TABLE OF CONTENTS: Topics

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ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………… REASEARCH PROCESS DIAGRAM…………………………………... PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING………………………………….. Background Information………………………………………………. Perceptions, Attitudes and Behaviors…………………………………. Literature Survey……………………………………………………… THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK………………………………………... Definition of Variables……………………………………………..…. Direction of Variables……………………………………………..….. Relation among the Variables…………………………………..…….. Variable diagram……………………………………………………… ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA……….…………….. HYPOTHESIS……..……………………………………………………… CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………. APENDIX…………………………………………………………………..

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT
PROBLEM STATEMENT:

“Traffic dilemma, causes and its solution.” PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: The purpose of research is to study the traffic dilemma in Karachi city and identify the factors or causes that are involve in affecting the traffic system of Karachi and highlight the ways through which the traffic system of Karachi can be improved. OBSERVATION: Observation helped us to identify various causes of traffic problem in Karachi city. According to our observation, the main factors that grounds to traffic problem in Karachi city are road constructions, car leasing, lack of traffic education, violation of traffic rules, poor drainage system, less co-operation between various govt. departments, VVIP movements, irregular movement of heavy transport and no parking zones. PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING: The preliminary data was gathered through different incoming primary and secondary sources which includes unstructured interviews, newspaper, magazines, articles and through different search engines of internet which provided and guided us to the real path of the research. THEORY FORMULATION: This part of Research consists of a dependant variable, 2 independent variables, a moderating and an intervening variable. The direction and relation between variables is defined theoretically as well as through proper charts and graphs. RESEARCH DESIGN: The primary data required for the research was obtained through Questionnaires. A sample of 120 people was selected. To make the sample truly representative of the population, we selected people from all socio-economic backgrounds and different geographical locations of Karachi to enhance the scope of the research and hence validate the findings.

ANALYSIS OF DATA: This section displays all the data that was collected in the conclusive research is presented in the form of tables, histograms and pie charts to simplify interpretation. We have used Microsoft excel for the calculations.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING: This section consists of 2 hypothesis statements. Both the statements are tested using CHI-SQUARE test. RESEARCH RESULTS: This section draws results based on analysis and hypothesis testing. This includes basic research findings, conclusions and recommendation according to the data collected and analyzed. APPENDIX: In the last section of the report, we have attached the articles searched relevant to report and filled questionnaires.

STEP # 01 OBSERVATION

OBSERVATION
Traveling is an important part of daily life of any person living in a metropolitan city like Karachi. Unfortunately, traffic problems have made it miserable for Karachiites to travel.

In past few years, many factors have aroused that have added more problems to the traffic system. According to our observation, following are the main factors that cause problems in smooth flow of traffic in Karachi city. VIOLATION OF RULES: Although most of the citizens of Karachi city are literate but there is little awareness regarding traffic rules. Most of the drivers are not aware of the rules mentioned on various sign boards. Moreover, proper sign boards are not placed in areas where they are needed. People consider it okay to break rules on and off and the authorities don’t take serious notice on this issue This is the major problem causing traffic jam as people keep violating rules, drivers are not even aware of the driving rules. Even the citizens who are literate enough, do not go take proper education regarding the rules, they take license by source, thus violating rules and creating a chaos. CAR LEASING: Car leasing has made traveling easy for people as people who don’t have budget to buy car through full payments, can now get car through lease payments. But, this has increased the number of vehicles in multiples which is again a cause of traffic problems. The traffic load is increased a lot and roads which were already in poor condition are unable to bear this load. PARKING ISSUE: Sufficient parking areas are not provided at most of the public places. Increased number of cars needs increased parking spaces which are not provided. People keep on roaming from place to place to find parking and it increases the traffic load and sometimes cause traffic jams. Millennium Mall, Tariq road, Zainab market, Sadar Electronic market are some of the places where this problem occurs most. VVIP MOVEMENTS: VVIP movement is one of the major factor which contributes to the traffic problem in Karachi. The roads get blocked an hour before the movement and after the movement the people are so tempered that the hustle and bustle they create is un-ignorable due to the fact that every one is busy in their life that an hour of blockage cuts an hour from their daily work life and that aggression is shon in the form of short cuts which results in traffic jam. CONSTRUCTION WORK: We have been observing for the past 3-5 years that enormous construction work has been carried out which has reduced traffic problems of Karachi to a great extent but yet it can’t be denied that during the construction people have to face a lot of problems. While the

