. Commonly suggested in poor areas. It would be unrealistic to compare the benefits. however the economics of a system containing a small tank are disadvantaged by the fixed cost of guttering and by their inability to supply any water at certain times during the year (the dry season) when its value per litre is highest. local material wherever possible. maintained by that household and generally benefits only that household. Due to Pacey and Cullis the smaller sizes of rainwater tanks require about the same level of investment as the construction of a pit latrine. DRWH is installed household by household.45 - . is to promote a communal rainwater system using the roof of some large public building as catchment area. governments and private water suppliers. Alternatively. Large tanks give a longer payback time than medium or small ones. can be difficult to measure. such as a school or a church. In low-income countries this is hardly ever the case. quality of water and cost considerations. or sometimes only to short lengths of the roof. The overall interest and indigenous knowledge in households on DRWH provides a good starting point. shared tanks is a possibility. the system is probably too expensive 56 . and even when storage tanks have been obtained. The smallest tanks are naturally also the cheapest. Overall. being dominated by the distance to and cost of alternative water sources. The payback time of a DRWH system is highly variable. outright subsidies. however. and of course.

Among the more educated couples. taking care of the children and the home. Makoni (2003) Manase. mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action including legislation. washing of dishes and clothing and preparation of food. hence the burden of water supply. women are more likely to suffer the consequences of water scarcity. the women enjoy some autonomy. Tasks and responsibilities within the household are allocated between its members based on custom and tradition. The ultimate goal of mainstreaming is to achieve gender equality. In the event of water scarcity. Kenya in 1985 and in Beijing in 1995 continued fostering women participation in water and sanitation programmes with emphasis on gender mainstreaming. While women take major decisions in the domestic sphere. Ndamba. including sweeping and scrubbing. The UN Conferences on Women that were held in Nairobi. family level decisions may be dominated by men. In several areas of the third world. Women’s domestic responsibilities include reproduction. with varying assistance from other household members. Makoni (2003) 59 Buor (2004) . and participate to a greater extent in family decisions. Gender dimensions in DRWH The Universal Declaration on Human Rights affirms the principle of inadmissibility of discrimination and proclaims “that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein. A plan of action was adopted at the United Nations (UN) Conference on Women in Mexico 1975. Women are the main users and managers of water resources therefore are their involvement essential in ensuring successful water management. policies and programmes. Large family sizes increase the water need. education and ethnicity. The role of women in the water and sanitation sector is unquestionable given the fact that women are responsible for fetching water and maintaining a healthy environment for children. According to the UN Economic and Social Council.5. Ndamba. Thus. depending on the season and location of water source. women would traditionally give priority to their husbands. 57 58 Manase. The plan stated that improved water supplies.46 - . Women are also responsible for fetching water (see Figure 14). In Ghana the family system is patrilineal. age. without distinction of any kind. Internationally the crucial role of women in water resource management and therefore the need for their participation in water programmes have been recognised since long. which falls mainly on women and children. including distinction of sex” 57 . Husbands with higher education are also more likely to support their wives in domestic services 59 . social status. and the extended family system predominates. in all areas and at all levels 58 . sewerage disposal and other sanitation measures should be provided both to improve the health conditions of families and to reduce the burden of fetching water. including Ghana. culture dictates that the women take on most of the domestic roles. sex.

5 km). Women carrying water (Photo Lundgren. bathing. 060225). thereafter it drops to minimum volume typical for the area. occurs daily and fragments people’s time since sometimes several journeys has to be made each day.47 - . washing. Activities carried out at the home (sanitation. Collecting water is typically time consuming. and becomes even more burdensome during the dry season when water is sometimes collected from more distant sources. livestock). The workload of collecting water may vary by economic status of the household. In poorer households are not only the workload of collecting water inescapable but in the circumstances when fees are unavoidable they may consume an important part of the household income. The task is physically demanding. Diet and drinking habits of the household.Figure 14. Richer households often have staff fetching water for them. particularly on the return journey. They may also be able to afford user fees associated with convenient water sources such as a household tap. especially if it involves sacrificing sleeping hours. Distance to water source: the amount of water used per capita does not vary much up to a critical limit from the home (around 1. cultural practices. . Some of the factors that influence how burdensome the activity of collecting water is on household members include: • • • • Household size and composition: per capita consumption falls as household size increase. The time spent on fetching water imposes a serious strain on health.

The decision to install a hard roof or a DRWH system would be undertaken by men but the women would have the overall responsibility for the system once it is installed. Storage capacity at the household: the greater the storage capacity. . and neither may value the particular advantages which planners imagine to be important. the greater the volume collected per day. Men may need to be convinced that reducing women’s workload through improving water collection in the home should be priority expenditure.• • • • The terrain from the home to the water source. Given the great impact that water need has on the development of women. The gender differences in controlling resources and decision-making can pose substantial obstacles to the process of implementing DRWH systems. income and empowerment. Water availability has a direct impact on women’s health. employment. This is since women in general have the main responsibility for household water management. Women play a central role in deciding which source of water to use. Size of the collection container: smaller containers are associated with smaller per capita use. Age and health of the carrier: the elderly and sick often find it difficult to collect water and usually carry smaller quantities. Women become empowered through DRWH especially if they have the opportunity to use their extra time on income generating activities or if they are able to participate in community activities and meetings. Men and women will often see the benefits of rainwater collection differently. education. how much to collect and how to cope during periods of water shortage.48 - . their involvement in water management programmes in both rural and urban areas is crucial. a statement clearly showed in the results from the questionnaire survey conducted as a part of this study.

