YAMUNA CLEANING PLAN The River Yamuna Originating from the Yamunotri glacier in the lower Himalayas, the

river Yamuna is one of the largest tributaries of the Ganges river network. The river travels a total of 1376 kilometers crossing several northern states in India including Uttarakhand, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and later Delhi. In Hindu mythology, the Yamuna is considered the daughter of Sun God, Surya, and sister of Yama, the God of Death, hence also known as Yami. According to popular legends, bathing in its sacred waters frees one from the torments of death. This river has mythological importance as well because of many anecdotes associated with it and Krishna. But industrialisation and development has created havoc to this river. When the population has increased many a folds and shortage of drinking water created upheavals in Delhi, suddenly government awaken after it became an international issue. Than came the Yamuna cleaning programme in a line of Ganga Action Plan. The Yamuna Action Plan (YAP), a bilateral project between the Government of India and Japan, now in its second phase, is one of the largest river restoration projects in India. The government of Japan via the [Japanese Bank for International Cooperation](JBIC) has provided financial aid of Yen 13.33 billion to carry out the project which is being executed by the National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD), Ministry of Environment and Forests(MOEF), Government of India. The Delhi Stretch of the Yamuna With an annual flow of about 10,000 cubic metres and usage of 4,400 cubic meters (of which irrigation constitutes 96 per cent), the river accounts for more than 70 percent of Delhi’s water supplies. The water of Yamuna is of "reasonably good quality" through its length from Yamunotri in the Himalayas to Wazirabad in Delhi, about 375 km, where the discharge of waste water through 15 drains between Wazirabad barrage and Okhla barrage renders the river severely polluted after Wazirabad in Delhi. The media generally describes the river as “dead” and "sewage drain" with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values ranging from 14 to 28 mg/l and high coliform content. There are three main sources of pollution in the river, namely households and municipal disposal sites, soil erosion resulting from deforestation occurring to make way for agriculture along with resulting chemical wash-off from fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides and run-off from commercial activity and industrial sites. Yamuna Action Plan- I The Yamuna Action Plan Phase-I (YAP-I) project was formulated on the basis of the study conducted under Special Assistance for Project Formulation (SAPROF) of the

Jagadhri. the project was originally planned to be completed by April 2000. Feasibility Study (F/S). and Sewage Treatment Plants (STP). The strategy for these was formulated under the Special Assistance for Project Implementation (SAPI) study conducted by JBIC. Physical Works Implementation a. The Yamuna Action Plan was unable to address the issue of the Yamuna cleanliness fully. more emphasis was given to address various nonsewerage issues. The Delhi stretch being the most polluted with the city dumping more than 58% total sewage generated in it. Government Of India were the executing agencies for the Yamuna Action Plan project with the Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam (UPJN) in UP. 8 towns of U. the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) in Haryana. Wazirabad Road Trunk Sewer e. which was later extended until February 2003. Agra and Etawah) and 6 towns of Haryana (Yamunanagar. Under the Yamuna Action Plan II. Sewage Pumping Stations (PS). Muzaffarnagar. (Saharanpur. A few new towns in UP were identified that were adding to the pollution in the river. and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) in Delhi. Ring Road Trunk Sewer 2 Preparation of Master Plan (M/P). During the extended phase of YAP-I. Panipat. Hence YAP – II was developed. Decentralized Wastewater Treatment for Water bodies (including Pilot Project) b. Gurgaon.P. 32 STPs were constructed and a total sewage treatment capacity of about 735 MLD was created. Bela Road Trunk Sewer d. The National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) under the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF). Mathura. Sonepat. Launched in 1993. Karnal. Ghaziabad. particularly in the 22 km Delhi stretch.Japan Bank for International Co-operation (JBIC). Dairy Farm Waste Management (including Pilot Project) c. Okhla STP b. and covered Delhi. being the chief Project Implementing Agencies (PIAs). the most critical stretches of Yamuna have been taken in to consideration. Detailed Project Report (DPR) for YAP-III a. Noida. Keshopur STP c. However a public participation & awareness (PP&A) program was launched to generate awareness among the beneficiaries in the project area. Diversion Sewer Lines. The components of infrastructure involved construction of Drain Interceptors. Dhobighat Sudhar Yojna . prevented it from becoming a peoples campaign and therefore failed to involve the masses in the cleaning of the river. The Yamuna Action Plan – I under the aegis of the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) did not lay much stress on public awareness and participation.Vrindavan. Name of scheme (Projects in Delhi Only) 1. and Faridabad).