construction is carried out authorities involved never bother to place sign boards to indicate the construction work and give the alternative route to avoid the traffic from choking. Moreover, the equipments used for construction are often scattered on the roads which impede the traffic from moving smoothly. IRREGULAR MOVEMENTS OF HEAVY TRANSPORT: Another major reason for the increase in traffic in karachi is due to the irregular movements of heavy transport by busses, trucks, suzukis, school vans which should have separate routes in order to minimize traffic. These cause hindrance in the movement of normal cars.

STEP # 02 PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING

PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING
BACKGROUND INFORMATION:
The city is confronted with yet another serious problem after the separation of Pakistan and Bangladesh in 1971 related with the existing intra-city transportation system, which is under heavy strain. These people also use city's already overburdened transport. The

problem has been aggravated due to apathy of the local/provincial administration and their refusal to deal with the problem in a big way. The reason given is the nonavailability of funds. As a consequence, a city like Karachi with its seven million population is probably the only city in the world, which has no flyovers, no mass-transit system, and the like. The city is faced with time-barred system 1971: East Pakistan was separated as Bangladesh as an outcome of a war between India and Pakistan. Karachi experienced another major of traffic regulation and most hackneyed and uncomfortable mode of public transport viz., buses, mini-buses, pick-ups and motor rickshaws. These people also use city's already overburdened transport. The problem has been aggravated due to apathy of the local/provincial administration and their refusal to deal with the problem in a big way. The reason given is the non-availability of funds. As a consequence, a city like Karachi with its seven million population is probably the only city in the world, which has no fly over, no mass-transit system, and the like. The city is faced with time-barred system of traffic regulation

PERCEPTIONS, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES:
Through informal interviews we found that people think the traffic system of Karachi is really bad i.e. they face a lot of problems which are due to excessive car leasing, bad road conditions, violation of rules and poor drainage system. According to most of the people they have never been to driving schools, which is the main cause of unawareness of traffic rules. People are frustrated due to the construction work going on all over Karachi these days (signal free traffic ways, under passes, over heads). Although they think it is a long-term benefit, but it is unplanned and not well coordinated. This frustration is also becoming a major cause of violation.

Thus the behavior of people towards the traffic system of Karachi is very frustrated. Most of the people think that now, nothing can be done to improve the traffic conditions

STEP # 03

PROBLEM DEFINITION

PROBLEM DEFINITION
“To find out the causes & solutions of traffic problem in Karachi city” The problem is basically about the horrible and uncontrolled situation of traffic in Karachi city. The main purpose of this research is to figure out the factors, which result in increasing, the traffic problem faced by the citizens of Karachi and also suggesting some of the ways that may help to eliminate this problem.

FURTHER EXPLANATION OF PROBLEM:

During the last few years the traffic hazard in Karachi has imposed a very serious problem and alarming situation for the city dwellers, making them pressurized almost daily for the way they wait by sitting in their cars for hours and hours on busy roads of Karachi, and also for reaching to their destiny late. The increased traffic problem has caused the irreparable loss of human live bringing bereavement to the families of the victims. The conditions were never so bad but during last years, many new factors have arisen that have increased traffic problems but still the problem is not still resolved and nobody is actually able to find out the actual causes behind this huge problem. This problem definitely requires immediate solution. In order to find solution to this problem, some of the measure queries should be answered: Can problem of traffic completely be eliminated? To what extent people follow rules and if they started doing so then how much it can contribute to reduce the heavy traffic jam ? The construction of work like making of smooth roads, bridges, flyovers etc is effective or not? Is leasing responsible for excessive number of vehicles? If the parking lots are made for shopping centers, for offices, banks will it play a role in reducing the traffic congestion? Is the management of traffic police performing their job efficiently? Should government make the traffic laws stricter? Is Traffic often chaotic during school hours, exposing the traffic police’s inefficiency? Answers to these questions will help us to solve the problem stated in our problem statement and we shall be able to identify the causes and solutions of traffic system in Karachi city.

STEP # 04

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

VARIABLES
1) Dependent variable
- Traffic dilemma

2) Independent variable
- Road Construction

3) Moderating variable
Traffic awareness

4) Intervening variable
- Car Leasing

DEFINITION OF VARIABLES
DEPENDANT VARIABLE
TRAFFIC DILEMMA The dependent variable of the study is “traffic dilemma”. The inhabitants of Karachi have to deal with traffic jams, poor roads; poor drainage system and traffic overload everyday. It has given birth to frustrated drivers, who violate rules. As a result, we witness increased number of accidents. These factors have drawn the attention to conduct research, to evaluate and eliminate the causes of bad traffic conditions in Karachi.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
The dependent variable of the study seems to be influenced by multiple factors which are the independent variables of our research which are described as under: CONSTRUCTION WORK: We have been observing for the past 3-5 years that enormous construction work has been carried out which has reduced traffic problems of Karachi to a great extent but yet it can’t be denied that during the construction people have to face a lot of problems. While the construction is carried out authorities involved never bother to place sign boards to indicate the construction work and give the alternative route to avoid the traffic from choking. Moreover, the equipments used for construction are often scattered on the roads which impede the traffic from moving smoothly.

MODERATING VARIABLE
TRAFFIC RULES AWARENESS: Traffic education and awareness of traffic rules and regulations have a strong contingent affect on the bad traffic conditions. Majority of people in our city are unaware of the traffic regulations and responsibilities. This is mainly because the drivers get their driving licenses through illegal means without actually qualifying the driving test or meeting the driving criterion. Allotment of the driving license is the first and most important step in judging people's driving skills and making them aware of the important rules but this is considered just a formality. This has given birth to illiterate and reckless drivers. These people have developed a frequent habit of violating traffic rules. The drivers don’t usually follow the sign boards of NO PARKING, SPEED LIMITS, e.t.c. In Karachi, buss drivers feel free to stop any where even on the fast track. The pedestrians feel free to cross from any where except zebra crossing because drivers never leave zebra crossing free for the purpose it is actually made for. People don’t follow a single lane and drive recklessly switching from one lane to other frequently.

INTERVENING VARIABLE
LEASING OF VEHICLES: Leasing of vehicles from the past 3-4 years has increased the number of vehicles and indirectly has increased traffic problems. Due to easy terms and conditions of leasing, people are now able to owe more then one vehicles. Because of this leasing opportunity, even a person with lower income level can

afford a vehicle. This also contributes to the parking problem, so it’s a challenge to accommodate these cars both in transit and even stationary at the parking. People, due to fewer parking spaces, park their vehicles on streets or roads, which again results in traffic jams. We have observed a rapid increase in number of cars in last 3-4 years due to leasing. This has resulted in traffic overload. Narrow roads of the city are insufficient to accommodate these cars which choke the already congested roads especially in the commercial and busy areas of Karachi like Saddar, I.I.Chundrigar road, Shahrah-e-Faisal, Rashid Minhas road and the like. In these areas the traffic is often mismanaged because the cars exceed the capacity of the roads.

