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0dyóem'DyeD
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rmwdum

rlved'gef;

1-0dyv’mo uxm

2-rnemuxm

3-tbdead 0ouxm

4-blru
d xm

5-*wduxm

6-opöuxm

7-ypö,uxm

8-tbdnmuxm
9-y&dnmuxm

wD&Py&dnmtus,f

y[me y&dnmtus,fum;

0dyóemvkyif ef;

ed*;kH

0dyóem'DyeD rmwdumNy;D Ny/D


--------- Ä ---------
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 1
rlved'gef;
aAm"ae,sH ZeH 'doGm?
owo[aóyd a,mZae/
caPe Oy*EÉme?
aAma"wd wH r[mrked/
(ty'ge-|-y-36)
r[mrked=rkedig;rsKd; tpdk;&awmfrlaom jrwfpGmbk&m;ocif
onf? aAm"ae,s=H uRwx f u
kd af om? ZeH=owå0gud?k 'domG =jrifawmfrl
onf & S d a omf ? owo[aóyd a,mZae=,l Z emwpf o d e f ;
c&D;üvnf;? caPe=cPcsif;jzifh? Oy*EÉme=u½kPma&SUxm;
<uoGm;awmfrlí? wH=xdkuRwfxdkufaom owå0gudk? aAma"wd=
uRwfapawmfr;\/
a0ae,sowå 0 gtaygif ; wd k Y t m; oem;awmf r l a om
oAÁñkjrwfpGmbk&m;onf uRwfxdkufaom owå0g&Sdu c&D;,lZem
wpf o d e f ; yif a0;uG m aomf v nf ; cPcsif ; <uoG m ;awmf r l í
owå0gwdkYtm; opömav;yg;udkjyí udavomaxmif aESmiftdrf
twGif;rS uRwfvGwfapawmfrlouJhodkY rkH&GmNrdKU v,fwD q&mawmf
bk&m;BuD;onf wdkif;&if;om; &[ef;ç &Sifç vl cyfodrf; olwdkYtm;
w&m;a&at; tNrKd uaf q;udk wdu k af uR;awmfrv
l suf r*fzv kd f vdv
k m;
trsK;d om;wdYk yGg;rsm;&ef 0dyóemÓPfukd enf;rSef use ,xmblw
tedpöobm0 'ku©obm0 tewåobm0 ocFg&wdkYudk nmw
y&dnmOf wd&Py&dnmPf y[mey&dnmOf tpDt&ifwdkYjzifh
todÓPf yGifhvif;Muapjcif;iSg þ0dyóem'DyeDusrf;udk pD&if
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 2
tm;xkwfawmfrlownf;/
,if; 0dyóem'DyeDusrf;udk r*fzdkvfvdkvm; oyÜK&do
taygif; olawmfaumif;wdkYtm; þbk&m; omoemawmfwGif;üyif
udavom 10-yg;wdkYwGif tqdk;0g;qkH;jzpfaom 'd|dudavom
vsifpGmuGmcsKyf avmukwå&mbkHom; jzpfMuap&ef xufoefaom
pdwfqE´jzifh aeYaeYnn 0d&d,or®yÜ"mef av;wefaomt*FgESifh
0dyóemrcRwf xG#fjrwfaomw&m;udk yGg;rsm;&GufaqmifEdkifMuyg
apukefownf;/
¤if; 0dyóem'DyeD usr;f udk orm"drsurf eS jf zifh xufoefpmG
Munf h ½ I o G m ;ygvQif "r® & o 0d y óemw&m; t0g;0NyD ; vQif
aAm"dyu©d, "r®aomw txufodkY qefvdkç wufvdkaom pdwfxl;
pdwfjrwfrsm; ay:aygufvmvdrfhrnf? xdktcg Ak'¨bmomac:qdk
avmufí vljzpfusKd;eyfNyD[k rdrdudk,fudk rdrd0rf;ajrmufEdkif&ef
tcsufBuD;wpfckjzpfygaMumif;/
xdaYk Mumifh þ0dyóem'DyeDusr;f udk 0rf;yef;wom yDwjd zmí
ruGmaeYn pGJvkv’jzifh tzefzeftxyfxyf rjywfMunfh½I owdjyK
awmfrlEdkifMuygapukefownf;/
rlved'gef; NyD;\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 5
3/ 'd|d0dyv’moü vrf;rSm;BuD; Oyrm?
xkdoHk;yg;wkdYwGif-
1/ onm0d y v’ m oü awmorif O yrm qk d o nf u m;
wpfckaom awmBuD;tv,fü pyg;cif; vkyfukdifíxm;\? awm
orifwkdYonf v,f&Sifa,mufsm; r&SdpOf xkdpyg;cif;okdYvmí toD;
tESHwkdYukd pm;wwfMu\? v,f&Sifonf awmorifwkdYukd aMumuf
vefYapjcif;iSg jrufajcmufwkdYukd vl½kyfoP²mefjyKvkyfí pyg;cif;
tv,fü pku d x
f m;\? xkvd ½l yk üf jrufajcmufwuYdk dk avQmf jzifzh UGJ pnf;í
uk, d of P²mefç OD;acgif;oP²mefç vufajc oP²mef vky\ f ? tk;d i,fudk
xH;k jzLjzifh rsuEf mS oP²mefa&;í OD;acgif;ü pGyxf m;\/ t0wfa[mif;?
tuÐsa[mif;wkdYukd 0wfpGyfíxm;\? vufwkdYü av;jr§m;wkdYukd ukdif
pJGíxm;\? awmorifwkdYonf xkdpyg;cif;okdY pm;tHhaomiSg vm
Muukef&m xkdvl½kyfukdjrifMuvQif vlr[kwfonfü vlt[kwf xif
rSwf aMumufvefYí ajy;Muukef\/
þOyrmwGif awmorifwkdYü yuwdaom vl\ toGifukd
a&S;ü rSwf&if;&Sd\? xkdtrSwftwkdif; jruf½kyfukd vl[lírSwfjyef\?
trSwfrSm;\? onm0dyv’moonf þawmorif OyrmESifhwl\?
tvG e f w d r f a um\? rsuf p d v nf a omol o nf aexG u f a e0if
aMumifaMumif jrifvsuEf iS hf rSm;ouJo h Ydk aMumifaMumifjrifvsuEf iS hf
rSm;wwf\? rSm;rdjyefvQif tvGefckdifNrJwwf\? ajymif;vGJí r&Edkif
&Sw
d wf\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 3
0dyóem'DyeD
earm wó b*0awm t&[awm
or®morÁK'ó
¨ /
1-0dyv’mo uxm
0dyv’mow&m; 3-yg;
0d y v’ m oqk d o nf u m; azmuf j yef r S m ;,G i f ; jcif ; wnf ; ?
[kwo
f nfç rSeo
f nfü r[kwrf rSe[ f k rSm;,Gi;f jcif;ç r[kwrf rSeo f nfü
[kwfonfç rSefonf[k rSm;,Gif;jcif;wnf;/
0dyv’moonf-
(1) onm0dyv’mo wpfyg;ç
(2) pdwå 0dyv’mo wpfyg;
(3) 'd|d0dyv’mo wpfyg;
[lí oHk;yg;&Sd\/
xk d oH k ; yg;wk d Y w G i f -
(1) onm0dyv’mo qkdonfum; trSwfrSm;jcif;wnf;/
xkdtrSwfrSm;jcif;onf av;yg;&Sd\/
u/ tedpöü edpö[k trSwfrSm;jcif;wpfyg;
c/ tokbü okb[k trSwfrSm;jcif;wpfyg;
*/ 'ku©ü okc[k trSwfrSm;jcif;wpfyg;
C/ tewåü twå[k trSwfrSm;jcif;wpfyg;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 5
3/ 'd|d0dyv’moü vrf;rSm;BuD; Oyrm?
xkdoHk;yg;wkdYwGif-
1/ onm0d y v’ m oü awmorif O yrm qk d o nf u m;
wpf c k a om awmBuD ; tv,f ü pyg;cif ; vk y f u k d i f í xm;\?
awmorifwkdYonf v,f&Sifa,mufsm;r&SdpOf xkdpyg;cif;okdYvmí
toD;tESHwkdYukd pm;wwf Mu\? v,f&Sifonf awmorifwkdYukd
aMumufvefYapjcif;iSg jrufajcmufwkdYukd vl½kyfoP²mefjyKvkyfí
pyg;cif;tv,fü pkdufxm;\? xkdvl½kyfü jruf ajcmufwkdYukd
avQmjf zifzh UGJ pnf;í uk,
d o
f P²mefç OD;acgif;oP²mefç vufajc oP²mef
vkyf\? tkd;i,fukd xHk;jzLjzifh rsufESmoP²mefa&;í OD;acgif;ü
pGyfxm;\/ t0wfa[mif;? tuÐsa[mif;wkdYukd 0wfpGyfíxm;\?
vuf w k d Y ü av;jr§ m ;wk d Y u k d u k d i f p J G í xm;\? awmorif w k d Y o nf
xkdpyg;cif;okdY pm;tHhaomiSg vmMuukef&m xkdvl½kyfukdjrifMuvQif
vlr[kwo f nfü vlt[kwf xifrw S f aMumufvefíY ajy;Muuke\ f /
þOyrmwGif awmorifwkdYü yuwdaom vl\ toGifukd
a&S;ü rSwf&if;&Sd\? xkdtrSwftwkdif; jruf½kyfukd vl[lírSwfjyef\?
trSwfrSm;\? onm0dyv’moonf þawmorif OyrmESifhwl\?
tvG e f w d r f a um\? rsuf p d v nf a omol o nf aexG u f a e0if
aMumifaMumif jrifvsuEf iS hf rSm;ouJo h Ydk aMumifaMumifjrifvsuEf iS hf
rSm;wwf\? rSm;rdjyefvQif tvGef ckdifNrJwwf\? ajymif;vGJí
r&Edik &f w
dS wf\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 6
ukd,fcE¨mwkdYü tokbtcsufç tedpöç 'ku©ç tewå tcsuf
rsm;onf ukd,fawGUrsufjrifxif&Sm;onfvnf; tvGefrsm;\?
aMumifaMumif jrifrsdK;yifjzpf\? onm0dyv’moonf awmorif
uJhokdY aMumifaMumifjrifvsufESifh rSm;wwf\/
2/ pdwå0dyv’moü rsufvSnfhBuD; Oyrmqkdonfum;
rsuvf n S Bhf u;D ynmrsKd ;onf&\ dS ? xkyd nmjzifh jyKvyk í f jyonf&adS omf
Munfhjrifol vltrsm;wkdYonf ajrpkdifcJ ponfukd a&TcJ aiGcJ ponf
xifjrifMuuke\ f ? rsuv f n S yhf nm\ tpGr;f onfvw l \ Ydk yuwdaom
rsufpdjrifrIukd zsufí rsufpdjrifrIwpfrsdK; ajymif;vJapEdkif\?
wpfcPtm;jzifh pdwu f dk azmufjyefapEdik \ f ? yuwdtcgü ajrpkid cf u J dk
ajrpkdifcJtwkdif; jrifMuukef\? xkdtcg ajrpkdifcJukd 0g0g0if;0if;
a½Ttqif;? jzLjzLvif;vif; aiGtqif;taeESihf jrifMuuke\ f ? a½T[í l
aiG[lí ,HkMunfjcif; rSm;,Gif;Muukef\/
þOyrmESiw hf pl mG pdwo f nf r[kwo f nfut dk [kwf vkyBf uí H
vSnphf m;wwf\? nOft h cg opfiw k u
f jdk rifav&m vl[í l vSnphf m;\?
awmcsHKukdjrifav&m awmqif[lí vSnfhpm;\? awmqifukdjrif
av&m awmcsKH[lívSnfhpm;\? avmuü 'd|rsufjrifxJwGif
txifrmS ;orQ onf pdw\ f vSnphf m;rIcsn;f rSw?f pdw0å yd v’moonf
r[kwo f nfut dk [kwf vkyBf uí H vSnphf m;wwfaomaMumifh onm
0dyv’moxuf eufeJ\? okdY&mwGif taMumif;,kwådESifh ajzazsmuf
vQif ajyaysmufvG,f\? onmuJhokdY rckdifNrJwwf/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 7
3/ 'd|0d yd v’moü vrf;rSm;Bu;D Oyrmqko d nfum; wpfcak om
awmBuD;onf&Sd\? xkdawmBuD;ü bDvl;ac:aom ewfqkd;wkdYonf
NrdKU&Gm wnfaxmifíaeMuukef\? vrf;c&D;ü ruRrf;usifaom
c&D;onfwkdYonf xkdawmBuD;odkY a&mufMuukef\? ewfqkd;wkdYonf
rdrw d Ydk NrKd U&Gmukd ewfNrKd U ewf&mG uJo
h vYdk nf;aumif;ç rdrw d Ydk uk, d u
f v dk nf;
ewforD; ewfom;wkdYuJhokdY vnf;aumif;ç zefqif;MuukefNyD;vQif
vrf;ukv d nf; ewfvrf;uJo h Ydk om,mpGm zefqif;Muuke\ f ? c&D;onf
wko Yd nf xkv d rf;ukd awGUjrifMu&m NrKd UBu;D &GmBu;D odYk oGm;aomvrf;[k
,HkMunfMuukefojzifh vrf;½dk; vrf;rSefukd pGefYvTwfMuukefNyD;vQif
xkdvrf;qkd; vrf;rSm;BuD;okdY vkdufoGm;Muavukef\? ewfqkd;wkdY\
NrKd U&GmodYk a&mufMuukeaf omtcg vlaumif;olaumif;wd\ Yk NrKd U&Gm[k
xifrSwfMuukefí ,HkMunfpdwfcs tdyfaeMuukef\? ewfqkd;wkdYonf
nOfhtcgü xkdolwkdY\ ukd,fcE¨mtwGif;okdY yl;0ifMuukefNyD;vQif
tonf;ç tqkyçf ESv;kH onf;yGww f üYdk uku
d í
f wpfu, dk v f ;kH rS taoG;
tqDwkdYudk pkwf,l rsKdaomufMuukef\? xkdc&D;onfwdkYonf ao
qkH;Muavukef\/
þOyrmü umrbkçH ½lybkçH t½lybk[ H al om bko
H ;Hk yg;onf
¤if;awm BuD;ESifhwl\? þowå0gwkdYonf ¤if;c&D;onfwkdYESifh
wlukef\? or®m'd|d t,lonf vrf;½kd;vrf;rSefESifhwl\? rdpäm'd|d
t,lrsKd;onf vrf;qkd;vrf; rSm;BuD;ESifhwl\/
þpum;ü or®m'd|donf-
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 8
(u) avmuDor®m'd|d?
(c) aAm"dyu©d,or®m'd|d?
[lí ESpfyg;&Sd\/
xkEd pS yf g;wkw
Yd iG -f
rdrdjyKaom ukodkvfuHç tukokdvfuHonfomvQif b0
oHo&mü tpOfygaom ukd,fykdifOpöm rSefacsonf[k ,laom
ur®óuwm or®m'd|donf avmuDor®m'd|d rnf\? y#dpö
orkygÜ 'fEiS whf uG cE¨m tm,we tewåwu Ykd dk odjrifaomÓPfonf
aAm"dyu©d, or®m'd|d rnf\/
xkdESpfyg;wkdYwGif 0¥yu©ü ur®óuwm or®m'd|donf
vrf;½kd; vrf;rSefBuD;ESifhwl\? vlYjynf ewfjynf jA[®mhjynf[laom
ok*wdbkHrsm;onf vlaumif;olaumif;wkdY\ NrdKU&GmESifhwl\/
ukokdvfuHç tukodkvfuHukdvnf;aumif;ç ukodkvfuHç
tukodkvfuH\ tusKd;ukdvnf;aumif;ç ypfy,faom ew¬du'd|dç
ta[wku'd|çd tud&, d 'd|d rsm;onf vrf;qk;d vrf;rSm;Bu;D ESifh wl\?
i&Jjynfç wd&pämefjynfç Nyw d må jynfç tok&um,fjynf[al om 'k*w ¾ d
bkHrsm;onf ewfqkd;wkdY\ NrdKU&GmESifh wl\/
0d0¥yu©ürlum; aAm"dyu©, d or®m'd|o d nf vrf;½k;d vrf;rSef
Bu;D ESihf wl\? edAmÁ efonf vlaumif; olaumif;wk\ Yd NrKd U&GmESifh wl\/
rdrcd E¨muk,
d uf dk ig\twå[k pGv J rf;aom twå'|d d ouúm,
'd|donf vrf;qkd;vrf;rSm;BuD;ESihfwl\? vlYjynf ewfjynf jA[®mh
jynfESihfwuGaom oHo&mavmuBuD;onf ewfqkd;wkdY\ NrdKU&GmESifh
wl\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 9
þ 0d0¥yu©ü twå'd|d ouúm,'d|dukdyif 'd|d0dyv’mo
qkd\? þ'd|d0dyv’moonf pdwå0dyv’moxuf eufeJ\? tvGef
vnf; ckdifNrJ\/
0dyv’mouxmNy;D \/
————Ä————
2-rnemuxm
rnemw&m; 3-yg;
rnemqko d nfum; txifBu;D jcif;wnf;? [kwrf eS o
f nfxuf
ykdvGefí xifjcif;wnf;? t0dZÆmtwGufaMumifh 0dyv’mow&m;
jzpfyGg;\? 0dyv’mow&m;twGufaMumifh txifBuD;jcif; jzpfyGg;\/
xkdrnemonf –
(1) wPSmrnemwpfyg;?
(2) rmernemwpfyg;?
(3) 'd|drnem wpfyg;?
[lí okH;yg;&Sd\/
xkod ;Hk yg;wGi-f
(1) wPSmrnem qkdonfum; ig\ykdif&mqkdif&m r[kwf
onfü ig\ykdif&mqkdif&m[kwf\[k cifwG,frIESihf txifBuD;jcif;
wnf;? trSetf m;jzifh ig[líyif r&S?d ig[lí r&Sv
d Qif ig\ykid &f mqkid &f m
[lí r&Sd? xkdokdY r&SdygbJvsuf tZÑwå0w¬KwkdYüvnf;aumif;ç
A[d'¨0w¬KwkdYüvnf;aumif; ]]þonfum; ig\ykdif&mwnf;?
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 10
þonfum; ig\ykdif&mr[kwf? þonfum; ig\qkdif&m wnf;?
þonfum; ig\qkdif&mr[kwf}} [lí ig\ykdif&m qkdif&mtaeESihf
pdwfxJwGif uGufjcm;rIBuD; txiftpGJ &Sdaejcif;onf wPSm
rnemrnf\/
tZÑw0å w¬Kqo dk nfum; rdr\
d uk,
d cf E¨mç rdr\
d OD;acgif;ç ajcç
vufç rdr\
d pu©K aomw ponfwaYdk ywnf;? A[d'0¨ w¬K qko d nfum;
rdrd\ trdç tbç aqGrsKd; ponf rdrd\ EGm;ç uRJç qifç jrif; ponf
rdrd\tdrf&mç 0if;NcHç v,f,m O,smOfç opfyifç csKHEG,fç rdrd\
0wfpm;wefqmç &wemç a&Tç aiG ponfwnf;/
(2) rmernem qkdonfum; tZÑwå0w¬KwkdYudk igig[lí
pdwfxJwGif txifBuD;aerIwnf;? xkdig[laom txifBuD;rIonf
tZÑwå0w¬K A[d'¨0w¬KwkdYu tm;ay;tm;ajr§muf taxmuftul
&SdcJhaomf vGefpGmarmufrm armf<um; axmifvTm; wuf<uwwf\/
tZÑwå0w¬K qdkonfum; rsufpdtm;ç em;tm;ç vuftm;ç
ajctm;ç oDvtm;ç okwtm;ç ynmtm;ç wefc;dk tm; ponfwnf;/
A[d'0¨ w¬K qko
d nfum; aqGtm;ç rsK;d tm;ç &yftm;ç &Gmtm;ç
Opöm"etm;ç vufeuftm; ponfwnf;? rsufpdaumif;vQif
rsupf t
d wGuf igtm;wuf\? rsupf ud ef;olrmS xkt d m;,kwaf vsm\h ?
þokdY ponfjzifh ajrmfav/
(3) 'd | d r nem qkdonfum; tZÑwå0w¬KwkdYudk ]]ig\
trmcHç txnfcçH tESpt f om;çtwåom&aywnf;}} [lí pdwxf w
J iG f
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 11
txifBuD;rI aywnf;? ajrtkd; ajrcGufqkdvQif ajronf xkdtkd;
xkcd u
G rf mS trmcH txnfcjH zpf\? xkad jrukyd if tk;d cGuaf c:qkMd u\?
oHt;dk oHcu G q
f v
dk Qif oHonf xkt
d ;dk xdck u
G rf mS trmcH txnfcjH zpf\?
xkdoHukdyif tkd;cGuf ac:qkdMu\/
þOyrmuJo h Ykd tZÑw0å w¬Kjzpfaom yx0D"mwfukd owå0g\
trmcH txnfcHjyKí ig\ trmcH txnfcHjyKaom xkdyx0D
"mwfukdyif owå0g[lí ig[lí txifBuD;rIonf jzpf\? tmayg
"mwfç awaZm"mwf ponfwüYdk vnf; xkt d wlwnf;? þtxifBu;D rIç
txifvGJrIonf aemufüxif&Sm;vwåHU/
þrnemw&m; oH;k yg;ukyd if tckid t
f NrJ pGv
J rf;jcif; teuf
aMumifh *g[w&m;oHk;yg;vnf;ac:\? tus,ftus,f rNidrf;zG,f
aom trIvJG trIrmS ;wku
Yd dk tqifqh ift
h qufquf yGg;rsm;apwwf
aom teufaMumifh yyOöw&m; oHk;yg;vnf; ac:\/
rnemuxm NyD;\/
————Ä————-
3-tbdeda0ouxm
tbd e d a 0ow&m; 2-yg;
tbd e d a 0o qdkonfum; wHcg;wkdif ausmufpmwkdif
armfuGef;wdkifrsm;uJhokdY rnfonfhtaMumif;ESifhrQ rvIyfr&Sm;Ekdif?
ra&GUr,kid Ef idk af tmif ckid Nf rpJ mG pku
d jf rK§ yf wnfaxmifjcif;ukd qko
d wnf;/
xkd tbdeda0oonf-
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 12
(1) wPSmbdeda0owpfyg;?
(2) 'd|mbdeda0owpfyg;?
[líESpyf g;&S\
d /
xkEd pS yf g;wkw
Yd iG -f
(1) wPSmbdeda0o qkdonfum; rdrdukd,fcE¨mukdvnf;
aumif;ç ukd,fcE¨m\ tpdwfjzpfaom OD;acgif;ç vufajcpaom
t*FgMuD;pk rsufpdç em;ç ESmacgif;paom t*Fgi,fpkudkvnf;aumif;
ig\ud,k çf ig\vufç ig\ ajcç ig\rsupf çd ig\em; tp½So d nfjzifh
b0tqufquf ra&GUr,dkif tcdkiftjrJ odrf;ydkufpGJvrf;rIMuD;onf
wPSmbdeda0ornf\/
(2) 'd|mbdeda0o
0oqdkonfum; owÅ0gwdkY\udk,fcE¨mrSm
yk*Kd¾ vf owå0g\ trmcH txnfcjH zpfí tpOftjrJ cdik jf raJ om twå
[laom tMu;D trSL;onf &S\ d ? ZD0[laom tcsKyt
f xde;f onf ½S\ d [k
b0t qufquf ra&GUr,dkif tcdkiftjrJ rSwf,lpGJvrf;rIMuD;onf
'd|mbdeda0o rnf\/
wPSmbdeda0oudk wPSmedó,ç 'd|mbdeda0oudk
'd|dedó, [lívnf; ac:\/
cE¨mig;yg;ç ½kyfemrfw&m;wdkY\ rSDjcif; ESpfyg;[lívnf;
aumif;ç ykxkZÆefowÅ0gwdkY\ rSD&mXmeMuD; ESpfyg;[lívnf;aumif;
qdvk okd nf/
tbdeda0ouxm jyD;\/
————Ä————-
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 13
4-blrduxm
bl r d t jym; 2-yg;
bl r d qdkonfum; owÅ0gwdkY\ wnf&m rSD&m jzpfyGg;&mudk
qdo k wnf;/
(1) ykxkZÆeblrdwpfyg;
(2) t&d,blrdwpfyg;
[lí ESpfyg; ½Sd\/
xdkESpfyg;wdkYwGif -
(1) yk x k Z Æ e bl rd qdkonfum; ykxkZÆebm0udk qdkonf?
ykxkZÆe bm0qdkonfum; 0dyv’mow&m; oHk;yg;wdkYwGif 'd|d
0dyv’mow&m;udk qdkonf? cyfodrf;aom avmuDbHkom;wdkYonf
ig\udk,fcE¨mtwGif;ü edpörsdK;½Sd\? okcrsdK;½Sd\? twÅrsdK;½Sd\[k
tjrifrSm;jcif;ç t,lrSm;jcif;[laom 'd|d0dyv’mow&m;udk wnf&m
rSD&mjyKí aeMuukef\? 'd|drnemw&m;ç 'd|d*g[w&m;ç 'd|dyyÍö
w&m;ç 'd|mbdeda0ow&m;udk tcsKyftcsm wnf&m rSD&mjyKí
aeMuukef\? xdkYaMumifh xdk'd|d0dyv’mow&m;onf ykxkZÆeblrd
rnf\/
(2) t&d , bl r d qdkonfum; t&d,bm0udk qdkonf?
t&d,bm0 qdkonfum; xdk'd|d0dyv’mw&m; tjrpft&if;yg jywf
uif;í udk,fcE¨mwGif;ü edpörsdK;r½Sd? okcrsdK;r½Sd? twÅrsdK;r½Sd[k
tjrift,l ajzmifhrSefaom or®m'd|dÓPfudk qdkonf/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 14
t&d,myk*Kd¾ vw f o
Ykd nf xdtk jrif xdt
k ,lukd wnf&mrS&D mjyKí
aeMuuke\ f ? xdaYk Mumifh xdo k r®m'd|d w&m;onf t&d,blrd rnf\/
terw*¾ oHo&mumvü ykxkZÆeblrdwGif usifvnf
&Snfvsm;í aeMuukefaom ykxkZÆefowå0g teEÅwkdYwGif tMuif
yk*¾dKvfonf wpfckaom aeY&ufü xkdor®m'd|dÓPfukd ykdifEdkifpGm
&ojzifh xk'd |d 0d yd v’mow&m; tjrpft&if;ygjywfuif;\? xkyd *k Kd¾ vf
onf xkdaeY xkd&ufrSpí t&d,blrdokdY a&mufav\? y&rw¬
t&d,mrsdK; jzpf av\/
tcsdKUaom t&d,myk*¾dKvfrsm;rSm onm0dyv’moç pdwå
0dyv’morsm; use&f adS o;aomfvnf; 'd|0d yd v’moBu;D jywfuif;Ny;D í
or®m'd|d ÓPfBu;D udk twnf&ojzifh use&f adS om 0dyv’morsm;onf
'kp½dkuf ajrmufatmif rrkdufrJEdkifMuavNyD? w&m;ojzifh&&Sdaom
pnf;pdrfcsrf; omrsm;ukd cHpm; pHpm;bkdYrQom &Sdawmh\/
blru
d xmNy;D \/
————Ä———-
5-*wduxm
*wd t jym; 2-yg;
*wd qkod nfum;-b0tvm;wnf;? wpfb0rS wpfb0okYd
tquf quf ajymif;vJusifvnfrI aywnf;/
xkd*wdonf-
(1) ykxkZÆe*wdwpfyg;?
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 15
(2) t&d, *wdwpfyg;?
[k *wdtjym; ESpfyg;&dS\/
xkEd pS yf g;wkw
dY iG -f
(1) ykxkZÆe*w *wdqo dk nfum; 0deyd gwtvm;ukd qko
d wnf;?
0dedygwtvm; qkdonfum; y&rf;ywm usjcif;wnf;? y&rf;ywm
usa&muf jcif;qkdonfum; tvkd&Sd&mb0ukd &nf&G,fí usa&muf
Edik Mf uonfr[kw?f trSwrf &Sd wpfcck ak omuH\ ypfcsjcif;jzifh a&muf
wwf&m&m usa&mufjcif;ukd qkdownf;/
xef;yifay:u xef;oD;wkdY\ a<uusjcif;uJhokdY tkef;yif
ay:u tkef;oD;wkdY\ a<uusjcif;uJhokdY ykxkZÆef obm0wkdYrSm ao
onf\ tjcm;rJhü aygufvTwfusjcif;ukd qkdownf;/
cyfodrf;aom owå0gwkdYrSm wpfb0vQif wpfcgao&jcif;
ab;onf NrJ\? aojyefvQif ykxkZÆef owå0gwkdYrSm aoonf\
