10B

REVISED

June 1993

BRICK SIZES AND RELATED INFORMATION
Abstract: This Technical Notes provides information on brick sizes and nomenclature. Standard nomenclature for the twelve most common brick sizes is given. The differences between nominal, specified and actual dimensions are explained. Vertical and horizontal coursing tables for modular and non-modular sizes are provided. Key Words: actual dimension, brick, nominal dimension, size, specified dimension, standard nomenclature.

INTRODUCTION Brick are available in many varied sizes and have been called by many different names. This proliferation of sizes and names can be confusing for the designer and specifier. The problem is further compounded by the need to distinguish between nominal, specified and actual dimensions. Recent efforts led jointly by the Brick Institute of America and the National Association of Brick Distributors have led to the development of standard nomenclature for brick which represent roughly 90 percent of all sizes currently manufactured. This Technical Notes lists the sizes of brick units generally available in the United States and presents the standard nomenclature for brick sizes. The differences between nominal, specified and actual dimensions are explained. Guidance is given on the recommended order in which brick dimensions should be listed. Vertical and horizontal coursing tables are presented as an aid to the reader. Other Technical Notes in this series provide tables for estimating brick masonry and information on modular brick masonry. BRICK SIZES AND NOMENCLATURE Brick sizes have varied over the centuries, but have always been similar to present day sizes. The size of a brick has historically been small enough to be held in the hand, and most brick have remained small. Brick is a building element with a human scale. The use of small scale elements, such as brick, tends to break down massive expanses of wall into visually pleasing parts. Furthermore, the use of oversized units alters the scale of the masonry unit in relation to the wall. Because people have a perceived size of brick, the use of oversize units makes the wall appear smaller.

Over time new sizes have been developed to meet specific design, production or construction needs. New types of construction have required new sizes, such as hollow units for reinforced masonry and larger units for increased economy. Hollow units have varying coring patterns but typically are larger than standard or modular size and have larger cells to allow placement of vertical reinforcement. Units with larger face dimensions allow the bricklayer to lay more square foot of wall per day. Such units, compared to standard or modular size units, may increase the number of brick laid per day by over 50 percent. However, as units get larger and heavier, a point of diminishing return exists. Also, units with larger heights make filling the head joint with mortar more difficult. Until now, a given brick size may have been known by several names due to regional variations. A joint committee of the Brick Institute of America and the National Association of Brick Distributors recently developed standard nomenclature for brick which represent roughly 90 percent of all sizes currently manufactured. The standard nomenclature for brick sizes is presented in Table 1. These terms were developed by a consensus process involving companies across the country. The use of these standard terms when describing brick is strongly recommended. Table 2 lists other brick sizes that are produced by a limited number of manufacturers. Since clay is such a flexible medium, manufacturers can make many different sizes. Also, modular and non-modular sizes are illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2, respectively. The coring patterns shown in these figures are for illustrative purposes only. Manufacturers incorporate cores and cells in solid and hollow brick in many different sizes and patterns. The brick manufacturer should be consulted for information on sizes and coring patterns.

