PHOTOSHOP CS4

BASICS GUIDE

ANTONY PRICE

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CONTENTS PART ONE: THE WORK SPACE, CONTROL SYSTEMS & BRIDGE Main Menu, Application Bar & Options Bar Opening & Creating Files Application Bar The Toolbox & Control Palettes The History Palette Bridge Creating a PDF Contact Sheet Creating a PDF Screen Presentation

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PART TWO: CROP/ROTATE, FILE FORMATS & IMAGE SIZE/RESOLUTION Cropping an Image Rotating an Image Saving an Image File File Formats RAW Digital Darkroom Image Size & Resolution Image Resampling

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PART THREE: IMAGE ADJUSTMENTS, LAYERS & RETOUCHING Layers 1 Image Adjustments Toning Tools Healing Tools Clone Stamp Layers 2 - working with multiple images Transforming Layers

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PART FOUR: SELECTIONS & LAYERS Selection Tools Layers 3 - Copy & Paste

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PART FIVE: ADJUSTMENT LAYERS & MASKS Adjustment Layers Masks

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PART SIX: TYPE, LAYER STYLES & SHAPE TOOLS Type Tool Layer Styles Styles Palette Shape Tools

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PART SEVEN: PAINTING TOOLS Brush Tool Gradient Tool Eraser Tool

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PART EIGHT: FILTERS Filter Gallery Lighting Effects Filter Liquify Filter

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CONTROL SYSTEMS & ADOBE BRIDGE Within Photoshop the Work Space is controlled via the Main Menu. Edit. The Options Bar sits directly below the Main Menu & Application Bar. Image Window. APPLICATION BAR & OPTIONS BAR The Main Menu lists the major control systems such as File. Image.Tools 5 . Application Bar. MAIN MENU. Click a heading to view a drop-down menu listing the individual heading functions. If any Work Area options are not visible go to Window in the Main Menu and click on the controls you wish to open e. Options Bar. Toolbox & Control Palettes.PART ONE: THE WORK SPACE. Layer etc. Whenever a tool is chosen from the Toolbox the Options Bar changes to display the individual tools options.g Window . The Application Bar sits under the main menu and controls image viewing options.

A5 etc) Photo (Landscape-Portrait 4x6. The Zoom Tool allows you to zoom in & out of an image. click & drag to move around the image. Place the mouse cursor over a button to view its name. The Zoom Level button allows you to easily zoom in/out of an image and set increments. A4. The View Extras button allows you to view rulers and any guides or grids you have created. 1024x768 etc) Film & Video (Pal DV. • Choose the Background Contents as desired (white is the standard). From left to right: The Launch Bridge button opens the Adobe Bridge program.OPENING AND CREATING FILES • Go to File – Open to open a file. Bridge functions will be explained in a later section. 6 . The Rotate View Tool allows you to rotate the image (on screen only). The Screen Mode button allows you to switch between Standard & Full Screen modes. • Go to File – New to create a new empty canvas. Widescreen etc) The correct Resolution & Color Mode will be automatically set for the requirement. Adobe Bridge is used for viewing and processing multiple files. click drag on an image to zoom directly to that area. APPLICATION BAR The Application Bar is used to control how you view your images. The Arrange Documents button lets you arrange multiple images on screen at once in several preset modes. 10x8 etc) Web (640x480. then choose a Size: International Paper (A3. used in conjunction with Photoshop it provides additional controls for working with large numbers of images. The Hand Tool allows you to move around an image when zoomed in close. Choose the type of file that suits your requirements from the Preset menu. 800x600. browse through the Devices or Places folders to find the file you want.

Choose the Basic selection to start with. When you close a file the history and snapshots are NOT saved. with the Edit in Quick Mask Mode button. At the bottom of the Toolbox are the Set Foreground & Background colour controls. THE HISTORY PALETTE The History palette records any functions you apply to an image. • Click the function heading in the History palette to go back to a previous state.EXPAND / SHRINK THE TOOLBOX & CONTROL PALETTES The Toolbox (left of screen) lists the specific tools. Click on a tool to activate it. • Click the Snapshot button to create a snapshot of the current state. The History palette can be used to Undo mistakes or simply to view an image at a previous state. The Control Palettes (right side of screen) offer control of major functions In the top right corner of the screen you can choose the selection of control palettes that are best for your use. Note: history and snapshots are only recorded during the current work session. When you choose a tool its specific options appear in the Options Bar. YOU CAN OPEN INDIVIDUAL PALETTES AT ANY TIME BY GOING TO WINDOW IN THE MAIN MENU. Double click a control palette icon to expand/ shrink the individual control palettes. You can increase the number of History states that can be undone by going to the Photoshop heading in the Main Menu then choose Preferences – Performance and adjust the History States. Click and hold on tools with black arrows to open additional tool options. You can then switch between the original image and the snapshot to view changes. Click the Expand/Shrink arrow buttons in the top left/right of the Toolbox or Control Palettes to expand/shrink all the options. 7 .

ADOBE BRIDGE Adobe Bridge is a file viewing and organisation program. Used mainly to order and process large amounts of files it is extremely useful for producing quick outputs such as PDF presentations or web galleries. REVIEWING IMAGES • Select the drive that your images are stored on from the left side Favourites or Folders panel. To open Adobe Bridge go to Applications or launch Bridge directly from any of the Creative Suite apllications e. Click on any image to see details.g Photoshop by clicking the Launch Bridge button in the Applications menu. 8 * . • Adjust the view and zoom options using the bottom right corner zoom controls. • You can view your images in several different ways by clicking the Essentials or Filmstrip tabs in the top Main Menu.Review Mode to open the carousel viewing window.* • For more advanced review go to View . Press the ESC key to exit review mode.