Training of Sugam Kendra Staff About Yamun Action Plan II (YAP II) YAP II is one of the important projects. 8 towns viz Agra. Ghaziabad (under Ghaziabad region) have been selected where river Yamuna passes through. Property Tax. Public Participation in solid waste. Etawah (all under Agra region) Muzaffarnagar. being implemented by U. b. e. Mathura Vrindavana. Noida. Slaughterhouse Modernisation and Waste Management. operation of CTCs etc. School Health & Hygiene Program and Innovative Program) 4 Public Relations (PR) 5 Institutional Strengthening & Capacity Building of MCD a. Delhi and Uttar Pradesh) and within UP. Clean Yamuna Manch b. the NGOs involved have to improve the lives and environment of the community residing in the neighbourhood of the community toilets.P Jal Nigam through its Project offices at Ghaziabad and Agra. Slum Rehabilitation Study 3 Public Participation & Awareness (PP&A) a. It is being implemented in 3 States of the country (Haryana. Saharanpur. Antim Niwas Sudhar Yojna (including Pilot Project) f. School health and hygiene programme .(including Pilot Project) d. These themes include Socio–economic up-gradation of the Community Toilet Complexes neighbourhood As the name suggests. Usage of High Resolution Satellite Imagery c. Other PP&A Programme (Socio Economic & Environmental upgrading Program. Therefore in YAP phase II a special component named as Public Participation & Awareness component has been brought in wherein NGOs are partnering to work at the community level on different identified themes. During the first phase of the programme it came out that the river water pollution cannot be lowered down without the active participation of the citizens.

17 drains. CO levels are twice the permissible standard. half burnt bodies and carcasses. Content of suspended solids in Yamuna – 1.000-10. The dissolved oxygen level is critically important for water plants and fish. Content of Coliform level in Yamuna – 11. Delhi’s drinking water requirement – 1480 cusecs. Permissible content of Coliform level – 5000 per 100 of water Coliforms cause many serious diseases relating to the digestive system.000 mg Permissible content of suspended solids – 100 mg. open defecation. bring the issue into mainstream of media and academia and hold continuous dialogue. Available drinking water – 1221 cusecs. fisheries and drinking. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) – 15 – 30 mg per litre. Existing Scenario The 22 km stretch of Yamuna in Delhi gets polluted from toxic effluents from factories and power stations. Air Pollution. According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). It is one of the pilot programmes to substantiate the efforts of other programmes of the Agra region. Town Specific innovation programme In this program NGOs are given a flexibility to design and develop a programme specific to the town requirements and could be one of the most innovative approaches and not necessarily duplicating the target groups. Existing Scenario of Yamuna Action Plan in Delhi A. Dissolved oxygen level in Yamuna – 0. to work exclusively at the Stakeholders level. Clean Yamuna Manch It is a forum of NGOs working in Agra city. Normal oxygen level – 4 mg per litre. cattle and human bathing etc. The 4 mini STPs are functioning at 30- .81 crore. river water of category E. Normal BOD level – 3 mg per litre. RSPM levels 3 times higher than normal.8 crore per 100 ml of water. 744 million litres/day (MLD) of sewage was proposed to be intercepted and treated before it enters the river. Remaining sewage goes into the Yamuna through the 17 drains. Daily sewage generation in Delhi is about 2871 million litres and Sewage treated 1478 million litres. Existing forest cover is about 10.2% of the total area. Required forest cover is 33% of the total area. It is unfit for wildlife. Mini and micro sewage treatment plants (STPs) were envisaged at a cost of Rs 9.Wherein school going children have been targeted to sensitise upon the need for maintaining personal hygiene and sanitation. Sewage Treatment: The river was supposed to be cleaned by ensuring no-entry of untreated sewage. making it fit only for recreation and industrial cooling purposes.

