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TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Topics Pg #

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………

REASEARCH PROCESS DIAGRAM…………………………………...

PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING…………………………………..

Background Information……………………………………………….
Perceptions, Attitudes and Behaviors………………………………….
Literature Survey………………………………………………………

THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK………………………………………...

Definition of Variables……………………………………………..….
Direction of Variables……………………………………………..…..
Relation among the Variables…………………………………..……..
Variable diagram………………………………………………………

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA……….……………..

HYPOTHESIS……..………………………………………………………

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS………………………….

APENDIX…………………………………………………………………..
ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT
PROBLEM STATEMENT:
“Traffic dilemma, causes and its solution.”

PURPOSE OF RESEARCH:

The purpose of research is to study the traffic dilemma in Karachi city and identify the
factors or causes that are involve in affecting the traffic system of Karachi and highlight
the ways through which the traffic system of Karachi can be improved.

OBSERVATION:

Observation helped us to identify various causes of traffic problem in Karachi city.


According to our observation, the main factors that grounds to traffic problem in Karachi
city are road constructions, car leasing, lack of traffic education, violation of traffic rules,
poor drainage system, less co-operation between various govt. departments, VVIP
movements, irregular movement of heavy transport and no parking zones.

PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING:

The preliminary data was gathered through different incoming primary and secondary
sources which includes unstructured interviews, newspaper, magazines, articles and
through different search engines of internet which provided and guided us to the real path
of the research.

THEORY FORMULATION:

This part of Research consists of a dependant variable, 2 independent variables, a


moderating and an intervening variable. The direction and relation between variables is
defined theoretically as well as through proper charts and graphs.

RESEARCH DESIGN:

The primary data required for the research was obtained through Questionnaires. A
sample of 120 people was selected. To make the sample truly representative of the
population, we selected people from all socio-economic backgrounds and different
geographical locations of Karachi to enhance the scope of the research and hence validate
the findings.

ANALYSIS OF DATA:

This section displays all the data that was collected in the conclusive research is presented
in the form of tables, histograms and pie charts to simplify interpretation. We have used
Microsoft excel for the calculations.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING:

This section consists of 2 hypothesis statements. Both the statements are tested using
CHI-SQUARE test.

RESEARCH RESULTS:

This section draws results based on analysis and hypothesis testing. This includes basic
research findings, conclusions and recommendation according to the data collected and
analyzed.

APPENDIX:

In the last section of the report, we have attached the articles searched relevant to report
and filled questionnaires.
STEP # 01

OBSERVATION

OBSERVATION
Traveling is an important part of daily life of any person living in a metropolitan city like
Karachi. Unfortunately, traffic problems have made it miserable for Karachiites to travel.
In past few years, many factors have aroused that have added more problems to the traffic
system. According to our observation, following are the main factors that cause problems
in smooth flow of traffic in Karachi city.

VIOLATION OF RULES:

Although most of the citizens of Karachi city are literate but there is little awareness
regarding traffic rules. Most of the drivers are not aware of the rules mentioned on
various sign boards. Moreover, proper sign boards are not placed in areas where they are
needed. People consider it okay to break rules on and off and the authorities don’t take
serious notice on this issue

This is the major problem causing traffic jam as people keep violating rules, drivers are
not even aware of the driving rules. Even the citizens who are literate enough, do not go
take proper education regarding the rules, they take license by source, thus violating rules
and creating a chaos.

CAR LEASING:

Car leasing has made traveling easy for people as people who don’t have budget to buy
car through full payments, can now get car through lease payments. But, this has
increased the number of vehicles in multiples which is again a cause of traffic problems.
The traffic load is increased a lot and roads which were already in poor condition are
unable to bear this load.

PARKING ISSUE:

Sufficient parking areas are not provided at most of the public places. Increased number
of cars needs increased parking spaces which are not provided. People keep on roaming
from place to place to find parking and it increases the traffic load and sometimes cause
traffic jams. Millennium Mall, Tariq road, Zainab market, Sadar Electronic market are
some of the places where this problem occurs most.