industrial. Techniques may need modification to suit local conditions and input from local informants should not be underestimated.1 Technical and social assessments To design a DRWH-system. availability of materials. especially where population concentration put a severe strain on available resources. Information is needed about rainfall patterns. housing and roof types. The design of rainwater tanks and conveyance systems require detailed analysis. plus cultural. Before taking the decision to install DRWH at a specific location several factors need to be taken into account. the economic. • Roofing and housing characteristics – the proportion of houses with hard roofs and gutters. It is also necessary to think in terms of an innovative dialogue in which information. As population grows the quantity of water use per capita decreases. • Previous exposure to informal/formal DRWH systems – lack of familiarity may impose a problem to the implementation. and their quality. . The development of appropriate technology for rainwater collection cannot be achieved by the simple process of collecting information and using it to formulate an optimum design. Significant increase in the metropolitan population is due to high fertility. and the people’s means of livelihood. Social and technical acceptability and livelihood issues Water needs have serious social effects in urban and peri-urban environments in developing countries. The response and initiative to adopt DRWH systems are based on the following community characteristics: Socio-economic composition of the community – the relative wealth of households influences their ability to meet the costs of installing DRWH systems.6. 6. The local situation must be thoroughly examined in terms of technical and social assessment and the different steps in the process are shown in the decision tree (see Figure 15). existing water sources. lower mortality.49 - . The essence of appropriate technology is that equipment and techniques should be relevant to local resources and needs. administrative. opinion and innovation come from users of the systems as well as designers. social and cultural aspects of the location should be taken into consideration with emphasis on the utilization of locally available labourers and indigenous building materials. commercial and migratory factors. and to the local environment. • Satisfaction with present water sources – accessibility and quality. to feasible patterns of local organisation.

skills. Tumbo. tools and resources Detailed choice of technology to fit the local resources base and to match a feasible technical assistance programme. "Decision tree" representing successive phases in the planning of a rainwater collection project (Mbilinyi. Planning technical assistance to fill gaps in availability of materials. Senkondo.Technical Assessment Social Assessment yes Does rainwater harvesting conflict with other needs of the community? Can rainwater meet a perceived need of the households in the community? no No project Re-design project yes Prioritize needs no no Implement Project yes Is water the top priority? Inventory of materials. Hatibu (2005)). Mahoo.50 - . Figure 15. . skills and to remove constraints on application of chosen technology.

6. • Exposure to new technologies and skills.2: Livelihood benefits • Market benefits (time saved for remunerative work). and families without permanent homes cannot be served. • Improved safety for household members. • Where tanks collecting rainwater from roofs are proposed. • Non-economic and social benefits (individual control. families with thatched roofs may not be catered for. • Improved household status. There is obviously a strong correlation between livelihoods and the implementation of DRWH. etc). • Money earned selling water – for example to neighbours. etc). or may actually worsen livelihoods for the poorest groups in the society.2 Livelihood benefits It is important to examine connections between rainwater collection and livelihoods. Particularly the increased health standard coupled with an overall improvement of numerous livelihood factors can easily be recognized. Water managers need to be aware of that an ill-designed project might lead to increased inequalities. • Even when equipment is subsidized. and only better-off families will then benefit from the subsidy.51 - . Main livelihood drawbacks include: • It is important to recognize that one person’s time constraint is sometimes another’s employment opportunity. it may still be too expensive for the very poor. • Improvements in the quality of life. Main livelihood benefits include: • Money saved not having to purchase water. • Improved health and hygiene. Key conclusions of section 6. . child care. modernization. Some people gain their livelihoods as water vendors or welldiggers and may be thrown out of work when people acquire water tanks. The way the collection of rainwater is introduced and how the subsequent utilisation of the system is managed greatly affects the household. • Home production benefits (cooking. • Time saved for other purposes – when no there is no need to spend time fetching water.

Then domestic rainwater collection. What people say they want may differ completely from what the professionals think they need.7. materials and experience. it will be easier and cheaper to build and maintain. An awareness of traditional techniques might suggest how modern equipment could be used to build on existing practises rather than replacing or displacing them. The majority amount of the precipitation is commonly received in one or a few high intensity storms.1 Indigenous knowledge (IK) Rainfalls in semi-arid areas are typically highly variable. The importance of this is that if one can devise rainwater collection equipment based on materials which people know how to use. hence. These techniques are usually compatible with the local lifestyle. • Inventory of local skills. Engineers and planners have responsibility to consider whether their goals in promoting a special technique are compatible with the needs and values of the people they seek to help. Rainwater harvesting cisterns with simple form can often be assembled with readily available materials . building materials. 7. who rely completely or partially on rainwater for their survival. education. may have to be postponed and initiating a housing improvement programme might be more appropriate. • Opinions as to whether shared or individually owned rainwater tanks would be best. local residents and government officials may all have different opinions about what should be the goal of a water management project. A survey of housing conditions can be a good starting point for dialogue with local people about their most urgent needs. • Views of people interested in acquiring rainwater cisterns – how much money they wish to expend. and learn from. • Opinions of local people about the usefulness and quality of water collected from roofs. The poorest people may see their most urgent needs in terms of food and housing. Participation by ordinary people in planning and implementing projects is absolutely necessary. these systems have been sustainable for centuries. as an immediate aim. Comments of local people should always be sought.1. both as a check on the social appropriateness of the project and as means to obtain practical information about the local environment. what local people already know. To develop efficient and long-term functioning DRWH systems it is crucial to take into account of. have as a result developed knowledge and techniques to harvest rainwater. local skills etc. The successful implementation of DRWH is based on how well the connection between professionalism and the problems experienced and perceived by the majority of the population is made – not merely to study and instruct them but to listen and learn from them. including water sources. training Experts on water supply. Indigenous knowledge and the importance of public participation 7. People.52 - . not water and health. The social assessment on IK is concerned with collecting information on: • Existing rainwater catchment practises.1 Public participation – knowledge. social systems and authorities.