Brick Institute of America June 1993

4d
MASONRY BRICK

1 3 4 4 31⁄5 4 12 12 35⁄8 3 ⁄2 1 23⁄4 2 ⁄16 13 1 3 1 35⁄8 31⁄2 35⁄8 31⁄2 NON-MODULAR BRICK SIZES 3 Standard Engineer Standard Closure Standard King ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 35⁄8 3 ⁄2 1 21⁄4 2 ⁄4 1 8 8 8 8 8 8 95⁄8 95⁄8 8 8 3C = 8 in. 1 3 Norman Engineer Norman Utility 4 22⁄3 12 35⁄8 3 ⁄2 1 21⁄4 2 ⁄4 1 3C = 8 in. 11 in. In modular construction. 3 35⁄8 3 ⁄2 1 15⁄8 1 ⁄2 1 2C = 4 in. 1C = 4 in. all dimensions of the brick and other building elements are multiples of a 2 given module. The intended mortar joint thickness is the thickness required so that the unit plus joint thickness match the coursing module. 3Specified dimensions may vary within this range from manufacturer to manufacturer. Specified dimensions are used by the structural engineer in the rational design of brick masonry. nominal brick dimensions are based on multiples (or fractions) of 4 in. For brick masonry the nominal dimension is equal to the specified unit dimension plus the intended mortar joint thickness. = 25. in. followed by height.4 mm. Queen 3 ⁄8 5C = 16 in. Nominal dimensions are most often used by the architect in modular construction. Joint thicknesses of bed joints vary based on vertical coursing and specified unit height. 3. 5C = 16 in. Specifications and purchase orders should list brick dimensions in the standard order of width first. 1 ft = 0. The terms applied to brick positions as they are placed in a wall are shown in Fig. 3 4 31⁄5 8 1 3 4 4 4 2 8 12 1 1C = 4 in. 3 ⁄8 3 23⁄4 3 23⁄4 5C = 16 in. in. In the inchpound system of measurement. specified and actual dimensions. it is important to understand the difference between nominal. w 4 h 22⁄3 l 8 Joint Thickness2. in. Such dimensions are known as nominal dimensions. Height and length are sometimes called face dimensions for these are the dimensions showing when the brick is laid as a stretcher. 5C = 16 in. For more information on modular construction see Technical Notes 10A Revised. only the specified dimension should be . It should be stated in project specifications and purchase orders. As the name implies. 3 Specified Dimensions3. When specifying or designing with brick. BRICK DIMENSIONS Brick are identified by three dimensions: width. then length. The shaded areas indicate the surfaces of the brick that are exposed. nominal brick dimensions are based on multiples of 100 mm. In the SI (metric) system.3 m 2Common joint sizes used with length and width dimensions. the specified dimension is the anticipated manufactured dimension. w 35⁄8 31⁄2 35⁄8 31⁄2 35⁄8 3 ⁄2 1 h 21⁄4 21⁄4 23⁄4 213⁄16 35⁄8 3 ⁄2 1 l 75⁄8 71⁄2 75⁄8 71⁄2 75⁄8 71⁄2 115⁄8 111⁄2 115⁄8 111⁄2 115⁄8 111⁄2 115⁄8 111⁄2 Vertical Coursing Modular Engineer Modular Closure Modular Roman 1 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 3C = 8 in. 1 3 1 35⁄8 3 ⁄2 1 23⁄4 213⁄16 35⁄8 31⁄2 23⁄4 25⁄8 23⁄4 23⁄4 3 1 35⁄8 3 ⁄2 1 1C = 4 in.TABLE 1 Standard Nomenclature for Brick Sizes1 MODULAR BRICK SIZES Unit Designation Nominal Dimensions. height and length. 5C = 16 in. In non-modular construction.

2 3 .31⁄2" 8" 35⁄8" . 1 21⁄4" 23⁄4" .22⁄3" 8" 8" 31⁄5" 4" 4" 4" 4" 8" MODULAR ENGINEER MODULAR CLOSURE MODULAR 2" 22⁄3" 31⁄5" 4" 12" 4" ROMAN 4" NORMAN 12" 4" 12" 4" UTILITY ENGINEER NORMAN 12" 8" 6" 12" 4" 8" 4" 8" 6" 31⁄5" 4" 4" 4" 16" 12" 6" 8" 12" 8" Modular Brick Sizes (Nominal Dimensions) FIG.213⁄16" 35⁄8" .25⁄8" 95⁄8" 23⁄4" .3" KING SIZE 23⁄4" .31⁄2" 8" ENGINEER STANDARD CLOSURE STANDARD 23⁄4" .25⁄8" 23⁄4" 23⁄4" .31⁄2" 8" 35⁄8" .3" QUEEN SIZE 8" 3" 85⁄8" Non-Modular Brick Sizes (Specified Dimensions) FIG.31⁄2" STANDARD 35⁄8" .