VVIP MOVEMENTS:

VVIP movement is one of the major factor which contributes to the traffic problem in
Karachi. The roads get blocked an hour before the movement and after the movement the
people are so tempered that the hustle and bustle they create is un-ignorable due to the
fact that every one is busy in their life that an hour of blockage cuts an hour from their
daily work life and that aggression is shon in the form of short cuts which results in traffic
jam.

CONSTRUCTION WORK:

We have been observing for the past 3-5 years that enormous construction work has been
carried out which has reduced traffic problems of Karachi to a great extent but yet it can’t
be denied that during the construction people have to face a lot of problems. While the
construction is carried out authorities involved never bother to place sign boards to
indicate the construction work and give the alternative route to avoid the traffic from
choking.
Moreover, the equipments used for construction are often scattered on the roads which
impede the traffic from moving smoothly.

IRREGULAR MOVEMENTS OF HEAVY TRANSPORT:

Another major reason for the increase in traffic in karachi is due to the irregular
movements of heavy transport by busses, trucks, suzukis, school vans which should have
separate routes in order to minimize traffic. These cause hindrance in the movement of
normal cars.
STEP # 02

PRELIMINARY
DATA
GATHERING

PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING


BACKGROUND INFORMATION:
The city is confronted with yet another serious problem after the separation of Pakistan
and Bangladesh in 1971 related with the existing intra-city transportation system, which
is under heavy strain. These people also use city's already overburdened transport. The
problem has been aggravated due to apathy of the local/provincial administration and
their refusal to deal with the problem in a big way. The reason given is the non-
availability of funds. As a consequence, a city like Karachi with its seven million
population is probably the only city in the world, which has no flyovers, no mass-transit
system, and the like. The city is faced with time-barred system 1971: East Pakistan was
separated as Bangladesh as an outcome of a war between India and Pakistan. Karachi
experienced another major of traffic regulation and most hackneyed and uncomfortable
mode of public transport viz., buses, mini-buses, pick-ups and motor rickshaws. These
people also use city's already overburdened transport. The problem has been aggravated
due to apathy of the local/provincial administration and their refusal to deal with the
problem in a big way. The reason given is the non-availability of funds. As a
consequence, a city like Karachi with its seven million population is probably the only
city in the world, which has no fly over, no mass-transit system, and the like. The city is
faced with time-barred system of traffic regulation

PERCEPTIONS, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORAL


RESPONSES:
Through informal interviews we found that people think the traffic system of Karachi is
really bad i.e. they face a lot of problems which are due to excessive car leasing, bad road
conditions, violation of rules and poor drainage system. According to most of the people
they have never been to driving schools, which is the main cause of unawareness of
traffic rules. People are frustrated due to the construction work going on all over Karachi
these days (signal free traffic ways, under passes, over heads). Although they think it is a
long-term benefit, but it is unplanned and not well coordinated. This frustration is also
becoming a major cause of violation.

Thus the behavior of people towards the traffic system of Karachi is very
frustrated. Most of the people think that now, nothing can be done to
improve the traffic conditions

STEP # 03
PROBLEM
DEFINITION

PROBLEM DEFINITION
“To find out the causes & solutions of traffic problem in Karachi city”

The problem is basically about the horrible and uncontrolled situation of traffic in
Karachi city. The main purpose of this research is to figure out the factors, which result in
increasing, the traffic problem faced by the citizens of Karachi and also suggesting some
of the ways that may help to eliminate this problem.

FURTHER EXPLANATION OF PROBLEM:


During the last few years the traffic hazard in Karachi has imposed a very serious
problem and alarming situation for the city dwellers, making them pressurized almost
daily for the way they wait by sitting in their cars for hours and hours on busy roads of
Karachi, and also for reaching to their destiny late. The increased traffic problem has
caused the irreparable loss of human live bringing bereavement to the families of the
victims. The conditions were never so bad but during last years, many new factors have
arisen that have increased traffic problems but still the problem is not still resolved and
nobody is actually able to find out the actual causes behind this huge problem.
This problem definitely requires immediate solution. In order to find solution to this
problem, some of the measure queries should be answered:

Can problem of traffic completely be eliminated? To what extent people follow rules and
if they started doing so then how much it can contribute to reduce the heavy traffic jam ?
The construction of work like making of smooth roads, bridges, flyovers etc is effective
or not? Is leasing responsible for excessive number of vehicles? If the parking lots are
made for shopping centers, for offices, banks will it play a role in reducing the traffic
congestion? Is the management of traffic police performing their job efficiently? Should
government make the traffic laws stricter? Is Traffic often chaotic during school hours,
exposing the traffic police’s inefficiency?