This will add a star rating or colour bar to the selected images. 9 . For tutorials on bridge functions go to: http://psd. Preview and Content windows.• To make review and edit decisions as to which are the best images first select an image(s) in the Content window. (You can also right-click on an image to open the options menu.com/tutorials/tools-tips/get-goingwith-adobe-bridge-cs4/ http://tv. then go to Label in the Main Menu and choose from either a Rating (stars) or Label (colours).com/show/learn-bridge-cs4/ OUTPUT MENU Bridge’s Output menu allows you to easily create a variety of output files including PDF contact sheets and screen presentations. • You can view your selected images by clicking in the Filters * panel on the left side of the main window. • Click the Output tab or Output button in the Main Menu to open the Output control panel. then choose Label).adobe. • You can change the names of multiple files by selecting them in the Content window then going to Tools in the Main Menu and choosing Batch Rename.tutsplus.

A to select all). • In the Content panel at the bottom of the window click on the first image. • Click the Save button to save the PDF file. • Leave the Playback section empty with all options un-ticked. Document Size & Layout (you can adjust these options as required). • In the Overlays section tick Filename & Extension and choose a font. • In the Output panel choose a Template. • You can choose to add a watermark over the image from the Watermarks section if you require it. 10 . • Click the Refresh Preview button to see how the contact sheet will look in the Output Preview window. scroll to the last image.CREATING A PDF CONTACT SHEET To create a contact sheet you must first browse for and select the images you wish to include within Bridge. size & colour. hold Shift on the keyboard and click the last image to select all (or press the Cmd/Apple key .

11 .CREATING A PDF SCREEN PRESENTATION For best results when creating a PDF screen presentation it is advised that you prepare your images beforehand so that they are suitable for screen display (see Image Size & Resolution section in the Photoshop Basics Guide for more info). • In the Overlays section un-tick the Filename and Extension options. Advance automatically or Loop after last page. Set all other options to 0 for full screen display (you can adjust these options to create a border around the image). • In the Playback section choose whether the file will Open in Full Screen. Document section choose Web from the Page Preset options. • Choose 1600 x 1200 from the Size options. Note: this example will create a screen presentation that is suitable for full screen display on most monitor sizes. • Set the Quality setting to High Quality for screen presentation purposes or Low Quality for email or website upload. • Choose the style of Transition and Speed that the images will appear on screen. • Select the images that you want to appear in the presentation from the Content panel. • Click the Refresh Preview button to see how the image will look in the Output Preview window. • In the Layout section choose 1 column and 1 row. • In the Output panel. • Tick the View PDF After Save box and click the Save button.

• In the Options Bar you can adjust the opacity & colour of the Shield. 12 . • Click-drag the Bounding Box corners to resize the crop border.PART TWO: CROP/ROTATE. Flipping the canvas gives you a mirrored version of your image.   • Image – Image Rotation also allows you to Flip Canvas either horizontally or vertically. ROTATING AN IMAGE • To rotate an image go to the main menu Image – Image Rotation and choose from the rotation options. This is used to aid effective cropping by darkening the area outside the crop. FILE FORMATS & IMAGE SIZE/RESOLUTION CROPPING AN IMAGE • To crop an image choose the Crop Tool from the Toolbox then click-drag across the image to assign the crop edge.

The Photoshop file allows you to save ‘Layers’.SAVING AN IMAGE FILE • To save an image file go to File – Save As. Photoshop . Choose a destination for the file from the Devices or Places panel (MAC) e. Note: once you have saved an image file using the Save As option you can go to File – Save (cmd-S) to save the file as you progress. A saved file will have the Format tag assigned to the name of the file e. 13 . It is wise to make a copy of any important files so that you don’t lose the original data. It is important that you learn which file format is best used for which task. compression level (how large the file is in Gigabytes G. • Change the name of the file in the Save As name panel. This determines several values. The Photoshop format is the best quality file for photographic manipulation. FILE FORMATS When you save or scan an image in Photoshop you need to assign a type of File Format to it.jpg Although there are many differing File Formats you will generally only need to use a select few.g. your personal hard drive or USB stick.g name. Because of its high quality. including the quality. • Tick the As a Copy box if you wish to save the file as a copy. Photoshop psd files should NOT be used for printing. website or screen presentation purposes. Photoshop files can only be read and opened within Photoshop. Megabytes M or Kilobytes K) and whether it is ‘Flattened’ or ‘Layered’. • Choose the Format you wish the file to be saved as. be aware that each new layer you add increases the overall file size. psd files can have large file sizes (anywhere between 20 – 150+ M).psd The Photoshop file format is an uncompressed or lossless high quality format that is used for photographic image manipulation.

RAW . SHOOT FOR YOUR REQUIREMENTS. The Tiff file format also allows you to save ‘Layers’. You should attempt to shoot as RAW whenever possible if you intend to heavily manipulate or print at large sizes.TIFF . Note on using RAW: Although RAW files are ideal for high quality retouching and printing you have to assess every project individually.mos Professional digital cameras can shoot highresolution uncompressed RAW files. The RAW format is like a digital negative. The JPEG format is best used for compressing files for web based or screen presentations. 14 . The JPEG file format does not save ‘Layers’ and always flattens the file data. but it is recommended you leave them as flattened files for printing purposes. you need to be able to have detail for retouching. RAW file formats vary depending on the camera make and model e. as well as standard compressed JPEG files. The compressed JPEG format is the most commonly used format for digital camera capture. The Tiff format is best used for high quality print-friendly files.nef .jpg The JPEG file format is the most commonly used compression or lossy format when saving images for website or screen presentation purposes. the ability to shoot a greater quantity of shots being more important. using the slider bar to assign small or large file sizes. image adjustment and large prints. Although there is the option to compress Tiff files you should leave the Image Compression setting on NONE for best quality. Some projects may however only ever need to be displayed on screen.crt . Note: shooting as RAW will greatly reduce the amount of shots you can take and store on your cameras memory card.g Canon cameras use the crw tag while Nikon use nif.crw . The file size is displayed on the right in K or M under the Preview box. you can create additional copies at varying levels while always maintaining the original data. You have Image Options that allow you to compress the file at varying Quality levels.tif The TIFF file format is an uncompressed or lossless high quality format that is used mainly for photographic printing. Try to have several 2-4GB memory cards for storage purposes whenever shooting. and whether it requires RAW quality. Tiff files should NOT be used for website or screen presentation purposes. For big fashion shoots RAW is essential. JPEG . JPEG files are NOT to be used for high quality printing purposes.