who have historically controlled the distribution of water. rainwater is relatively safe for domestic use but problems may arise if the roofs become heavily contaminated (pollutants from the atmosphere or animal droppings) or the water is stored in an inappropriate way. not the head of the household. Hence. The provision of water. By having access to harvested rainwater the poor population is also freed from the dependency on the local elite.by owner-builders with a basic understanding of plumbing and construction skills. organic and mineral contamination in the run-off water they are collecting and to take appropriate measures to avoid storing contaminated water in their systems. . If carefully collected.53 - . participants involved in rainwater harvesting schemes must be made fully aware of the health consequences of the microbiological. The family as a group. The local population should be able to participate and influence the planning and implementation of public policies devoted to promote the sustainable development of the region. Inhabitants of semi-arid regions need to be exposed to new ways and alternatives about how to better deal with scarcity of water. with special focus on raising the consciousness of the population in regards to their rights as citizens. together with the consciousnessraising process is an important step to stop that dependency. It is also essential to discuss projects completely so that people can see what obligations would be placed on them by the introduction of a new water source. should preferably be addressed as the beneficiary unit and participation is therefore not limited to the male head only. Local people can be easily trained to implement basic technologies to create proper conditions for the natural purification of stored rainwater.

The most important phase is obviously the pre-assessment of the study site where both technical and social evaluation play huge parts in the decision-making process. To what extent should the expected quality of the harvested rainwater be allowed to influence the design of the system? What will the water be used for? The successive profitability and achievement of the DRWH-system depends largely on the different criteria chosen at the stage of implementation but also on the prerequisites and the skill of the household in system maintenance. When trying to evaluate at what level an already implemented DRWH system is functioning a couple of questions are of major importance: − Is the system being fully used? − Is the system achieving its intended benefits for health or livelihoods? − What are the prerequisites and how could implementation of more formal rainwater harvesting be acquired? Many rainwater tanks are not reaching their intended effect on improving the local water situation. This is partly due to the fact that most of the rainwater tanks are too small to last longer than on average one week. Instead of being used to provide emergency water in the dry season. How much water can be captured using roof water harvesting techniques in different types of housing and typical rainfall years: what are the hydrological (and physical) opportunities for roof water harvesting? 2. The technical assessment should principally be seeking answers to the question: “Is a rainwater collection project technically feasible in this area?” While the social assessment seeks to know whether there would be active support for such a project from local people. Another reason is that the poor storage facilities and the subsequent mistreatment of the collected rainwater often allows rapid deterioration and hence makes the water unsuitable for human purposes. How far DRWH systems are economically viable and what are the considerations involved in economic evaluation of DRWH systems? 4. In the vast majority of the studied sites rainwater harvesting is already established but not functioning in a satisfactory way. Decision makers.1 Conclusions The importance of interdisciplinary and integrated approaches is extremely apparent in this study on domestic rainwater harvesting. Conclusions and recommendations 8. if water is available? 3. every single one of them must be involved at all levels during the implementation of formal or informal rainwater harvesting.54 - . tanks are being fully used in the rainy season and are often empty long before the critical period of water scarcity towards the end of the dry season.8. Figure . organized assessment. monitoring and evaluation are important elements together with continuous information and education at all levels. local NGOs. Here. Four major questions must be thoroughly scrutinized before installing formal or informal DWRH: 1. water managers and the indigenous population. To what extent can this technique be adopted in the area of interest: what are the constraints in adopting this system in the area of interest.

060225). householders are encouraged to use one of the various alternatives for roof washing. Figure 16. It is not something that experts flown in from overseas can contribute greatly with. Whilst there is still much to do in refining designs for rainwater harvesting systems. it is clear that a good range of technical options already exists. Many of the respondents of the questionnaire survey did not recognize these as important parts of the regular maintenance of the DRWH system. becomes very obvious. bird droppings and contaminants that is accumulated on the roof and in the gutters during dry periods. Local persons with roots in the area and interest in and knowledge of the subject are far more important. To harvest rainwater of good quality for human consumption. the rainwater collection tanks are small and have no lids to cover them and the guttering is only partially completed due to lack of money and lack of readily available material. The constraints which limit their use are not strongly related to limitations in the technology – the problem is more commonly due to inadequate organization and absence of technical assistance/management. . Women outside their house discussing their DRWH-system (Photo. and the collection or disposal of the first flush of rainwater from roofs since the it picks up most of the dirt. For rainwater collection to spread and eventually reach the threshold of popularization an innovative dialogue is absolutely necessary. The crossing of thresholds of popularization also depends on the interactions between individuals and local organisations which generate enthusiasm and stimulate ideas as well as interactions between householders and builders who construct tanks and between commercial and public sectors in the economy.16 clearly shows some of this. Åkerberg.55 - . Again the significance of information and education. This requires patience and long-term commitment. particularly in reducing costs. particularly on how water quality is linked with health hazards. debris.