Answers to these questions will help us to solve the problem stated in our problem
statement and we shall be able to identify the causes and solutions of traffic system in
Karachi city.

STEP # 04
THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORK

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

VARIABLES

1) Dependent variable
- Traffic dilemma
2) Independent variable
- Road Construction

3) Moderating variable
Traffic awareness

4) Intervening variable
- Car Leasing

DEFINITION OF VARIABLES
DEPENDANT VARIABLE
TRAFFIC DILEMMA

The dependent variable of the study is “traffic dilemma”.

The inhabitants of Karachi have to deal with traffic jams, poor roads; poor drainage
system and traffic overload everyday. It has given birth to frustrated drivers, who violate
rules. As a result, we witness increased number of accidents.
These factors have drawn the attention to conduct research, to evaluate and eliminate the
causes of bad traffic conditions in Karachi.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
The dependent variable of the study seems to be influenced by multiple factors which are
the independent variables of our research which are described as under:

CONSTRUCTION WORK:

We have been observing for the past 3-5 years that enormous construction work has been
carried out which has reduced traffic problems of Karachi to a great extent but yet it can’t
be denied that during the construction people have to face a lot of problems. While the
construction is carried out authorities involved never bother to place sign boards to
indicate the construction work and give the alternative route to avoid the traffic from
choking.
Moreover, the equipments used for construction are often scattered on the roads which
impede the traffic from moving smoothly.

MODERATING VARIABLE
TRAFFIC RULES AWARENESS:

Traffic education and awareness of traffic rules and regulations have a strong contingent
affect on the bad traffic conditions. Majority of people in our city are unaware of the
traffic regulations and responsibilities. This is mainly because the drivers get their driving
licenses through illegal means without actually qualifying the driving test or meeting the
driving criterion. Allotment of the driving license is the first and most important step in
judging people's driving skills and making them aware of the important rules but this is
considered just a formality. This has given birth to illiterate and reckless drivers. These
people have developed a frequent habit of violating traffic rules.

The drivers don’t usually follow the sign boards of NO PARKING, SPEED LIMITS,
e.t.c. In Karachi, buss drivers feel free to stop any where even on the fast track. The
pedestrians feel free to cross from any where except zebra crossing because drivers never
leave zebra crossing free for the purpose it is actually made for. People don’t follow a
single lane and drive recklessly switching from one lane to other frequently.

INTERVENING VARIABLE
LEASING OF VEHICLES:

Leasing of vehicles from the past 3-4 years has increased the number of vehicles and
indirectly has increased traffic problems.

Due to easy terms and conditions of leasing, people are now able to owe more then one
vehicles. Because of this leasing opportunity, even a person with lower income level can
afford a vehicle. This also contributes to the parking problem, so it’s a challenge to
accommodate these cars both in transit and even stationary at the parking.
People, due to fewer parking spaces, park their vehicles on streets or roads, which again
results in traffic jams.

We have observed a rapid increase in number of cars in last 3-4 years due to leasing.
This has resulted in traffic overload. Narrow roads of the city are insufficient to
accommodate these cars which choke the already congested roads especially in the
commercial and busy areas of Karachi like Saddar, I.I.Chundrigar road, Shahrah-e-Faisal,
Rashid Minhas road and the like.
In these areas the traffic is often mismanaged because the cars exceed the capacity of the
roads.

DIRECTION OF VARIABLES:

S.# Description Direction


Type of
Influencing variables Dependent variable
variables
1 Independent Construction work Traffic dilemma Negative
.
2
2 Moderating Traffic rule awareness Traffic dilemma Negative
.
3
3 Intervening Car leasing Traffic dilemma Positive
.
4

INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLE

1) The direction of bad road conditions and


constructions work is negative.
Construction
Work

Traffic dilemma

Dependent and moderating variable

2) The direction of bad traffic conditions and traffic education & awareness of traffic
rules is negative.