Exposure. Recovery. This option opens a copy into Photoshop with the adjustments. Sharpening and other image alterations can also be made before you’ve even opened the file into Photoshop. 15 . Contrast. Sample. resolution and color mode of the processed image. Clarity.RAW DIGITAL DARKROOM When you open a RAW file into Photoshop the RAW digital darkroom controls are displayed. Fill Light. Blacks. Rotate controls Image correction controls Resolution and Color Mode controls IMPORTANT: It is advised that you hold the Alt key on the keyboard then click Open Copy when you have finished your processing and corrections. Temperature. You can adjust and correct White Balance. If you click Open Image or Done your alterations will overwrite the original data. This control panel allows you to literally develop and process the raw data like a negative or transparency. Brightness. while also keeping the original file data unaltered. Crop. Retouch. The digital darkroom also gives you the ability to define the pixel size. Zoom. Vibrance and Saturation. Move.

Megabytes(M) or Gigabytes (G). The Document Size relates to the images physical print size. This also determines the images file size in Kilobytes (K). Pixel Dimensions show the images actual size in pixels. The size of an image is measured in Pixel Dimensions. The term Resolution is used to describe the quality of an image and is measured in: Pixels Per Inch PPI for screen display Dots Per Inch DPI for scanning & printing purposes In general Resolution is often set to three standard output measurements: 72 ppi 180 ppi 300 ppi Screen Display (websites or presentations) Mid-Quality Printing (research or test prints) High-Quality Printing (magazines or portfolio) 16 .IMAGE SIZE & RESOLUTION In its simplest form a digital image is made up of tiny dots called pixels. The Scale Styles & Constrain Proportions boxes should be ticked. The more pixels that are captured (when taking a photo or scanning) the better the quality of the image is for manipulation or printing at large sizes. In Photoshop the Image Size control allows you to view and alter an images Pixel Dimensions. Document Size and Resolution. • In the main menu go to Image – Image Size to see an images Pixel Dimensions. The Resample Image box should be ticked if you want to alter the Pixel Dimensions. Resolution determines how the pixels are grouped and distributed on screen or in print. This links the width & height so that any changes made affect both dimensions. Pixels contain colour and brightness information and when grouped together form the illusion of an image. The quality of these pixels when grouped together is measured as Resolution. Document Size & Resolution.

Image . can result in a loss of image quality. Be aware this may cause a loss of quality to the image. this locks the Pixel Dimensions (notice they are greyed out). Note: if you are required to have a specific Resolution and Document Size that is larger than your file can be set too. which is known as Down Sampling. pixilation or blurring. 17 . setting the Document Size is not necessary. Image Resampling for screen If your images are to be used on a website or within a screen based presentation you will generally need to lower the amount of pixels in an image. you will need to Up Sample the image. To do this Tick the Resample Image box and adjust the Resolution and Document size to your requirements. known as Up Sampling. The Resolution setting will alter to show the highest possible resolution for that print size. Image Size settings for print based images: • Un-tick the Resample Image box.IMAGE RESAMPLING The process of altering image Pixel Dimensions is called Image Resampling. Pixel Dimensions should be based on the size you wish the image to appear on screen. • If the document size is smaller than the required print size adjust the Document Size to match.Image Size settings for web & screen based images • • Set the Resolution to 72 ppi Set the Pixel Dimensions to roughly 160 320 640 800 x x x x 120 240 480 600 Website Website Website Website thumbnail image small image standard image large image 1024 x 768 1280 x 1024 1920 x 1080 Standard CRT monitor display Standard LCD flat monitor display Full HD wide screen display Image Resampling for print If your images are to be used for printing purposes then the Resolution and Document Size needs to be altered based on the print size you require. • Set the Resolution to 300 ppi for a high-quality print or 180 ppi for a mid-quality print. The Document Size will change to show the optimum size the image can be printed at that resolution. When altering an image for print purposes it is important to understand that increasing the amount of pixels.

Tools and adjustments only work on the currently active layer. ensuring the original image data is maintained below. 18 . • Click the Options arrow button in the right corner of the Layers palette to open the Layer Options menu. • Click onto any layer to make it active. If you save the file as any other type of file format the layers will be Merged together. ADJUSTMENTS & RETOUCHING Layers are a vital feature of Photoshop that let you duplicate and combine images.DUPLICATES The Layers control palette is used to assess and alter layer elements. the layer on top obscuring those below. Layer visibility can be toggled on/off to judge the effects of the active layer in comparison to the original Background layer. as separate elements. be aware of what layer is active in order to avoid mistakes. • Click the Opacity option and click- drag the slider bar to adjust the layers transparency. • Choose Duplicate Layer from the list to create a copy which stacks on top of the original Background. LAYERS 1 . or parts of images. • Click the Eye icon to toggle visibility on or off. IMPORTANT NOTE: Layered files can only be saved using the Photoshop or Tiff file formats. Palette Options Note: Layers always stack on top of each other. When layers are active they appear blue in the Layers palette.PART THREE: LAYERS. Adjustments and alterations should then be made on this copy layer. It is advised that you use duplicate layers if you want to keep the original image data along with the adjusted version. Layer Opacity can be adjusted so that the layer becomes transparent.