tjcm;rJhü y&rf;ywmus a&mufjcif; ab;BuD;onfvnf;NrJ\?
aojcif;ab;BuD;ESifh y&rf;ywmusjcif; ab;BuD;onf tpOftNrJ
zufwGJvsuf&Sd\? ao&jcif;ab;xuf y&rf;ywm usa&mufjcif;
ab;onf tvGefBuD;us,f\/
vlUjynfrS aovGefMuaom ykxkZÆefowå0gwkdYrSm atmuf
r[mt 0Dpd i&JBu;D wkid af tmif tvH;k pHak om tyg,fav;bHw k o
Ydk nf
tqD;twm;r&Sd aumif;uifBu;D toGif [mvm[if;vif; tjyifBu;D
tvm;&Sd\? vl\touf 0dnmPfcsKyfqHk;onfESifh wpfNydKifeuf
b,fi&JbHkokdYrqkd usa&mufEdkif\? a0;onf eD;onf[k txl;r&Sd?
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 16
b,fw&d pämefrsKd ;rqkçd b,fNywd må rsKd ;rqkçd b,ftok&um,frsKd ;rqkçd
rsuaf wmifwpfcwf vQyw f pfjyuftwGi;f cPcsi;f jzpfEikd \
f ? txuf
ewfjynf ajcmufxyfwkdYrS aovGefMu&müvnf; xkdYtwlyifwnf;?
txuf½lyç t½lyjA[®mhjynfwkdYrS aovGefMu&mürlum; tajzmifh
tyg,fav;bHkokdY OD;wkdufrusrlí ewfjynf vlYjynfü wpfzef &yf
wefYNyD;rS tyg,fav;bHkodkY usa&mufEdkifMuukef\/
cyfodrf;aom owå0gwkdYonf aojcif;ab;udk aMumuf
vefYMu ukefNrJqkd&mü aojcif;ab;rSm þy&rf;ywmusa&mufjcif;
ab;BuD; tNyD;yg&Sdí aeonfhtwGufaMumifh aojcif;ab;BuD;rS
txl;tcRef tvGefaMumufMu&ukef\/
y&rf;ywm usa&mufjcif;ab;BuD; r&SdMuukefonfjzpfí
aoonfh aemufü rdrdwkdYtvkd&Sd&m &nf&G,f&m bHkb0okdY &nf&G,f
wkdif; a&mufEkdifMuygukefrlum; aojcif;ab;ukd þrQavmuf
vefYMuukefvdrfh rnfr[kwf? wpfbHkü umvMumanmif;vQif bHk
topfajymif;vkdaom pdwfjzpfvmwwfaomf aojcif;ukd tvkd&SdMu
aomtcgyif &Sdwef&mao;\/
þ0deyd gwtvm;[kqt dk yfaom ykxZk eÆ *wdonf tb,f
rQavmuf BuD;us,favoenf;[lrl-
þt&mü
1/ ecodcokwfç
2/ umPupäyokwf
þokwfESpfyg;ukd jyqkd&m\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 17
1/ ecod c ok w f \ vkd&if;teufum; -w&Haomtcg
jrwfpmG bk&m;onf vufonf;awmfzsm;ü ajrrIeiYf ,fwu Ydk dk wifxm;Ny;D
vQif &[ef;wkdYukd ac:í þodkY rdefYawmfrl\/
&[ef;rsm;wkdY-ig\vufonf;awmfzsm;wGif wifxm;aom
ajrrIefYpkESifh r[myx0D wpfjyifvHk;wGif &Sdaeaom ajrrIefYwkdYukd
tenf;trsm;tm;jzifh EdIif;,SOfonf&Sdaomf tb,fajrrIefYpku
enf;yg;í tb,fajrrIefYpku rsm;jym;rnfenf;[k ar;awmfrl\/
xkdtcg &[ef;wkdYu vufonf;awmfzsm;ü wifxm;aom
ajrrIefYpku tvGefyifenf;yg;ygaMumif;? r[myx0D wpfjyifvHk;rSm
&Sdaeaom ajrrIefYpku tvGefyifrsm;jym;ygaMumif; ¤if;r[myx0D
ajrrIefYESifht enf;trsm;tm;jzifh EIdif;,SOfonf&Sdaomf t&Sifbk&m;
vufonf;awmfzsm;ü wifxm;aom ajrrIefYpkonf &Sdonf[lí
rajymqkdavmufygaMumif; ajzMum;Muukef\/
xktd cg jrwfpmG bk&m;u &[ef;wk-Yd þOyrmESiw hf pl mG þvlY
jynfrS aovGeMf uukeaf om ol taygif;wkw Yd iG f vljY ynfewfjynfwrYdk mS
jzpf&aomolç ewfjynfwkdYrS aovGefMuaom oltaygif;wkdYwGif
ewfjynfç vljY ynfwrYdk mS jzpf&aomolrsm;onf ig\vufonf;awmf
zsm;ü wifxm;aom ajrrIepYf u k ohJ Ydk tvGeyf if enf;yg;\? tyg,fav;
bHw k üYdk jzpf&aomolwo Ydk nfru
l m; r[myx0DajrrIeu Yf o hJ Ykd tvGeyf if
rsm;jym;ukef\[lívnf;aumif;ç wpfzef tyg,fav;bHkwkdYrS
aovGefMuukefaom oltaygif;wkdYwGif vlUjynf ewfjynfwkdYrSm jzpf
&aomol r sm;onf ig\vuf o nf ; awmf z sm;ü wif x m;aom
ajrrIeu Yf o
hJ Ydk tvGeef nf;yg;\? tyg,fav;yg;wküYd tzefwvJvjJ zpf
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 18
aeMu&ukefaom owå0gwkdYonfomvQif tvGefrsm;jym;ukef\
[lívnf;aumif; rdefYawmfrl\/ þum; ecodcokwf\ teuf
t"dygÜ ,fwnf;/
r[mork'´&mav;pif;ü &Sdaom a&owå0grsdK;wkdYESifhwuG
tyg,f av;bHktodkufttHk BuD;us,fyHkukd aphpHkpGmajr§mf½INyD;vQif
,ckjyqkdcJhNyD;aom ecodcokwftxGuf teuft"dyÜg,ftwkdif;
tyg,fa&muf tyg,fus0dedygw tvm;BuD;onf b,frQavmuf
BuD;us,faMumif;ukd ajrmfjrifod&SdEdkif&m\/
2/ umPupäyokw\ f vk&d if;teufum; wpf&aH omtcg
jrwfpGmbk&m;onf &[ef;wkdYukdac:í þokdYrdefYawmfrl\/
&[ef;wk-Yd r[mork'&´ mBu;D ü rsupf Ed pS b f ufysuu f ,
G af om
vdyfumPf;i,fwpfckonf &Sd&m\? xkdvdyfumPf;i,fonf eufvS
pGmaom a&\twGif;ü OD;acgif;vSnfhrdvSnfh&m r&yfrem; oGm;í
ae\? tESpfwpf&mç tESpfwpf&m&SdrS a&mufav&m&mü wpfBudrf
wpfBudrfom txufa&ay:odkY OD;acgif;ay:\? wpfzef r[m
ork'&´ mBu;D üyifvQif wpfcak om t&yfü &xm;xrf;yk;d wH;k wpfco k nf
usa&mufae&m\? xkdxrf;ydk;wHk;onf taygufwpfckom&Sd\?
avvkdufç vIdif;vkdufç a&aMumif;vkduf r&yfrem; vGifharsmcgae\?
xkdokdYaeMu&mwGif tMuiftcgü vdyfumPf;i,f\ OD;acgif;
ay:&mt&yfokdY xrf;ykd;wHk;onf a&mufaví vdyf\OD;acgif;onf
xrf;yk;d aygufü vQKd rpd yG rf ad v&m\? xkod Ydk vQKd rpd yG rf ad om tcgtcGihf
onf BuHKBudKufEdkifrnfavm[k ar;awmfrl\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 19
xkt
d cg &[ef;wku Yd BuKH BuKd uEf ikd &f m r&Syd gaMumif;? od&Yk mwGif
jrwfpGmbk&m;...urÇmrnfonf tvGefMum&SnfvSonfjzpfí
vdyfi,f onfvnf; raoraysmuf xrf;ykd;onfvnf; rykyfraqG;
umvt&Snf wnfaeygukefrlum; wpfBudrfwpfcg BuHKBudKufaomf
BuHKBudKuf&ef&Sd ygaMumif; ajzMum;Muukef\/
xkdtcg jrwfpGmbk&m;u &[ef;wkdY-þta&;tcGifhonf
cJ,Of;onf[k rqkdvkdavmufao;? þta&; tcGifhxuf tq
t&mru tq taxmifru cJ,Of;vSaom t&monf&Sdao;\?
tb,ft&menf;[lrl þvlYb0rS aovGefí tyg,fav;bHkokdY
wpfBudrfusa&mufaomolonf vlYbHkvlYb0okdY wpfzef jyefa&muf
Edkif&ef tcGifhta&;aywnf;/
þtcGifhta&;onf vdyfumPf;xrf;ykd;wkdY\ tcGifhta&;
xuf tqt&mru tqtaxmifru omvGeí f cJ,Of;acsonf?
tb,faMumifhenf;[lrl vlYb0 ewfb0rnfonf tukokdvf
'kp½ö u
kd rf w
I u Ydk dk a&SmifMuOfí ukov dk af umif;rIudk jyKusiahf om olrsm;rS
vljzpfEdkifonf ewfjzpfEdkifonf/
tyg,fbükH rlum; tukov dk rf eS ;f ukov dk rf eS ;f aumif;rIreS ;f
raumif; rIreS ;f okp½du k rf eS ;f 'kp½duk rf eS ;f rodMuukeNf y?D Edik &f mEdik &f m
owfrIpm;rItp&Sdaom tukokdvf 'kp½kdufwkdYESifhom aeMu&ukef
awmhonf? i&JbHkç NydwåmbHkwkdYrSmvnf; cHae&aom 'ku©twGuf
pdwyf l pdwaf vmif pdwq f ;dk pdwn f pfawGEiS o hf m aeMu&ukeaf wmhonf/
xkaYd Mumifh vlb Y v kH b Yl 0okYd wpfzefjyefa&muf&ef tcGit hf a&;
onf vdyfumPf;xrf;ykd;ta&;xuf tq&maxmifru omvGef
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 20
cJ,Of;avonf[k a[mawmfrlonf/ þum; umPupäy okwf
xGuf teuft"dyÜg,faywnf;/
þokwåeftwkdif; tyg,fbHkb0odkY a&mufavorQaom
oltaygif; wko Yd nf vlUbHk vlb Y 0okYd a&mufvmrnft h a&; tvGeaf 0;
&onfrmS tyg,fbo kH m;wkrYd nfonf txufoOYdk ;D acgif;rjyK atmuf
okdYom OD;acgif;jyKMuukef\/
atmufokdYom OD;acgif;jyKjcif;qkdonfum; wpfb0xuf
wpfb0 trdu k w f &m; wk;d yGm;íoGm;Muojzifh jrpfa&wko Yd nf edr&Yf m
okdYom pD;qif;MuukefouJhokdY wpfb0xufwpfb0 ,kwfedrfh&m
oko
Yd m a&SU½IMuukef &um; txufvrf;ydwí f atmufxufatmuf
epfjrKyv
f rf; [if;vif; Bu;D yGií hf aejcif;ukd atmufoYdk OD;acgif;jyKjcif;
qko d nf/
þumPupäyokwt f &ukd ajrmfjrifMuojzifv h nf; ykxZk eÆ f
owå0gwk\ Yd 0deyd gwtvm;Bu;D 0deyd gwab;Bu;D onf y&rf;ywmus
a&mufrIBuD;onf b,frQavmuf aMumufrufbG,f vefYbG,fBuD;
us,faMumif;ukdvnf; od&SdEdkifMuukef&monf/ þum; ykxkZÆe*wd
wnf;/
(2) t&d , *w *wd qk d o nf u m; t0d e d y gw*wd w nf ; ?
t0dedygw*wdqkdonfum; aoonf\aemufü y&rf;ywm us
a&mufjcif;rS uif;vGwfjcif;wnf;/
wpfb0vQif wpfcgao&jcif; "r®wmESiw hf vGJ suf tNryJ g&Síd
aeaom y&rf;ywmus a&mufjcif;ab;BuD;onf tukeft&Sif;
uif;yí wpfb0vQif wpfcgaoNrJ"r®wm\aemufü rdrdrdrdwkdY
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 21
tvk&d &dS mbHk b0okçYd okrYd [kwf aumif;jrwf&mbHb k 0oko Yd m a&muf
Edik jf cif;wnf;/
xef;yifay:tHk;yifay:wkdYrS xef;oD;ckdif tkef;oD;ckdifrsm;
usouJhokdY y&rf;ywmusa&mufjcif;rS uif;vGwfí xef;yifay:
tke;f yifay:wkrYd S aus;iSuw f oYdk nf tvk&d &dS mopfyifwo Ydk Ydk aumif;uif
c&D;jzifh yso H ef;ul; ajymif;Muukeo f uJo
h Ydk y&rw¬t&d,mrsKd ; jzpfMu
ukefaom vl ewfjA[®m wkdYonf rdrdrdrdwkdY jzpf&mbHkb0rS aovGef
Muukefí b0wpfyg;okdY ajymif;oGm;Muukefaomtcg aumif;jrwf
aom vlYb0ç ewfb0ç jA[®mh b0wkdYwGif rdrdrdrdwkdY a&mufvkd&m
bHkb0wkdYodkY a&mufEdkifMuukef\/
b,fbb Hk 0odYk a&mufvo dk nf[&k nf&, G jf cif;r&Sb d J trSwrf hJ
aovGecf ahJ omfvnf; aumif;jrwfaom bHb k 0oko Yd m a&mufMuav
ukef\? tyg,fav;yg;okdY usa&mufjcif;rS t&Sif; uif;vGwfMuav
ukef\? onfom ruao;? vlYbHkvlYb0odkY a&mufMu&müvnf;
trsdK;pnf;pdrf ,kwfnHhaom 'ku©dwvlrsdK;ç rolawmfvlrsdK;ç rdpäm'd|d
vlrsKd ;wküYkd jzpf&jcif;rS t&Si;f uif;vGwí f trsKd ;pnf;pdrf jrifjh rwfaom
vlrsdK;ç oyÜK&dovlrsdK;ç or®m'd|dvlrsdK;wkdYüom jzpfMu&ukef\/
ewfbHkç ewfb0okdY a&mufMu&m jA[®mhbHkç jA[®mhb0odkY
a&mufMu&müvnf; bkef;wefckd;,kwfaom ewfrsdK;ç jA[®mrsKd;ç rdpäm
t,l&SdMuaom ewfrsdK;ç jA[®mrsdK;wkdYü jzpfMu&jcif;rS t&Sif;uif;
vGwfMuukef\? bkef;wefckd; BuD;jrwfaom ewfrsdK;ç jA[®mrsdK;ç
or®mt,l jzLpifaom ewfrsKd;ç jA[®mrsdK;wkdYüom jzpfMu&ukef\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 22
ecodcokwfüvmaom ykxkZÆe*wdç umPupäyokwfü
vmaom ykxZk eÆ *wdç 0deyd gwab;Bu;D rS t&Si;f uif;vGwMf uuke\ f /
þum; t&d,*wd t&d,mwkdY\ tvm;ukd jyqkdcsufwnf;/
þpum;ü vljzpfaomolwkdYonf opfyifay:rSuscJhvQif
xef;oD;ckdif tkef;oD;ckdifwkdYusouJhokdY y&rf;ywm usMuukef\?
tb,faMumifhenf;[lrl aumif;uifokdY ysHoef;Edkifaomtawmif
r&SdonfhtwGufaMumifhwnf;/
xktYd wl ykxZk eÆ rf sKd ;jzpfMuaom ewfç vlç jA[®mç owå0gwkrYd mS
b0cE¨mwpfck ysufqHk;í b0cE¨mwpfckokdY ajymif;a½GUMu&mü
'd|0d yd v’mo Bu;D &Sad eMuonft h wGuf r*¾i&f pS yf g;[laom tawmif
r&SdMuonfjzpfí 0dedygwab;BuD;\ uif;Nidrf;jcif;wnf;[laom
[if;vif;tjyif aumif;uif Bu;D ukd trSt D wG,f rjyKjzpfMuukeaf om
ewfç vlç jA[®m owå0gwkrYd mS rdrw d Ydk uk, d cf E¨m ysuq f ;kH í b0wpfyg;
okYd ajymif;a&GUMuaomtcg 0deyd gwab;Bu;D y&rf;ywm usMuuke\ f /
þpum;ü yuwdaom vlwo Ydk nf jrifph mG aom opfyifxuf
okdY wufMuukef&m rSDwG,f&mjzpfaom opfukdif;wkdY usdK;jywfcJhaomf
opfukdif;ESifhwuG atmufajrt&yfokdY y&rf;ywm usjcif;jzifh
usMuavukefí aoaomfvnf;ao? raoaomfvnf; rvS ry
'ku©BuD;pGma&mufMuukef\? tb,faMumifhqkdaomf xkdvlwkdYrSm
opfukdif;wkdYonfomvQif rSDwG,f&m &SdMuukef\? opfukdif;rSwpfyg;
rSDwG,f&m r&SdMuukef? aumif;uifokdY ysHoGm;&ef tawmifvnf;
r&SdMuavukef/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 23
xkdYtwl 'd|d0dyv’mo &SdaeMuukefaom vlç ewfç jA[®m
owå0gwkrYd mS vnf; twå'|d jd zihf rdrd çd rdrw d \ Ydk uk, d cf E¨mwku Yd dk rSw
D ,G f
Muukeo f nfjzpfí rSw D ,G &f mjzpfaom uk, d cf E¨m csKyq f ;kH cJah omf y&rf;
ywmusjcif;okdYom a&mufMuavukef\/
tb,fah Mumifeh nf;qkad omf xkv d w l rYdk mS rdrw d \ Ydk uk, d cf E¨m
wko Yd nf omvQif rSw D ,G &f m&SMd uuke\
f ? uk, d cf E¨mwkrYd w S pfyg; 0deyd gw
*wdrS vGwfNidrf;jcif;[kqkdtyfaom edAÁmefwnf;[laom rSDwG,f&m
wpfyg;vnf; r&SdMuukef? 0dedygwodkY rus&avatmif tvGef&Guf
aqmifEikd af om r*¾i&f pS yf g; wnf;[laom tvGeo f efprG ;f vSpmG aom
tawmifvnf; r&SdMuavukef/
tawmif&MdS uaom aus;iSuw f oYdk nf jrifph mG aom opfyifwYkd
ü em;aeMuukef&m em;ae&mjzpfaom opfukdif;wkdY usdK;jywfcJhaomf
vnf; atmufokdYusjcif;r&Sdukef? wpfyg;aom opfyifokdY aumif;
uifc&D;jzifh ysMH uavuke\ f ? tb,fah Mumifeh nf;qkad omf xkad us;iSuf
wkdYrSm opfukdif;ukd rdrdukd,fjyKí rSDwG,fMuonf r[kwfukef? cP
acwå em;ae½kkHrQ jzpfMuukef\? aumif;uifESifh tawmifwkdYukdom
trSBD u;D rSMD uuke\ f /
xkdYtwl 'd|d0dyv’morS uif;vGwfMuukefNyD;aom t&d,m
rsKd ;jzpfaom vlç ewfç jA[®m owå0gwkrYd mS rdrçd rdrw d \ Ydk uk, d cf E¨mwku Yd dk
ig\twå[k rSDwG,fjcif;r&SdMuukef? ukd,fcE¨mwkdYrSwpfyg; 0dedygw
*wdrS vGwNf ird ;f jcif;[kqt dk yfaom edAmÁ efwnf;[laom edpö xm0&ckid f
NrJaom rSDwG,f&mBuD;vnf; vufukdifvufpGJ tNrJ&SdMuukef\?
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 24
aumif;jrwf&m bHkb0odkYomvQif a&mufEdkifMu&ef uHESifhtNrJ
zufwyJG g&Sad om tvGeo
f efprG ;f vSpmG aom r*¾i&f pS yf g; wnf;[laom
tawmiftm;ESifhvnf; tvGefjynfhpHkvHkavmufMuukef\? þum;
ykxkZÆe*wdESifh t&d,*wd ESpfyg;wdkY\ txl;aywnf;/
*wduxmNy;D \/
———Ä———
6-opöuxm
opömw&m; 2-yg;
opömqkdonfum; olYtrnfonmESifh olYobm0 tpOf
xm0& nDñGwfajzmifhrSefonfukd qkdownf;/
xko
d pömonf-
(1) orkwdopömwpfyg;?
(2) y&rw¬opöm wpfyg;?
[lí ESpfyg;tjym;&Sdukef\? xkdESpfyg;wkdYwGif-
(1) orkwdopöm qkdonfum; avmuDbHkom; vltrsm;
wk\Yd ac:½d;k ajym½d;k jzpfaom orkwyd nwfw\ Ydk tv,fü tajzmifh
trSefrsdK;onf orkwdopömrnf\/
twå&\ dS ? ZD0&S\d ? yk*Kd¾ v&f \
dS ? owå0g&S\d ? vl&\
dS ? ewf&\
dS ?
odMum;&Sd\? jA[®m&Sd\/ qif jrif; uRJ EGm; &Sd\? OD;acgif;ç vufç
ajcpaom t*FgBu;D i,f&\ dS ? qHyifç tarG;ç ajconf;ç vufonf;&S\ d
ponfwkdYaywnf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 25
þorkwdopömonf rkom0g'\ qefYusifbufaywnf;?
rkom0g'ukd y,fEdkif\? wpfb0twGif;wGif tcgcgjzpfjcif;ç tcgcg
csKyfjcif;[lí r&SdbJ wpfckwnf;ESifh wpfoufvHk; ckdifNrJíaeaom
twårnfonf {ueftrSef&Sd\? ZD0rnfonf {ueftrSef&Sd\[k
ajymqkdMuaom pum;rsdK;wkdYonf avmuDbHkom; vltrsm;wkdY\
ajym½d;k qk½d ;kd twkid ;f ajymqkMd uaom pum;jzpfí ajymqkad omolrmS
rkom0g'rjzpf? b,fol wpfOD;wpfa,mufukdrQ vSnfhpm;jcif;rjzpf/
y&rw¬opöm tvkdtm;jzifhrlum; xkdpum;rsdK;onf tedpöü
edpö[líazmufjyefjcif;ç tewåütwå[lí azmufjyefjcif;wnf;
[laom 0dyv’motrSefjzpf\? xkd0dyv’mow&m;udk ry,fEdkif
orQumvywfv;kH oHo&m0#f'u k r© S rvGwEf ikd /f yk*Kd¾ v&f \
dS ? owå0g
&Sd\? qHyifç tarG;ç ajconf;ç vufonf;&Sd\ [l&mwkdYüvnf;
xkdenf;twl qkdav/
(2) y&rw¬opöm qkdkonfum; "mwfobm0 "r®obm0
tvkt d m;jzifh tvGe[ f w k rf eS v
f aS om &Sçd r&Spd um;rsKd ; w&m;rsKd ;onf
y&rw¬opömrnf\/
&Sçd r&Sd ESpyf g;wkw
Yd iG f &Sd qdok nfum; yx0D"mwfç tmayg"mwfç
awaZm"mwfç 0ga,m"mwf&Sd\? pdwf0dnmPf&Sd\? zóç a0'emç
onmç apwem&S\ d ? ½kycf E¨m&S\ d ? emrfcE¨m&S\ d ponfwaYdk ywnf;/
r&Sd qkdonfum; twår&Sd? ZD0r&Sd? yk*¾Kdvfr&Sd? owå0gr&Sd?
vlr&S?d ewfr&S?d odMum;r&S?d jA[®mr&S?d qifç jrif;çuRçJ EGm; r&S?d OD;acgif;
[lí r&Sd? vufç ajcpaom t*FgBuD;i,f[lí r&Sd? qHyifç tarG;ç
ajconf;ç vufonf;[lí r&Sd ponfwkdYaywnf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 26
twår&Sd? ZD0r&Sdqkdonfum; wpfb0twGif;wGif tcgcg
jzpfjcif;ç csKyfjcif;[lír&SdbJ wpfckwnf;ESifh wpfoufvkH; ckdifNrJí
aeaom twåç ZD0[lí r&Sdqkdvkdonf/
yk*Kd¾ vrf &S?d owå0gr&Sd ponfwüYdk vnf; ½ky"f mwfç emrf"mwf
wkdYonfom &Sdukef\? xkd½kyf"mwfç emrf"mwfwkdYonfvnf; yk*¾dKvf
r[kw?f owå0gr[kw?f ewfç jA[®mponfr[kw?f xk½d yk "f mwfç emrf
"mwfwkdYrS wpfyg; yk*¾dKvf owå0g[lí toD;tjcm; r&Sd? vlç ewfç
jA[®mponfvnf; r&Sd[k qkdav/
þy&rw¬opömonf 0dyv’mow&m;\ qefYusifbuf
aywnf;? þy&rw¬opömw&m;rSomvQif 0dyv’mow&m;ukd
y,fEkdif\? 0dyv’mo w&m;ukd y,fEkdifrSomvQif oHo&m0#f'ku©rS
xGufajrmufEkdif\/
orkwdopöm tvkdtm;jzifh yk*¾dKvf&Sd\? owå0g&Sd\? yk*¾dKvf
owå0gwkdYonf oHo&mü wpfb0rSwpfb0okdY usifvnf ajymif;
oGm;í aeMu\? y&rw¬opöm tvkdtm;jzifh yk*¾dKvf r&Sd? owå0gr&Sd?
wpfb0rS wpfb0okdY usifvnfajymif;oGm;onf[lír&Sd? okdYaomf
þopömESpyf g;onf ajzmifah jzmifq h efu
Y sib
f uf jzpfaebd\ wum;[k
qk&d ef&\
dS ? ajzmifah jzmifh qefuY sibf uf rjzpfMuap&ef tajzrSmrlum;-
orkwdopömtvdktm;jzifh y&rw¬opömtvkdtm;jzifh tvkd
ESpfyg; oD;oefYjcm;vsuf &SdavNyD/
orkwdopömtvkdESifh yk*¾dKvfowå0g&Sd\[k ajymqkdcJhaomf
orkwdopöm tvkdqkdaomaMumifh y&rw¬opöm q&mu rjiif;
y,f&? yk*¾dKvf owå0g[k orkwdynwf&Sdonfum; trSefyifjzpf\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 27
y&rw¬opöm tvkdtm;jzifh yk*¾dKvfowå0gr&Sd[lí ajym
qkdcJhaomf y&rw¬opömtvkd qkdaomaMumifh orkwdopöm q&mu
rjiif;y,f&? y&rw¬opöm[lonf ½kyfw&m;ç emrfw&m;onfom
trSefjzpf\? y&rw¬opömrSm yk*¾dKvf[lí r&Sd? owå0g[lí r&Sd/
Oyrmum; wpfckaom ajrt&yfrS ajrpkdifcJwdkYudk wl;,lí
trIejYf yKNy;D vQif tk;d trsK;d rsK;d ç cGut f rsK;d rsK;d jyKvyk of ;Hk aqmifMuojzifh
avmuBuD;ü ajrtkd;trsKd;rsKd;ç ajrcGuftrsKd;rsKd;&SdMu\? w&m;pum;
ajymqkMd u&mü þavmurSm ajrtk;d ç ajrcGurf nfonf &S\ d avm[k
ar;cJhaomf orkwdopömtvkdtm;jzifh ajrtkd;ç ajrcGufrnfonf
{ueftrSefyif&Sd\ [lí ajzqkd&rnf? y&rw¬opöm tvkdtm;jzifh
ajronfom&So d nf? tk;d ç cGu[ f íl r&S[d k ajzqk&d rnf? xkEd pS yf g;wkw Yd iG f
orkwdopömtvkdrSm avmuDbkHom; vltrsm;wkdY\ ajym½kd;qkd½kd;
xif&mS ;&So d nft h wkid ;f yif ajzqdo k nf jzpfí &Si;f vif;zG,rf &S?d y&rw¬
opöm tvkdürlum; &Sif;vif;zG,f&Sdacs\/
y&rw¬opömtvkt d m;jzifh ajrtk;d ç ajrcGu[ f al om pum;ü
ajronfom&S\ d ? tk;d [lí cGu[ f í l r&S?d taMumif;rlum; ajr[laom
trnfonf tkd;ç cGuf\ trnfr[kwf? ajrrsKd;ajrppf\ trnf
onfom jzpf\? taMumif;rlum; oHt;dk ç oHcu G çf aMu;tk;d ç aMu;cGuçf
a&Ttkd;ç a&TcGufç aiGtkd;ç aiGcGufrsm;vnf;&Sd\? xkdtkd;ç xkdcGufrsm;ukd
ajrtkd;ç ajrcGuf[lí rac:&? tb,faMumifhenf;? ajrr[kwfaom
aMumifhwnf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 28
tkd;cGuf[laom trnfonfvnf; ajr\trnfr[kwf?
tkd;oP²mef cGufoP²mef[laom t0ef; t0kdif;paom oP²mef
ynwf\ trnfonfomjzpf\/