Traffic Education &


Awareness

Traffic dilemma

Dependent and intervening variable

3) The direction of bad road conditions and car


leasing is positive.

Car leasing
Traffic dilemma

RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE VARIABLES

Independent variables:

The relation between the construction work and the traffic dilemma is inverse i.e. the
more is the construction work is carried out the less is the bad traffic condition.

Independent Dependent Variable


Variable
Construction work Traffic Dilemma

Moderating variable:

The relation between the moderating variable and the dependent variable is inverse i.e.
the traffic education and awareness and the traffic dilemma. The more the people of
Karachi are conscious of traffic rules the less the traffic dilemma arise.

Independent
Variable. Dependent Variable:
Traffic Dilemma
Construction work
Moderating
Variables:
Traffic rules
awareness

Intervening variable:

Car leasing has served as an intervening variable which affects the traffic dilemma with
the passage of time hence the relation between the two variables is direct.

T1 T2 T3
Independent Dependent Variable
Variable Intervening
variable
Traffic Dilemma
Construction work Car leasing

VARIABLE DIAGRAM

PROPER
TRAFFIC
RULES
AWARENES Traffic
S
Dilemma
CONSTRUCTION
WORK. CAR
LEASING

STEP # 05
GENERATION OF
HYPOTHESES

HYPOTHESIS TESTING

NULL HYPOTHESIS
“Construction work is the Major reason for the traffic dilemma in Karachi”
ALTERNATIVE STATEMENT:
“Construction work is not the Major reason for the traffic dilemma in Karachi

STEP # 06
SCIENTIFIC
RESEARCH
DESIGN

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN


The elements of scientific research design are as follows

• Purpose of the study


• Types of investigation
• Extent of researcher interference
• Study Setting
• Units of Analysis
• Time horizon

PURPOSE OF STUDY:

The purpose of our research done on traffic problems lies under descriptive study as we
have described the characteristics of the variables of interest in the situation. And
hypothesis testing. The hypothesis was tested after gathering data from primary and
secondary sources in order to test our hypothesis to study the relationship that exists
between the variable in this situation.

The research done by us falls under the category of Hypotheses Testing. We have
gathered primary and secondary data, generated hypotheses and have tested the
hypotheses in order to study the relationship between variables.

TYPES OF INVESTIGATION

For this research we have undertaken CAUSAL STUDY where our purpose was to
decide what are the factors that increaseed traffic in our country.

This investigation is causal where we are interested in knowing if certain factors are the
main cause of traffic problems or not

EXTENT OF RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE:

The extent of researcher interference was minimal due to the fact that as data was
collected through questionnaires that were filled by our respondents in normal settings
whose results we analyzed in the next stage.

The extent to which our group (researchers) interfered is minimal. Respondents were
given the questionnaires and they were asked to fill them in normal settings. The results
were later analyzed thus interference was minimal.

STUDY SETTING:

The study was conducted in a non-contrived (natural environment) where work was
proceeded normally, thus not being able to control the variables.

The study was conducted in a no contrived environment. None of the variables was
controlled.

UNITS OF ANALYSIS

The unit of analysis was the “individual dryad” which means each individual was treated
as an individual and not as a group, organization or machines dryads.

We selected individuals to be our unit if analysis. Questionnaires were distributed and


data was collected from individuals of different age groups and professions. Later, the
data provided by individuals was analyzed.
TIME HORIZON

We have collected the data only once from our respondents over a period of a few days in
order to answer our research question so it’s a one-shot or cross-sectional study.

Data for this research was gathered in one shot. This characteristic makes this study
cross-sectional in nature.

STEP # 07
DATA
COLLECTION,
ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION

DATA COLLECTION

In order to answer our research question, we have gathered data from both the sources,
i.e., primary and secondary sources.

PRIMARY DATA
The primary or the first hand data collected by us was through the questionnaires that
were filled by our target sample and by conducting structured and unstructured interviews
both in order to find out the main reasons for the increase in traffic jam in the Karachi
city.
SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data for the research is mentioned in step-2 i.e. Preliminary Data Gathering
and Appendix. This data includes articles that are obtained from newspapers, Internet
resources and magazines.