In the southern parts of Ghana. 60 61 Adiku. proximity to the ocean gives great uncertainty to rainfall predictions. Variations in intensity of rainfall are considerable and rates of 203 mm per hour may be reached and even exceeded for short periods 61 . Stone (1995) Ghana metrological Services department (2002) .56 - . atmospheric structure and processes. The oceans are a source of moisture input and with associated latent heat influences. It has been shown that rainfall occurrence and deviations from the long-term predictions can be associated with variations of the sea surface temperatures (SST). Estimates of average and minimum monthly and annual rainfall (year-to-year variations in rainfall and rainy days). with the principal reaching its maximum in May and June and the subsidiary in October. Rain persisting for over 12 hours is very uncommon. Number of rainy days.1. In the dry months. To successfully implement a system that domestically collects rainwater a series of rainfall measurements and data is required: • • • • • • Daily rainfall measurements. hours of sunshine average about five a day during the rainy season and as much as seven to eight hours during the drier months. June tends to be wettest month with an average monthly rainfall value between 152 and 254 mm. Rain is rarely prolonged over any part of the country and the average duration of rainfall is between 2 and 3 hours. Hence.1 Opportunities for Domestic Roofwater Harvesting in the peri-urban areas of Accra. Measurements of evaporation rates and soil moisture.8. As a consequence of the lower amount of rainfall and less clouds Accra is rather sunnier than many other places on this coast. where Accra is situated. Annual rainfall in Accra varies from 700 to 1000 mm and rainfall is lower on the coast than it is a short distance inland. Roof water harvesting does not ensure domestic water security to households neither in rural nor in urban environments in semi-arid areas and can only supplement other water supply systems. Estimates of total runoff. Significant positive correlation has been found between the SST of the Atlantic and rainfall patterns in Ghana 60 . precipitation is likely to fall less than 10 hours in a month and in the wet seasons the average total duration of rain is only about 30 to 40 hours per month. There clearly are limits on the scope of DRWH imposed by hydrological factors. Hydrological opportunities for roofwater harvesting in the peri-urban areas of Accra: Rainfall prediction is identified as a major element when installing and sizing a DRWHsystem. Measurements of rainfall intensity (and runoff) in individual storms (magnitude of rainfall). In the peri-urban areas of Accra DRWH can at best be a complementary source and the communities will have to rely on public water supply schemes for meeting a lion’s share of their domestic needs. In general there are two rainy seasons in the whole coastal plain.

To further complicate the successful implementation of DRWH the numerous institutions and NGOs operating in the water sector experience problems and disagreement on how water management should be conducted in the studied area. Domestic rainwater harvesting is widely acknowledged in the peri-urban areas of Accra. it is even more widespread than we believed it would be before starting the survey. the inhabitants of the studied sites show an overall positive approach towards this water source and the majority prefers rainwater when compared with other available water sources. Given the present mild encouragement of DRWH by water authorities in Ghana and the very slowly accumulating local experience. mostly due to the inconsistent high cost of DRWH components and systems. • The limited availability of roofing of suitable type and adequate area per capita. Due to Dinesh this makes DRWH best suited to the higher or middle-income groups and cannot have any role in meeting the survival needs of the more destitute parts of the population. With so many different actors problems obviously arise and progress on alternative water sources. generally too small for formal DRWH to be considered. The capacity of roof harvesting systems to offer sufficient volumes of water during periods of scarcity is thus highly questionable. are retarded. especially gutters and containers big enough to store water for a longer period of time.Overall factors not contributing to the possible successful implementation of DRWH in this area: • The skills and components needed to create a fully functioning DRWH system are absent in many locations. Dinesh states that: “DRWH can only help augment the basic water supplies where public water distribution systems are already in place and that too marginally. The absence of proper gutters or sufficient areas of run-off producing roofs in many of the studied locations constitute further obstacles to the implementation of formal or informal DRWH.” DRWH systems also score low when it comes to terms of cost of production per unit volume of water.57 - . While local authorities and NGOs operating with water management in the area does not seem to appreciate the promotion of rainwater harvesting at all. This indicates a great interest in the technique and its sustainability as a useful and appropriate source of water. . 8. minimize soil erosion and flooding damage but also have few negative environmental impacts. • The disproportionate high cost of DRWH components and systems.2 Hypothesis Rainwater harvesting is of great importance in the socio-economic development of areas where water sources are scarce or where groundwater and surface water are limited or polluted. The focus of this thesis boils down to one question: Are the peri-urban areas of Accra really suitable for the implementation of formal (or informal) DRWH? The rainfall patterns show relatively low erratic precipitation. As single water source roof water harvesting cannot to a great extent contribute to meeting the gap between demand and need. whilst others have been invalidated. such as DRWH. The limitations of DRWH are much discussed in Kumar Dinesh (2004). improvements of DRWH systems may be expected to grow at a very slow pace. Properly conducted rainwater harvesting not only effectively lessens water resources scarcity. • There is ignorance of DRWH techniques amongst relevant professionals. Some hypothesis that guided this study has been vindicated.