DIRECTION OF VARIABLES:
S.# Type of variables 1 Independent . 2 2 Moderating . 3 3 Intervening . 4 Description Influencing variables Construction work Traffic rule awareness Car leasing Dependent variable Traffic dilemma Traffic dilemma Traffic dilemma Negative Negative Positive Direction

INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE

1) The direction of constructions

bad road conditions and work is negative.

Construction Work

Traffic dilemma

Dependent and moderating variable 2) The direction of bad traffic conditions and traffic education & awareness of traffic rules is negative.

Traffic Education & Awareness Traffic dilemma

Dependent and intervening variable 3) The direction of leasing is positive. bad road conditions and car

Car leasing

Traffic dilemma

RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE VARIABLES
Independent variables: The relation between the construction work and the traffic dilemma is inverse i.e. the more is the construction work is carried out the less is the bad traffic condition. Independent Variable Construction work Dependent Variable Traffic Dilemma

Moderating variable: The relation between the moderating variable and the dependent variable is inverse i.e. the traffic education and awareness and the traffic dilemma. The more the people of Karachi are conscious of traffic rules the less the traffic dilemma arise. Independent Variable. Construction work Dependent Variable: Traffic Dilemma

Moderating Variables: Traffic rules awareness

Intervening variable: Car leasing has served as an intervening variable which affects the traffic dilemma with the passage of time hence the relation between the two variables is direct.

T1
Independent Variable Construction work

T2
Intervening variable Car leasing

T3
Dependent Variable Traffic Dilemma

VARIABLE DIAGRAM

PROPER TRAFFIC RULES AWARENES S

Traffic Dilemma

CONSTRUCTION WORK.

CAR LEASING

STEP # 05

GENERATION OF HYPOTHESES

HYPOTHESIS TESTING
NULL HYPOTHESIS
“Construction work is the Major reason for the traffic dilemma in Karachi”

ALTERNATIVE STATEMENT:
“Construction work is not the Major reason for the traffic dilemma in Karachi

STEP # 06

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN
The elements of scientific research design are as follows • • • • • • Purpose of the study Types of investigation Extent of researcher interference Study Setting Units of Analysis Time horizon

PURPOSE OF STUDY:
The purpose of our research done on traffic problems lies under descriptive study as we have described the characteristics of the variables of interest in the situation. And

hypothesis testing. The hypothesis was tested after gathering data from primary and secondary sources in order to test our hypothesis to study the relationship that exists between the variable in this situation. The research done by us falls under the category of Hypotheses Testing. We have gathered primary and secondary data, generated hypotheses and have tested the hypotheses in order to study the relationship between variables.

TYPES OF INVESTIGATION
For this research we have undertaken CAUSAL STUDY where our purpose was to decide what are the factors that increaseed traffic in our country. This investigation is causal where we are interested in knowing if certain factors are the main cause of traffic problems or not

EXTENT OF RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE:
The extent of researcher interference was minimal due to the fact that as data was collected through questionnaires that were filled by our respondents in normal settings whose results we analyzed in the next stage. The extent to which our group (researchers) interfered is minimal. Respondents were given the questionnaires and they were asked to fill them in normal settings. The results were later analyzed thus interference was minimal.

STUDY SETTING:
The study was conducted in a non-contrived (natural environment) where work was proceeded normally, thus not being able to control the variables. The study was conducted in a no contrived environment. None of the variables was controlled.

UNITS OF ANALYSIS
The unit of analysis was the “individual dryad” which means each individual was treated as an individual and not as a group, organization or machines dryads. We selected individuals to be our unit if analysis. Questionnaires were distributed and data was collected from individuals of different age groups and professions. Later, the data provided by individuals was analyzed.

TIME HORIZON
We have collected the data only once from our respondents over a period of a few days in order to answer our research question so it’s a one-shot or cross-sectional study. Data for this research was gathered in one shot. This characteristic makes this study cross-sectional in nature.

STEP # 07

DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

DATA COLLECTION
In order to answer our research question, we have gathered data from both the sources, i.e., primary and secondary sources.