ANALYSIS
Q 01# Do you think traffic is a day to day increasing problem?
□ Yes
□ No

Do you think traffic is a day to day increasing problem?

Frequency Percentage
Yes 110 91.67%
No 10 8.33%
Total 120 100%
100.00
%90.00
%
80.00
%
70.00
%
60.00
%
50.00 Series
%
40.00 1
%
30.00
%
20.00
%
10.00
%0.00
% ye n
s o

INTERPRETATION:

From the analysis we came to know that the majority of the people of Karachi i.e.91.67%
think that traffic is a day to day increasing problem while only 8.33% thinks that it is not.

Q # 02: In what income group your family fall?

□ Below 15000
□ 16000-20000
□ 21000-25000
□ 26000-30000
□ 31000-more

In what income group your family fall?

Frequency Percentages
Below 15000 10 8.33%

16000-20000 11 9.16%
21000-25000 7 5.83%
26000-30000 21 17.5%
31000-more 71 59.16%
Total
120 100%
8%
9% below 15000
6% 16-20000
59% 21-25000
18% 26-30000
31000-more

INTERPETATION:

From the survey we found that , 59.16% of the respondents fall in 31000-more income
group, while other falls respectively 5.83% (21000-25000), 8.33% (below 15000), 9.16%
(16000-20000) and 17.5% (26000-30000).

Q # 03: How many car/s do you have?


□ Nil
□ 1
□ 2
□ 3
□ More
How many car/s do you have?

Frequency Percentage
Nil 17 14.16%

1 42 35%
2 37 30.8%
3 18 15%
4 06 5%
Total 100%
120

Frequency

45
40
35
30
25
Frequency
20
15
10
5
0
Nil 1 2 3 4
INTERPRETATION:

According to our analysis in Karachi maximum number of people i.e. 35% have 1 car. .

Q # 04: Are your car/s leased?


□ Yes
□ No

Are your car/s leased?

Frequency Percentage
Yes 67 55.8%
No 53 44.16%
Total 120 100%

Frequency

80
70
60
50
40 Frequency
30
20
10
0
Yes No
INTERPRETATION:

From the analysis we came to know that the majority of the people of Karachi i.e.55.8%
have leased cars. 44.16% of the people obtain cars through full payment

Q #05: Has it happened that you have arrived late to a certain place due to traffic
congestion?
□ Often
□ Seldom
□ Occasionally
□ Always
□ Never

Has it happened that you have arrived late to a certain place due to traffic
congestion?
Frequency Percentage
Often 37 30.83%

Seldom 11 9.17%

Occasionally 41 34.16%
Always 26 21.66%
Never 5 4.16%
Total 120 100%
40.00%
35.00%
30.00%
25.00%
20.00% Series1
15.00%
10.00%
5.00%
0.00%

r
n

z
om

ve
ly
te

ay
al

ne
of

ld

w
on
se

al
si
aa
oc

INTERPRETATION:
From the sample we came to know that 34.16% of the respondents claim that they arrive
late due to traffic occassionally, while 30.83% think that they often get late, 21.66% of
the respondents always get late, 9.17% seldom and 4% claims tthat they never get late
due to traffic.
Q # 06: What are the factors that ground to traffic dilemma?
□ Leased cars
□ Road construction
□ Violation of traffic rules
□ VIP movements
□ Irregular movement of heavy transport
□ No parking zone
□ More

What are the factors that ground to traffic dilemma?

Frequency Percentage
Leased cars 23 19.10%
Road construction 27 22.40%
Violation of traffic 29 23.87%
rules
VIP movements 8 6.50%
Irregular movement of 14 12.12%
heavy traffic
No parking zone 8 6.84%

More 11 9.72%

Total 120 100%


Leased cars

10% Road
7% 19%
construction
Violation of
12% traffic rules
22% VIP mov ements
6%
24%
Irregular
mov eme nt of
heav y traffic
No parking zone

M ore

INTERPETATION:
From the survey, 23.87% of the respondents think that rules violation causes traffic dilemma.
Q #07: What are the factors, which can contribute to reduce traffic problem?