Rainwater harvesting can be an excellent technique to mitigate water scarcity. Establish demonstration DRWH systems. To address the perennial water shortage and concomitant repercussions on health and to ensure gender equity in the burden of accessing water for domestic use. Reach out to vulnerable groups . and the groundwater is saline due to saltwater intrusion. To simply describe water scarcity as an environmental problem rather than a social or institutional one is part of a common misrepresentation. Raise awareness of technology and water quality through education and information. which means that numerous households simply cannot afford the investment of proper roofs or gutters. the following recommendations to promote DRWH technologies emerge: • • • • • • Work through the local community structures. Another major problem with this technique is as already mentioned the disproportionate high initial cost. 8.58 - . economical and anthropological findings. In the future more interdisciplinary approaches will be necessary in the scientific investigation of water management. In the search for sustainable solutions it is essential to combine hydrological. desalinisation as a mitigation measure. Know the community and its inhabitants. which is principally what the developed countries have to offer. where acute shortage of freshwater may occur. financed by the government. due to inadequate treatment systems. may occasionally prove to be a better alternative compared with DRWH. . hence it would be better to promote and educate instead of neglect this water source in order for the people to receive the best possible water they can from their DRWH-systems. But the importance and convenience of domestically collected rainwater must not be ignored though and the one mitigation investment should not exclude another. The overall goal of anyone operating in the water management area should be to offer DRWH systems of sensible cost and adequate quality readily available for households to purchase.3 Recommendations The recommendations are directed to all national and local NGOs as well as the planning institutions working with the national and local water sector in urban. There is obviously much to ask for in terms of consciousness of water quality and management of the run-off area and collection device but with the aid of local WATSAN committees raised awareness can easily be achieved. Understand and take account of gender roles.empower weaker members of the community. Policies aimed at promoting DRWH should be carefully designed and implemented. peri-urban and rural parts of Ghana. especially if it is complemented by appropriate institutional innovation. and be supported by appropriate legal and institutional framework. climatological. In coastal areas like Accra. especially if the focus should be the possible implementation of formal or informal DWRH. This is a huge obstacle towards the implementation of formal or informal DRWH but a problem that can without doubt be solved with government subsidies or the more straightforward process of involving an NGO in the production or purchase processes. Environmental problems are usually regarded as calling for technical solutions.whether supplementary or not. But a more fundamental issue is the way in which policies and government agencies are weakened and unable to sustain regulations. As long as it rains the local population will harvest rainwater.

Develop household skills. Arrange economic subsidiaries through credit or micro-finance.59 - . Encourage household members to make productive use of the time saved. Ensure that local materials are readily available. Provide full grants for severely labour-stressed households.• • • • • • • • • Ensure that the contribution of free unskilled labour. Provide prompt technical backup when needed. especially concerning maintenance of the DRHW-system. Maximise the effective usage of the system through information and education. Develop skills base in community with a group of independent and well-known persons that may assist with information and knowledge. .

ARCSA conference Austin. Volume 28. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2003) Government of Ghana. Vainsencher (2005) “Improving access to water resources through rainwater harvesting as a mitigation measure: the case of the Brazilian semi-arid region”. Commonwealth secreeteriat. ACP Final Report. Krishna (2005) The Texas Manual on Rainwater Harvesting. Neubert et al. Brett Martinson. Development Technology Unit. German Development Institute: Bonn. Reforming Institutions for Sustainable Water Management. Germany. Marlborough house. WSSPSII. Danida. Stone (1995) “Using the Southern Oscillation Index for improving rainfall prediction and agricultural water management in Ghana”. School of Engineering. Ariyananda (2003) Health risks due to drinking domestic roof water harvested. August. Dr. Volume 10. 104. DTU (2003) Very-low-cost domestic for water harvesting in the humid tropics: user trials Domestic Roofwater Harvesting Research Programme. Water and sanitation sector programme support Phase II. 2003. Madulu (2003) “Public participation in integrated water resource management: the case of Tanzania”. Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change. Volume 10. date of issue: September 22. Cheaper. van Eding. Hari. USA. Health Place. Laube (2003 ) Ghana’s Water Institutions in the Process of Reform: from the International to the Local Level. pages 393409(17). Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. Ghana”. Engel. SPS Document. Research into roofwater harvesting for water supply in low-income countries. Third Edition. Paper presented at XI IRCSA conference.814. pages 85-103. Ref.60 - . number 3. Report R3. DFID KaR Contract R7833.References Literature sources ACP-EU Water Facility (2005) Examination of potential of the ACP-EU water facility for encouraging increased and innovative financing in water and sanitation – Final report. University of Warwick. Pall Mall. Volume 29. Texas Water Development Board. Allotey (1990) “Land Degradation in Ghana”. Gha. 2005. London. Report no. Agricultural Water Management. . Branco. pages 85-100. Faster. Food production and rural division. Dungumaro. ed. Thomas (2003) Better. pages 1009-1014. Benneh. Buor (2004) “Water needs and women’s health in the Kumasi metropolitan area. Agyepong. Suassuna. No. Adiku.