3 1 Specified Dimensions3. it should be noted that the heights of both modular and non-modular brick are the same. = 25. 3 1 55⁄8 5 ⁄2 1 35⁄8 3 ⁄2 1 1C = 4 in. Thus. such as ASTM C 216 Standard Specification for Facing Brick.3 m 2Common joint sizes used with length and width dimensions. 3 4 8 8 1 3 6 6 31⁄5 4 12 12 1 5C = 16 in. where applicable. COURSING Although nominal dimensions are given only for modular brick. in. all STRETCHER HEADER SOLDIER SAILOR ROWLOCK STRETCHER ROWLOCK Brick Positions in a Wall FIG. The actual dimension of a unit is the dimension as manufactured. Actual dimensions may vary slightly from a specified size. w 4 h 6 l 8 Joint Thickness2. 11 in. This is because when modular sizes were first introduced. 1 ft = 0. 1C = 4 in. used. brick manufacturers were faced with the problem of supplying matching brick to existing non-modular construction. or may be specified in the project documents. w 35⁄8 31⁄2 35⁄8 31⁄2 55⁄8 5 ⁄2 1 h 55⁄8 51⁄2 75⁄8 71⁄2 23⁄4 2 ⁄16 13 l 75⁄8 71⁄2 75⁄8 71⁄2 115⁄8 111⁄2 115⁄8 111⁄2 115⁄8 111⁄2 155⁄8 151⁄2 Vertical Coursing ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄2 2C = 12 in. Tables 1 and 2 provide the specified and nominal dimensions. Joint thicknesses of bed joints vary based on vertical coursing and specified unit height. From an appearance standpoint. most designers required that the vertical coursing of modular brick match the existing non-modular brick.4 mm.TABLE 2 Other Brick Sizes1 MODULAR BRICK SIZES Nominal Dimensions. 1C = 8 in. 3 8 4 12 75⁄8 7 ⁄2 1 35⁄8 3 ⁄2 1 1C = 4 in. 3 4 . 3Specified dimensions may vary within this range from manufacturer to manufacturer. The actual dimensions of a brick must fall within the range of sizes defined by the specified dimensions plus or minus the specified dimensional tolerances. in. Dimensional tolerances are found in the ASTM standard specifications for brick. 1 3 8 4 16 75⁄8 7 ⁄2 1 35⁄8 3 ⁄2 1 1 NON-MODULAR BRICK SIZES 3 ⁄8 3 3 23⁄4 25⁄8 85⁄8 85⁄8 5C = 16 in. in.