taMumif;rlum; tkd;cGufoP²mef r&SdMuaom ajrpkdifcJp
onfukd tkd;ç cGuf[lí rac:&? xkdYaMumifh ajr[laom trnfonf
tkd;cGuf\ trnfr[kwf? ajrZmwd\ trnfonfomjzpf\? tkd;ç
cGuf[laom trnfonf xkdajr\trnfr[kwf? oP²mefynwf\
trnf o nf o m jzpf \ ? oP² m ef y nwf [ l o nf ajrrI e f Y w k d Y r S
toD;tjcm; "mwfom;0w¬K &Sdonfr[kwf? ajrrIefYwkdY\ aygif;zGJY
wnfaeykH txl;udk trSDjyKí pdwfxJwGif xifjrif&aom oP²mef
edrdwf t&dyftoGifrsKd;rQom jzpf\? xkdYaMumifh y&rw¬tvkdtm;jzifh
ajronfom &So d nf? tk;d ç cGuf [lír&Sd [k ajzqkad yonf/ &Si;f vif;
csu/f
orkwo d pömNy;D \/
————Ä————
y&rw¬ o pö m rsKd ; qdkonfum;
(1) ½kyfw&m;?
(2) emrfw&m;?
[lí ESpfyg;½Sd\/ xdkESpfyg;wdkYwGif-
1/ ½kyfw&m;onf ESpfq,fh&Spfyg;½Sd\/ ESpfq,fh&Spfyg;
[lonfum; -
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 29
- yx0D"mwfç tmayg"mwfç awaZm"mwfç 0ga,m
"mwf[laom r[mbkwfBuD;av;yg;?
- pu© K 0w¬ K ç aomw0w¬ K ç Cme0w¬ K ç Zd 0 S g 0w¬ K ç
um,0w¬Kç [',0w¬K[laom 0w¬K½kyfajcmufyg;?
- £w¬dbm0½kyfç ykrÇm0½kyf[laom bm0½kyfESpfyg;?
- ZD0dw½kyfwpfyg;?
- tm[m& ½kyfwpfyg;?
- ½lyg½Hkç o'´g½Hk *E¨m½Hkç &om½Hk[laom a*gp&½kyf
av;yg;/
þwpfq,fh½Spfyg;wdkYonf jzpfay:rI[laom Zmwdw&m;
xif&Sm; &SdMujcif;aMumifh Zmw½kyf rnfukef\/
- tmumo"mwf[laom y&dapä'½kyfwpfyg;?
- um,0dnwfç 0pD0dnwf[laom 0dnwf½kyf ESpfyg;?
- v[kwmç rk'kwmç ur®nwm[laom 0dum&½kyf
oHk;yg;?
- Oyp,ç oEÅwdç Z&wmç tedpöwm[laom vu©P
½kyf av;yg;/
þq,fyg;aom ½kyfwdkYonf jzpfay:rI[laom Zmwdw&m;
xif&Sm; r&SdMujcif;aMumifh tZmw½kyf rnfukef\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 30
Zmw½kyf 18-yg;
r[mbk w f B uD ; 4-yg;
r[mbkwfBuD;qkdonfum; tvGefBuD;yGm;wwfonfukd
qko d nf/
1/ yx0D " mwf qkdonfum; ajr"mwfwnf;? ajr"mwf
qkdonfum; ½kyfw&m;wkdY\ wnf&efrDS&ef trmcHoabmwnf;?
xkdajr"mwfonf cufrmrsdK;ç cufrmonfxuf cufrmrsKd;ç El;nHhrsKd;ç
El;nHhonfxuf El;nHhrsdK;[lí tqifhqifh&Sd\/
2/ tmayg"mwf qkdonfum; a&"mwfwnf;? a&"mwf
qkdonfum; ½kyfw&m;wkdYukd twHk;tcJ jzpfap&ef zJGUpnf;rIwnf;?
xkda&"mwfonf zJGUpnf;rI twif;tavsmh trsdK;rsdK;&Sd\/
3/ awaZm"mwf qkdonfum; rD;"mwfwnf;? rD;"mwf
qkdonfum; ½kyfw&m;wkdYukd avmifrIç NrdKufrIç &ifhaprIaywnf;?
xkdavmifNrdKufrIonf ylíavmifrIç at;íavmifrI[k ESpfrsdK;&Sd\/
4/ 0ga,m"mwf qkdonfum; av"mwfwnf;? av"mwf
qkod nfum; axmufuefrw I nf;? xkad v"mwfonf axmufuefavç
xrf;aqmifavç wGe;f a0SaY vç wkud v
f iT ahf v ponfjzifh trsKd ;rsKd ;&S\
d /
þ"mwfBuD;av;yg;wkdYrS tvHk;pHkaom ½kyfw&m;wkdYonf
aygufzmG ;Muuke\f /
0w¬K½kyfajcmufyg;
0w¬K½kyf qko
d nfum; pdw\
f jzpf&mç wnf&mç rS&D mç yGm;pnf;
&maywnf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 31
5/ pu©K0w¬K½kyfqkdonfum; rsufvHk;tdrfwGif;rSm ay:&Sd
aom tMunf"mwfrsKd ;aywnf;? ¤if; pu©K0w¬K½yk rf S pu©K 0dnmPfpw d f
aygufzGm; \? pu©K0dnmPfpdwfqkdonfum; tqif;oP²mef trsdK;
rsdK;wkdYukd jrifrIaywnf;/
6/ aomw0w¬K½kyf qko d nfum; em;tdrw f iG ;f rSmay:&Sad om
tMunf " mwf r sd K ;aywnf ; ? ¤if ; aomw0w¬ K ½k y f r S
aomw0dnmPfpw d f aygufzmG ;\? aomw0dnmPfpw d q f odk nfum;
toHtrsdK;rsdK;wkdYukd Mum;rIaywnf;/
7/ Cme0w¬ K ½k y f qkdonfum; ESmacgif;tdrfwGif;rSm
ay:&Sdaom tMunf"mwfrsdK;aywnf;? ¤if;Cme0w¬K½kyfrS Cme
0dnmPfpw d f aygufzmG ;\? Cme0dnmPfpw d q
f o
dk nfum; teHt Y rsKd ;
rsKd;wkdYukd eHrIaywnf;/
8/ Zd 0 S g 0w¬ K ½k yf qkdonfum; vQmtjyifrSm ay:&Sdaom
tMunf "mwfrsKd ;aywnf;? ¤if;Zd0gS 0w¬K½yk rf S Zd0gS 0dnmPfpw d f ayguf
zGm;\? Zd0Sg0dnmPf pdwfqkdonfum; tcsdKçtcsOfpaom t&om
trsdK;rsdK;wkdYukd odrIaywnf;/
9/ um,0w¬K½kyf qko d nfum; ajcz0g;tjyifrpS í twGi;f
tjyif wpfukd,fvHk;rSmay:&Sdaom tMunf"mwfrsdK;aywnf;? ¤if;
um,0w¬K½kyfrS um,0dnmPfpdwf aygufzGm;\? um,0dnmPf
pdwfqkdonfum; tawGUtxdwkdYukd odrIaywnf;/
10/ [',0w¬K½kyf qkdonfum; ESvHk;tdrfwGif;rSm ay:&Sd
aom tvGefEl;nHhxGef;yvSaom ½kyftxl;aywnf;/ ¤if;[',
0w¬K½kyfrS raem0dnmPfpdwfrsdK; 75-yg;wkdY aygufzGm;ayukef\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 32
þ0w¬K½yk f ajcmufyg;wkrYd S tvH;k pHak om pdw0f n
d mPfw&m;
wkdYonf aygufzGm;Muukef\/
bm0½k y f 2-yg;
bm0½k yf qkdonfum; jzpfaMumif;w&m; wpfrsdK;aywnf;/
11/ £w¬dbm0½kyf qkdonfum; £w¬doP²meftrsdK;rsdK;ç
£w¬d trlt&mtrsdK;rsdK;wkdY\ jzpfyGg;&ef taMumif;ADZjzpfaom
½kyftxl;aywnf;/
12/ ykrÇm0½kyf qkdonfum; yk&dooP²meftrsdK;rsdK;ç yk&do
trlt&m trsdK;rsdK;wkdY\ jzpfyGg;&ef taMumif;ADZjzpfaom ½kyf
txl;aywnf;/
þbm0½kyfwkdYonf £w¬doP²mefç yk&dooP²mefwkdYü
toD;toD; um,0w¬K½yk u f ohJ Ydk ajcz0g; tjyifrpS í twGi;f tjyif
wpfukd,fvHk;rSm ay:&SdMuukkef\? þbm0½kyfwkdY\ tkyfpkd;rIaMumifh
rdef;rESifha,mufsm; jcm;em;rIwkdYonf &SdaeMuukef\/
ZD 0 d w ½k yf
13/ ZD 0 d w ½k yf qkdonfum; toufaywnf;? toufqkd
onfum; Mumtkdifü&Sdaoma&onf MumyifMum½dk;wkdYukd rao
rajcmufap&ef apmifh a&SmufayouJo h Ydk ur®Z½kyw
f &m;wku
Yd dk tpOf
ojzifh pdrf;pdrf; &Sif&Sif &Tif&Tifvef;vef; &SdaeMuap&ef apmifhcsKyf
tkyfxdef;aom ½kyf&Sif½kyfESpf txl;aywnf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 33
avmuwGif owå0gaoonf &Sifonf[laom tcsufBuD;
onf þZD0dw½kyf\ tcsufaywnf;? ZD0dw½kyf tNyD;csKyfonfukd
owå0gaoonf[k qk\ d ? ZD0w
d ½kyf tpOf&adS eonfudk owå0gt&Sif
[kqkd\? þ½kyfonfvnf; wpfukd,fvHk;ü wnf\/
tm[m&½kyf
14/ tm[m&½kyf qkdonfum; tvGefaqmifpGrf;Edkifaom
½kyq f ½D yk Ef pS f "mwfq"D mwfEpS af ywnf;/ ajr\twGi;f ü wnf&adS om
a&"mwfç aumif;uifrS tpOfrjywf&Gmaom rkd;a&wkdYonf opfyif
csKHjrufwkdYukd aygufyGm;Muapjcif;ç BuD;yGm;Muapjcif;ç wnfckdifMu
apjcif;iSg tvGefaqmifpGrf; EdkifouJhodkY ur®Zum,ç pdwåZum,ç
OwkZum,ç tm[m&Zum, [kqkdtyfaom um,BuD;av;yg;
½kyfw&m;wkdYukd aygufyGg;Muapjcif;ç BuD;yGm;Muapjcif;ç wnfckdifMu
apjcif;iSg vGefpGmcsD;ajr§muf axmufyHh aqmuf&GufEdkifaom ajrqD
ajrMoZmaywnf;/
þtm[m&½kyo f nf ZD0w d ½ky\
f taxmuftyHBh u;D aywnf;?
xkaYd Mumifh avmuü tpm;tpm tm[m&0w¬K &SmrS;D rI tcsuBf u;D udk
toufarG;rIBuD; ac:Muavonf/
a*gp&½kyf 4-yg;
a*gp&½k y f-qkdonfum; pu©K0dnmPfpaom yOö0dnmPf
wkdY\ usufpm;&m tm½kHrsdK; qkdvkdonf/
15/ ½l y g½k H qkdonfum; tqif;rsdK;wnf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 34
16/ o'´ g ½½kH qkdonfum; toHrsdK;wnf;/
17/ *E¨ m ½k H qkdkonfum; teHYrsdK;wnf;/
18/ &om½kH qkdonfum; tcsKdç tcsOfpaom t&omrsKd;
wnf;/
azm|AÁm½kH use&f o dS nfrmS r[mbkwBf u;D av;yg;wGif yg0ifNy;D
jzpfí usef&Sdavonf? yx0Dazm|AÁç awaZmazm|AÁç 0ga,m
azm|AÁ[lí azm|AÁm½kH oHk;yg;yif&Sd\? þazm|AÁm½kHukdxnfhvQif
a*gp&½kyf ig;yg;jzpf\/
xkid g;yg;wkwYd iG -f
- ½lyg½kHonf pu©K\tm½kHaywnf;?
- o'´g½kHonf aomw\tm½kHaywnf;?
- *E¨m½kHonf Cme\ tm½kHaywnf;?
- &om½kHonf Zd0Sg\ tm½kHaywnf;?
- azm|AÁm½kHonf um,\ tm½kHaywnf;/
Zmw½kyf 18-yg;NyD;\/
—————Ä———-
tZmw½kyf 10-yg;
tmumo"mwf
19/ tmumo"mwf qkdonfum; aumif;uifoabm
aywnf;? oJreI w
Yf u
Ydk kd pkyí
Hk xm;&mü oJreI iYf ,f wpfcEk iS hf oJreI iYf ,f
wpfck\ tMum;onf &Sdonfomjzpf\? oJrIefYESifh tnDtrQ
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 35
tmumo"mwfonfvnf; tjynf&h \ dS ? tjynf&h o dS nft h wGuaf Mumifh
þum;wpfck? þum;wpfck[k oJrIefYwkdYudk jcm;em;EkdifMuukef\?
NyKd ysucf sed f qku d cf ahJ omf xkt d mumowkrYd yS if oJreI t Yf csi;f csi;f uGjJ ym;
í oJykHonf NydKysufav\/
xkdYtwl tvGefcufrmvSpGmaom ausmufwkH; ausmufcJ
oHw;Hk oHcw J üYdk vnf; oJreI iYf ,fwpfck ckEiS w hf al om ½kyif ,fuav;awG
toacs, F s teEÅ&MdS u\? wpfcw k pfcak om ½kypf ½k yk cf u J dk ½kyu
f vmyf
wpfckwpfck ac:Mu\/
xk½d yk u f vmyfw\ Ydk wpfcEk iS w hf pfc\ k tMum;onf &So d nfom
jzpf\? ausmufw;Hk oHw;Hk wkEYd iS hf tnDtrQ tmumo[laom y&dapä'
½kyfonfvnf; tjynfh&Sd\? xkdy&dapä'tmumo&SdonfhtwGuf
aMumifh xkad usmufw;kH oHw;Hk wku Yd kd jzwfEidk Mf u\? cGEJ ikd Mf u\? pdwEf idk f
Mu\? trIefYjyKEkdifMu\? t&nfjyKEkdifMu\/
0dnwf½kyf 2 - yg;
0d n wf qkdonfum; wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; wpfa,mufESifh
wpfa,muf pdwt f vku
d kd odMuap&efjzpfaom trlt&mrsK;d aywnf;/
20/ um,0d n wf ½ k y f qk d o nf u m; rd r d p d w f t vk d u k d
olwpfyg;odzkdY&ef ukd,ft*Fg\ vIyf&Sm;jcif; trlt&m txl;rsKd;ay
wnf;/
21/ 0pD0dnwf½kyfqdkonfum; rdrdpdwftvkdukd olwpfyg;
odzkdY&efpum;oH\ xdkxdktu©&m trlt&mtxl;aywnf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 36
olwpfyg;\ pdwo f ufoufudk rodEidk Mf u rjrifEidk Mf uolwrYdk mS
xkx
d pdk w
d t
f vku d vkd nf;aumif;ç xkx d t
dk euft"dygÜ ,fuv dk nf;aumif;ç
þ 0dnwf½kyfESpfyg;wkdYjzifh odatmifjyKvkyfí tcsif;csif;\ pdwf
tvkdukd odMu&ukef\? odapvkdaom teuft"dyÜg,fukd odMu&
ukef\? olwpfyg;tm; rdrdtvkdukdodaprIrsKd; r[kwf&mwkdYüvnf;
pdwtf vkEd iS hf uk,
d t f *Fg vIy&f mS ; oGm;vmrIç pdwt
f vkEd iS hf pmayusr;f *ef
&GwftHrIwdkYü þ0dnwf½kyf ESpfyg;\ udpöaywnf;/
0d u m&½k y f 3-yg;
0d u m& qkdonfum; Zmw½kyfwkdY\ trlxl; t&mxl;
aywnf;/
22/ v[k w m qkdonfum; aygYyg;rIaywnf;/
23/ rk ' k w m qkdonfum; El;nHhrIaywnf;/
24/ ur® n wm qkdonfum; ukd,ftrI EIwftrIwkdYü
tokH;jyKí aumif;jcif;wnf;/
ukd,ft*FgwkdYü "mwfBuD;av;yg;wGif wpfyg;yg; azmufjyef
rIESifh rnDrnGwf&Sdaeaomtcg xkdudk,ft*Fgonf tvkd&Sd&m jyK
jyifjcif;trIü yuwdtcgrSmuJokdY aygYyg;jcif;r&Sd? av;\? 'ku©jzpf
\? yuwdtcgrSmuJhokdY El;nHhjcif;r&Sd? awmifhwif;\? 'ku© jzpf\?
yuwdtcgrSmuJhokdY vkdwkdif;r&? vIyfwkdif;usifem\? pum; ajym
qkdMu&m EIwfvQm vIyf&Sm;rIwkdYüvnf; "mwfrnDrnGwf&Sdonfh
tcgwküYd EIwv f Qmav;rI awmifwh if;rI vdw
k ikd ;f r&rI&MdS u\? nDnw
G í
f
ukd,ft*Fg EIwft*Fg usef;rmyuwd &SdaomtcgwkdYürlum; þ
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 37
v[kwmç rk'kwmç ur®nwm[laom *kPfoHk;yg;ESifh jynfhpkHMu\?
þ*kPfokH;yg;ukd 0dum&½kyf okH;yg;[k ac:\/
vu©P½kyf 4-yg;
vu© P qkdonfum; þw&m;wkdYum; tedpörsKd;wkdYom
wnf;[k oEéd|mefus odrSwfEkdifMu&ef trlt&mrsKd;aywnf;/
25/ Oyp,½k yf qkdonfum; a&S;OD;pGm jzpfay:jcif;ç
jzpfay: NyD;aemuf tqifhqifh wdk;yGm;jcif;rsm;aywnf;? xkdwGif
a&S;OD;pGm jzpfay: jcif;ukd tmp,[kq&dk \? tmp,ç Oyp,rsK;d ac:
&\/
26/ oEÅ w d ½ k y f q k d o nf u m; tqif h q if h wk d ; yG m ;rI
Ny;D qk;H onfaemuf rwk;d rqkwf wnfíaejcif; aywnf;/ ¤if;oEÅwd
udk y0wå[ d íl ac:&\? ½kyu f vmyfw\ Ydk jzpfay:jcif;[laom Zmwd
w&m; wpfyg;wnf;onfyifvQif tmp,ç Oyp,ç oEÅwd[lí
tckduftwefYtm;jzifh trnfokH;yg;jzpf\/
27/ Z&wm qkdonfum; tkdrIç usrIç &ifha&mf rSnfh&Grf;
a[mif;EGrf; aqG;ykyf qkwf,kwfavsmhyg;rIaywnf;/
28/ tedpöwm qkdonfum; aoqkH;csKyfysufrI ukefcef;
aysmufuG,frIaywnf;/
opfyifi,fwpfckü tmp,tckdufç Oyp,tckdufç oEÅwd
tckdufç Z&wmtckdufç tedpöwmtckduf[lí tckduftvSnfh tcg
tcGifh ig;yg;&Sd\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 38
xkdopfyifi,fonf a&S;OD;pGm ay:aygufvm\? ay:ayguf
NyD;aemuf wpfaeYwpfjcm; wkd;yGg;ay\? wkd;yGg;NyD;aemuf twkd;tyGg;
&yfí umvjrifh&Snf wnfae\? wnfaeNyD;aemuf qkwf,kwf
avsmhyg;í oGm;\? avsmhyg;í oGm;&mtqkH;ü aoav\? aoNyD;
aemuf ysufjym;ukefqkH;av\/
ay:aygufpOftcg ½kyw f \ Ydk Oyg'fonf tmp,rnf\? wk;d yGg;
pOftcg ½kyw f \ Ydk Oyg'fonf Oyp, rnf\? wnfaepOftcg ½kyw f \ Ydk
Oyg'fonf oEÅwdrnf\/
þtcgokH;yg;\twGif;ü ½kyfwkdY\cPduZ&wmç cPdu
ted p ö w mwd Y k o nf &S d M uuk e f a omf v nf ; rxif & S m ;Muavuk e f ?
xkdopfyifi,f\ qkwf,kwfavsmhyg;pOftcg ½kyfwkdY\ XDcPü &ifh
a&mfrIonf Z&wm rnf\? þqkwf,kwfavsmhyg;pOf tcgwGif;ü
vnf; ½kyfwkdY\ cPduZmwdç cPdur&PwkdYonf&SdMuukef\/
xdkopfyifi,fqkwf,kwf avsmhyg;íoGm;av&m tqHk;ü
aoav\? aoonfrpS í xdo k pfyifi,f\ tpte tvH;k pHk ukeq f ;kH
uG,faysmufonfwdkifatmif xdktcgwGif;ü ½kyfwdkY\ cPdur&P
onf tedpw ö m rnf\? tedpw ö m\ tcdu k t
f cgwGi;f üvnf; ½kywf \Ykd
cPduZmwdç cPdu Z&wmwdkYonf ½SdMuukef\? odkY&mwGif xif
ay:xif½Sm;&mudkom xkwfazmfí tcdkuftcgig;yg; jcm;em;csuf
jzpfownf;/
þopfyifi,fESifhwlpGm opfudkif;ç opfcufç opf½Gufç opf
nGefYç opfyGifhç opfoD;wdkYüvnf; toD;toD; tcdkuftwefY ig;yg;pD
½SMd u\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 39
opfo;D wpfcrk mS a½S;OD;pGmay:rIç aemufü wd;k yGg;rIç aemufü
wnfaerIç aemufü rSnfh&Grf;rIç aemufü tn§mjywfa<uaorIç
aemufü ysufjym; ukefqHk;uG,fyrIwdkYonf &SdMuukef\/
opfyifwdkYESifhwlpGm owå0gwdkYüvnf;aumif;ç owÅ0gwdkY\
t*Fg Mu;D i,fwüYkd vnf;aumif;ç tprSpí ay:aygufrI ponfwu Ykd kd
xdkufonf tm;avsmfpGm &tyfukef\/
oGm;jcif; vmjcif; &yfjcif; xdkifjcif; ajymqdkjcif; paom
ud,
k f trlt&m EIwt f rlt&m pdwt f rlt&mwdüYk vnf; tpç tv,fç
tqHk;&SdMuukef&m xdktrlt&m ig;csufwdkYudkvnf; xdkufonftm;
avsmfpGm &tyfukef\/
tdrf wdkuf Adrmef Z&yf wefaqmif; anmifapmif; tif;ysOf
t0wf ykqdk; tdk; tif cGufwdkY tavsmuf ponfwdkYüvnf; tpç
tv,fç tqHk; &SdMuukefonfomwnf;/
tZmw½kyf 10-yg; NyD;\/
—————Ä————
½lyork|me
½k y f j zpf a Mumif ; w&m; 4-yg;
½kyfudk jzpfapwwfaom taMumif;w&m;onf uHç pdwfç
Owkç tm[m&[lí av;yg;&Sd\/
1/ uH qdo k nfum; a½S;b0wdüYk jyKvyk cf ahJ om ukov
kd f
rIç tukodkvfrIrsm;aywnf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 40
2/ pd w f qdkonfum; ,ck½SdaeqJjzpfaom pdwfç
apwodufrsm;aywnf;/
3/ Ow Owk qdkonfum; oDwawaZmç OPSawaZm
[laom rD;"mwf ESpfyg;aywnf;/
4/ tm[m& qdkonfum; y#doaE¨rSpíygaom
tZöswå MoZmwpfyg;ç rsdKtyfaom tpma&pm
wdkYrSygaom A[d'¨ MoZmwpfyg;[laom "mwfqD
ESpfyg;aywnf;/
½kyf 28-yg;wdw Yk iG f 0w¬K½yk af jcmufyg;ç bm0½kyEf pS yf g;ç ZD0w d
½kyfwpfyg; þudk;yg;wdkYonf uHaMumifhom jzpfukef\/
0dnwfa'G;onf pdwfaMumifhom jzpf\? o'´g½Hkonf pdwf
aMumifhjzpfaom toHrsdK;ç OwkaMumifhjzpfaom toHrsdK;[lí
ESpfrsdK;&Sd\? 0dum&½kyfoHk;yg;onf pdwfaMumifhvnf;jzpf\? Owk
aMumifhvnf;jzpf\? tm[m&aMumifhvnf; jzpf\/
use½f adS om ½kyaf ygif; 13-yg;wdw Yk iG f Z&wm½kyçf tedpw ö m½kyf
ESpfyg;udk csefvSyfí "mwfMuD;av;yg;ç tm[m&½kyfç ½lyg½Hkç *E¨m½kHç
&om½Hçk tmumo"mwfç Oyp,½kyçf oEÅw½d yk [ f al om ½kyw f pfq,fh
wpfyg;wdkYonf taMumif;av;yg;wdkYaMumifh jzpfukef\? uHaMumifh
jzpf&mrSmvnf; olwdkYygMuukefawmhonf? pdwfaMumifh jzpf&mç Owk
aMumifjh zpf&mç tm[m&aMumifh jzpf&mrSmvnf; olwyYkd gMuukeaf wmh
onf? olwEYkd iS hf uif;aom½ky[ f í
l wpfpw kH pfcrk Q r&Sad y? olwEYkd iS w hf uG
&Spyf g;ç ud;k yg; ponf tpktcJtaeESihf jzpfMuuke\ f ? ½kypf k ½kycf w
J pfck
udk ½kyfuvmyf wpfck[k ac:\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 41
Z&wm½kyçf tedpw
ö m½kywf rYdk mS rlum; jzpfrrI sKd ; r[kw?f jzpfNy;D
onfh aemuf "r®wmtavsmuf &ifNh rJ ysuNf rjJ zpfMuuke\ f ? taMumif;
w&m;av;yg;aMumifh jzpfrIrS tvGwfjzpfMuukef\/
½kyf 28-yg;NyD;\/
—————Ä————
emrfw&m; 54-yg;
(1) pdwfwpfyg;?
(2) apwoduf ig;q,fhESpfyg;?
(3) edAÁmef wpfyg;?
- pdwfqo dk nfum; tm½kuH &dk mS BurH çI tm½ku
H &dk rIç odraI y
wnf;?
- apwodufqkdonfum; pdwfrSaygufyGm;aom emrf
trlt&m rsm;aywnf;?
- ed A Á m eef qkdonfum; 'ku©trsdK;rsdK;wkdYrS vGwfNidrf;rI
aywnf;/
pd w f 6-yg;
1/ pd w f o n
nf- pu©K0dnmPfpdwfç aomw0dnmPfpdwfç
Cme0dnmPfpdwfç Zd0Sg0dnmPfpdwfç um,0dnmPfpdwfç raem
0dnmPfpdwf[lí ajcmufyg;&Sd\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 42
- pu©K0w¬K½kyfü jzpfay:aompdwfukd pu©K0dnmPf
pdwfac:\? tqif;ukdjrifrIaywnf;/
- aomw0w¬K½yk üf jzpfay:aompdwu f dk aomw0dnmPf
pdwf ac:\? toHukdMum;rIaywnf;?
- Cme0w¬K½yk üf jzpfay:aompdwu f dk Cme0dnmPfpw d f
ac:\? teHYukdeHrIaywnf;?
- Zd0gS 0w¬K ½kyüf jzpfay:aompdwuf dk Zd0gS 0dnmPfpw
d af c:
\? t&omukd odrIaywnf;?
- um,0w¬K½kyfü jzpfay:aompdwfukd um,0dnmPf
pdwfac:\? tawGUtxdukd odrIaywnf;?
- [',0w¬K½kyfü jzpfay:aom pdwfukd raem0dnmPf
pdwaf c:\? t½lybHük jzpfaomtcg [',0w¬KEiS u hf if;
ívnf; jzpf\/
xkdraem0dnmPfpdwfonf umrrsdK;ç ½lyrsdK;ç t½lyrsdK;ç
avmukwå&m rsdK;[lí av;rsdK;&Sd\/
xkdwGif umrrsdK; qkdonfum; umrwPSm\ odrf;ykduf&m
jzpfaom pdwfMurf;rsdK;wnf;? xkdumrrsdK;onf tukokdvfpdwfrsdK;?
ukokdvfpdwfrsdK;ç 0dygufpdwfrsdK;ç Bud,mpdwfrsdK;[lí av;rsdK;&Sd\/
½l y rsd K ; qkdonfum; umrwPSmrS uRwfvGwfí ½ly
wPSm\ odrf;ykduf&mjzpfaom psmefpdwfrsdK;wnf;? xkd½lyrsdK;onf
ukokdvfpsmefpdwfrsdK;ç 0dygufpsmefpdwfrsdK;ç Bud,mpsmefpdwfrsdK;[lí
oH;k rsKd ;&S\
d /
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 43
t½l y rsd K ; qkdonfum; ½lywPSmrS uRwfvGwfí t½ly
wPSm\ odrf;ykduf&mjzpfaom psmefpdwfrsdK;wnf;? xkdt½lyrsdK;
onfvnf; ukokdvfpsmef pdwfrsdK;ç 0dygufpsmefpdwfrsdK;ç Bud,mpsmef
pdwfrsdK;[lí oHk;rsdK;&Sd\/
avmukwå&mrsdK; qko d nfum; wPSmoH;k yg;rS uRwv f wG í
f
umravmuç ½lyavmuç t½lyavmu [laom avmuoHk;yg;ukd
vGefajrmufaom t&d,pdwfrsdK;wnf;? xkdavmukwå&mpdwfonf
rlum; t&d,r*f pdwfrsdK;ç t&d,zkdvfpdwfrsdK;[lí ESpfrsdK;&Sd\/