Pelig-Ba.61 - . Volume 1. Songsore (2002) Application of proxy indicators for environmental health monitoring in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area: Approach. Department of Geography and Resource Development. Mensah (1998) “Restructuring the delivery of clean water to rural communities in Ghana: the institutional and regulatory issues”. 30th WEDC International Conference. Pacey. pages 291-299. Greene (1993) “Rainwater quality from different roof catchments”. pages 967-971. Water Science and Technology. issue 1. Volume 5. Mbilinyi. Water and Sanitation Program-Africa Region (WSP-AF). pages 333-346. The World Bank (2002). Kiggundu (2004) Constraints to domestic roofwater harvesting uptake in Uganda: An assessment. IMF (2004) Ghana: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper Annual Progress Report. Gough (1999) “The environmental impact of rapid urbanization in the peri-urban area of Accra. Danish Journal of Geography. Hatibu (2005) “Indigenous knowledge as decision support tool in rainwater harvesting”. problems with field research and expected research. Vientiane. pages 95-115. Kumar Dinesh (2004) “Roof water harvesting for domestic water security: who gains and who loses?” Water International. Mwanza (2003) “Water for sustainable development in Africa”. Volume 23. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. ISBN 0946688222. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. Mahoo. pages 89-100. Ndamba. Lao PDR. Intermediate Technology Publications. IMF Country Report No. ISSN: 0273-1223.International Monetary Found. what it does. Volume 99. Yankson. Makoni (2003) “Mainstreaming gender in integrated water resources management: the case of Zimbabwe”. Volume 30. Volume 28. Water policy. Price (2001) “Elemental contamination of rainwater by airborne dust in Tamale township area of the northern region of Ghana”. Manase. Senkondo. pages 792-798. Tumbo. Volume 28. London. Rural Water Sector Reform in Ghana: A Major Change in Policy and Structure – Field note 2. pages 43-53. UK. The public affairs unit of Ministry of environment and science (2005) Ministry of environment and science – What it is. Thomas. . pages 383-395. Development and Sustainability. Cullis (1986) Rainwater Harvesting – The collection of rainfall and runoff in rural areas. University of Ghana. Environment. 04/207. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. Ghana”. Volume 29. information folder about the ministry of environment and science. Accra. Thomas. Parker.

org/unsd/mi/mi. pages 487505. Domestic Roofwater Harvesting Research Programme. Boateng (02/11/2002).org/ag/agl/aglw/aquastat/countries/ghana/index. Inst. . <http://www. Zhu. <www. Journal of Arid Environment. School of Engineering University of Warwick. Gateway to Land and Water Information .un.waterforghana. Water Sector Restructuring Secretariat.fao. ISSN: 0790-0627. for Water Con.Ghana country overview. issue 6 pages 761-765. ITDG (29/03/2005). Hart.fao. Chen (2004) “Quality issues in harvested rainwater in arid and semiarid Loess Plateau of northern China”.us/ghana/> (16/11/2005). Rainwater Harvesting.htm> (08/01/2006).pdf > (09/05/2006).asp> (28/06/2006). China”.asp> (20/11/2005).org/AAG/gha_aag. Water Research. Domestic Roofwater Harvesting Technology. WHO (2006).org/docs/technical_information_service/rainwater_harvesting. Carfax Publishing Company. pages 569-578. Zhu.uk/DTU/rwh/components3. Ghazali (1989) “Variations in rainwater quality from roof catchments”. Zhang.worldbank. Ghana at a glance. Internet sources Aquastat – FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture (2005).int> (09/05/2006). Volume 19.eng. FAO (09/12/2004). Food and agricultural organization. Development Technology Unit. Ghana life. Risk category. U.library. <http://mdgs.S. Liu.yale.warwick.itdg. Country Studies US – Ghana.html> (09/05/2006). The World Bank Group (25/08/2005). <http://countrystudies. UNSD (2006).htm> (07/06/2006). Volume 57.who. Sapari.Yaziz.stm> (08/01/2006). Intermediate Technology Development Group.62 - . Volume 23. Gunting. China Gansu Res. <http://www.ac. Qiang (2003) “Rainwater harvesting and poverty alleviation: A case study in Gansu. Irrigation in Africa in figures – AQUASTAT survey 2005 Ghana.pdf> (09/05/2006).org/ag/agl/swlwpnr/reports/y_sf/z_gh/gh. <http://www. < http://devdata. WSRS (2005). Country Profile – Ghana. ISSN: 0043-1354. Water for Ghana. DTU. United Nations Statistics Division. < http://www. Library of Congress (2005). technical note <http://www.edu/~fboateng/fbhp. International Journal of Water Resources Development. The World Health Organization. <http://www.org/index.

Kofie. .gh/about_gmsd2. interview performed on the 14th of February 2006.dk> (09/05/2006). Moller-Jensen (2004).geogr. interview performed on the 6th of February 2006.63 - .meteo. Mr Johnny Nyametso in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) interview performed on the 9th of February 2006. Joyce Lena Danquah (Programme Officer) in the Water Aid Ghana Accra office. Ghana Meteorological Services Department (2002).gov. Monitoring urban growth: urbanisation of the fringe areas of Accra. Oral references Muhammed Andani Safuratu (Water and Sanitation Engineer) in the Community Water & Sanitation Agency (CWSA) headquarter.html> (22/05/2006). working paper < http://www.Yankson. Accra (Ghana). Meteorological Information < http://www. Accra (Ghana).ku. Accra (Ghana).

015 for gutters) P = Wetted perimeter (m) R = Hydraulic radius (m) ( S = Slope ) .Appendix 1 The Manning Formula: Where: Q = flow in channel (m3 s-1) A = cross-sectional area (m2) V = velocity of flow in channel (m s-1) n = Manning roughness coefficient (usually between 0.64 - .01 and 0.