51⁄3" 0' .4" 6' .91⁄3" 10' .62⁄3" 3' .44⁄5" 10' .2" 7' .2" 5' .11⁄3" 3' .22⁄3" 6' .0" 11' . Many brick manufacturers.0" 6' .93⁄5" 9' .4" 9' .. 5C = 16 in.71⁄5" 9' .0" 14' .8" 3' . The brick scale is a coursing scale marked with multiples of common nominal brick sizes.04⁄5" 9' .62⁄5" 12' .4" 10' .4" 9' .8" 2' .91⁄3" 2' .8" 2' . For example. They come in a set which matches the most common architectural scales.0" 7' .8" 4' .22⁄3" 10' .84⁄5" 8' .04⁄5" 1' .0" 16' .93⁄5" 5' .0" 1' . 11 in.11⁄3" 7' .8" 6' .04⁄5" 5' .8" 3' .3 m 2Brick positioned in wall as stretchers or headers.10" 3' .8" 10' . Information on brick sizes is given and the differences between nominal. For most brick sizes the mortar bed joint will not be exactly 3⁄8 in. = 25.71⁄5" 1' . 1 ft = 0.0" 4' .4" 26' .62⁄3" 5' .0" 3' .0" 8' .22⁄3" 2' . and slightly less than 1⁄2 in.4" 13' .31⁄5" 8' .51⁄3" 10' .8" 10' .4" 4' .11⁄3" 22' .71⁄5" 5' .4" 2' .102⁄3" 7' .22⁄3" 0' .53⁄5" 7' .62⁄3" 7' . The vertical coursing information given in Tables 1 and 2 is a reflection of this fact.93⁄5" 13' .102⁄5" 10' .10" 8' .0" 2' .8" 2' .11⁄3" 5' .0" 4' . In this table.0" 3' .4" 5' . of Courses 2C = 4 in. Table 3 provides vertical dimensions based on the modular vertical coursing given in Tables 1 and 2.8" 4' .4" 15' .0" 7' .4" 3' .4 mm.4" 7' .4" 8' .111⁄5" 11' . Final decisions on the use of the information contained in this Technical Notes are not within the purview of the Brick Institute of America and must rest with the project architect.) such as Roman size.2" 8' . should use column 1 of Table 3.102⁄5" 6' . 1⁄2 in.0" 9' .4" 9' .93⁄5" 1' .2" 6' .51⁄3" 8' .84⁄5" 12' .0" 10' ..62⁄3" 1' .4" 3' .8" 0' .8" 6' .4" 5' .13⁄5" 10' .8" 1' .22⁄3" 4' .6" 7' .22⁄5 " 3' . when coursing out with a modular height unit.8" 5' .0" 1' .53⁄5" 11' .102⁄5" 2' .0" 10' .4" 4' .8" 14' . = 1 ft-0 in.0" 8' . The actual mortar joint size can be determined from the vertical coursing information and the specified unit size.0" 6' .6" 6' .2" 3' . The information contained herein must be used in conjunction with good technical judgment and a basic understanding of the properties of brick masonry.4" 7' .4" 1' . Coursing tables for both modular and non-modular brick are provided. so that 3 courses of brick and mortar will equal the 8 in.0" 2' ..0" 6' .31⁄5" 12' .22⁄5" 7' .2" 2' .4" 16' .102⁄3" 9' .2" 0' .4" 7' .13⁄5" 6' .4" 1' .102⁄3" 1' .51⁄3" 2' .0" 2' . nor 1⁄2 in.4" 14' .22⁄3" 0' .4" 6' .11⁄3" 9' .6" 1' .31⁄5" 0' . etc.4" 3' .62⁄5" 8' .6" 4' .22⁄3" 8' . units with heights which course vertically 2 courses to 4 in.0" 13' . The information and suggestions contained in this Technical Notes are based on the available data and the experience of the engineering staff of the Brick Institute of America.0" 12' .8" 12' .91⁄3" 4' . Another useful tool for designers is the brick scale.44⁄5" 6' . 1⁄4 in. 5 .0" 5' .51⁄3" 4' .TABLE 3 Vertical Coursing 1.0" 4' .84⁄5" 4' . = 1 ft-0 in.11⁄3" 1' . brick distributors and masonry promotional groups provide brick scales to designers.51⁄3" 6' .10" 6' .4" 5' .8" 5' .44⁄5" 2' .8" 6' .8" 10' .2" 4' .8" 8' . to 1⁄2 in.10" 2' .8" 2' .10" 4' .04⁄5" 13' .0" 15' . specified and actual dimensions are explained. 1C = 4 in.6" 0' .10" 5' .4" 16' .4" 2' .8" 4' .8" 11' .111⁄5" 7' .8" 0' .8" 1' .4" 12' .10" 1' .6" 3' .31⁄5" 4' .4" brick are modular in height. CONCLUSION This Technical Notes presents the standard nomenclature for brick sizes.2" 1' .91⁄3" 8' .0" 8' .10" 7' . engineer and owner.91⁄3" 6' .4" 1' .4" 1' .8" 16' . 3C = 8 in.8" 7' .0" 4' .8" 8' .4" 5' .53⁄5" 3' .8" 0' . The table includes coursing for both modular and nonmodular brick.102⁄3" 11' .4" 0' . Horizontal coursing information is given in Table 4.8" 15' .0" 8' . (2C = 4 in.13⁄5" 2' .8" 7' .8" 33' .6" 2' .111⁄5" 3' .2 Vertical Coursing of Unit No. For example.8" 6' . the mortar bed joint is slightly larger than 3 ⁄8 in.4" 0' .0" 12' .8" 0' .8" 13' .22⁄5" 11' .62⁄5" 4' . the brick are assumed to be positioned in the wall as stretchers or headers. module.6" 5' .4" 11' .102⁄3" 5' . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 100 0' . The dimensions given in Table 3 include typical mortar joints of 3⁄8 in.102⁄3" 3' .62⁄5" 0' .62⁄3" 9' .0" 5' .8" 9' . Table 3 is applicable to both modular and non-modular brick.