An image file can be adjusted in many ways. Additional duplicate Layers can be created for additional control of effects.Adjustments - Vibrance to open the Vibrance controls. darken and alter specific pixels. 19 .Adjustments menu allows you to adjust an images tonal and colour values. IMAGE ADJUSTMENTS The Image . tonal values. Experiment with the different adjustments to familiarise yourself with there effects. • Go to Image . If you wish to undo an Image Adjustment use the History Palette to revert to an earlier state. colour. Click-drag the sliders to adjust the vibrance/saturation of the image. An image file can also be easily manipulated in order to lighten. Click-drag the sliders to adjust the brightness/ contrast of the image.Adjustments - Brightness/Contrast to open the brightness/contrast controls. hue/ saturation and exposure of an image easily changed using simple controls. NOTE: It is advised that you save adjusted images as a copy so that you do not overwrite the original image data. Image Adjustments are known as destructive because they alter the original pixel data of the Layer. Split into sections each adjustment in the list gives a different more advanced set of controls for specialist tasks. • Go to Image . with brightness/contrast.

Experiment with the Midtones & Shadows Range (useful for lightening skin. 20 . Used primarily for getting rid of spots or blemishes they can be applied as a powerful retouching tool for fixing textured images. eyes or clothes). • Choose the Burn Tool and change the Range to Shadows in the Options bar. Adjust the Exposure amount to around 20-30. darken or saturate specific areas of an image by painting over the desired area. Choose Desaturate Mode in the Options Bar to remove colour. wrinkles). then click the mouse button to blend the spot area with the surrounding colour and texture. Paint over areas of the image to lighten them (this is very useful for features like hair. • Choose the Dodge Tool and change the Range to Highlights in the Options Bar. bags. Note: you can use the [ ] bracket keys on the keyboard to increase/decrease brush size. • Zoom in close to the subjects skin using the Zoom Level control in the Applications Bar. Experiment with the Midtones and Highlights Range.TONING TOOLS The Toning Tools allow you to lighten. • Choose the Spot Healing Brush Tool from the toolbox to paint out individual spots or blemishes. set the Brush diameter in the Options Bar. HEALING TOOLS The Healing Tools allow you to heal bad areas of an image. • Choose the Sponge Tool and paint over areas of the image to saturate (intensify) the colours. • Position the cursor over the spot or blemish you wish to remove. eyes or clothes). Paint over areas of the image to darken them (this is very useful for features like hair.

then paint over an area to replace it with the sampled texture/ colour. CLONE STAMP TOOL The Clone Stamp tool works in a similar way to the Healing Brush Tool in that you assign an area to sample or copy from. Re-assign the sample area each time you paint to avoid unusual patterns appearing. • Choose the Patch Tool from the toolbox to paint over large groups of spots or blemishes • Draw around the blemishes to create a selection (flashing edges). The Clone Stamp tool is ideal for detailed retouching like covering blemishes or any unwanted elements such as stray hairs. Unlike the Healing Tools the Clone Stamp does not blend the pixel data together. Spend some time getting rid of blemishes or spots on the skin using the various techniques. Hold the Alt key on the keyboard to bring up the target cursor and click the mouse button to sample that area.adobe. Hold the Alt key on the keyboard to bring up the target cursor and click the mouse button to sample that area. Adjust the Pupil Size & Darken Amount settings in the Options Bar if required. • Choose the Clone Stamp Tool from the toolbox to paint over blemishes or unwanted image elements.• Choose the Healing Brush Tool from the toolbox to paint over groups of spots or blemishes For a video tutorial on retouching tools go to: http://tv. 21 . Note: as you move the cursor it shows a preview of the sampled area under the brush. click-drag this area over a smooth piece of skin to blend and replace the tones. • Move the brush over the spot or blemish you wish to cover and click with the mouse button. This takes the sampled area and blends it over the blemish.com/watch/learn-photoshopcs4/getting-started-03-retouching-blemishes/ • Position the cursor over a blemish free piece of skin. • Position the cursor over the area you wish to sample. The Healing Tools also get rid of unwanted red eye in an image • Choose the Red Eye Tool from the toolbox. • Move the brush over the area you wish to cover and click with the mouse button. click directly on the red eye to alter the colour. shadows or background defects.

like an Internet browser. to display the images together. You can simply drag & drop one image file onto another. 22 . change the resolution to 180ppi and click OK to open a new blank canvas. • In the Application Bar click the Arrange Documents button to open the arrange menu.Open and choose one or more image files to open.WORKING WITH MULTIPLE IMAGE FILES Layers are one of Photoshop’s most important and powerful features. When several image files are open at once Photoshop CS4 uses tabs. the ability to use Layers effectively is paramount to advanced image manipulation. Image Tabs • Go to File . automatically creating a new layer. New Layers can be created in several ways.New and choose International Paper from the Preset menu.LAYERS 2 . • Go to File . Choose one of the tiling options to display multiple images as individual windows next to each other. Choose A4 from the Size menu. You can click the name tabs to view each image independently. From creating simple duplicate layers to compositing multiple images together. or use the Edit menus Copy & Paste function to copy & paste a selected area of an image.

• From the Toolbox. clicking on the current layer name. TRANSFORMING LAYERS Image layers can be Transformed to alter there scale or rotation. Click drag to rotate the image. Click-drag the square to scale the image to the size you desire. • Layers can be renamed by double- Note: the size that an image appears on a blank canvas is dependant on its Image Size. • A Bounding Box with squares at each • Hold the Shift button on the keyboard whilst dragging to Constrain Proportions. • Press the Escape button on the keyboard to undo any changes. Note: Un-tick the Show Transform Controls to hide the Bounding Box 23 . • With the Move Tool active tick the Show Transform Controls box in the Options bar. corner will appear. • Click-drag the image directly onto the blank canvas. The Move Tool is also used to move and transform image layers. This stops the image from becoming distorted. • Hover the cursor just above any corner boxes until you see a curved arrow symbol. • Press the Return/Enter key on the keyboard to accept the change. Hover the cursor over the corners until you see a double headed arrow symbol. Notice that a new Layer has been created in the Layers palette. choose the Move Tool. Use the Move Tool to position the image anywhere on the canvas.Images can be drag & dropped from one file to another using the Move Tool.