PRIMARY DATA
The primary or the first hand data collected by us was through the questionnaires that were filled by our target sample and by conducting structured and unstructured interviews both in order to find out the main reasons for the increase in traffic jam in the Karachi city.

SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data for the research is mentioned in step-2 i.e. Preliminary Data Gathering and Appendix. This data includes articles that are obtained from newspapers, Internet resources and magazines.

ANALYSIS
Q 01# Do you think traffic is a day to day increasing problem? □ Yes □ No
Do you think traffic is a day to day increasing problem?

Frequency Yes No Total 110 10 120

Percentage 91.67% 8.33% 100%

100.00 % 90.00 % 80.00 % 70.00 % 60.00 % 50.00 % 40.00 % 30.00 % 20.00 % 10.00 % 0.00 %

Series 1

ye s

n o

INTERPRETATION: From the analysis we came to know that the majority of the people of Karachi i.e.91.67% think that traffic is a day to day increasing problem while only 8.33% thinks that it is not.

Q # 02: In what income group your family fall? □ □ □ □ □ Below 15000 16000-20000 21000-25000 26000-30000 31000-more

In what income group your family fall?

Frequency Below 15000 16000-20000 21000-25000 26000-30000 31000-more Total 120 10 11 7 21 71

Percentages 8.33% 9.16% 5.83% 17.5% 59.16% 100%

8%

9% 6%

below 15000 16-20000 21-25000 26-30000 31000-more

59% 18%

INTERPETATION: From the survey we found that , 59.16% of the respondents fall in 31000-more income group, while other falls respectively 5.83% (21000-25000), 8.33% (below 15000), 9.16% (16000-20000) and 17.5% (26000-30000). Q # 03: How many car/s do you have? □ Nil □ 1 □ 2 □ 3 □ More

How many car/s do you have?

Frequency Nil 1 2 3 4 Total 120 17 42 37 18 06

Percentage 14.16% 35% 30.8% 15% 5% 100%

Frequency 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Nil 1 2 3 4 Frequency

INTERPRETATION: According to our analysis in Karachi maximum number of people i.e. 35% have 1 car. . Q # 04: Are your car/s leased? □ Yes □ No

Are your car/s leased?

Frequency Yes No Total 67 53 120

Percentage 55.8% 44.16% 100%

Frequency 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No Frequency

INTERPRETATION: From the analysis we came to know that the majority of the people of Karachi i.e.55.8% have leased cars. 44.16% of the people obtain cars through full payment

Q #05: Has it happened that you have arrived late to a certain place due to traffic congestion? □ Often □ Seldom □ Occasionally □ Always □ Never
Has it happened that you have arrived late to a certain place due to traffic congestion?

Frequency Often Seldom Occasionally Always Never Total 37 11 41 26 5 120

Percentage 30.83% 9.17% 34.16% 21.66% 4.16% 100%

40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00%
se ld om oc aa si on al ly al w ay z ne ve r of te n

Series1

INTERPRETATION: From the sample we came to know that 34.16% of the respondents claim that they arrive late due to traffic occassionally, while 30.83% think that they often get late, 21.66% of the respondents always get late, 9.17% seldom and 4% claims tthat they never get late due to traffic. Q # 06: What are the factors that ground to traffic dilemma? □ Leased cars □ Road construction □ Violation of traffic rules □ VIP movements □ Irregular movement of heavy transport □ No parking zone □ More

What are the factors that ground to traffic dilemma?

Frequency Leased cars Road construction Violation of traffic rules VIP movements Irregular movement of heavy traffic No parking zone More Total 23 27 29 8 14 8 11 120

Percentage 19.10% 22.40% 23.87% 6.50% 12.12% 6.84% 9.72% 100%

Leased cars 7% 10% Road construction Violation of traffic rules 22% 24% VIP mov ements Irregular mov eme nt of heav y traffic No parking zone M ore

19%

12% 6%

INTERPETATION: From the survey, 23.87% of the respondents think that rules violation causes traffic dilemma.