Faults Some drains that dump wastewater into the Yamuna are not intercepted and so some new pollution points have come up.16 crore to create awareness and encourage slum dwellers to use the CTCs. especially slumdwellers to dissuade open defecation. prohibiting people from throwing anything and everything into the river. Civil Zone has 112. Installed STPs are functioning inefficiently and erratically. 17000 of these built seats have no water or power connection and are ill maintained. Rohini has 85. NGOs etc but are shut instead as they are loss-making proposition for the organization.10 crore. with toilets right outside the colonies. Community Toilet Complexes (CTCs): JBIC gives the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) Rs 164 crore to build adequate toilets for Delhiites. Work began in July 2001 i. Narela has 8. Mobile Toilet Vans (MTVs).870 seats were constructed near JJ colonies on and along the riverbank at an estimated cost of Rs149. NGO A coordinating NGO Accord was given 2. Latest samples of CPCB from Palla (where river enters Delhi). Problem areas: Muzaffarnagar. locked. a year after the project was intercepted.000 seats were to be built by MCD. Issue Building toilets to reduce pollution in the river is a baseless solution because the key lies in intercepting the sewage for treatment. 1150 CTCs with 30. Najafgarh has 215. thus defeating the very purpose of the YAP. 40% of the CTCs opened are not connected to sewage lines and empty directly into the Yamuna. Many CTCs are constructed arbitrarily without any need-assessment surveys as problems like unbalanced distribution of toilets. E. Iron Grills were put across the Yamuna bridges. The 10 micro STPs are yet to begin operations since they haven’t been electrified so far. The MCD got 180 MTVs at a cost of Rs 4. Yamunanagar.40% efficiency. Also. as the wastewater to be treated does not reach it. unsuitable location of toilets etc prevail. Shadara-South has 40. 953 CTCs with 26.Frequent power cuts stall work. Shadara-North has 75.38 crore used for making 953 CTCs. Toilet blocks in Delhi: The Central Zone of the MCD has 35.38 crore. Nizammudin and Okhla reveal that there has been no change in the quality of Yamuna water since the past 2 years. high charges etc. CTCs have problems like not being connected to sewage lines. Less than 40% of these toilets have been opened for public. Karol Bagh has 36. thus forcing the NGOs to keep the CTCs shut. Meanwhile. C. . B. 9000 odd CTCs are supposed to be operated by private firms. NGOs over-bidded for the CTCs in the open auction by the MCD and now the people are not willing to pay Re 1 also. City Zone has 16. Furthermore. Sadar Paharganj has 34. Agra and Faridabad. South Zone has 45 and West Zone has 50. D.e. open spaces are still being used for urination and defecation. which was part of the Rs 149.

D. Budget: Rs 1417 crores approved under the Tenth Plan to be revised to Rs 1825 crore later. only 2 have been commissioned so far. of which the Centre’s share is 3464 crore. 763 projects worth Rs 2640 crores have been sanctioned under the plan. MCD. The Delhi government promised to set up 15 CETPs five years back.Other Plans to Control Pollution in Yamuna A. Anaerobic Sludge-Blanket Reactor. As an immediate measure to stop pollution in the river this state of the art machine will be used simultaneously with CETPs. The never-ending drama of illegal encroachment needs to be stopped. Columbia. and Central Government) to remove all illegal. C. Objective: To maintain the quality of the water of the major rivers through the implementation of various pollution abatement schemes. Issues The authorised construction of the Akshardham Temple on Yamuna’s riverbed in Delhi. unauthorised constructions. B. E. MCD participates by helping dump the dirt to the Bhalswa dumping ground. Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETP) . Clean Yamuna Drive Announced by Delhi Chief Minister Sheila Dikshit. checking the contamination. Norway and the Netherlands. Approved cost of the project – Rs 4064 crores. PWD. DJB. Each DUC is capable of taking out 180 cum of silt in 6 hours. The silt brought out will be recycled as manure for cultivation purposes. Dredge utility crafts (DUC) The Delhi Government spent Rs 26 lakh on the DUCs that are best suited to move the silt in the bed. National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) The NRCP covers 157 towns and 31 stretches of polluted rivers in 18 States. F. Governing Body: National River Conservation Authority (NRCA) Target: to clean all major rivers by 2007 and others by 2012. Clearing Of Yamuna Slums The Delhi High Court directed the concerned authorities (DDA. . These reactors are successfully operational in Germany. when the Delhi High Court wants the clearing of the river bed in 2 months. The river-cleansing programme was started with the Ganga Action Plan (GAP) in 1985 to GAP-II in 1995 before being merged into the NRCP in 1996. volunteers help clean up the riverbed. including places of worship on Yamuna bed and its embankment within 2 months from March 2003. of which 338 have been completed.

The age-old custom of throwing sacred things into the river Yamuna cannot be suddenly stopped in a country that boasts of its rich cultural heritage and customs. with plants having insufficient sewage to treat. In both states improved wood-based crematoria haven’t taken off which were intended to reduce the wood use and time taken by half. as infrastructure work has been completed and is working well. even after so much money has gone into it. WWF-India as an ENVIS Centre/Node. Project Management Consultants for Yamuna Action Plan Phase II. 1. the plan’s outcome is yet invisible. the project defies the very role it was meant to play.org/wiki/Yamuna Wikipedia Article on Yamuna].wikipedia. http://[en. 3. Outcome of Yamuna Action Plan Haryana fares better than U. Wikipedia Yamuna Article. 4.com/downloads/yap2-vision-document. The feasibility study of the project has played a very negligible role in the whole operation.P. In Delhi. .pmc4yap2. [www. Due to this. Treated effluents are discarded into drains or canals and biogas utilization is poor.pdf Website of official consultants with Delhi Government] 5. 2.

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