 Construction of alternative routes


 Rules awareness
 Parking lots

What are the factors, which can contribute to reduce traffic problem?

Frequency Percentage
Construction of 47 39.01%
alternative routes
Rules awareness 50 41.59%

Parking lots 23 19.46%

Total 120 100%


19% 39%

42% alternative routes


Rules awareness
Parking lots

INTERPETATION:

From the survey, 41.59% of the respondents think that rules awareness can contribute to
reduce traffic problems ,39.01% think construction of alternative routes and 19.46% think
that parking lots can contribute to reduce traffic problems.

Q # 08: Do you think separate routes for heavy transportation like as in Islamabad
should be followed in Karachi?
□ Yes
□ No
Do you think separate routes for heavy transportation like as in Islamabad should be
followed in Karachi?

Frequency Percentage
Yes 104 86.66%
No 16 13.33%
Total 120 100%

13%

YES
NO

87%

INTERPRETATION:

86.66% of the respondents prefer separate routes for heavy transportation like as in
Islamabad while 13.33% don’t.
Q # 09: Which area is densely congested? ( Rate on the scale on 1 to5 in the
ascending order where is heavily jam)

Which area is densely congested?

Frequency Percentage
M.A. Jinnah Road 36 30%

I.I.Chundigar road 28 23.3%


Nipa Chowrangi 25 20.83%
Rashid Minhas 17 14.16%
Road
Shahrah-e-Faisal 14 11.16%
Total
120 100%
M.A. Jinnah
Road
11% I.I.Chundigar
31% road
14%
Nipa
Chow rangi
21% 23% Rashid
Minhas Road
Shahrah-e -
Faisal

INTERPRETATION:

From the survey we came to know that the most densely congested area is M.A. Jinnah
Road.

Q #10: Do you think government should create good public transport system which
can ease the traffic?
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly disagree disagree neutral agree strongly agree
Do you think government should create good public transport system which can ease
the traffic?

Frequency Percentage
Strongly disagree 10 8.3%

Disagree 3 2.5%
Neutral 27 22.5%
Agree 34 28.33%
Strongly agree 46 38.33%
Total
120 100%

Strongly
8% 3%
Disagree
Disagree
38%
23%
Neutral

Agree

28% Strongly
Agree

INTERPRETATION:
From the survey we came to know that majority of the respondents that is 38.33%
strongly agree for the good public transport system.

Q #11: Do you agree that the functioning of traffic police in the management of
traffic jam is satisfactory?
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly disagree disagree neutral agree strongly agree

Do you agree that the functioning of traffic police in the management of traffic jam is
satisfactory?
Frequency Percentage
Strongly disagree 37 30.83%

Disagree 32 26.66%
Neutral 22 18.33%
Agree 18 15%
Strongly agree 11 9.16%
Total
120 100%
9%

15% 31% Strongly disagree


Disagree
Neutral
Agree
18%
Strongly agree
27%

INTERPRETATION:

From the survey we came to know that majority of the respondents that is 30.83%
strongly disagree with the functioning of the traffic police in the management of traffic
jam.

Q #12: Can zebra crossing reduce traffic?


1 2 3 4 5
Strongly disagree disagree neutral agree strongly agree

Can zebra crossing reduce traffic?

Frequency Percentage
Strongly disagree 14 11.66%

Disagree 18 15%
Neutral 39 32.5%
Agree 26 21.66
Strongly agree 23 19.16%
Total
120 100%
12%
19% Strongly disagree
15% Disagree

22% Neutral
Agree
32% Strongly agree

INTERPRETATION:

From the survey we came to know that majority of the respondents have neutral views
about that zebra crossing can reduce traffic.

Q #13: In your opinion, what percentage does educational institutes and office
timings play role to increase the traffic?
□ 30-60%
□ 61-80%
□ 81-100%
In your opinion, what percentage does educational institutes and office timings play
role to increase the traffic?