Q #07: What are the factors, which can contribute to reduce traffic problem?  Construction of alternative routes  Rules awareness  Parking lots

What are the factors, which can contribute to reduce traffic problem?

Frequency Construction of alternative routes Rules awareness Parking lots Total 47 50 23 120

Percentage 39.01% 41.59% 19.46% 100%

19% 42%

39%

alternative routes Rules awareness Parking lots

INTERPETATION: From the survey, 41.59% of the respondents think that rules awareness can contribute to reduce traffic problems ,39.01% think construction of alternative routes and 19.46% think that parking lots can contribute to reduce traffic problems.

Q # 08: Do you think separate routes for heavy transportation like as in Islamabad should be followed in Karachi? □ Yes □ No

Do you think separate routes for heavy transportation like as in Islamabad should be followed in Karachi?

Frequency Yes No Total 104 16 120

Percentage 86.66% 13.33% 100%

13% YES NO 87%

INTERPRETATION: 86.66% of the respondents prefer separate routes for heavy transportation like as in Islamabad while 13.33% don’t.

Q # 09: Which area is densely congested? ( Rate on the scale on 1 to5 in the ascending order where is heavily jam)

Which area is densely congested?

Frequency M.A. Jinnah Road I.I.Chundigar road Nipa Chowrangi Rashid Minhas Road Shahrah-e-Faisal Total 120 36 28 25 17 14

Percentage 30% 23.3% 20.83% 14.16% 11.16% 100%

M.A. Jinnah Road 11% 14% 31% I.I.Chundigar road Nipa Chow rangi 23% Rashid Minhas Road Shahrah-e Faisal

21%

INTERPRETATION: From the survey we came to know that the most densely congested area is M.A. Jinnah Road.

Q #10: Do you think government should create good public transport system which can ease the traffic? 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree disagree neutral agree strongly agree

Do you think government should create good public transport system which can ease the traffic?

Frequency Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total 120 10 3 27 34 46

Percentage 8.3% 2.5% 22.5% 28.33% 38.33% 100%

8% 3% 38% 23%

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree

28%

Strongly Agree

INTERPRETATION:

From the survey we came to know that majority of the respondents that is 38.33% strongly agree for the good public transport system. Q #11: Do you agree that the functioning of traffic police in the management of traffic jam is satisfactory? 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree disagree neutral agree strongly agree
Do you agree that the functioning of traffic police in the management of traffic jam is satisfactory?

Frequency Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total 120 37 32 22 18 11

Percentage 30.83% 26.66% 18.33% 15% 9.16% 100%

9% 15% 31% Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral 18% 27% Agree Strongly agree

INTERPRETATION: From the survey we came to know that majority of the respondents that is 30.83% strongly disagree with the functioning of the traffic police in the management of traffic jam. Q #12: Can zebra crossing reduce traffic? 1 2 3 Strongly disagree disagree neutral 4 agree 5 strongly agree

Can zebra crossing reduce traffic?

Frequency Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Total 120 14 18 39 26 23

Percentage 11.66% 15% 32.5% 21.66 19.16% 100%

19%

12% Strongly disagree 15% Disagree Neutral Agree 32% Strongly agree

22%

INTERPRETATION: From the survey we came to know that majority of the respondents have neutral views about that zebra crossing can reduce traffic. Q #13: In your opinion, what percentage does educational institutes and office timings play role to increase the traffic? □ 30-60% □ 61-80% □ 81-100%

In your opinion, what percentage does educational institutes and office timings play role to increase the traffic?

Frequency 30-60% 61-80% 81-100% Total 29 51 40 120

Percentage 24.16% 42.5% 33.33% 100%

33%

24% 30-60% 61-80% 43% 81-100%

INTERPRETATION: From the survey 42.5% of the people of our sample believe that educational institutes and office timings clashes increase traffic on roads.