• Click-drag with either the Rectangular or Elliptical Marquee tools to create a rectangular or elliptical selection. Magnetic Lasso Tool: click to add a start point.PART FOUR: SELECTIONS & LAYERS SELECTION TOOLS Within Photoshop image pixels can be modified. Lasso Tool: click-drag around an area to draw a free hand selection. 24 . ellipses and circles. • Hold the Shift key on the keyboard to constrain proportions to create a square or circular selection. copied & pasted just like text in a word processing document. The magnetic lasso will automatically create points along a contrasting edge. In the Options Bar increase the Frequency setting to add more points. The Selection tools are used to define the specific areas of an image that you want to adjust. cut. A Selected area is defined by flashing edges known as ‘running-ants’. Polygonal lasso Tool: click to add a start point. LASSO TOOLS The Lasso Tools are used to select non-geometric areas of an image. dot-to-dot style. or copy & paste into a new layer. squares. Note: both the Polygonal & Magnetic Lasso Tools require you to click on the start point (small circle appears on cursor) to seal the selection edge. around the area you wish to select. Release the mouse button to create a flashing selection. MARQUEE TOOLS The Marquee Tools are used to select geometric areas of an image such as rectangles. move the cursor around the edge of the area you wish to select. click to add additional straight edge points. allowing for selections of any shape. making the selection smoother.

click the add button in the Options Bar or hold the SHIFT key whilst using a selection tool.COLOUR SELECTION TOOLS The Colour Selection Tools are used to select areas of similar colour in an image. any tool used will only have an effect within this area. Magic Wand Tool: click within any area of colour to create a selection. flashing edges known as “running ants” enclose the chosen area. Adjust the Tolerance setting in the Option Bar to increase/decrease the range of colours the Magic Wand searches for. When an area is selected. notice the minus sign appears on your cursor. click the minus button in the Options Bar or hold the ALT key whilst using a selection tool. • When a selection is made. 25 . • To add to a selection. depending on the size. There are various different methods for producing selections. The Quick Selection Tool automatically looks for contrasting edges of colour.D). • To minus from a selection. Continue to click-drag to add to the selected area. shape and accuracy of the desired area to be selected. Quick Selection Tool: click-drag around an area to draw a quick selection. Each selection tool will provide a similar end goal and selection tools can be combined to build complicated selections. • To deselect a flashing area go Select . BUILDING A SELECTION Selected areas can be added to or minused from to build up complicated selections.Deselect (cmd . notice the plus sign appears on your cursor.

MODIFYING A SELECTION Selections can be Modified by going to Select – Modify in the main menu. This means for example that you could use a selection tool to draw around and isolate a figure.INVERSING A SELECTION Selections can be Inversed so that the inside (editable area) becomes the outside (protected area) and vice versa. Feather: softens and blurs the edges of the selected area and is measured in pixel width outwards from the selection edge. These functions are especially useful for creating a crisper confined area for retouching and manipulation.Refine Edge in the Main Menu. When a selection has been made you can adjust that area without affecting the rest of the image. Border: creates a border selection edge that can be filled with colour.Adjustments in the main menu and choose a colour adjustment. Here you can Expand. Smooth: smoothes the pixel edges of the selection. 26 . REFINING A SELECTION Selections can be further refined and perfected by clicking the Refine Edge button in the Options Bar of any selection tool or by going Select . The selected area is inside the ‘running ants’ and this is the only part of the image you can edit or adjust. If you Inverse the selection. allowing only that area to be adjusted. Smooth. Notice that the adjustment effect only occurs within the selected area. Feather or Border the selection edge. the figure would become the protected area and the ‘running ants’ would outline the image background. • Go to Image . Contract. Expand/Contract: enlarges or shrinks the selection area.

Copy to copy the selected area. Tick the Show Transform Controls box in the Options Bar to scale or rotate the layer.LAYERS 3 . • In order to save the file with transparency (grey & white chequerboard) you MUST go to File Save As and assign the Photoshop PSD format. • In the Layers palette click onto the Background layer to make it active then click the Delete Layer symbol to delete this layer. as in the previous section.Paste (cmd . such as JPEG will flatten the layers transparency. • Open a new blank canvas then go to Edit . 27 .Copy (cmd . • Once you have created a selection go to Edit .g. a figure or object. The Copy & Paste technique is used on elements of images that have been Selected first. You can also copy & paste directly into the same image file and save this file for use in other Adobe programs such as InDesign.V) to paste the selected area directly into the same file as a new layer. • Once you have created a selection go to Edit .COPY & PASTE Using the Edit menus Copy & Paste function allows elements of an image to be copied and pasted into new canvases or to be placed into InDesign layouts for text wrapping. • Go to Edit . • Use the Move Tool to position the pasted image on the canvas.Paste to paste the stored copy as a new layer. leaving just the cutout. Any other format.C) to copy the selected area. The selected area is copied and stored in the clipboard. • Open an image file and using the previous selection techniques create a selection (flashing edges) around an element of the image e.