apwoduf-52
2/ apwod u f o n nf-zóç a0'emç onmç apwemç
{u*¾wmç ZD0dwç reodum&? þ 7-yg;wkdYonf oAÁpdwåu rnf
ukef\? pdwfwkdif;ESifh ,SOfukef\/
0dwuúç 0dpm&ç 0D&d,ç yDwdç qE´ç t"darmu©? þ 6-yg;
wkdYonf yudPf;rnfukef\? NydK;>yrf;íom ,SOfukef\/
þ 13-yg;wko Yd nf 0drdóu rnfuek \ f ? aumif;ç raumif;
ESifh qufqHukef\/
avmbç a'goç arm[ç 'd|çd rmeç £ómç rpä&, d ç ukuKú pçö
t[d&u d ç taemwåyçÜ O'¨pçö xdeç rd'ç¨ 0dpu
d pd mä ? þ 14-yg;wko
Yd nf
ygyZmwd rnfukef\/ raumif;rsdK;tppf jzpfukef\/
tavmbç ta'goç tarm[ç o'¨gç owdç [d&Dç MowåyÜç
wMwrZö s wå w mç um,yó'¨ d ç pd w å y ó'¨ d ç um,v[k w mç
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 44
pd w å v [k w mç um,rk ' k w mç pd w å r k ' k w mç um,ur® n wmç
pdwåur®nwmç um,yg*knwmç pdwåyg*knwmç um,kZkuwmç
pd w å K Zk u wm[l í aombP 20? or® m 0gpmç or® m ur® E Å ç
or®mtmZD0 [lí 0d&wDo;kH yg;? u½kPmç rk'w d m[lí tyÜrnmESpyf g;?
þ 25-yg;wko Yd nf uvsmPZmwd rnfuek \ f ? taumif;rsKd ; tppf
jzpfuek \ fk /