4" 14' .0" 13' .4" 30' .3" 24' .8" 2' .8" 22' .3" 12' .3" 21' .91⁄2" 25' .0" 10' .3" 3' .0" 49' .0" 12' .0" 85⁄8 3 95⁄8 3 ⁄8 in.81⁄8" 8' -41⁄2" 9' .0" 14' .0" 15' .6" 35' .4" 18' .0" 20' .101⁄8" 19' .1" 24' .9" 30' .8" 27' .61⁄2" 4' .03⁄8" 23' .8" 31' .2" 31' .0" 32' .2" 25' .8" 6' .111⁄2" 14' .111⁄2" 5' . jt.6" 32' .9" 28' . 0' .47⁄8" 32' .10" 16' .0" 6' .11⁄4" 32' . 3 ⁄8 in.91⁄4" 10' .3" 33' .8" 13' .3" 9' .9" 7' .41⁄4" 16' .0" 29' .0" 28' .8" 5' .0" 21' .91⁄2" 8' .4" 26' .91⁄2" 3' .9" 13' .2" 5' .3" 18' .6" 8' .31⁄2" 34' .4" 12' .6" 11' .0" 16' . 8 1 12 ⁄2 in.6" 23' .6" 3' .9" 4' .6" 17' .0" 20' .13⁄4" 18' .71⁄2" 28' .4" 16' .3" 27' .07⁄8" 9' .0" 6' .0" 18' .8" 23' . 7/93 6 .3" 4' .0" 19' .0" 40' .8" 12' .81⁄2" 31' .21⁄4" 4' .10" 6' .33⁄8" 6' .10" 3' .6" 28' .10" 41' .4" 20' .0" 20' .0" 9' .9" 31' .113⁄4" 7' .6" 26' .25⁄8" 27' .8" 1' .A.0" 26' .63⁄4" 13' .0" 48' .0" 7' .0" 5' . 0' .0" 32' .31⁄2" 17' . jt.4" 12' .0" 35' .43⁄4" 2' .0" 42' .0" 30' .0" 25' .0" 24' .0" 9' .6" 34' .0" 16' .0" 4' .8" 21' .6" 14' .2" 35' .8" Specified Dimensions.4" 24' .4" 9' .6" 9' .4" 10' .3" 30' .21⁄2" 26' .2" 40' .0" 24' .4" 39' .5" 70' .11⁄2" 19' .4" 6' .0" 3' .111⁄4" 21' .01⁄8" 30' .6" 38' .8" 23' .9" 10' . jt.83⁄8" 1' .4" 28' .8" 3' .61⁄2" 20' .0" 36' .4" 22' .9" 19' .6" 18' .4" 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 100 0' .6" 2' .TABLE 4 Horizontal Coursing1 Unit Length Number of Units Nominal Dimensions.3 m 25M©B. 0' .4" 66' .0" 6' .3" 15' .4" 2' .6" 20' .11" 28' .0" 21' .8" 83' .8" 29' .6" 26' .9" 34' .2" 11' .81⁄2" 1' .23⁄8" 34' .71⁄2" 11' .4" 4' .0" 3' .0" 50' .3" 6' .8" 27' .0" 14' .0" 30' .0" 24' .0" 25' .8" 17' .11" 27' .4" 8' .2" 30' .0" 45' .4 mm.0" 40' .41⁄2" 7' .6" 8' . = 25.103⁄8" 12' .0" 17' .2" 10' .27⁄8" 20' .2" 14' .0" 22' .0" 2' .0" 2' .51⁄2" 31' .9" 37' .8" 11' .6" 23' .73⁄8" 29' .9" 1' .7" 6' .0" 8' .10" 1' .0" 39' .57⁄8" 4' .10" 21' .8" 17' .2" 15' .51⁄8" 25' .9" 16' .0" 4' .6" 75' .0" 44' .0" 33' .97⁄8" 26' .4" 14' .0" 35' .4" 34' .9" 13' .0" 12' .0" 34' . jt.53⁄8" 18' .0" 23' .81⁄2" 35' .11⁄8" 2' .111⁄2" 22' .6" 5' .0" 30' .0" 43' .I.61⁄2" 21' .10" 31' .41⁄2" 24' .05⁄8" 16' .101⁄2" 32' . 1 ft = 0.0" 47' .81⁄2" 18' .6" 13' .8" 15' .95⁄8" 33' .11⁄2" 25' .0" 15' .6" 33' .9" 22' .1" 7' .10" 26' .0" 15' .9" 17' .103⁄4" 69' .21⁄2" 9' .10" 1' .10" 11' .61⁄4" 27' .0" 41' .8" 7' .7" 33' .0" 26' .101⁄2" 15' .75⁄8" 22' .0" 37' .105⁄8" 5' .0" 100' .10" 20' .8" 19' .01⁄2" 12' .4" 24' .0" 22' .0" 27' .0" 27' .0" 18' .0" 30' .0" 31' .0" 12' .7" 16' .0" 28' .11⁄2" 2' .9" 25' .51⁄2" 14' .0" 17' .8" 25' .11" 10' .0" 36' .0" ⁄8 in.0" 11' .0" 33' .91⁄2" 11 in.55⁄8" 11' .33⁄4" 30' .4" 32' .4" 19' .31⁄8" 13' .5" 2' . in.10" 36' .8" 32' .3" 21' .2" 20' .0" 34' .3" 36' .0" 38' .0" 18' .4" 23' .0" 5' .0" 8' .01⁄2" 29' . in.5" 19' .6" 29' .8" 7' . 8 0' .0" 46' .4" 4' .83⁄4" 24' .4" 29' .0" 10' .8" 33' .77⁄8" 15' .8" 9' .8" 37' .4" 29' .0" 10' .

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