• Double-click the Adjustments heading to open the Adjustments Control Palette. • Choose an Adjustment by clicking on its icon. 28 . Scroll along them to familiarise yourself with the various adjustment options. • Click to the Background layer below to add another adjustment or to edit the image using other tools.Open and open an image file. • When you choose an adjustment its specific controls appears and an Adjustment Layer is added to the Layers palette. Whenever you click on this layer the adjustment controls appear for re-editing. • Double-click any other open control palette headings to close them and focus on the Adjustments. Note: you should ALWAYS click onto the Background layer before doing any other image editing. Whenever you add an adjustment a new Adjustment Layer is created in the Layers palette. Note: there is a wide selection of differing Adjustments. some adjustments you will use frequently while others remain for infrequent specialist requirements only. Adjustment layers can be altered at anytime and affect any other layers that are below them. contrast and colour in an image without permanently altering the original background layer. • You can also choose an adjustment preset from the Presets menu. • Go to File .PART FIVE: ADJUSTMENT LAYERS & MASKS ADJUSTMENT LAYERS Photoshop CS4’s Adjustments control palette holds a powerful set of non-destructive controls that allow you to alter and fix every aspect of brightness. such as using the Toning. Healing or Cloning tools.

white and grey triangles to increase/decrease the shadow. • Choose a preset from the Preset menu. Click-drag the black.com/watch/learn-photoshop-cs4/ getting-started-06-adjusting-colors/ and http://psd. For additional tutorials on adjustments go to: http://tv. Experiment with the variety of preset options. gray midtone & black shadow content of the Histogram you alter the brightness and contrast of the image.com/articles/techniques/abasic-guide-to-photoshop-cs4-adjustment-layers/ 29 . By adjusting the white highlight. • Choose Hue/Saturation from the Adjustments palette.LEVELS The Levels adjustment lets you assess and alter an images tonal range. • Choose Levels from the Adjustments palette to open the Levels Histogram control.tutsplus. • Click-drag the slider bars left or right to adjust colour content manually. Choose from the colour list options to assign only a specific colour for adjustment. HUE/SATURATION The Hue/Saturation adjustment lets you alter colour. • Tick the Colorize box to cover the image with a coloured overlay. The Hue slider bar alters the existing colour The Saturation bar increases or decreases colour The Lightness bar lightens or darkens the colour • Master refers to all colours being adjusted. highlight & midtone levels • Click the arrow button to return to the adjustments list.adobe. • Choose a preset from the Preset menu. • To manually adjust the image levels: Experiment with the variety of preset options.

Because masks are non-destructive they allow for continued editablilty without affecting the original pixel data. Layer Masks are used to mask out or hide selected areas of an image. • Add an adjustment from the Adjustments palette. Notice that the adjustment effect only occurs within the selected area and a Layer Mask has been added to the Adjustment Layer in the Layers Palette. Layer Masks can be edited at any point by using the Brush Tool set to either white or black colour. • To further refine the mask edge click the • To invert the mask click the Invert button. 30 . Layer Masks can be modified live using the Masks Palette • To adjust the Density (opacity) and Feather (smoothness of the edge) use the slider bar controls in the Masks palette. Mask Edge button in the Masks palette. Note: before you can add a Layer Mask you must first create a selection. • Use any of the Selection Tools to draw a rough selection around the area you wish to mask. Whenever you add a Mask to a layer a mask thumbnail symbol appears on that layer.MASKS Photoshop CS4’s Masks control palette holds a powerful set of non-destructive controls that allow you to alter and adjust Layer Masks.

adobe. Load Selection . If you do this save the file as a copy so that you retain the original image data. • To reload an existing selection edge click the Load Selection From Mask button. • Click onto the Background layer in the Layers palette. This will mask out the selected area. • To permanently cut the image pixels using the mask click the Apply Mask button. • Click onto the Mask symbol in the Layers palette to edit a mask. • Choose White as the Foreground colour in the Toolbox and paint to unmask areas.Layer Masks can be edited and perfected by using the Brush Tool. switch to black to mask areas (click X on the keyboard to switch between white & black) Masks can be used to isolate areas of an image so that you can copy to another layer or to add a new background. This will permanently remove the pixel data.Disable For a video tutorial on masks go to: http://tv. Choose the Brush Tool from the Toolbox. • Click the Enable/Disable Mask eye button to turn the mask on or off. • Use any of the Selection Tools to draw a rough selection around the area you wish to mask. • To create a Layer Mask from a selection click the Add Pixel Mask button in the Masks palette.com/watch/learn-photoshopcs4/working-with-masks/ 31 . Note: you should only apply a mask if you want to cut the image from its background.Apply Mask .

• Click the Text Colour box to adjust the text colour. bending and warping the text. • With the text highlighted go to the Type Tool Options Bar and adjust the Text Orientation. Crisp. Font Style & Font Size • Adjust the Anti-Alias controls to create a Sharp. Strong or Smooth text edge. LAYER STYLES & SHAPE TOOLS TYPE TOOL Photoshop’s Type Tool allows you to create simple headings or paragraphs of text just like a word processing program. Text Orientation Font Family Font Style Font Size Anti-Alias 32 Text Alignment Colour Warp Character/Para graph .PART SIX: TYPE. • Click the Toggle Character/Paragraph Palette button to open the additional type controls. • Choose the Type Tool from the Toolbox. • Click-drag along the text to highlight it in order to make changes. Click anywhere on the canvas to create a flashing insertion point or click-drag to create a text box. Choose from the Style options and adjust to taste. Type a word or phrase relevant to your current project. Make sure the cursor is close to the text so that the dotted square edge isn’t present. centred or right aligned paragraph text. Note: Notice that a new Type Layer appears in the Layers palette. Font Family. • Adjust the Alignment controls for either left. • Click the Create Warped Text button to warp the text.