0drdóu - 13-yg;?
ygyZmwd - 14-yg;?
uvsmPZmwd - 25-yg;?
- aygif; 52-yg; jzpf\/
oAÁpdwåu 7-yg;
1/ zó qkdonfum; awGUxdjcif;wnf;? awGUxdjcif;
qko
d nfum; £|&oç ted|&o ay:xGuaf p&ef tm½ku H dk Buw
d Ef ydS f
jcif;wnf;? xdkzóonf tm½Hk\&oukd xkwfazmfaomw&m; jzpf
ayí cyfodrf;aom apwoduf emrfwkdY\ jzpfyGm;&ef trI&if;
jzpfay\? &oray:cJhvQif tm½kH[lorQonf toHk;usrnfr[kwf/
2/ a0'em qko d nfum; xk&d oukd cHpm;rIaywnf;? cyford ;f
aom owå0gwko Yd nf þcHpm;rIü acgif;pku
d í
f aeMuuke\
f ? epfjrKyí f
aeMuukef\/
3/ onm qkdonfum; trSwfjyKrIaywnf;? cyfodrf;aom
owå0gwkdYonf trsdK;vkduf t½dk;vkduf trSwfrsKd;rSwfrIpHkvifu
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 45
þonmjzifhyif tvdr®mjynfhpHkvHkavmuf &SdaeMuukef\/
4/ apwem qkdonfum; aphaqmfrIaywnf;? emrfw&m;
wkdYukd trIudpöü nDnmjzjz x<uMuap&ef EId;aqmfrI pD&ifBuD;Muyf
rIaywnf;? xkdYaMumifh avmurSm xkdxkdta&;udpöwkdYü EdI;aqmfol
pD&iffBuD;Muyfolukdom ta&;udpö\ t&SifjyKí ac:qkdMuNrJjzpf\?
b,fta&; udpöBuD;ukd b,foljyKvkyfonf? b,foltrIonfjzpf
onf[k ajymMu½dk;jzpf\/
xkt
Yd wl "r®rmS vnf; xkx
d u
dk m,uHupd çö 0pDuu H pd çö raemuH
udpöwkdYü EId;aqmfol pD&ifBuD;Muyfol jzpfayaom þapwemukdom
t&SifjyKí apwemukdom trIonfjyKí apwemukdom uH[lí
qk&d onf/
avmuü cyfodrf;aom OpömtpD;tyGm; ynmtpD;tyGm;
wko Yd nf ,ckypöKyeÜ f b0wGif aMumifMh u pku
d x
f w
k f jyKvyk Nf y;D pD;Muaom
um,uHrIç 0pDuHrIç raemuHrIrS jzpfyGg;MuukefouJhokdY xkdYtwl
aovGefonfrS aemufumvü topftopfaom b0tpD;tyGm;
wkdYonfvnf; a&S;a&S;aom b0wkdYu aMumifhMupkdufxkwf jyKvkyf
Ny;D pD;cJMh uaom þapwem[laom um,uHrçI 0pDurH çI raemuHrw I rYdk S
jzpfymG ;Muuke\ f /
ajr a& awm awmif opfyif EG,jf ruf tpOftqufwo Ydk nf
Owk[laom rD;"mwfrS jzpfyGm;Muonfjzpfí rD;"mwf\ om;ajr;
wkdYcsnf; jzpfMuukefouJhokdY cyfodrf;aom owå0g tpOftquf
wkdYonf þ apwem [laom uH"mwfrS jzpfyGm;Muukefonfjzpfí
uH"mwf\ om;ajr;wkdYcsnf; jzpfMuukef\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 46
5/ {u*¾ w m qkdonfum; pdwf\ wnfMunfjcif;wnf;?
orm"dvnf; ac:\? psmeftbdnmPf ormywfwkdYü tBuD;tcsKyf
aywnf;/
6/ ZD 0 d w qkdonfum; emrfw&m;wkdY\ toufaywnf;?
emrf tpOf\ umvjrifh&Snf wnfaerIü tBuD;tcsKyfaywnf/
7/ reodum& qko d nfum; ESv;kH oGi;f rIaywnf;? tvk&d &dS m
tm½kHukd pdwfü tzefzef aqmifoGif; ay;jcif;wnf;/
þ 7-yg;wko Yd nf tvH;k pHak om pdww
f üYdk tNr,
J OS o
f nfjzpfí
oAÁpdwåuapwodufwdkY rnfukef\/
yudPf; 6-yg;
8/ 0d w uuú qkdonfum; pdwf\ axGaxGjym;jym; tBuHyGm;
jcif;wnf;? ouFyv Ü nf;ac:\? or®mouFyçÜ rdpmä ouFyÜ ESpyf g;&S\
d /
9/ 0d p m& qkdonfum; tm½Hkü pdwf\ wpf&pf0J0J aejcif;
wnf;/
10/ 0D & d , qkdonfum; trIudpöwkdYü pdwf\txt<u
aygYyg;jcif;wnf;? or®m0g,mrç rdpäm0g,mr ESpfyg;&Sd\/
11/ yD wd qkdonfum; pdwf\ESpfoufjcif;wnf;? pdwfvHk;
BuD;xGm;jcif;wnf;? pdwf\ &Tifvef;wuf<u wpf[kefwnf; ajrmuf
<ujcif;wnf;/
12/ qE´ qko d nfum; tvk&d jdS cif;wnf;? oGm;vko
d nfç vmvkd
onfç ajymvkdonfç qkdvkdonf tp&Sdonfwnf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 47
13/ t"darmu© qkdonfum; tm½Hkü uRwfvGwfjcif;wnf;?
[kwfonfjzpfap? r[kwfonfjzpfap? onfvkdvm; [kdvkdvm;[k
ESpfcGr&Sd? tNidtwG,frS pdwf\uRwfvGwfjcif;wnf;/
þajcmufyg;wko
Yd nf tvH;k pHak om pdwwf üYdk r,SOçf tcsKd UtcsKUd
aom pdwfwkdYüom ,SOfonfjzpfí yudPf;apwoduf rnfukef\/
oAÁpdwåu ckepfyg;ESifh aygif;onf&Sdaomf wpfq,fhoHk;yg;
jzpf\? þwpfq,fhoHk;yg;wkdYonf aumif; raumif; ESpfbuf a&m
,Sufjcif;aMumifh 0drdóurnfukef\? pdwfonfvnf;aumif;
raumif; ESpfbufESifh a&m,Sufonfomjzpf\/
tukokdvfapwoduf 14-yg;
14/ avmb qkdonfum; tm½kHüpdwf\ NidwG,f ap;
uyfjcif;wnf;? þavmbukd wPSmvnf;ac:\? tbdZÑmvnf;
ac:\? umrvnf;ac:\? &m*vnf; ac:\/
15/ a'go qkdonfum; tm½kHü pdwf\ Murf;wrf;pGm
xdckdufjcif;wnf;? þa'goukd y#dCvnf;ac:\? Asmyg'vnf;
ac:\/
16/ arm[ qkdonfum; w&m;"r®t&mü tvGefrod
jcif;wnf;? þarm[ukd t0dZmÆ vnf;ac:\? tnmPvnf; ac:\?
t'óevnf; ac:\/
þw&m;okH;yg;onf tvkH;pkHaom tukovygy"r®wkdY\
t&if;tjrpf tajccHjzpfaomaMumifh tukovrlv w&m;okH;yg;
rnf\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 48
17/ 'd|d qko d nfum; w&m;"r®t&mü tjrifrmS ;jcif;wnf;?
t,lrSm;jcif;wnf;? tedpöukd edpö[k,ljcif;ç 'ku©ukd okc[k,ljcif;ç
tewåukd twå[k,ljcif;ç ukokdvfuH tukodkvfuHukd y,fjcif;ç
uH\tusKd;ukdy,fjcif; ponfwnf;/
18/ rme qko d nfum; txifrmS ;jcif;wnf;? igr[kwaf om
emrf½kyfukd ig[kxifjcif;ç xdkigukdyif trsKd;udkpGJí ,kwfonf jrwf
onf[k xifjcif;ç tEG,fukdpGJí ,kwfonf jrwfonf[kxifjcif;
ponfwnf;/
19/ £óm qkdonfum; jiLpljcif;wnf;? olwpfyg;
aumif;pm;onfudk remvkjd cif;ç 0rf;rajrmuf Edik jf cif;ç rcs;D rGr;f Edik jf cif;ç
taumif; rajymEkdifjcif;ç raumif;ajym&efukdom &SmBuHjcif;wnf;/
20/ rpä & d , qko d nfum; 0efwjdk cif;wnf;? rdrad umif;pm;
onfukd olwpfyg;tm; rrQwvdkjcif;ç 0efwkdjcif;ç ESajrmjcif;ç ap;eJ
jcif;wnf;/
21/ ukuúKppö qko d nfum; aemifwwpfzef ylyefjcif;wnf;?
uRev f eG Nf y;D aomtcgrS igarhcrhJ ad vjcif;? igrku
d cf rhJ ad vjcif;? igrSm;cJrh d
avjcif;[k wpftkHaEG;aEG; ylaqG;jcif;wnf;/
avmuü trSm;ESpfyg;&Sd\? 'kp½kdufrIukd jyKjcif;onfvnf;
trSm; wpfyg;ç okp½ku d rf u
I dk rjyKjcif;onfvnf; trSm;wpfyg;ç aemif
wjzpf&avjcif;vnf; ESpfyg;&Sd\? 'kp½kdufrIukd igjyKcJhrdavjcif;[k
aemifwjzpf&jcif; wpfyg;ç 'geoDvpaom okp½kdufrIukd igrjyKcJhrd
avjcif;[k aemifwjzpf&jcif; wpfyg;ç avmuü vlrkdufaemufrS
tBuH& [kqkdMuaom tarhtrdkuf trSm;ESpfrsKd; &SdMuonfhtwGuf
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 49
ukuúKpö[kqkdtyfaom aemifwylyefrI ESpfyg;&Sd\/
22/ t[d & d uqkdonfum; t&Sufr&Sdjcif;wnf;? raumif;
rI'kp½kdufukd jyKcGifhqkdufcJhaomf rdrdü trkdufrI NidpGef;npfEGrf;
vl;vJacsawmhrnf[lívnf; pkd;&GHUjcif;r&Sd? vlodrnf ewfodrnfukd
vnf; r&Sufjcif;wnf;/
23/ taemwå y Ü qkdonfum; taMumufr&Sdjcif;wnf;?
aemufü igrku d cf rhJ ad vjcif;ç igrSm;cJrh d avjcif;[lí rdru d ,
dk u
f dk rdrpd yG pf JG
qJa&;jcif;[laom twåmEk0g'ab; oifha&mufrnfukdvnf;
raMumufç vlolawmfaumif; ewfolawmfaumif;wkdY\ uJh&Jhjcif;[l
aom y&mEk0g'ab; oifah &mufrnfuv dk nf; raMumufç tyg,fab;
oifha&mufrnfukdvnf; raMumufr&GHU rxdwfrvefYjcif;wnf;/
24/ O'¨ pö qkdonfum; tm½kHwpfckckü pdwf\&yfwnfrI
r&&Sjd cif;wnf;/
25/ xd e qko d nfum; pdw\ f xkid ;f rIid ;f jcif;wnf;? tm½ku H dk
od\? ryGifhrvif; arS;rSdefjcif;wnf;/
26/ rd ' ¨ qkdonfum; apwodufwkdY\ xkdif;rIdif;jcif;wnf;?
tm½kHukdawGUrI cHpm;rI ponfwkdY\ ryGifhrvif; arS;rSdefjcif;wnf;/
27/ 0dpdudpäm qdo k nfum; ,kMH unfxu dk o f nfü r,kMH unf
jcif;wnf;/
þwpfq,fh av;yg;aom apwoduw f o Ydk nf raumif;rIrsK;d
pifppfjzpfí ygyZmwd rnfukef\? tukov"r®tppf rnfukef\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 50
ukokdvfapwoduf 25-yg;
28/ tavmb qkdonfum; tm½kHü pdwf\tNidtwG,f
r&Sjd cif;wnf;? þtavmbukd aeu©r "mwfvnf;ac:\? tebdZÑm
vnf; ac:\/
29/ ta'go qkdonfum; tm½kHüpdwfñGwfEl;jcif;wnf;?
þ ta'goukd tAsmyg'vnf; ac:\? arwåmvnf;ac:\/
30/ tarm[ qkdonfum; trSefukdodjcif;wnf;? þ
tarm[ukd ÓPfvnf;ac:\? ynmvnf; ac:\? 0dZÆmvnf;
ac:\? or®m'd|dvnf; ac:\/
þw&m;okH;yg;wkdYonf tvkH;pkHaom uvsmP"r®wkdY\
t&if;tjrpf tajccHjzpfaomaMumifh uvsmPrlvw&m;okH;yg;
rnfuek \ f /
31/ o'¨ g qko
d nfum; ,kMH unfxu dk af omtrSew f &m;wküYd
,kMH unfjcif;wnf;? þo'¨gukd yom'vnf; ac:\? t"darmu©vnf;
ac:\/
32/ owd qkdonfum; aumif;jrwfaomt&mwkdYü rarh
ravsmh raysmufruG,fEdkif&ef tzefzef tm½kHjyKjcif;wnf;? o&P
vnf; ac:\? Oy|mevnf;ac:\/
33/ [d&D qko
d nfum; &Sujf cif;wnf;? &Sujf cif;qko
d nfum;
&Sufojzifh raumif;rIokdY rwkd;0Hhjcif;wnf;/
34/ Mowå yÜ qkdonfum; aMumufjcif; vefYjcif;wnf;?
twåmEk0g' ab;ç y&mEk0g'ab; tyg,fab;wkrYd S aMumufvefo Y jzifh
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 51
raumif;rIokdY rwkd;0Hhjcif;wnf;/
35/ wMwrZÑwåwm qko d nfum; xkx d tdk m½küH Niw
d ,
G jf cif;ç
qefu Y sijf cif; tpGe;f wkrYd S uif;vGwo f jzifh vspv
f sLtaeü wnfjcif;
wnf;? þwMwrZÑww å mukd jA[®0[ d m&t&mü Oayu©mjA[®0[ d m&
ac:\? aAmZÑ*Ft&mü Oayu©m oarÁmZÑifac:\/
36/ um,yó'¨d qko d nfum; apwodut f aygif;[laom
emrum,\ Nidrf;csrf;jcif;wnf;/
37/ pdwåyó'¨d qkdonfum; pdwf\ Nidrf;csrf;jcif;wnf;?
Nidrf;csrf;jcif;qkdonfum; ukokdvfrIwkdYü rNidrf;rcsrf;jcif;ukd jyKwwf
ukefaom ygy"r®wkdYESifhr,SOfojzifh orÜ,kwfw&m;wkdY\ Munfvif
csrf;jrjcif;wnf;/
38/ um,v[kwm qdo k nfum; emrum,\ aygYyg;jcif;
wnf;/
39/ pdwåv[kwm qkdonfum; pdwf\ aygYyg;jcif;wnf;?
aygY yg;jcif;qkdonfum; ukokdvfrIwkdYü av;vHjcif;ukd jyKwwfukef
aom ygy"r®wkdYESifhr,SOfojzifh orÜ,kwfw&m;wkdY\ aygYyg;jcif;
wnf;/
40/ um,rk'kwm qkdonfum; emrum,\ El;nHhjcif;
wnf;/
41/ pd w å r k ' k w m qkdonfum; pdwf\El;nhHjcif;wnf;?
El;nhjH cif;qko
d nfum; uko k vdk rf wI üYdk pdw\ f cufxefMurf;wrf;jcif;ukd
jyKwwfukefaom ygy"r®wkdYESifh r,SOfojzifh orÜ,kwfw&m;wkdY\
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 52
El;nHhaysmhaysmif; jcif;ukd qkdonf/
42/ um,ur®nwm qkdonfum; emrum,\ trIü
aumif;jcif;wnf;/
43/ pdwåur®nwm qkdonfum; pdwf\ trIü aumif;
jcif;wnf;? trIüaumif;jcif; qkdonfum; ukokdvfwkdYü pdwf\
raumif;rGef rcHhnm;jcif;ukd jyKwwfukefaom ygy"r®wkdYESifh r,SOf
ojzifh orÜ,w k w f &m;wk\ Yd aumif;jrwfaom cHn h m;jcif;ukq d odk nf?
ukokdvfrIü rjiif;qefjcif;ukd qkdonf/
44/ um,yg*k n wm qkdonfum; emrum,\ avh
vmjcif;wnf;/
45/ pdwåyg*knwm qko d nfum; pdw\ f avhvmjcif;wnf;?
avhvmjcif;qko d nfum; aMuv,fjcif;wnf;? ukov dk rf w
I üYdk pdw\ f
xpfxpf aigYaigY &Sjd cif;ukd jyKwwfuek af om ygy"r®wEYdk iS hf r,SOo f jzifh
orÜ,kwfw&m;wkdY\ oGufvufausrGefjcif;ukd qkdonf/
46/ um,k Z k u wm qkdonfum; emrum,\ ajzmifh
rwfjcif;wnf;/
47/ pdwåKZkuwm qko d nfum; pdw\ f ajzmifrh wfjcif;wnf;?
ajzmifrh wfjcif; qkod nfum; ukov dk rf w
I üYdk pdw\f aumufuspjf cif;ukd
jyKwwfukefaom ygy"r®wkdYESifh r,SOfojzifh orÜ,kwfw&m;wkdY\
aumufuspf pOf;vJrIr&Sdjcif;ukd qkdvkdonf/
aombP qkdonfum; wifhw,faumif;jrwfonfukd
qkod nf/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 53
48/ or® m 0gpm qkdonfum; rkom0g'ç ydokP0gpmç
z½ko0gpmç oræyÜvmywnf;[laom 0pD'kp½kdufav;yg;wkdYrS MuOf
a&Smifjcif;wnf;/
49/ or®mur®EÅ qkdonfum; ygPmwdygwç t'dEém'geç
umarokrdpämpm& wnf;[laom um,'kp½kdufokH;yg;wkdYrS MuOf
a&Smifjcif;wnf;/
50/ or® m tmZD 0 qkdonfum; raumif;aom touf
arG;rIwkdYrS MuOfa&Smifjcif;wnf;/
0d&wD qkod nfum; 'kp½ku d w
f rYkd S MuOfa&Smifjcif;ukd qko
d nf/
51/ u½k P m qkdonfum; qif;&Jíaeaom owå0gukd
awGUjrifvQif oem;jcif; Muifemjcif; n§mwmjcif; xkdqif;&JrS u,f
q,fvkdjcif;wnf;/
52/ rk'dwm qko d nfum; csr;f omaom owå0gudk awGUjrif
vQif 0rf;ajrmufjcif; 0rf;omjcif;wnf;/
þw&m;ESpyf g;ukd toD;toD; u½kPmjA[®0[ d m&ç rk'w d m
jA[®0d[m&wkdY[lívnf; qdkonf/
tyÜrnm qko d nfum; vlowå0g wd&pämef owå0gwkrYd pS í
cyfodrf;aom owå0gwkdYudk tm½kHjyKí qif;&Jaom owå0gwkdYudk
oem;jcif;ç csrf;omaom owå0gwkdYudk 0rf;ajrmufjcif;tm;jzifh
yGg;rsm;aptyfaom w&m;rsKd;jzpfaomaMumifh ]]tyÜ tyÜ r maeok
oawåok b0gwd tyÜrnm nm}} [lonfESifhtnD tyÜrnmrnf\/
apwoduf 52-yg;NyD;\/
————Ä—————
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 54
edAÁmef 3-yg;
3/ edAÁmefonf-
1/ yXredAÁmef?
2/ 'kwd,edAÁmef?
3/ wwd,edAÁmef
[lí oHk;yg;&Sd\? xkdoHk;yg;wkdYwGif-
- tyg,fb0wkrYd S vGwNf ird ;f jcif;onf yXredAmÁ efrnf\?
- wpfzef umrb0wkdYrS vGwfNiddrf;jcif;onf 'kwd,
edAÁmefrnf\?
- wpfzef ½ly t½ly jA[®mb0wkdYrS vGwfNidrf;jcif;onf
wwd, edAÁmefrnf\/
pdwf 1-yg;ç apwoduf 52-yg;ç edAmÁ ef 1-yg;[lí emrfw&m;
54-yg;jzpf\/
½kyfw&m; 2*-yg;ç emrfw&m; 54-yg;[lí y&rw¬w&m;
*2-yg;jzpf\? þy&rw¬w&m; *2-yg;ukd y&rw¬opömw&m;[k qk\ d ?
y&rw¬opömrsdK; r[kwfaom owåZD0 owåyk*¾vponfukd orkwd
opöm [kqkd\/
y&rw¬opöuxmNy;D \/
————Ä———-
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 55
7-ypö,uxm
xkd 82-yg;aom y&rw¬"r®wdkYwGif edAÁmefonf jzpfay:jcif;
[laom Zmwd\e,frS tvGwjf zpfí jzpfay:ap&ef taMumif;vnf;
rvk?d Z&mr&Pwk\ Yd e,frt S vGwjf zpfí apmifah &Smuf&ef axmufyhH
&ef taMumif;vnf; rvkd? xkdYaMumifh edAÁmefonf typö,w&m;?
tocFw w&m;rnf\/
edAÁmefrS<uif;aom *1-yg;aom½kyfw&m;ç emrfw&m;rsm;
onfru l m; Zmwdç Z&mç r&PwkEYd iS hf jzpf& ysu&f onfjzpfí oypö,
w&m;rsm;ç ocFww&m;rsm;jzpfMuukef\? xkd½kyfw&m; emrfw&m;
ESpyf g;wkw
Yd iG f ½kyf 28-yg;wküYd uHç pdwçf Owkç tm[m&[lí taMumif;
w&m;av;yg;ukd jyqkdcJhNyD/
xkdtaMumif;av;yg;wkdYwGif uH[laomtaMumif;onf
OD;wnfrlv taMumif;rQomjzpf\? pdwf[laom taMumif;onf
vnf; tcs,ftv,f taMumif;rQomjzpf\? ½lyum,cE¨mukd,f
onf Owk[laom "mwfrD;ESifh tm[m&[laom "mwfqDwkdY\
tpGr;f jzifh Bu;D yGm;&\? umvjrif&h n S f wnfae&\? "mwfr;D ç "mwfqD
tajctae ysufcJhvQif uH\tpGrf;ç pdwf\tpGrf;wkdYvnf; ysuf&
ukefavawmhonf/
Oyrmum;-opfyifwrYdk mS rsKd ;aphonf OD;wnfrv l taMumif;
rQ omjzpf\? opfyifwkdYonfrlum; ajrOwkç a&OwkwkdY\tpGrf;jzifh
BuD;yGm;&ukef\? umvjrifh&Snf wnfae&ukef\? ajrOwkç a&Owk
tajctaeysufBuD; ysufcJhaomf rsdK;aph\tpGrf;onf ysuf&av
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 56
awmhonf/ þOyrmuJhodkYrSwf/
- ½lyum,onf opfyifESifhwl\?
- uHonfrsdK;aphESifhwl\?
- Owk [laom "mwfrD;onfajr BuD;ESifhwl\?
- tm[m&[laom "mwfqo D nf tcgç tcgü rjywf&mG
aom rdk;a&ESifhwl\?
- pdwfonf opfyifukd jyifyrS aus;Zl;jyKaom aeOwkç
avOwkESifhwl\/
pd w f ç apwod u f w k d Y \ jzpf a Mumif ; onf u m;-
0dygufw&m;wkrYd mS -
a&S;uHa[mif; onftaMumif;wpfyg;?
rSD&m0w¬K ½kyfonf taMumif;wpfyg;?
tm½kHonftaMumif; wpfyg;/
xkdoHk;yg;wkdYwGif -
- a&S;uHa[mif;onf opfyifwkdYrSm rsdK;aphESifh wl\?
- 0w¬K½kyfonf ajrESifhwl\?
- tm½kHonf rkd;a&ç rdk;aygufESifh wl\?
ukokdvfç tukokdvfç Bud,mç pdwfç apwodufwkdYrSmvnf;
rSD&m0w¬K½kyfESifhtm½kH[laom taMumif; ESpfyg;pD &SdMu\/
taMumif;xl;rSmrlum; - ukokdvf pdwfapwodufwkdYrSm
a,medaom reodum&taMumif;ç tukov dk f pdwaf pwoduwf rYdk mS
ta,medaom reodum&taMumif;ç Z0eudpö&Sdaom Bud,mpdwf