Do you know of a local place. 2. . What does CWSA do? Answer: We are responsible for the supply of water and sanitation issues in the rural areas of Ghana.Appendix 2 Interview with Mrs Safuratu Muhammed Andani Msc. close to Accra. Do you know where we can find further information about RHW in the peri-urban areas of Accra? Answer: I am not sure but try going to the Water Aid Agency and maybe they can help you.65 - . 4. where RWH is implemented and successful? Answer: No. What is your opinion on rainwater harvesting. and how do you think it can be implemented in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area? Answer: The rainfall patterns in GAMA are not enough frequent or plentiful enough for RWH to be considered. 6th of February 2006. It would not be cost – effective because of the large storage tanks required and who would finance it? 3. basically where Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) do not supply the communities with piped water. Greater Accra region. but not too far away is the Danfa-clinic where they do have RWH but it is not very effective. 1. (DIC) Environmental Engineering (Water & Sanitation Engineer) At the Community Water & Sanitation Agency.

9th of February 2006. almost every household has it. iv. Even households without proper gutters and cisterns do sometimes have DRWH– they find ways to collect the rainwater. Do you know any areas with DRWH-techniques that could be of interest for us to study? Answer: Districts that may be interesting for a comparative study: • Abokobi (Ga East) • Amasaman (Ga West) . iii. Government has recently. encouraged the use of DRWH-techniques. Groundwaters in GAMA are salty due to saltwater intrusion. What is the general opinion about DRWH? Answer: Very good if it can be implemented. We have been told that in GAMA it does not rain enough to use DRWH. People mix water from boreholes with rainwater to make it more suited for human purposes.Appendix 3 Interview with Mr Johnny Nyametso At the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). through other collection devises. ii. i. Greater Accra region. is that your opinion to? Answer: At least it rains enough so the collected water can be used as a complement for household demands.66 - . through media. Do you know if RWH-techniques are commonly implemented in GAMA? Answer: Kind of common in the area.

Where would you recommend us to go to get further information on RHW in the periurban areas of Accra? Answer: To the World Vision.Appendix 4 Interview with Joyce Lena Danquah Programme Officer at the Water Aid Ghana. There is a national framework on water and sanitation in Ghana. RWH can be very expensive to implement. . What type of water sources do you promote? Answer: Hand dug wells and boreholes where hand dug wells are not feasible. At district level we cooperate with local NGO’s according to these regulations. 2. sometimes even more expensive than the cost of a hand dug well (even with appropriate purification methods if necessary). 4. It can only be used as a supplement to ordinary household water sources. 3. 1. Greater Accra region. 14th of February 2006. What is your opinion on RWH and why don’t you promote this technology? Answer: RWH does not give enough “safe” water. We focus on poor and deprived communities in the rural and the peri-urban areas. What does Water Aid do? Answer: We give financial and technical support through local organisations to implement projects within the water and sanitation area. RWH is very common in the peri-urban areas of Accra even though the qualities of roofs and gutters are at many places very poor. There is a health hazard because even if you tell people that this water is not good enough to drink they might still drink it.67 - .

□ □ □ □ Q4....68 - ......………………………………………………….. (i) Unmarried (ii) Divorced (iii) Widowed (iv) Married Q8................ □ □ □ □ Q7... Age……………………………..... b) How many of them are: (i) Children (0-14)……… (ii) Adults (15-60)………........ □ □ Q2....... Q6...... Marital status.cedis.... Sex...... (i) None (i) Primary (ii) Secondary (iii) Post-Secondary Q5. .. (i) Male (ii) Female Q3.Appendix 5 DOMESTIC RAINWATER HARVESTING AND USES IN THE PERI-URBAN AREAS OF ACCRA QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC SECTION 1: LOCATION AND BACKGROUNDS OF RESPONDENTS Q1...... (specify)………………………………………… Occupation……………………………………………………………………………… Average Monthly Income (person)……………………………. (iii) Seniors (60+)……….... a) How many persons live in the household?... Educational Level......... Name of Community………...

........ …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Q15....hours. b) During scarcity periods/dry season………………………….litres................. Why did you decide to use DRWH?. b) How many buckets/barrels do you usually fetch per day?... Are you ever short of water? (i) Yes □ (ii) No □ SECTION 3: DOMESTIC RAINWATER HARVESTING Q14..... Q13..............……… (iv) Open Well □ (specify distance)........... Who is responsible for fetching water in the household?................................. a) Which of the under listed sources of water do you have in your community? (i) Piped water □ (ii) River/stream □ (specify distance)……………………….... (ii) Barrel □ specify volume………………. a) Is the DRWH-system working in a satisfying way? (i) Yes □ (ii) No □ (iii) No opinion □ ......69 - ...... Q11......litres...... Q12.……………………… (v) DRWH □ (vi) Private vendor □ b) Which of the water sources named in Q9(a) do you prefer or use most often? (i) During the wet season? (specify)………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………..hours........... (iii) Boreholes (pump) □ (specify distance)……………….SECTION 2: WATER SOURCES AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER IN THE HOUSEHOLD Q9. (ii) During the dry season? (specify)………………………………… Q10............. Time spent daily on water fetching: a) During regular flow/wet season……………………………... a) What type of container do you use when you fetch water? (i) Bucket □ specify volume……………….....................litres........... (iii) Other □ specify volume………………..