Check Spelling. first highlight the text then go to Edit .The Type Tool Character/Paragraph control palettes allow for additional control over the way text is spaced and aligned. stretching the text. Paragraph Palette The Paragraph palette is used to control paragraph features. either left. Justification . Bold. Superscript.Adjusts the baseline that text sits on. Hyphenate . The language option should be set to the desired language for spell checking. Underline. Character Palette Leading . Tracking .Indents the whole left or right side of a block of text. pushing or pulling text closer or further apart. Capitalise. Kerning . Add Space Before/After Paragraph Adds additional space before or after a paragraph.Adjusts the scaling. highlighted text lifts above or lowers below the set baseline. Hover the mouse over each control symbol to see its name. 33 .Adjusts the space between individual letters. The T symbols are used as shortcuts to adjust font styles. Vertical/Horizontal Scale .Indents just the first line of a paragraph of text. Indent First Line .Adjusts the space between all letters that are highlighted. Baseline Shift .Aligns text in a solid block. centred or right justified. Strikethrough.Hyphenates long words for better fitting when text is justified. Small Caps. Indent Left/Right Margin . Italic.Adjusts the line spacing. • To spell check. Subscript.

Add various combinations of highlights and shadows to a layer. glows or bevel/emboss. Satin . Gradient. • Click on the Style headings in the left panel to activate/deactivate the individual layer style controls. giving the layer a recessed appearance. Color. Once you have applied a Layer Style you can alter and adjust the colours/ effects by re-opening the layer style options.the layer’s content with a color.html 34 .adobe.LAYER STYLES The Layer Style options allow you to apply simple effects such as drop shadows. Bevel and Emboss .Adds a shadow that falls just inside the edges of the layer’s content.0/WSfd1234e1c4b69f30e a53e41001031ab64-789ba.com/en_US/ Photoshop/11. Choose a layer style from the drop down menu. Outer Glow & Inner Glow . Notice that in the Layer palette a small fx symbol appears on any layer that has a style attached to it.Outlines the object on the current layer using color. Stroke .Adds a shadow that falls behind the contents on the layer. • Double-click the fx symbol in the Layer palette to open the Layer Style options. Drop Shadow . or pattern. Each effect adds a sense of three-dimensions to your type or image layer. Inner Shadow . and Pattern Overlay Fills . For further info on Layer Styles see: http://help. or a pattern. • In the Layer Style controls adjust the Structure and Quality options to taste. It is particularly useful on hardedged shapes such as type.Add glows that emanate from the outside or inside edges of the layer’s content.Applies interior shading that creates a satiny finish. • To add a layer style click the Add a Layer Style fx button at the bottom of the Layers palette. gradient. a gradient.

Paste (cmd-V) to paste the screen grab into a file as a new layer. If you are looking for a specific font to use try taking a font preview from the Internet or download the font. • Double-click the fx symbol in the Layer palette to open the Layer Style options to adjust the effects to taste. Insert your word into the Custom preview box. Layer Styles that you create independently can also be saved and stored. • Go to wwwdafont. graphic or text layers). • Got to Edit .STYLES PALETTE The Styles palette stores a range of preset layer style combinations that can be added to either text or image layers. • If you have created you own Layer Styles and wish to save them for future use. click the Add New Style button.com and choose a theme from the fonts menu. • Click on a Style to add it to the layer. Add New Style • From the Options menu choose Save Styles to save the added styles to either a USB storage device or Hard drive. 35 . Options • Open the Styles palette and click the options button to choose from the set of style libraries (for either image. • Use the Selection tools and Copy/Paste techniques to separate the letters from the background. change the size to large then hold Shift-ctrl-cmd–4 on the keyboard and select the word (On a PC press the Print Screen button (PrtScn).

New and create an A4 blank canvas. • Use the Move tool to position the Shape Layer on the canvas. • Double-click the colour symbol on the shape layer to open the colour picker and choose a new colour. notice it appears as a new layer with a mask in the Layers palette.0/WSfd1234e1c4b69f30e a53e41001031ab64-73a9a. go to the Options Bar to pick a different shape. • Go to the Styles palette and experiment with the different preset styles or add your own Layer Style by clicking the fx button at the bottom of the Layers palette. • Go to File .SHAPE TOOLS The Shape Tools are used to create simple geometric shape layers.adobe. Custom Shapes & Options • With the Rectangular Tool still chosen.com/en_US/ Photoshop/11. tick the Show Transform Controls in the Options Bar to scale or rotate the shape.html 36 . • Choose the Custom Shape Tool to open a list of basic shapes. For additional info on shapes go to http://help. • Choose the Rectangle Tool from the Toolbox and click-drag to create a rectangular shape. • Click the Custom Shape Tool Options button and choose a shape library or choose All from the menu to see all the custom shapes.

how colours blend with each other Opacity .how soft or hard the brush is Brush Preset Options .0/WSfd1234e1c4b69f30ea53 e41001031ab64-780aa.PART SEVEN: PAINTING TOOLS BRUSH TOOL The Brush Tool is used for painting and has a wide range of available brush libraries and settings. Note: It is important that when using brushes you work on a new empty layer. load. • Choose the Brush Tool from the Toolbox. save or replace brushes and gives access to the alternative brush libraries. Click Reset Brushes to reset to the standard brushes.adjusts the flow of paint Airbrush . This way you can fully control how the paint affects any layers below. You can also download additional brushes to add to your library or create your own.adjusts the paint transparency Flow .sprays paint like an airbrush 37 . • Create a new layer by clicking the Create a New Layer button in the Layers palette.com/en_US/ Photoshop/11. Note: when you choose a different brush library from the options it replaces the current set.adobe. Master Diameter .adjusts the brush blending mode.html Mode . For additional info on painting go to http://help.opens the brush options which lets you reset. • Click the Brush Preset button to open the brushes library. Brush Presets Options Airbrush The Brush Tool Options Bar allows you to adjust the brush settings.the size of the brush Hardness .