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 57
apwodufwkdYrSm ukokdvfüuJhokdY a,medaomreodum&onfyif
taMumif; jzpfonf? tm0ZÆef;a'GwkdYrSm ukokdvf\ a&SUoGm;jzpfckduf
ukokdvfESifhwl\? tukokdvf\ a&SUoGm;jzpfckduf tukokdvfESifhwl\/
a,medaomreodum& qkdonfum; oifhjrwfaom ESvHk;
oGi;f wnf;? ta,medaom reodum& qko d nfum; roifjh rwfaom
ESvHk;oGif;wnf;? tm0ZÆef;\ udpöESpfyg;aywnf;/
wpfa,mufaomolukd awGUjrif&mü ESvHk;oGif;vdr®mvQif
xko d u
l dk awGUjrifMu&onft h wGuf ukov dk f jzpf&\? ESv;kH oGi;f rvdrm®
vQif xko d u l kd awGUjrifMu&onfth wGuf tukov dk f jzpf&\? tb,f
tm½kHrsdK;um; ukokdvfjzpf&efNrJ\? tb,ftm½HkrsdK;um; tukokdvf
jzpf&ef NrJ\[kr&Sd/
- pdwf\tpOfonf avSESifhwl\?
- tm0ZÆef;onf yJhorm;ESifh wl\?
yJhorm; OD;vSnfhíay;&mokdY avSonf oGm;&ouJhokdY
tm0ZÆef; OD;vSnfhíay;&mokdY ukokdvfvrf; tukokdvfvrf; yGifhMu
&m\/
opfyifwkdYrSm rsdK;aphwkdYuJhokdY reodum&onf ukodkvfç
tukokdvfwkdYjzpf&ef t&if;rlv taMumif;aywnf;? 0w¬K½kyfonf
opfyifwkdYrSm ajrBuD;ESifhwl\? tm½kHonf opfyifwkdYrSm rkd;a&ç
rk;d aygufEiS w hf \
l /
wpfenf;um;/ /0dnmPfajcmufyg;wkdYwGif wpfyg;yg;ü
taMumif;w&m; av;yg; av;yg;pD &SdMu\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 58
1/ pu©K0w¬K½kyfç ½lyg½kHç tmavmuç reodum&ç þum;
pu©K0dnmPfjzpfay:&ef taMumif;w&m; av;yg;wnf;/
xkdav;yg;wkdYwGif-
reodum& qkdonfum; xkd½lyg½kHokdYa&SU½Iaom tm0ZÆef;
aywnf;? tmavmuqkdonfum; ta&miftvif;wnf;? ta&mif
tvif;&Syd grS pu©K0nd mPf[al om jrifrBI u, d mjzpfEikd \
f ? pu©K0n
d mPf
jzpfEdkifrSom pu©K'Gg&0Dxdpdwfrsm; jzpfEdkif\/
2/ aomw0w¬K½yk çf o'´g½kçH tmumoç reodum&ç þum;
aomw0dnmPfjzpfay:&ef taMumif;w&m;av;yg;wkdYwnf;/
xkdav;yg;wkdYwGif-
tmumo qkdonfum; tayguf[if;vif;wnf;? em;ESifh
toH qufqMH u&ef xkt d mumo&Syd grS aomw0dnmPf[al om Mum;
rIBud,m jzpfay:Edkif\? aomw0dnmPfjzpfay:EdkifrSom aomw
'Gg&0Dxd pdwfrsm; jzpfEdkifMu\/
3/ Cme0w¬K½kyfç *E¨m½kHç 0gwç reodum&ç þum; Cme
0dnmPfjzpfay:&ef taMumif;w&m; av;yg;wnf;/
xkdav;yg;wkdYwGif-
0gw qkdonfum; ESmacgif;avaywnf;? ½SLavç ½SdKufav
aywnf;? xkdavr&SdcJhvQif *E¨m½kHonf Cme0w¬K½kyfü rxdckdufEdkif?
rxdckdufvQifvnf; eHrI[laom Cme0dnmPf rjzpfEdkif? Cme'Gg&
0Dxdpdwfrsm; rjzpfEdkif/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 59
4/ Zd0Sg0w¬K½kyfç &om½kHç tmyç reodum&ç þum; Zd0Sg
0dnmPf jzpfay:&ef taMumif;w&m; av;yg;wnf;/
xkdav;yg;wkdYwGif-
tmy qkdonfum; vQm\pkdpGwfjcif;wnf;? vQmajcmuf
aoGUcJhvQif &om½kHonf Zd0Sg0w¬K½kyfü rxd rckdufEdkif? rxdckdufvQif
vnf; t&omukd odrI[laom Zd0Sg0dnmPf rjzpfEdkif? Zd0Sg'Gg&
0Dxdpdwfrsm; rjzpfEdkif/
5/ um,0w¬K½kyfç azm|AÁç x'¨ç reodum&ç þum;
um,0dnmPf jzpfay:&ef taMumif;w&m; av;yg;wnf;/
xkdav;yg;wkdYwGif-
x'¨ qko d nfum; tweft&mcufxefaom azm|AÁoabm
wnf;? xkdoabm tNcHt&H&Sdaom azm|AÁm½kHrSomvQif um,
0w¬K½kyfü xdckdufEdkif\? tvGefodrfarGUvSaom azm|AÁm½kHonf
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[laom um,0dnmPf rjzpfEdkif? um,'gG& 0Dxdpdwfrsm;vnf;
rjzpfEikd /f
6/ [',0w¦K½kyfç "r®m½kHç raem'Gg&ç reodum&ç þum;
raem0dnmPfjzpfay:&eftaMumif;w&m; av;yg;wnf;/
xdkav;yg;wdkYwGif -
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½kyfw&m;ç emrfw&m;ç ynwfw&m;ç edAÁmefw&m;rsm;aywnf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 60
½lyg½Hkç o'´g½Hkç *E¨m½Hkç &om½Hkç azm|AÁm½Hk[laom yOöm½Hkrsm;
onfvnf; raem0dnmPf\ tm½Hkjzpf\? odkY&mwGif yOö'Gg&ESifh
rqdkif&mudk xkwfazmfvdkí "r®m½Hkudkom jyqdkavonf/
raem'G g & qdkonfum; b0ifpdwf tpOfaywnf;? [',
0wåK½kyfonf raem0dnmPf\ wnf&mrSD&m jzpfyGg;&m rSefjim;aomf
vnf; tMunftvifyom'rsdK; r[kwfaomaMumifh tm½Hk\ t&dyf
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ypö,uxm jyD;\/
————Ä———-—
8-tbdnmuxm
tbd n mPf 2-yg;
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ö q
kd o
kd nf/
xdktbdnmPfonf-
(1) orxtbdnm?
(2) "r®tbdnm
[lí ESpfyg;½Sd\? xdkESpfyg;wdkYwGif -
1/ orxtbdnm qdkonfum; orxur®|mef;vrf;rS
aygufa&mufaom £'¨0d"ÓPfç 'dAÁaomwÓPfç apawmy&d,
ÓPfç ykaAÁed0goÓPfç ,xmur®Ky*ÓPfwdkYudk qdkvdkownf;/
xdktbdnmPf wdkYwGif-
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 61
£'¨d0d"tbdnmP mPf qdo
k nfum; aumif;uifysjH cif;ç ajrvsKd ;
jcif;ç wefcdk;txl;xl; taxGaxG zefqif;jcif;aywnf;/
'dAÁaomwtbdnmPf qdkonfum; ewfwdkY\em;uJhodkY
Mum;Edik jf cif;wnf;/
apawmy&d , tbd n mPf qdkonfum; olwpfyg;wdkY\
pdwftMuH trsdK;rsdK;udkodEdkifjcif;wnf;/
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wdkYudk odEdkifjcif;wnf;/
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2/ "r®tbdnmPf qdkonfum; opöuxmwGif jyqdkcJhonfh
twdkif; orkwdopömrsdK;udkvGefí y&rw¬opömw&m;rsdK;wdkYudk ydkif;
ydkif;jcm;jcm; odEdkifjcif;wnf;/
xdk"r®tbdnmPfonfvnf;-
(1) okwr,ÓPf?
(2) pdEÅm r,ÓPf?
(3) bm0emr,ÓPf
[lí oHk;yg;½Sd\? xdkoHk;yg;wdkYwGif -
bm0emr,ÓPfonfvnf;-
(1) tEkaAm"ÓPf
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 62
(2) y#da0"ÓPf
[lí ESpfyg;½Sd\? xdkESpfyg;wdkYwGif -
tedpömEkyóemÓPf? 'ku©mEkyóemÓPf? tewåmEk
yóem ÓPf[laom 0dyóemÓPfoHk;yg;onf tEkaAm"ÓPf
rnf\? [kwfrSefaom "r®oabmtm;avsmfpGm yGifhyGifhvif;vif;
odjrifjcif;wnf;/
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d pd mä tp½Sad om udavom trdu k wf &m;wdu
Yk kd tjrpft&if;
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tbdnmuxm jyD;\/
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9-y&dnmuxm
y&d n m 3-yg;
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xdky&dnmonf-
(1) Ówy&dnm?
(2) wD&Py&dnm?
(3) y[mey&dnm?
[lí oHk;yg;½Sd\? xdkoHk;yg;wdkYwGif-
1/ Ówy&dnm qkdonfum; y&rw¬opöuxmç ypö,
uxmwkdYwGif jyqkdcJhNyD;aom taMumif;ESifhwuGaom ½kyfw&m;ç
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 63
emrfw&m;ç edAmÁ efw&m; wku Yd dk oabmusepGm wwfov d rd m® jcif;wnf;?
tbdnmPfü qHyifç arG;nif;paom oP²meynwfrsdK; aysmuf
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(1) tedpöy&dnm?
(2) 'ku©y&dnm?
(3) tewåy&dnm?
[lí oHk;yg;&Sd\? xkdoHk;yg;wkdYwGif-
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 64
1/ tedpöy&dnm qko d nfum; r&Pw&m;ü ÓPftjrif
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2/ 'k u©y&dnm qkdonfum; 'ku©oabmü ÓPftjrif
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(2) b,|'ku©?
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tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 65
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tvGefaumif;avav 'ku©cH&uf &Snfvsm;avav jzpf\/
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vJí oGm;&rnf trSefjzpf\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 66
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aemufü Akdif;Akdif;vJí toJtoefcHpm;&ef 'ku©BuD;rm; &Snfvsm;
avav jzpfaomaMumifhwnf;/
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ESiw hf \ l /
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[laom 0dyóem t&mrsm;ü 'ku©o'´g\ teufjzpf\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 67
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y&dnm qkdownf;/
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tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 68
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wnf;?
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om&wnf;?
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(2) pdwåZ½kyf oEÅwd?
(3) OwkZ½kyfoEÅwd?
(4) tm[m&Z½kyfoEÅwd?
[lí av;yg; &Sd\? xkdav;yg;wkdYwGif-
ur®Z½kyf oEÅwo d nf uHtaxGaxGajymif;vJvQif ajymif;vJ
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ajymif;vJMu\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 69
xkdav;yg;wkYdwGif ur®Z½kyfoEÅwdonfum; ajymif;vJrI
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aoqk;H jcif;[lí ok;H yg; ok;H yg;pD &SMd u\? jzpfay:jcif;onf Zmwdwnf;?
Mumanmif;jcif;onf Z&mwnf;? aoqkH;jcif;onf r&Pwnf;/
oGm;jcif; £&d,mykxüf ajcwpfvrS ;f wpfvrS ;f rSmyif tpç
tv,fç tqkH; okH;yg;&Sd\? ajcvSrf;\ jzpfay:rI ajcvSrf;\ Mum
anmif;rI ajcvSrf;\ aoqkH;rIrsm;aywnf;? wpfvSrf;qkdvQif
wpfu, dk vf ;Hk yg\? wpfu, dk vf ;Hk \ wpfrsK;d topf jzpfay:rIyif jzpf\?
wpfudk,fvkH;\ Mumanmif;rIyifjzpf\? wpfudk,fvHk;&Sd "mwfwdkY\
aoqHk;rIyifjzpf\? ajcvSrf;wpf&m&SdvQif wpfukd,fvHk; aoqHk;jcif;
wpf&mjzpf\? ajcvSrf; wpfaxmif&SdvQif wpfudk,fvHk; aoqHk;jcif;
wpfaxmifjzpf\? ajcwpfvrS ;f rSmvnf; cs½D yk w f pfoif; cs½yk w
f pfoif;
[lí ½kyfESpfoif;cJG&ef &Sdao;\? csD½kyf toif;jzpfay:rIç csD½kyf
toif;Mumanmif;rIç csD½kyftoif;aoqHk;rIç [lívnf; &Sd\?
cs½kyftoif;rSmvnf; xkdYtw?l &yfjcif;ç xkdifjcif;ç avsmif;jcif;wdkYü
vnf; toD;toD; tpç tv,fç tqH;k oH;k yg;pD &SMd u\? 'kua© 0'em
ESifhwuGaom &yfanmif;ç xkdifanmif;ç tdyfanmif;[lívnf;
Mumanmif;rI txif; t&Sm;&SdMu\? anmif;rI[lorQonf oEÅwd
Z&mcsnf;aywnf;? auG;jcif;ç qefYjcif; ponfwkdYüvnf; xkdYtwl
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 70
txl;rSwf&efrlum; anmif;½kyfç nm½kyfç em½kyfç usif½kyfç xHkusifç
ukud cf ½J yk çf ,m;½kyçf ,H½yk f ponfwo Ydk nf OwkZ½kyw f \
Ydk azmufjyefrI
aywnf;/
xGufouf ½SLrIrSmvnf; xGufoufpvmNyD? xGufouf
&SnfvmNyD? xGufoufqHk;NyD[k xif&Sm;\? &SnfrIç MumrIqkdvQif
anmif;rI[laom oEÅwdZ&m tNyD;yg\? &Snfanmif;onf Mum
anmif;onf [lívnf; ac:Mu\? xkad nmif;rI jzpf&jcif;onfum;
ylavmifaom ½kyfwkdY\ jzpfyGm;vmjcif;aMumifhjzpf&\? xkd½kyfwkdY\
jzpfymG ;vmonft h wGuf rcHomaom 'kua© 0'emawGonfvnf;jzpf
yGm;vm\? xk'd u k a© 0'emukd trSwjf yKí anmif;rIjzpf\[k odMu\?
xkdanmif;rIrSm 'ku©a0'em tcsufukdom odMu\? oEÅwdZ&m
tcsuu f dk rodMu? anmif;rI[o l nfum; tpüoefoefprG ;f pGr;f &Ti&f iT f
vef;vef; jzpfymG ;ívmMuukeaf om xkx d ½dk yk t f oif;wk\ Yd avsmusrI
qkwf,kwfrI[laom oEÅwdZ&m\ trnf&if;aywnf;? xkdxkd½kyf
toif;wk\ Yd &ifah &mf tkrd if; a[mif;EGr;f aqG;ajrUjcif;[laom oEÅwd
Z&m\ trnf&if; aywnf;? xkdxkd½kyftoif;wkdY\ tqHk;tqHk;
[lorQonf oEÅwdr&P aywnf;? xkdxkd½kyftoif;wkdY\ aoqHk;
jcif;aywnf;? 0ifoufrSmvnf; xkdYtwlaywnf;/
&,f½yk tf oif;ç NyK;H ½kytf oif;ç &Ti½f yk t f oif;ç aysm½f yk t
f oif;ç
yl½yk t
f oif;ç aqG;½kyt f oif;ç ik½d yk t
f oif;ç rJ½h yk t f oif; ponfwüYdk
vnf;aumif;ç avmb½kyt f oif;ç a'go½kyt f oif;ç o'¨g½kyt f oif;
ponfwkdYüvnf;aumif;ç &,f½kyf\ aojcif;ç NyHK;½kyf\ aojcif;
ponfjzifh toD;toD; &SdMu\? 0pDuHrIwkdYrSmvnf; pum;wpfvHk;
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 71
wpfvHk;wkdY\ tqHk;onf xif&Sm;\? pum;½kyftoif;toif;wkdY\
aoqHk;rIaywnf;/
xkdOwkZ½kyfwkdYü yltkdufvSonfhtcg ,yfavcyf&mü ,yf
cyfcsuf wpfckwpfckvQif ukd,ft*Fgü ½kyftoif;toif; jzpfay:
\? aoqHk;\/
a&csdK;&mü a&wpfcgwpfcg oGef;avmif;vQif ukd,fcE¨mrSm
at;½kyf toif;toif; jzpfay:í aoqHk;\? anmif;rIç nmrIç
emrI ponfwkdYonfvnf; OwkZ½kyftoif;wkdY\ azmufjyefrIonf
omrsm;\? tm[m&Z½kyfwkdYüvnf; ylaomtm[m&ukd rsdKrIç at;
aom tm[m&ukd rsdKrIwkdYaMumifh ukd,fcE¨mü txl;xl;taxGaxG
jzpfay:rIrsm;onf tm[m&xJrmS yg&Sad om Owk\ tpGr;f vnf;&S\ d ?
roifah omtpmukd pm;rI aq;0g;"mwfpmudk pm;rIaMumifh a&m*gjzpf
yGm;rI wk;d yGm;rI aysmufNird ;f rIwüYdk vnf; xkt
Yd wl Owk\tpGr;f aywnf;/
a&SUüjyqkcd NhJ y;D aom pdwZå ½kytf wGi;f rSmvnf; Owk\tpGr;f
rsm;pGm;yg&So d nfomwnf;? tm[m& "mwfqt D wGuEf iS hf tema&m*g
jzpfyGm;rI tema&m*g aysmufNidrf;rIqkdonfrSm ukd,fü&Sdaom Owk
"mwfqw D u Ydk dk yGm;pD;aprItwGuaf ywnf;? oufoufaom tm[m&
"mwfqD tpGrf;rSmrlum; tqDtom; awmifhwif;rIaywnf;? tqD
tom;awmifhwif;rI qkdonfum; rsdKvkdufaom tm[m&onf
0rf;wGi;f okYd a&mufcv hJ Qif a&mufonfEiS hf wpfNyKd ief uf wpfu,
kd v
f ;kH ukd
axmufyHhEdkif\? wpfukd,fvHk;rSm&SdMuaom tqDtom;wkdYonf
tm;tif wkd;wufMuukef\? awmifhwif;Muukef\? þtcsufonf
owå0gtaygif;wkdYrSm ta&;tBuD;qHk;aom tcsufjzpf\? þ
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 72
tm[m&\ ta&;ukd avmuü toufarG;rIac:Mu\? toufarG;
rIonf avmuü tb,frQavmuf ta&;BuD;Muygoenf;[k
ajrmfjrifrMd uygvQif þtm[m& axmufyrhH I Bu;D us,yf o kH nf xif&mS ;
vwåHU? taoG;tom;ukd yGm;aprIxufyif þaxmufyHhrIonf
omíta&;BuD;\? 0rf;wGif;ü axmufyHhaom tm[m& avsmhyg;cJh
vQif wpfukd,fvHk;rSm&SdMuaom taoG; tom;wkdYonf avsmhyg;Mu
&ukef\? tvGefodrfarGUMuaom pu©Kaomw tp&Sdaom ur®Z½kyf
wkdY\ toufonfum; ZD0dw½kyfaywnf;? ZD0dw½kyf\ ukd;uG,f&m
um; tm[m&axmufyrhH aI ywnf;? tm[m& axmufyrhH I avsmyh g;í
oGm;cJhvQif ZD0dw½kyfESifhwuG wpfukd,fvHk;onf pifvHk; ,kdif&av
awmhonf/
ajcmuf&uf ckepf&ufwkdifwkdif tpmtm[m& topf
raxmufyb hH J ypfxm;cJv
h Qif ZD0wd ½kyEf iS w
hf uG ur®Z½kypf k tukecf sKyf
qHk;Mu&ukef\? þur®Z½kyf csKyfqHk;onfukdyif owå0gaoNyD[k
qkdMu&ukef\? þtm[m& "mwfqDtwGufESifh jzpfMu&ukefaom
tm[m&Z½lyoEÅwd taxGtxl;ç xkdoEÅwd taxGtxl; wdkY\
jzpfay:rI? avsmhyg;rI? aoqHk;rI[kqkdtyfaom oEÅwdZmwdç oEÅwd
Z&mç oEÅwdr&PrIrsm;onf xkwfazmfajymqkdbG,f rvkdvS? ukd,f
awGU'd| jzpfMuavNyD? þum; ½kyfw&m;wkdY\ oEÅwdZ&mç oEÅwd
r&PwkdYukd jyqkdjcif;aywnf;/
emrfw&m;wk\ Yd oEÅwo d nf tvGerf sm;jym;\? rdrw d pYdk w
d u
f dk
rdrdwkdYodMu\? arm[oEÅwd trsdK;rsdK; &SdMu\? avmboEÅwd
trsdK;rsdK; &SdMu\? a'gooEÅwd trsdK;rsdK;&SdMu\? o'¨goEÅwd
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 73
trsdK;rsdK;&SdMu\? arwåmoEÅwd trsdK;rsdK;&SdMu\? wpfxkdifwGif;rSmyif
rdrdpdwftBuHtpnfonf taxGaxGtjym;jym; tvGefrsm;onfukd
vlwkdif;vkdyifodMu\? pdwftBuHtpnf wpfoif;wpfoif;rSmvnf;
tBujH zpfay:rIç tBuaH vsmyh g;rIç tBuaH oqH;k rI toD;toD;&SMd u\?
ighrmS avmbjzpfymG ;íaeonf[k odMu\? ighrmS avmb aysmufNird ;f
oGm;NyD[k odMu\? xkdavmbaoqHk;oGm;NyD [krac:Mu? ighrSm
a'gojzpfymG ;í aeonf[o k Md u\? ighrmS xkad 'go aysmufNird ;f oGm;
NyD[kodMu\? xkda'go aoqHk;oGm;avNyD[líum; rac:Mu?
rac:Muaomfvnf; avmbç a'goaysmufNidrf;rIqkdonfum;