........................................................ a) Who is responsible for the maintenance of the DRWH?...........................cedis................. Q17............ How much did the DRWH system approximately cost?...... What do you like and dislike about DRWH? Likes Dislikes Q19.......................... b) How many hours per month does the maintenance take?........................b) If not.............................. a) What is the storage capacity of your tank?.................................... What type of cistern do you use? (i) Bucket □ (ii) Barrel □ (iii) Concrete-cistern □ (iv) Other □ (specify)………………………………………… (specify)………………………………………… Q23................................ What type of roof do you have? (i) Corrugated iron □ (ii) Thatched □ (iii) Slate □ (iv) Other □ Q22.. Q16...... ... why?.. How did you finance your DRWH-system? (i) Household money □ (ii) Household money/ subsidies □ (specify)........................ ......................................................... Q20.................... (iii) Subsidies only □ (specify)....................................................70 - ......................................................................................................................... Q21......... What do you use the rainwater for? (i) Drinking □ (ii) Cooking □ (iii) Washing □ (iv) Bathing □ (v) Other □ (specify)……………………… Q18..................

...... a) Do you use any type of filter/purification method? (iii) Yes □ (iv) No □ b) If yes. a) Is there any WATSAN committee in this community? (i) Yes □ (ii) No □ b) If yes.........................b) Have your tank ever been completely full? (i) Yes □ (ii) No □ c) If yes...................... a) Would you recommend DRWH systems to other households? (i) Yes □ (ii) No □ b) Why?............. Do you have any suggestions towards further improvement of your DRWH-system? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………......................................... do you have any suggestions towards further improvement?...................... ………………………………………………………………………………………………............................. Q24...................................... Q26............................................ c) If no.................. for how long could the tank serve the household with water?..................................................71 - .. why not?......... do you receive information and/or organisation of water and sanitation management in your community? (i) Yes □ (ii) No □ c) What do you think about the water supply situation in your community? (i) Good □ (ii) Bad □ (iii) No opinion □ d) If bad........ SECTION 4: COMMUNITY PLANNING Q27................ what type?..... e) Have you ever been involved in the water and sanitation planning in your community? ...... Q25......

72 - .(i) (ii) Yes No □ □ .

ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH LINKAGES Q28. c) How would you describe your general health status (frequency of illness)? (i) once in two weeks □ (ii) once a month □ (iii) once in 3 months □ (iv) rarely □ d) How would you describe your health status during water scarcity (frequency of illness)? (i) once in two weeks □ (ii) once a month □ (iii) once in 3 months □ (iv) rarely □ .73 - ..SECTION 5: KNOWLEDGE/PERCEPTION OF WATER. ………………………………………………………………………………………………. name (describe) any of the diseases you know of………………………………. a) Are there any diseases associated with water consumption in this community? (i) Yes □ (ii) No □ b) If yes.

050 0.76 0.6 0.033 0.28 2.1 1.6 13 0.621 3.025 1.079 2.23 1.031 -0.1 0.49 1.020 1.038 2.41 0.90 0.948 1.081 0.259 1.08 - Cl.122 4 72.635 37.36 11.55 0.95 3.7 0.49 0.41 0.65 1.34 12.011 2.382 Dilution factor NA+ (mg/l) Tot Na mekv/l + K (mg/l) Tot K mekv/l 2+ Ca (mg/l) Tot Ca mekv/l 5 8.88 0.280 17.053 4.55 0.050 1.589 35.33 0.20 0.024 1.054 3.023 1.202 0.063 13.54 3 15.61 0.689 -0.038 3.16 0.035 1 Mg2+ Tot Mg mekv/l SUM (cations) mekv/l Cations 1 0.15 1.62 3.56 0.54 3.028 1.41 0.29 Anions 0.1 0.62 0.017 3.41 0.49 0.Appendix 6 Water Samples 1 Conductivity (µS/cm) Alkalinity (mekv/l) HCO3 (mg/l) pH 654 0.537 0.78 43.284 17.041 2.36 0.54 0.125 1.51 7.70 0.25 0.034 0.93 2 118 1.568 0.62 1.32 5 141 0.88 2.43 0.153 1 2.2 0.9 1.43 0.15 0.47 0.49 0.701 Difference (cations-anions) -0.28 0.191 0.76 0.177 1.50 0.41 0.040 1 0.681 Sample 1: the conductivity is incorrect Sample 2: one or a couple of cations are missing Sample 3: almost correct Sample 4: one or a couple of cations are missing Sample 5: one or a couple of cations are missing .909 0.74 - .(mg/l) mekv/l NO3 (mg/l) mekv/l 2SO4 (mg/l) mekv/l SUM (anions) mekv/l 106.83 0.114 0.019 9.56 0.668 0.279 3.014 11.431 12.005 1.204 -0.37 0.19 0.058 64.34 0.130 1.090 0.523 0.

4 5/3 5 5/3 . No treatment. Pokuase. 1 2 3 Date 25/2 25/2 4/3 Description Abokobi.Location of water samples: Sample nr. Tap stand groundwater + rain water Abokobi. Permanent domestic rainwater. Water has been stored in a container with a lid for three days.75 - . Medie. Water has been allowed to settle in a tank for over three weeks. Water has been allowed to settle in a tank for over two weeks. Medie.