Here you can adjust multiple settings for how paint is applied to the canvas.Brushes to open the Brushes Palette. hold down the mouse button without dragging to build up color. The Brush Tool has a wide range of additional dynamic options that can be accessed via the Brushes Palette.com www.com/en_US/ Photoshop/11. For a full explanation of Brush Dynamic settings and how to modify and create brushes go to: http://help. Alternatively: • Go to the Workspace options in the Applications Bar and choose Painting from the workspace list to open the most relevant control palettes for painting. The new brush set will appear at the bottom of the current set.To paint do one or more of the following: • Click-drag in the image to paint. Click the options button and choose Load Brushes from the menu.brusheezy. Then hold down Shift. • Click the Toggle Brushes Panel button in the Brush Tool Options Bar or go to Window . • To draw a straight line. 38 . click a starting point in the image.0/WSfd1234e1c4b69f30ea53e 41001031ab64-7800a. • When using the Brush tool as an airbrush. The Brushes Palette gives access to the Brush Dynamics panel.html For a range of free downloadable brushes and tutorials go to: www. • Experiment with the variety of Brush Dynamic options.psd. and click an ending point.com Note: To load downloaded brush sets click the Brush Preset button.adobe.tutsplus.

Reflected. Diamond. • Gradients can be adjusted by using the Gradient Tool Options Bar. • Click the Foreground/Background swatches in the Toolbox to open the colour picker and choose the colours you want to blend. Click the options tab to access different preset libraries.html 39 .adobe. • Click the Gradient Tab in the Options Bar to open the Gradient Library. Options For a full explanation of Gradient settings and how to modify and create them go to: http://help. either Linear. • Click-drag across the page to create a gradient. Angle. Radial.com/en_US/ Photoshop/11. • Choose the Gradient Style from the Options Bar.GRADIENT TOOL The Gradient Tool is used to create a blend of two or more colours.0/WSfd1234e1c4b69f30e a53e41001031ab64-77e1a. • Choose the Gradient Tool from the Toolbox. • Create a new layer by clicking the Create a New Layer button in the Layers palette.

such as sharpening or blurring photos. • Choose the Eraser Tool from the Toolbox. For a full list of Filter effects and how to modify them go to: http://help.Lets you creatively blur areas of an image. • The Magic Eraser allows you to erase away blocks of similar colour in the same way that the Magic Wand selects colour.com/en_US/Photoshop/11.The Noise filters are used to either add or remove noise (rough grain) from an image.html PART EIGHT: FILTERS You can use Filters to apply special effects to images or to perform common image editing tasks. the higher the number the wider the range of colours. For a full explanation of Eraser settings go to: http://help.g. • Each category has a range of filter effects that match there description e. • Paint over any layer element to erase the pixel data. the Artistic category produces painterly effects to an image. Un-Tick the Contiguous box in the Options Bar if you wish to erase all of the chosen colour in the image.0/WSfd1234e1c4b69f30ea53e41001031ab647970a. Wherever you click that colour will be erased. Sharpen .adobe.html 40 . The best way to learn what looks Filters will give you is to experiment. • Click and hold on the Eraser Tool to open the Eraser additional erasers.Allows you to sharpen the pixel detail of an image. Blur . • Choose a Tolerance setting in the Options Bar.0/WSfd1234e1c4b69f30ea53e41001031ab6477e6a. Some of the Filters you may use frequently while others are only used for specialist tasks or styles.com/en_US/Photoshop/11.adobe. the lower the number the fewer the range of colours will be erased. Three of the most used photographic filter categories are Blur. Noise . Sharpen & Noise. while the Blur category blurs an image. • Go to Filter in the Main Menu to view a list of filter categories.ERASER TOOL The Eraser Tool is used to erase layer elements.

Click OK to apply the Filter effect to the image. • Go to Filter . Make sure you choose the layer you want the effect to appear on before applying. Filters can also be applied to selected areas.com/ 41 . When you are satisfied with the preview. you can then apply it to your image.photoshopsupport. Note: Filter effects only work on the currently active layer. reset options for a filter.com/category/tutorials/ http://www.Filter Gallery to open the filter gallery. You can apply multiple filters.photoshoproadmap.tutsplus.miraztutorials.html http://psd.FILTER GALLERY The Filter Gallery provides a preview of many of the special effects filters. For tutorials on using filters creatively try: http://www.com/photoshop-cs4/tutorials/skin-retouching-tips-cs4. • Use the right side panel to adjust individual filter settings. Not all filters in the Filter menu are available in the Filter Gallery. turn on or off the effect of a filter. Click a heading to see a drop down list previewing the category effects. Some Filters take a lot of processing time so be patient. and change the order in which filters are applied.com/30-awesome-photoshop-cs4-tutorials/ http://www.

Lighting Effects to open the lighting effects controls.html For additional advanced video tutorials on lighting effects try: http://www.LIGHTING EFFECTS FILTER The Lighting Effects filter allows you to light an image using a variety of different light sources.com/en_US/Photoshop/11.aspx?lpk2=737 42 .com/home/DisplayCourse. Light Type & Properties options to change the light effect.Render . • Go to Filter .0/WSfd1234e1c4b69f30ea53e41001031ab647959a. • Adjust the Style. • Click & drag the light source in the Preview window to change the focus or direction of the light beam.lynda. For a full explanation of Lighting Effects and how to modify them go to: http://help. Although complicated to begin with it can be extremely useful for creating mood to an image.adobe.

and bloat any area of an image.youtube. rotate. reflect.html For tips on body re shaping using Liquify go to: http://www. For an explanation of Liquify Effects and how to modify them go to: http://help.com/en_US/Photoshop/11.com/watch?v=omlFrDBKTJ4 43 . pull. In essence the Liquify filter allows you to paint an image so that it looks like liquid.LIQUIFY FILTER The Liquify filter lets you push. however it is often used professionally for slimming down models figures or features. • Go to Filter . The distortions you create can be subtle or drastic. pucker. which makes the Liquify command a powerful tool for retouching images as well as creating artistic effects.adobe. • On the left are the Distortion Tools with the Tool Options displayed in the right panel.0/WSfd1234e1c4b69f30ea53e41001031ab6475faa.Liquify to open the Liquify control panel.