avmb\ aoqHk;rI a'go\ aoqHk;rIyifwnf;/ oEÅwdr&Pyif
wnf;/
oEÅwdr&P jzpfaomaMumifh avmbjzpfcGifhqkdufjyefvQif
cPcsi;f yif jzpfay:Edik jf yef\? a'gojzpfciG hf qku
d jf yefvQif cPcsi;f yif
jzpfay:Edik jf yef\? þum; emrfw&m;wk\ Yd oEÅwZd &mç oEÅwrd &P
wkdYukd jyqkdjcif;aywnf;/
Ówy&dnmonf wD&Py&dnm\ tusdK;iSgjzpf\? wD&P
y&dnmonf y[mey&dnm\tusdK;iSm jzpf\? y[mey&dnm
onfom vkd&if;y"mejzpf\/
y[mey&dnm NyD;\/
y&dnmoHk;yg; tusOf; NyD;\/
——————Ä—————-
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 74
wD&Py&dnmtus,f
vu© P m 3-yg;
(1) tedpövu©Pmwpfyg;?
(2) 'ku©vu©Pmwpfyg;?
(3) tewåvu©Pmwpfyg;?
þum; vu©PmoHk;yg;wnf;/
1/ ted p ö v u© P m qkdonfum; 0dy&dPmr tcsufç
tnxmbm0 tcsufwnf;/
- 0dy&dPmr qdkonfum; yuwdtaetwkdif; r[kwf
bJ azmufvJazmufjyef jzpfjcif;wnf;/
- tnmxmbm0 qdkonfum; a&SUaemufrwl trl
t&m ajymif;vJjcif;wnf;/
þ0dy&dPmrç tnxmbm0 tcsuu f dk jrifvQif þtcsuf
&Sad eMuaom ½kyw f &m;ç emrfw&m;rsm;ukd tedprö sKd ; trSef jzpfonf[k
odEdkif rSwfEdkif qHk;jzwfEdkifMu\? xkdYaMumifh xkdtcsufukd tedpö
vu©Pm qkd&\? nOfhtcg n§dxGef;íxm;aom rD;awmufukd
Munf½h íI ae&m xkrd ;D awmufrmS -tmp,½kyçf Oyp,½kyçf oEÅw½d yk çf
Z&wm½kyfç tedpöwm½kyf[lí vu©P½kyfig;yg;ukd odjrif&\? rD;
awmufü topftopf jzpfay: aygufyGm;rIonf xifjrif&\?
xkdtrIonf tmp,½kyfaywnf;? rD;½kyf r[kwf? jzpfay:NyD;vQif
wkd;yGm;rIonf xifjrif&\? xkdtrIonf Oyp,½kyfaywnf;? rD;½kyf
r[kwçf rwk;d r,kwf tpOfwnfaerIonfvnf; xifjrif&\? xkt d rI
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 75
onfvnf; oEÅwd½kyfaywnf;? rD;½kyfr[kwf? rD;awmuf\ qkwf
,kwfrIonfvnf; xifjrif&\? xdktrIonf Z&wm½kyfaywnf;?
rD;½kyrf [kw?f csKyuf , G rf oI nfvnf;xifjrif&\? xkt d rIonf tedpw ö m
½kyfaywnf;? rD;½kyfr[kwf? ylrIonfomvQif rD;½kyftrSefjzpf\?
xkv d u©P½kyf ig;csut f wGuaf Mumifh wpfvyI v f yI af e\? wnf&mXme
a&GU&Sm;rIaMumifh vIyfonfvnf; &Sd\? 0ga,m tvIyfaywnf;/
xkvd u©Pmig;csuo f nf rD;\ tnxmbm0[k qkt d yfaom
tedpv ö u©Pmaywnf;? xkv d u©Pm ig;csuu f jdk rifí rD;onf tedpö
rsdK;[k odEdkif\? vIyfvIyf&G&G xifjriforQrSm þenf;csnf;rSwf/
yuwdrsupf jd zifh rjrifaumif;ç 'dApÁ u©KreS af jymif;jzifh Munf½h I
rSom jrif&aom y&rmPkjrLrQaom ½kyfoP²mefrsm;rSmvnf; vIyf
vIyf&G&G xifjrif&\? vIyfvIyf&G&G xifjrif&onfhtwGuf ykd;owå0g
rsKd ;[líyif rSwx f ifMuuke\ f ? yk;d owå0grsKd ;r[kwaf y? Owk [laom
rD;"mwf\tpGr;f jzifh OwkZ½kyw f &m;aygufymG ;rIaywnf;? tmp,½kyf
ukd aygufymG ;rIqo dk nf tcsKd U0w¬KwrYdk mS yk;d owå0grsm;vnf; yg&Sad y&m
\/ pD;íaeaomjrpfa&ç acsmif;a&wkdYüvnf;aumif;ç qlyGufí
aeaom a&wkdYüvnf;aumif; vIyfvIyf&G&G xifjrif&\? OwkZ½kyf
w&m; aygufyGm;rIaywnf;? yuwdrsufpdtjrifwGif wnfNidrfí
aeaom a&wkdYüvnf; rSefajymif; tjrifrSm aygufyGm;í vIyf&Sm;
vsufyif xifjrif&\? OwkZ½kyfw&m; aygufyGm;rIaywnf;/
aygufyGm;rI qkdonfum; topftopf tqifhtqifh
jzpfay:jcif;[laom tmp,½ky\ f tjcif;t&m aywnf;? xkt d opf
topf tqifhtqifh jzpfay:rIukd xifjrif&ojzifh ta[mif;
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 76
ta[mif;\ tqifhqifh aysmufuG,frI[laom tedpöwm½kyfonf
vnf; xif&Sm;vSav\/
½kyo f pfjzpfay:rIEiS hf ½kyaf [mif; aysmufu, G rf oI nf tenf;
trsm; wlrQMuonfvnf;&S\ d ? oEÅw½d yk \ f tcsuaf ywnf;? ½kyo f pf
jzpfay:rIu tqifhqifh wkd;wufyGm;rsm;í vmonfvnf; &Sd\?
Oyp,½ky\ f tcsuaf ywnf;? ½kyo f pf jzpfay:rIu tqifq h ifh qkwf
,kwaf vsmyh g;í vmonfvnf;&S\ d ? Z&wm½ky\ f tcsuaf ywnf;/
opfjrpf opfyif opfuidk ;f opfcuf opf&u G f opfñeG Yf opfyiG hf
opfo;D wküYd toD;toD; vu©Pmtcsuf ig;yg; ig;yg;pD &SMd uonfudk
vu©P½kyfcPf;wGif jyqkdcJhNyD? xkdvu©Pmtcsuf ig;yg; ig;yg;pD
&SdMuonfh twGufaMumifh opfjrpf opfyif ponfwkdYukd 'dAÁpu©Kjzifh
Munfh½IcJhaomf tvGefao;i,fvSaom ykd;owå0g awGtjynfh vIyf
vIyf&G&G &SdaeMuouJhokdY xifjrifMu&ukef\? OwkZ½kyfwdkY\ ayguf
yGm;rIwkdYaywnf;/
yk*Kd¾ vof wÅ0gwd\
Yk ½kycf E¨mwdrYk mS vnf; qHyifwüYkd vu©Pm
tcsufig;ckç arG;n§if;wdkYüç ajconf; vufonf;wdkYüç oGm;½dk;wdkYüç
ta&xl ta&yg;wdüYk ç tom;vTm tom;cJ tom;wH;k wdüYk ç taMum
MuD; taMumi,fwdkYüç t½kd;BuD; t½kd;i,fwdkYüç jcifqDcJwdkYüç tn§KdUcJ
wdüYk ç ESv;kH cJç tonf;cJç tajr;§ vTmç tqkwcf çJ tlrMu;Dd ç tlord if ,fç
tpmopfç tpma[mif;ç OD;aESmufcJwdkYüç toD;toD; vu©Pm
tcsuf ig;ckig;cJpD ½SMd u\? xdv k u©Pmtcsuif g;ck ig;ckp½D MdS uonfh
twGuaf Mumifh qHyif arG;nif; ponfwu Ykd kd 'dApÁ u©Kjzifh Munf½h cI ahJ omf
tvGefao;i,fvSaom ydk;owÅ0gawGtjynfh vIyfvIyf&G&G ½SdaeMu
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 77
ouJo h Ykd xifjrifMuuke&f m\? þodYk xifjrifMu&onfum; ur®Z½kyçf
pdwÅZ½kyfç tm[m&Z½kyfwdkYESifhwuG OwkZ½kyfwdkY\ aygufyGg;rIwdkYay
wnf;/ ydk;owå0gwdkYvnf; yg½SdMuay&m\/ þodkYvQif vu©Pm
tcsufig;ckwdkYudk ÓPfynmpu©Kjzifh Munfh½IwwfMuygukefrlum;
wpfu, dk vf ;kH wpfaumifv;kH ü&Sad om ½kyw f &m;wk\Yd tedpv ö u©Pm
onf xif&Sm;Muav&m\? þum; ½kyfw&m;pk\ tedpövu©Pm
ukdjyqkdjcif;wnf;/
pdwfapwoduf[laom emrfw&m;wkdYüvnf; 0dy&dPmrç
tnxmbm0[laom tedpv ö u©Pmonf xif&mS ;&So d nfom jzpf\?
avmuü ½kyf"mwfç emrf"mwfwkdY\ jzpfyHkysufyHk txl;tjym;awGudk
tpJGjyKí jzpfaeMuaom a0g[m&pum; txl;tjym;awGukd
odwwfMu&m\? rsufpdjrifrIü jrifç rjrif[lí pum;ESpfcGef;&Sd\?
xkwd iG f jrifqo dk nfum; pu©K0n d mP"mwf\ trnfaywnf;? pu©K
0w¬K½kyfç ½lyg½kHç tmavmuç reodum& [laomtaMumif; w&m;
av;yg; aygif;qHkrdí pu©K0dnmP"mwfjzpfay:rIukd jrifonf[k
ac:Mu\? rjrifqo dk nfum; pu©K0n d mP"mwf csKyu f if;í aeonf
ukd qkd\? nOfharSmifwGif;ü tmavmu taMumif; r&Sdonfhtcg
rsupf üd pu©K0n d mP"mwfr&S?d csKyu f if;íae\? rD;tvif;&Sjd yefvQif
pu©K0dnmP"mwf &Sdjyef\? ay:jyef\? jrifjyef\? rD;tvif;uG,f
jyefvQif pu©K0dnmP"mwf csKyfuG,fjyef\? þü rD;awmufrSm
tcsuif g;yg;&So d nfth wkid ;f rD;tvif;jzpfay:vQif tjrifjzpfay:\?
rD;tvif;yGm;vQif tjrifyGm;\? rD;tvif; wnfaevQif tjrif
wnfae\? rD;tvif;qkw, f wk vf Qif tjrifqwk ,
f w k \f ? rD;tvif;
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 78
csKyfuG,fvQif tjrifcsKyfuG,f\? aeYtcgüvnf; jrifç rjrif[lí
pum;ESpcf eG ;f &S\
d ? tuG,t f umr&Sv d Qif jrif\? tuG,t f um&Sv d Qif
rjrif? rsufawmifcwfrIü rsufcHGzGifhckduf jrif\? rsufcGHzHk;ckdufrjrif?
þum; tmavmu[laom taMumif;twGuf pu©K0dnmPf\
0dy&dPmrç tnmxmbm0 jzpfyHkwnf;/
y#doaE¨rS aemufü b,ftcgrSmrqkd pu©K0w¬K½yk f ysuq f ;kH cJh
vQif pu©K0dnmPfvnf; uG,fqHk;avawmhonf? tMuiftqif;ukd
jrif\? xkdtqif; uG,fqHk;vQif xkdtjrif uG,fqHk;avawmhonf?
tdyfaysmfí aepOftcg reodum& uG,faysmufíaeonfhtwGuf
pu©K0dnmPfvnf; uG,faysmufíaeavawmhonf? jrifqkdvQif
pu©K'Gg& 0Dxdpdwftm;vHk;ü jzpfay:onfukd,l? rjrifqkdvQif xkd0Dxd
pdwftm;vHk;ü csKyfuG,fonfukd,l? em;Mum;rIüvnf; Mum;ç rMum;
pum;ESpfcGef;&Sd\? ESmacgif;eHrIüvnf; eHç reH pum;ESpfcGef;&Sd\?
vQmodrIüvnf; t&om cHpm;rI &Sdç r&Sd pum;ESpfcGef;&Sd\? ajcz0g;
tjyifrSpí twGif;tjyif wpfukd,fvHk;rSm xkdxkdae&mwGif ukd,f
tawGt Y xd odrw I üYdk vnf; xdreS ;f odrçI rodrçI emonfç temaysmuf
onfç usifonfç tusifaysmufonfç ylonfç tylaysmufonf
tp&Sdonfjzifh pum;ESpfcGef;pD &SdMu\/
pu©K0dnmPfenf;twkdif; taMumif;w&m; av;yg;pD
xkwfazmfí 0dy&dPmrç tnmxmbm0 jzpfyHkukd a0zefav/
raem0dnmPfürlum; tBuHrsdK;awG tvGefw&m rsm;jym;
onfjzpfí wpfcw k pfcak om BurH \ I jzpfay:rIç aysmufysurf [
I al om
0dy&dPmrç tnmxmbm0jzpfyHkonf tvGefrsm;jym; xif&Sm;\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 79
apwodufwkdYwGifvnf; a0'emapwodufü okca0'emç
'ku©a0'emç aomreóa0'emç a'greó a0'emç Oayu©m
a0'emwkdY\ ajymif;vJrIrsm;onf xif&Sm;\/
aumif;aomonmç raumif;aomonmç aumif;aom
apwemç raumif;aom apwemwkdY\ ajymif;vJrIç aumif;aom
0dwufç raumif;aom0dwufç aumif;aom0dpm&ç raumif;aom
0dpm&wkdY\ ajymif;vJrIwkdYonfvnf; xif&Sm;ukef\/
wpfxkdifwGif;rSmyif avmbjzpfxnfhcsnfç tavmb jzpf
xnfhcsnfç a'gojzpfxnfhcsnfç ta'go jzpfxnfhcsnfç axGaxG
vmvmajymif;vJrI tvGex f if&mS ;\? þum; emrfw&m;wk\ Yd tedpö
vu©Pmukd jyqkdjcif;wnf;/
tedpv ö u©PmNy;D \/
————Ä————
2/ 'k u © v u© P m qkdonfum; jyqkdcJhNyD;aom tedpö
vu©Pmrsm;onfvnf; oHo&mü ynm&Sw d Ydk aMumufvefUzdYk aumif;
vSaomaMumifh tusOf;tm;jzifh 'ku©vu©Pmrnfyg\? 0dy&dPmr
tcsufç tnxmbm0 tcsufrsm;aywnf;? xkdtcsufrsm;onf
tb,fhaMumifh ynm&SdwkdYaMumufvefUzkdY aumif;oenf;[lrlum;
avmuü Z&mab;? r&Pab;rsm;onf tBuD;qHk;aom ab;
rsm;jzpfMu\? 0dy&dPmr qkdonfvnf; cPduZ&mab; cPdu
r&Pab;rsm; jzpfMu\? aoayguf aovrf; yGirhf cI sn;f yif jzpfMu\?
0dedygwvrf; yGifhrIcsnf;yifjzpfMu\? jyKpkrIwkdYESifh tpOfrysuf
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 80
tvsifqufEdkifvSíomvQif b0rajymif;&bJ &SdaeMu\? xkdYtwl
avmuü rdrw d Ydk uk,
d o f EÅmefrmS xkx d t dk usKd ;rJrh sm; jzpfay:aygufygG ;
wnfaernfrsm;udkvnf; aMumufMu&\? tnxmbm0ü tmp,
Oyp, oEÅwrd sm;onf ud, k o f EÅmefrmS xdx k t kd usK;d rJrh sm;ukv
d nf;
zGifhvSpfwnfaxmifwwfMu\/
½kyo
f EÅmefrmS a&m*gtrsKd ;rsKd ;çtemtrsKd ;rsKd ;ç tusKd ;rJrh sm;ukd
vnf; zGifhvSpfwnfaxmifwwfMu\? pdwfoEÅmefrSm udavom
trsdK;rsdK;ç 0dyv’motrsdK;rsdK; tusdK;rJhrsm;ukdvnf; zGifhvSpfwnf
axmifwwfMu\? ½kyf[lorQonfvnf; xdktedpövu©Pm ESpfyg;
&SdMu\? umremrfç ½lyemrfç t½lyemrf[lorQonfvnf; tedpö
vu©Pm ESpyf g;&SMd u\? xkaYd Mumifh vlUb0ç vlUcE¨mç ewfb0ç ewfcE¨mç
jA[®mbh 0 jA[®mch E¨mrsm;onf 'kur© sKd ;om trSejf zpfMu\? xkd tedpö
vu©Pm ESpfyg;ESifh tNrJ,SOfjcif;aMumifh tvJtvS,ftm;jzifh 'ku©
vu©Pm oHk;yg;&Sd\/
(1) 'ku©'ku©wm wpfyg;?
(2) ocFg&'ku©wmwpfyg;?
(3) 0dy&dPmr'kuw © mwpfyg;/
1/ 'ku©'ku©wm qko d nfum; uk, d o f EÅmefü jzpfay: wwf
aom um,du'ku©a0'emrsdK;ç pdwfoEÅmefü jzpfay:wwfaom
apwodu'ku© a0'emrsdK;wdkYukd qkdownf;/
2/ ocFg&'ku©wm qkdonfum; b0wkdif;b0wkdif; tNrJ
rjywf aMumihMf upku d xf wk í
f jyKpEk ikd rf S wnfaeEdik Mf uaom ½kyw f &m;ç
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 81
emrfw&m;rsdK;wkdY\ ocFg&oabmukd qkdownf;/
jA[®mhb0 jA[®mhcE¨mrsm;onf ocFg&'ku©BuD;vS\? umr
w&m;wku Yd dk pGeNYf y;D vQif awmxGuí f toufcE¨mukyd if rn§mrwmbJ
NcdK;NcHpGm usifhaqmifEdkifygrS wpf&mwGif wpfa,mufrQ tvGefcJ
EdkifcJvS\? tvGefaumif;rSef;odMuvsufESifhyif rusifhEdkifMu? 'ku©
Bu;D pGm xifMu&\? 0dy&dPmr'kua© b;vnf; tvGeBf u;D vS\? psmefç
tbdnmPfwrYdk nfonf &&SNd y;D aemuf apmufa&Smufr'I u k © Bu;D vS\?
tenf;i,frQaom taMumif;ESiyhf if cPcsi;f ysupf ;D wwfMuuke\ f /
3/ 0dy&dPmr'ku©wm qkdonfum; y#doaE¨aeNyD;onfrS
aemufumvü b,ftcgrSmrqkçd b,faeY&ufrmS rqkçd b,fem&DrmS
rqkçd ysucf iG q hf u dk vf Qif ysuw
f wfjcif;ç aocGiq
hf u
dk v
f Qif aowwfjcif;
ukd qko d wnf;? vlUb0 vlUcE¨mç ewfb0 ewfcE¨mç jA[®mb h 0 jA[®mh
cE¨mrsm;onf xkkd'ku©vu©PmoHk;yg;ESifh xkdufonfhtm;avsmfpGm
,SOfjcif;aMumifh 'ku©rsdK;omtrSefjzpf\? tus,ftm;jzifhrlum;
Zmwd'ku©wpfyg;ç Z&m'ku©wpfyg;ç r&P'ku©wpfyg;ç aomu
'ku©wpfyg;ç y&da'0'ku©wpfyg;ç um,du'ku©wpfyg;ç apwodu
'ku©wpfyg;ç Oyg,mo'ku©wpfyg;ç tyd,orÜa,m*'ku©wpfyg;ç
yd,0dyÜa,m*'ku©wpfyg;ç £päm0dCmw 'ku©wpfyg; [lí 'ku©
vu©Pm (11)yg;&Sd\/
xkd 11-yg;wkdYwGif Zmwdqkdonfum; jzpfay:rIç yGm;rsm;rI
aywnf;/ xkdZmwdonf-
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 82
(1) udavomZmwd
(2) ur®Zmwd
(3) 0dygu Zmwd
[lí oHk;yg;&Sd\? xkdoHk;yg;wkdYwGif-
1/ ud a vomZmwd qkdonfum; avmbç a'goç
arm[ç 'd|dç rmetp&Sdukefaom udavom w&m;
wkdY\ jzpfay:rIç yGm;rsm;rIonf udavomZmwd
rnf\/
2/ ur®Zmw mwd qko
d nfum; 'kp½ö u
dk u f w H &m;\ jzpfay:rIç
yGm;rsm;rIonf ur®Zmwdrnf\/
3/ 0dyguZmwd qdkonfum; ukd,fcE¨mwGif a&m*grsdK;
temrsdK; 'ku©a0'emrsdK;wkdY\ jzpfay:rIç yGm;rsm;rI
,kwfnHhvSaom b0cE¨mwkdY\ jzpfay:rIç yGm;rsm;rI
wkdYukd 0dyguZmwd qkdownf;/
xkdoHk;yg;wkdYwGif-
ud a vomZmwd ü avmb[laom udavomwkdYonf
tvGeaf omif;use;f \? b,ftcgrqkd jzpfay:cGiq hf udk cf v hJ Qif ,rf;yHük
rD;usouJo h Ykd wm;qD;r& jzpfay:wwf\? yGm;rsm;cGihf &Scd v hJ Qif ry,fEikd f
r&Sm;Edik f yGm;rsm;wwf\? xkaYd Mumifh xdak vmb\Zmwdonf t&d,m
ynm&SdwkdY tvGefaMumufvefYbkdY aumif;vSonfjzpfí 'ku©rnf\?
a'goudavom arm[udavom tp&Su d ek af om wpfaxmifih g;&m
udavomwkdY\ ZmwdwdkYüvnf; xkdYtwlwnf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 83
tqdyx f efaom a>re*g;wd\Yk ae&mXmejzpfaom awmifyYkd
rsm;onf teD;tem;odYk rcsO;f 0HhH ruyf0Hh aMumuf½UHG zG,af wG jzpfMuav
ouJo h Ykd vlb0 vlcY E¨mç ewfb0 ewfcE¨mç jA[®mb Y 0 jA[®mY cE¨mrsm;
onfvnf; xdkudavomZmwdwdkY\ jzpfyGg;&m wnfae&mXmersm;
jzpfMuí ig\udk,f ig\cE¨m[k t&d,mynm½SdwdkY rcsOf;0Hh ruyf0Hh
aMumuf½GHUzG,fawG jzpfaomaMumifh 'ku©rsdK;om trSefjzpf\/
ur® Z mwdü ygPmwdygw tp½Sdaom um,'kp½kdufç 0pD
'kp½dkufç raem'kp½dkuf trdkuftrSm; uHw&m;wdkYonf udavom
w&m;wdkY\ tyGg;tpD;wdkYonfomjzpfMu\? xdkYaMumifh udavom
Zmwd Zmwdaomif;use;f wdik ;f 'kp½du k w f \Ykd jzpfr[
I al om ur®Zmwd
onfvnf; aomif;usef;NrJjzpfav&um; xdkur®Zmwdonfvnf;
t&d,mynm½SdwdkY tvGefaMumufvefYzdkY aumif;vSonfjzpfí 'ku©
rnf\? olcdk; "m;jywdkY\ ae&mjzpfaom ½Gmrsm;onf tem;teD;odkY
ruyf0Hh rcsOf;0Hh aMumuf½GHU bG,fawG jzpfavouJhodkY xdkvlYb0
vlcE¨mponfrsm;onfvnf; xdkur®Zmwd\ jzpfyGg;&m wnfae&m
Xmersm; jzpfMu\? ig\ud, k f ig\cE¨m[k t&d,mynm½Sw d Ykd rcsO;f 0Hh
ruyf0hH aMumuf½UHG bG,af wG jzpfaomaMumifh 'kur© sKd ;om trSejf zpf\/
0d y guZmw
guZmwdü udavomZmwd ur®ZmwdwdkY aomif;usef;
MuonfhtwGuf tyg,fodkY usa&mufjcif;[laom 0dedygw 0dygu
Zmwdonfvnf; b0oHo&mwGif tpOfxm0& aomif;usef;vsuf
½SMd u\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 84
xdkYaMumifh udavomZmwd ur®ZmwdwdkYESifhtwlwuG
xdk0dyguZmwd tpOfyg½Sdíaeaom vlYb0 vlYcE¨m ponfrsm;
onfvnf; 'kur© sKd ;om trSejf zpfMu\? okp½du k w f &m;rsm; ok*wdb0
rsm;onf udavom ab;wdkY\ tpmtm[m&rsm;jzpfMuukef\?
udavomrD;wdu Yk kd yGg;pD;apwwfMuuke\ f ? xdaYk Mumifh xd'k pk ½du
k w
f \
Ykd
Zmwdç ok*wdb0wdkY\ 0dyguZmwdrsm;onf udavomZmwdwdkYü
yg0ifav\/
Zmwd'ku© jyD;\/