Frequency Percentage
30-60% 29 24.16%
61-80% 51 42.5%
81-100% 40 33.33%
Total 120 100%

33% 24%
30-60%
61-80%
81-100%
43%

INTERPRETATION:

From the survey 42.5% of the people of our sample believe that educational institutes and
office timings clashes increase traffic on roads.
Q #14: Which of these two help to reduce traffic more efficiently?
□ Flyovers
□ Underpasses

Which of these two help to reduce traffic more efficiently?

Frequency Percentage
Flyovers 73 60.83%
Underpasses 47 39.16%
Total 120 100%

39%

Flyover
Underpass
61%

INTERPRETATION:

From our survey we came to know that 60.83% of the people in Karachi prefer flyovers
to reduce traffic efficiently while 39.16% prefer underpasses.
NUMBER OF MALES AND FEMALES WHO FILLED THE QUESTIONNAIRES

How many males and females are participated in research?


Frequency Percentage
Males 63 52.5%

Females 57 47.5%

Total 100 100%

48% Males
52%
Females
STEP #08

DEDUCTION

HYPOTHESIS TESTING
STATEMENT:
“Construction work is the Major reason for the traffic dilemma of
Karachi.”

STEP NO1
NULL HYPOTHESIS:

“Construction work is the Major reason for the traffic dilemma of Karachi”

ALTERNATIVE STATEMENT:

“Construction work is not the Major reason for the traffic dilemma of Karachi

STEP NO 2
Level of significance:

α=0.05

STEP NO 3
CHI-SQUARE TESTING:

Formula = ∑ (Oi-Ei)2 / Ei

STEP NO 4
Critical Region:

Reject Ho
If X2 cal> 12..592

STEP NO 5
Calculation:

Oi Ei (Oi-Ei)2 / Ei
Leased cars 23 17 2.11
Road construction 26 17 4.76
Violation of traffic 28 17 7.11
rules
VIP movements 7 17 5.88
Irregular movement 14 17 0.52
of heavy traffic
No parking zone 7 17 5.88
More 15 17 0.23
TOTAL ∑ (Oi-Ei)2/Ei=26.49

STEP NO 6
X2(calculated) = 26.49

X (tabular value) = X2 (∞, n-1) = X2 (5% , 7-1) = X2 (0.05, 6)

X2(tabular value) = 12.592

CONCLUSION
As our calculated value is outside the critical region so we will accept H0 and reject H1.

This is because according to most of the people construction is the major problem of
traffic system among the other factors which are leased cars Violation of traffic rules
irregular movement of heavy traffic no parking zone

DIAGRAM OF HYPOTHESES
CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION
This study on the traffic problems of Karachi enhanced our knowledge to a great extent.
The over all process helped us to identify various factors that are responsible for bad
traffic conditions in the city.

By analyzing the questionnaires we came to know that awareness of traffic rules is very
important for smooth traffic system. Unfortunately, in Karachi, least importance is given
to this factor.

It has also added to our knowledge that traveling has become a necessity of life for
Karachiites. Most of the people travel three to four times on the roads of Karachi. Due to
bad road conditions the people are confronted with serious traffic jams and accidents.
This causes frustration among the drivers. The construction work to modify the traffic
system of Karachi has also enhanced the problem.

The hypothesis developed, when tested concluded that “bad road conditions” is the main
cause of traffic jams in Karachi city. It also inferred that construction work has become
more a short term problem than a long term benefit for the inhabitants of Karachi due to
improper management and delays.

Hence, we can deduce that it is impossible to control all the factors affecting the traffic
system. However, the important factors like bad road conditions, violation of rules and
construction, if controlled, can reduce the problems of traffic in Karachi to a great extent.
RECOMMENDATION

RECOMMENDATIONS:
a) The authorities should coordinate the activities of different government departments
well to avoid traffic disorder.

b) The government should strictly restrict under 18 citizens to drive.

c) The traffic control department should punish those constables and sergeants who take
briberies and are responsible for not implementing the rules properly.

d) The driving test should be made compulsory for getting a driving license and the
license should be granted to only those people who pass the driving test and satisfy the
criterion.

e) The traffic control department should also hire literate and trained constables.

f) The constables must be paid enough for their services so that they don’t take bribe.

g) The government should allot parking areas specially in public places like shopping
malls, hotels and restaurants, offices, service institutions etc.
APPENDIX