Q #14: Which of these two help to reduce traffic more efficiently? □ Flyovers □ Underpasses

Which of these two help to reduce traffic more efficiently?

Frequency Flyovers Underpasses Total 73 47 120

Percentage 60.83% 39.16% 100%

39% Flyover Underpass 61%

INTERPRETATION: From our survey we came to know that 60.83% of the people in Karachi prefer flyovers to reduce traffic efficiently while 39.16% prefer underpasses.

NUMBER OF MALES AND FEMALES WHO FILLED THE QUESTIONNAIRES

How many males and females are participated in research? Frequency Males Females Total 63 57 100 Percentage 52.5% 47.5% 100%

48%

52%

Males Females

STEP #08

DEDUCTION

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

STATEMENT:
“Construction work is the Major reason for the traffic dilemma of Karachi.”

STEP NO1
NULL HYPOTHESIS:
“Construction work is the Major reason for the traffic dilemma of Karachi”

ALTERNATIVE STATEMENT:
“Construction work is not the Major reason for the traffic dilemma of Karachi

STEP NO 2
Level of significance: α=0.05

STEP NO 3
CHI-SQUARE TESTING: Formula = ∑ (Oi-Ei)2 / Ei

STEP NO 4
Critical Region: Reject Ho If X2 cal> 12..592

STEP NO 5

Calculation:
Oi Leased cars Road construction Violation of traffic rules VIP movements Irregular movement of heavy traffic No parking zone More TOTAL Ei (Oi-Ei)2 / Ei

23 26 28 7 14 7 15

17 17 17 17 17 17 17

2.11 4.76 7.11 5.88 0.52 5.88 0.23
∑ (Oi-Ei)2/Ei=26.49

STEP NO 6
X2(calculated) = 26.49
X (tabular value) = X2 (∞, n-1) = X2 (5% , 7-1) = X2 (0.05, 6)

X2(tabular value) = 12.592

CONCLUSION
As our calculated value is outside the critical region so we will accept H0 and reject H1. This is because according to most of the people construction is the major problem of traffic system among the other factors which are leased cars Violation of traffic rules irregular movement of heavy traffic no parking zone

DIAGRAM OF HYPOTHESES

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

This study on the traffic problems of Karachi enhanced our knowledge to a great extent. The over all process helped us to identify various factors that are responsible for bad traffic conditions in the city. By analyzing the questionnaires we came to know that awareness of traffic rules is very important for smooth traffic system. Unfortunately, in Karachi, least importance is given to this factor. It has also added to our knowledge that traveling has become a necessity of life for Karachiites. Most of the people travel three to four times on the roads of Karachi. Due to bad road conditions the people are confronted with serious traffic jams and accidents. This causes frustration among the drivers. The construction work to modify the traffic system of Karachi has also enhanced the problem. The hypothesis developed, when tested concluded that “bad road conditions” is the main cause of traffic jams in Karachi city. It also inferred that construction work has become more a short term problem than a long term benefit for the inhabitants of Karachi due to improper management and delays. Hence, we can deduce that it is impossible to control all the factors affecting the traffic system. However, the important factors like bad road conditions, violation of rules and construction, if controlled, can reduce the problems of traffic in Karachi to a great extent.

RECOMMENDATION

RECOMMENDATIONS:

a) The authorities should coordinate the activities of different government departments well to avoid traffic disorder. b) The government should strictly restrict under 18 citizens to drive. c) The traffic control department should punish those constables and sergeants who take briberies and are responsible for not implementing the rules properly. d) The driving test should be made compulsory for getting a driving license and the license should be granted to only those people who pass the driving test and satisfy the criterion. e) The traffic control department should also hire literate and trained constables. f) The constables must be paid enough for their services so that they don’t take bribe. g) The government should allot parking areas specially in public places like shopping malls, hotels and restaurants, offices, service institutions etc.

APPENDIX

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