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Z&m'ku©ç r&P'ku©wdkYonfrlum; xdkxdkb0wdkYü y#doaE¨
wnfaeNy;D onfrS aemufumvü tb,ftcgrSmrqdçk b,fem&DrmS
rqdkç ,dk,Gif;cGifh qdkufcJhvQif ,dk,Gif;wJhap&ef aocGihfqdkufcJhvQif
aowJhap&ef tyg,fuscGifhqdkufcJhvQif tyg,fuswJhap&ef toifh
&Hum tNryJ g½Sí
d aeaomcPduZ&mç cPdur&Prsm;yif jzpfMuí
0dy&dPmr'ku© tqdkrSm yg0ifMuavNyD? þZ&m'ku©ç r&P'ku©
b0ruGm tjryJ g½Sí d aeonft h wGuf vlb Y 0 ewfb0 jA[®mb Y 0rsm;
onf 'ku©rsdK;omtrSefjzpfMu\/
Z&m'ku©ç r&P'ku© jyD;\/
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aomu'ku©ç y&da'0'ku©ç um,du'ku©ç apwodu'ku©ç
Oyg,mo'kuw © o Ykd nf vlb Y 0 vlcY E¨mç ewfb0 ewfcE¨mwdrYk mS oGm;
av&m aeav&mjzpfcGifhqdkufvQif jzpfMubdkY&m 0dkif;tHkjcH&Hum
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 85
yg½Sí d aeMuuke\ f ? i&JbçHk jywd mÅ bHwk oYkd nfru l m; aomubHMk u;D awG
jzpfMuuke\ f ? y&da'0bHBk u;D awG 'kub © BkH u;D awG a'greóbHBk u;D awG
Oyg,mobHkBuD;awG jzpfMuukef\/
aomum'd'ku©ig;yg; jyD;\/
————Ä———-
rawGUcsif rjrifcsifaom yk*¾dKvfowÅ0g 0w¬Ktm½HkwdkYESifh
awGUjrifaygif;buf qufq&H jcif;onf tyd,orÜa,m*'kur© nf\?
tNrv J Qif awGUcsijf rifcsif ruGrJ uGmcsiaf om yk*Kd¾ vo f wÅ0g 0w¬Ktm½Hk
wdEYk iS hf aouGuJ &JG jcif; &Siu
f uJG &JG jcif;onf yd,0dyaÜ ,m*'ku© rnf\?
&vdkvSí awmifhwwrf;&rf; MudK;yrf;tm;xkwf vkyfaqmif&SmrSD;
ygvsuf r&avbJ vGaJ csmyf supf ;D tcsn;f ES;D tusKd ;rJh jzpf&jcif;onf
£päm0dCmw'ku© rnf\? þ'kur© sm;onfvnf; avmurSm tvGef
rsm;jym;xif&Sm;vsuf&SdMu\? xdkYaMumifh vlYb0 vlYcE¨mç ewfb0
ewfcE¨mç jA[®mhb0 jA[®mhcE¨mrsm;onf 'ku©rsdK;om trSefjzpf\?
þ'ku©vu©Pm wpfq,fhwpfcsufwdkYwGif Zmwdç Z&mç r&P'ku©
tcsufoHk;yg;onf ta&;tMuD;qHk;jzpf\/
'ku©vu©Pm NyD;\/
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tewåvu©Pm qkdonfum; ½kyfw&m; emrfw&m;wkdYukd
tewå[lí od&modaMumif;jzpfaom tcsuft&mukd tewå
vu©Pm qkdonf/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 86
tewåü twå[laompum;\ teufoGm;ukd a&S;OD;pGm
odxu dk \f ? twåqo kd nfum; owå0g\ tESpt f om;[k qkv d o
dk nf?
tESpftom; qkdonfum; opöuxmü jyqkdcJhonfhtwkdif; ajrtkd;
[laompum;ü ajronf tkd;\tESpftom;jzpf\? tkd;\tESpf
tom;qko d nfum; tk;d [laompum;onf oP²meynwf\ trnf
wnf;? ajr\trnfr[kw?f oP²meynwfonfvnf; y&rw¬w&m;
uJhokdY "mwfESpf"mwfom;&Sdonf r[kwf? ajronfomvQif y&rw¬
w&m;jzpfí "mwfEpS "f mwfom;&S\ d ? avmuü tk;d [lí &S\ d avm[k
qkcd ahJ omf y&rwfEiS yhf nwfjcm;em;rIudk rodMuaomolwu Ydk tk;d [lí
&S\
d [k ajymMuukev f wåUH ? tk;d [lí&S\
d [kqv dk Qif xkt d ;dk ukjd yprf;yg[k
ar;&m\? xkdtcg teD;ü&Sdaom ajrtkd;ukd vufñ§Kd;xkd;í þonf
um; tk;d r[kwaf vm[k jyMuukev f wåUH ? xkod jYdk yjcif;onf td;k r[kwf
aomajrukd tkd;[lí pGyfpJGjcif;jzpf\? tpGyfpGJrSm;\? rSm;yHkum;
ajr[lonf y&rw¬rdsK;jzpfí tESpftom;&Sd\? tkd;[lonf ynwf
rsKd ;jzpfí tESpt f om;r&S?d aumif;uifuo hJ Ykd tcsn;f tES;D omwnf;?
ajrukt d ;dk [lí pGypf jGJ cif;onf ajrukd tk;d \ twåjyKjcif;jzpf\? tESpf
tom;&Sdaom ajrudk tESpftom;r&Sdaom tdk;\txnfcH trmcH
tESpftom;jyKjcif;jzpf\? r&Sdaomtkd;onf &Sdaom tkd;jzpfav\?
ajronf tkd;\twåjzpfav\? twåjzpfcJhaomf ajronfyifvQif
tdk;ç tdk;onfyifvQif ajr[lí ajrESifhtkd; wpfckwnf;jzpfav\?
þokdYjzpfonfukd tpGyftpGJrSm;jcif; qkdownf;/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 87
- cE¨mig;yg; ½kyfemrfw&m;onf ajrESifhwl\?
- yk*¾dKvfowå0gonf tkd;ESifhwl\?
ajrukt d ;dk [k qkcd v
hJ Qif ajronf tk;d \ twåjzpfavouJo h Ydk
cE¨mig;yg; ½kyfemrfw&m;wkdYukd yk*¾dKvfowå0g [líqkdcJhvQif ½kyfemrf
w&m;onf yk*¾dKvfowå0g\ twåjzpf&av\? yk*¾dKvfowå0g\
tESpfom& jzpfav\? þum; twå[laom pum;\ teufoGm;
aywnf;/ pGyfpGJjcif;rSm;yHkaywnf;/
-----------
tewå [ l a ompum;\ teuf o G m ;yH k u m;
ajrtkd;[laom pum;üajrum; wpfjcm;ç tdk;um;wpfjcm;ç
ajronf y&rw¬rsdK; wnf;? tkd;o@mefonf ynwfrsdK;wnf;?
xkaYd Mumifh ajronf tk;d r[kw?f tk;d onfajr r[kw?f ajrukd tk;d qkv d Qif
rSm;\? tkd;ukd ajrqkdvQif rSm;\? þodkYjrifEdkifrlum; ajronf tkd;\
twår[kwfNyD? tewåjzpfav\? tkd;onfvnf; oP²meynwf
rQjzpfí aumif;uifynwfrsm;uJhodkY tcsnf;EDS;xif&Sm;av\/
xkdYtwl cE¨mig;yg; ½kyfemrfw&m;onf wpfjcm;ç yk*¾dKvf
owå0gonf wpfjcm;ç cE¨mig;yg; ½kyef mrf w&m;rsm;onf y&rw¬rsKd ;
aywnf;? xkdYaMumifh ½kyfw&m; emrfw&m;wkdYonf yk*¾dKvfowå0g
r[kw?f yk*Kd¾ vf owå0gonf ½kyw f &m;ç emrfw&m; r[kw?f ½kyw f &m;ç
emrfw&m;ukd yk*¾dKvfowå0g [kqkdvQif rSm;\? yk*¾dKvfowå0gukd
½kyw f &m;ç emrfw&m;[k qkcd v hJ Qirf mS ;\? þokjYd rifEikd rf u
l m; ½kywf &m;ç
emrfw&m;onf yk*¾dKvf owå0g\ twår[kwfNyD? tewåjzpfav\?
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 88
yk*Kd¾ vf owå0gonfvnf; oP²meynwfç oEÅwyd nwfrQomjzpfí
tcsnf;ESD; xif&Sm;av\? þum; tewåteufoGm;yHkwnf;/
tewå v u© P m qk d o nf u m; jyqk d c J h N yD ; aom ted p ö
vu©Pmonfvnf; tewåvu©Pmyifwnf;? jyqkdcJhNyD;aom 'ku©
vu©Pmpkonfvnf; tewåvu©Pmyifwnf;/
jyqkdcJhNyD;aom tedpövu©Pmonf tb,fokdYvQif tewå
vu©PmjzpfEikd yf goenf;[lru l m; yk*Kd¾ vo
f wå0gonf ynwfrsKd ;jzpfí
wpfb0vHk;NrJ\ [lívnf;aumif;ç b0tqufquf NrJ\[lí
vnf;aumif; ,lMu&if;jzpf\/
½kyfw&m;ç emrfw&m;wkdYürlum; cPduZ&mç cPdur&P
[laom tedpövu©Pmonf &Sd\? xkdZ&mr&PESifhwuG wpfaeY
wpf&uf twGi;f rSmyif tBurd &f maxmifru ½kyaf [mif;? emrfa[mif;
trsKd ;rsKd ; uG,af ysmufjcif; topftopf trsKd ;rsKd ;jzpfay:jcif;ç yGm;rsm;
jcif;[laom tnxmbm0 tedpv ö u©Pm onf&\ dS ? wpfb0vH;k rSm
rS wpfO;D wpfa,mufwnf;[lí,lMuaom yk*Kd¾ vo f wå0grSm xku
d o hJ Ykd
aom 0dy&dPmrrIç tnmxmbm0rI r&So d if?h &Scd v hJ Qif wpfb0vH;k rSm
wpfOD;wpfa,mufwnf; r[kwf? yk*¾dKvfowå0gonfvnf; wpfaeY
wpf&uftwGif;rSmyif tBudrfaygif;&maxmifru tdk&\? ao&\?
tBudrfaygif; &maxmifru topftopf jzpf&\? b0ajymif;vJ
&\[k &Sdaevdrfhrnf? xkdokdYum;r&Sd? xkdYaMumifh ½kyfw&m;ç emrf
w&m;wküYd xkt d edpv ö u©Pmrsm;ukd xifjrifMu&ojzifh ½kyçf emrfw&m;
wkdYonf yk*¾dKvfowå0g\ twår[kwf[k odEdkifjrifEdkifavownf;?
þum; tom&ua|e tewåm[laom ygXfEiS t hf nD tedpv ö u©Pm
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 89
onfyifvQif tewåvu©Pm jzpfyHkwnf;/
'ku©vu©Pmpkonf tb,fokdYvQif tewåvu©Pm
jzpfEikd yf goenf;[lru l m; 'kuv© u©Pmpk rnfonf raumif;vSaom
tudsK;,kwf tusKd ;rJrh sm;jzpfMu\? yk*Kd¾ vo f wå0gwkYd rnfonf rdrw d \
Ydk
aumif;jcif; jrwfjcif;wkdYukdom tvkd&SdMu\? ½kyfç emrfw&m;pkonf
yk*¾dKvf owå0g\ twårSefcJhaomf ½kyfçemrfw&m;ESifh yk*¾dKvf owå0g
onf wpfcw k nf;yifjzpf&m\? wpfcw k nf;yifjzpfcahJ omf tvko d nf
vnf; wpfckwnf;yifjzpf&m\? yk*¾dKvf\ tvkdonfyifvQif ½kyfç
emrf\tvkd jzpf&m\? ½kyçf emrf\ tvko d nfyifvQif yk*Kd¾ v\ f tvkd
jzpf&m\? xkdodkYum; rjzpf? yk*¾dKvfowå0g\tvkdum; wpfjcm;ç ½kyf
emrfw&m;wkdY\ tvkdum; wpfjcm;/
- yk*¾dKvfowå0g\ tvkdqkdonfum; avmbw&m;ç
qE´w&m;rsm;aywnf;/
- ½kyf emrfw\ Ykd tvdqk odk nfum; taMumif;tm;avsmf
pGm jzpfjcif;wnf;/
- yk*¾dKvfowå0g\ tvkdrlum; tcgcyfodrf; rdrd ukd,f
pdwfESpfjzm csrf;omjcif;udkom tNrJvkdvm;\/
- ½kyfemrfwkdYonfrlum; rdrdwdkY\qkdif&mqkdif&m t
aMumif;w&m;\ tvm;vQif tvm;&SdMu\/
½kyfç emrfwkdY\ jzpfjcif;ysufjcif;wkdYonf taMumif;w&m;
ESifhom pyfqkdifukef\? taMumif;w&m;udk vTwfí yk*¾dKvf\ tvkd
oufoufEiS hf pyfqidk o f nfr[kwu f ek ?f tylukd tvk&d v dS Qif ylapwwf
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 90
aom taMumif;ukd &SmBuHtm;xkwfMu&ukef\? tat;ukd tvkd&Sd
vQif at;apwwfaom taMumif;ukd &SmBuHtm;xkwfMu ukef\?
touf&Snfjcif;udk tvkd&SdMuonfhtwGuf toufarG;rI tpm
tm[m&rSD0JrIBuD;ukd tNrJtm;xkwf Mu&ukef\? tvkdqE´ouf
oufESifh touf&Snfatmif rwwfEdkifMu? ok*wdb0ukd tvkd&SdMu
onfhtwGuf ukodkvfaumif;rIukd tm;xkwfMu&ukef\? tvkdqE´
oufoufEiS hf ok*wdb0udk &atmif rwwfEikd Mf u? owå0gwko Yd nf
rlum; a&SUtzküYd taMumif;ukd &SmBut H m;xkwo f nft h wGuf aemuf
tzkdYü xkdtaMumif; tm;avsmfpGm tvkd&Sd&m a&mufaygufMu&
onfukdyif rdrdukd,fukd rdrdtvkd&Sdwkdif; jzpfapEdkifonf[k txif
t,l rSm;Muuke\ f ? a&SUa&SUaomaeUü tpmtm[m& rS0D jJ cif;[laom
taMumif;w&m;ukd &SmBut H m;xkwo f nft h wGuf aemufaemufaom
aeYrmS £&d,mykxaf v;yg;wküYd rwfrwfrm;rm; vku d pf m;Muifvnfí
wnfapEdik o f nfuydk if rdru d , dk u
f dk rdrt d vk&d w
dS idk ;f jzpfapEdik o
f nf[k
txift,l rSm;Muukef\? a&SUtzkdUü jyKvkyfí xm;Muukefaom
tdrf,m wkdufwm t&dyftm0go &SdaeonfhtwGuf aemuftzkdYü
tvkd&Sdwkdif; Munfvifcsrf;ajrU aeEdkifMuonfukdyif rdrdudk,fukd rdrd
tvkd&Sdwkdif; jynfhpHkíaeMu&ouJhokdY txift,l rSm;Muukef\/
tusO;f tm;jzifh avmuü owå0gwk\ Yd ta&;udpö trIBu;D
i,fwkdYonf tb,frQ avmufBuD;us,fMuukefoenf;[k aphpHkpGm
ajrm§ ½f MI uonf&adS omf ocFg&'kur© w I \Ydk teEÅ Bu;D us,rf sm;jym;yHu k dk
ÓPfrsupf w d iG f awGUjrifEikd Mf uuke&f m\? xko d cFg&'ku© teEÅBu;D us,f
rsm;jym;&onfrmS vnf; cE¨mig;yg; ½kyef mrfw&m;wko Yd nf owå0gwk\ Yd
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 91
tvkd£pämtwkdif; tmPm0d"dESifh NyD;pD;jcif;r&SdMuukefonfhtwGuf
aMumifh rdrd rdrwd \Ydk cE¨mig;yg; ½kyef mrfw&m;wku Yd dk txku
d tf avsmuf
rdrdrdrdwkdY tvkd&Sd&mokdY yg&maygufa&muf NyD;ajrmufEdkifMuap&ef
taMumif;w&m;wkdYukd jyKpk ysdK;axmifrIwkdYcsnf;aywnf;/ þum;
tvwfjzpfaom 'kuv © u©PmoH;k yg;wkw Yd iG f ocFg&'kuw © m [laom
'ku©vu©Pmukd awGUjrifMuukefojzifh cE¨mig;yg;ç ½kyfemrf w&m;
wkoYd nf yk*K¾d vof wå0g\ tvko d vYdk u
dk jf cif;r&Srd I tvGex f if&mS ;av&
um; yk*¾dKvfowå0g\ twå r[kwfyHkukd jyqkdcsufwnf;/
xkdrSwpfyg;vnf; 'ku©'ku©wmç 0dy&dPmr'ku©wmwkdY\
twGufESifhtwår[kwfcsufrsm;xif&Sm;yHkç Zmwd'ku©ç Z&m'ku©ç
r&P'ku© ponfwkdY\twGufESifh twår[kwfcsufrsm; xif&Sm;yHk
wkdYudkvnf; tukefod jrifMuukef&m\? þum; 'ku©vu©Pmonf
yifvQif tewåvu©Pm jzpfyHkukd jyqkdcsufwnf;/
xkdvu©PmoHk;yg;wkdYukd ykdifEdkifpGmxifjrifaom 0dyóem
ÓPfoHk;yg;onf wD&Py&dnmPfrnf\/
0d y óemÓPf o H k ; yg; qkdonfum;-
(1) tedpö0dyóemÓPfwpfyg;?
(2) 'ku©0dyóemÓPfwpfyg;?
(3) tewå0dyóem ÓPfwpfyg;-wdkYaywnf;/
xkdoHk;yg;wkdYwGif-
a&S;OD;pGm twå'd|dukd y,fowfjcif;iSg tewå0dyóem
ÓPfonfomvQif ykdifEdkif&ef ta&;tBuD;qHk; jzpf\? tewå
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 92
0dyóemÓPf ydik Ef ikd &f efrmS vnf; tedp0ö yd óemÓPfonf vk&d if;
jzpf\? tedpö0dyóemÓPf ykdifEdkifygvQif tewå0dyóemÓPf
ykdifEdkifvG,fawmhonfomwnf;/
'ku0© yd óemÓPfrmS rlum; þtedp0ö yd óem ykid Ef ikd ½f rHk QEiS hf
rNy;D Edik af o;? avmukw&å mr*fonf av;qifw h idk w
f ikd f &Sad e&onfrmS
'ku0© yd óemÓPf tNy;D wkid f rykid Ef ikd af o;ojzifh wPSmç rme rukef
rqHk;Edkif &SdaeonfhtwGufaywnf;? xkdYaMumifh ,cktcgumvü
Ak'¨bmom jzpfolwkdYrSm tyg,'ku©rS tNyD;wkdif uRwfvGwfMu&ef
ta&;onf tBuD;qHk;jzpf\? Ak'¨bmom omoemtyokdY a&mufí
oGm;MuvQif tyg,'kur© S uRwv f w G Mf u&ef enf;vrf;yif r&Sad vNy?D
tyg,'ku©rS uRwfvGwf&efudpörSmvnf; 'kpö½kdufw&m;ç rdpäm'd|d
w&m;wkdYukd tukeftpif y,fowf&efudpörSmvnf; twå'd|dukd
tuket f pif y,fowfjcif;aywnf;? xkaYd Mumifh Ak'b ¨ mom omoem
awmfESifh awGUBuHKMuonfhb0wGif tewå0dyóemÓPfukd ykdifEdkif
wJhjcif;iSg tedpö0dyóem w&m;ukdom ta&;BuD;pGm tm;xkwfMu
uke&f mownf;/
]]tedpö0dyóemÓPf ykdifEdkifvQif tewå0dyóemÓPf
ykdifEdkifjcif; udpöNyD;pD;onf}} [l&mü om"uygVdawmfum; m;-
tedpöondaem arCd, tewåonm oP²mwd?
tewåondaem to®drmaemork*¢gwH ygykPmwd?
'da|0 "ar® edAÁmeH/
teufum; m;/ / arCd,=arCd,&[ef;? tedpöondaem=
tedpöonm ydkifEdkifaomoltm;? tewåonm=tewåonmonf?
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 93
oP²mwd=tvkv d wdk nfvm\? tewåondaem=tewåonm ykid Ef ikd f
aom oltm;? to®rd maem=cE¨mig;yg; ½kyef mrfw&m;wku Yd dk igig[lí
txifBu;D jcif;onf? ork*g¢ wH=ysupf ;D jcif;ok?Yd ygykPmwd=a&muf\?
'da|0"ar®=,ck rsufarSmufb0üyifvQif? edAÁmeH=pdwf'ku©cyfodrf;
tukefNidrf;jcif;okdY? ygykPmwd=a&muf\/
tw¬,kwådrSmrlum; tedpövu©PmonfyifvQif tewå
vu©Pm jzpfEdkifaMumif;ukdtus,f jyqkdcJhNyD/
þ0dyóemtvkyfonf orxtvkyfuJhokdY yvdaAm"
qdwNf ird &f mBu;D udk &rSom Ny;D pD;Edik o
f nfr[kw?f yg&rDÓPfonfom
y"mewnf;/ yg&rDÓPf&cdS yhJ grl w&m;em&if;ESiyhf if aygufa&mufí
oGm;wwf\? C&m0goudpötwGif;rSmyif aygufa&mufEdkif\?
taMumif;rlum; ÓPf&SdolwkdYrSm udk,fwGif;ukd,fjyifç tdrfwGif;
tdrfjyifç &GmwGif;&Gmjyif awGUjriforQonf tedpöÓPf yGm;pD;zkdYcsnf;
omwnf;/
yg&rDÓPfEMk uolrsm;rSmrlum; orxtvkyu f o hJ yYkd if txl;
tm;xk w f r S ayguf a &muf E d k i f M u\? tm;xk w f M u&mrS m vnf ;
0dy&dPmrç tnxmbm0[laom tedpövu©PmwGif rsufawmif
wpfcwf vQyfwpfjyuftwGif;rSmyif tBudrfrsm;pGm jzpfEdkifaom
cPdutedpt ö csurf sm;onf tbd"r®mpum; ajymMu&müom vk\ d ?
0dyóemt&mürlum; ukd,fawGUrsufjrifrsdK;wGif xif&Sm;vsuf&SdMu
aom oEÅwd0dy&dPmrç oEÅwd tnxmbm0onfom vkd&if;
jzpf\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 94
oEÅ w d 0d y &d P mr qkdonfum; avmuü ukd,fawGU
rsufjrifwGif toD;toD; pum;a0g[m&ESifhwuG xif&Sm;vsuf
&SdMuaom y&rw¬Z&mtcsufç y&rw¬r&Ptcsufrsm;aywnf;?
tnxmbm0rSmvnf; xkt Yd wlwnf;? 0dyóemwif½&I ef w&m;rSm
vnf; ½kyfw&m;pkwGif "mwfBuD;av;yg;onfom vkd&if;jzpf\?
"mwfBuD;av;yg;\ wpfaeYwpf&uftwGif;rSmyif tcgwpf&mru
jzpfysuf ajymif;vJru I dk xifjrifEikd yf gvQif xküd rSMD uaom Oyg'g½kyw
f \
Ydk
jzpfysuaf jymif;vJro I nf yg0ifavawmhonf? emrfw&m;pkrmS vnf;
0dnmPf ajcmufyg;[laom pdwfonfom vkd&if;jzpf\? pdwf\jzpf
ysuf ajymif;vJru I dk xifjrifEikd yf gvQif xkpd w
d üf rSMD u&aom apwoduf
wkdY\ jzpfysuf ajymif;vJrIonf yg0ifavawmhonf? a0'emtxl;
tjym;ç onm txl;tjym;ç apwem txl;tjym; ponfrsm;
onfvnf; tedpövu©Pm xifvG,fwJh&efjzpfay\? ½kyfw&m;pkrSm
vnf; 0PÖtxl;tjym;ç *E¨txl;tjym; ponfrsm;onf xkdYtwl
wnf;? vkd&if;rSmrlum; owåç yk*¾vç twåç ZD0ç edpöç okc0dyv’mo
"r®wkdY\ aysmufuif;jcif;onfomvQif vdk&if;wnf;? þ0dyóem
ÓPfwkdY\ ½IjrifyGifhvif;&ef tcsufrSmrlum; vu©PmoHk;yg;
aywnf;/
xkvd u©Pm oH;k yg;ukv d nf; vu©Pmcef;rSm odomxif&mS ;
&Sd½kHrQ jyqkdcJhNyD/
wD&Py&dnmtus,f NyD;\/
—————Ä————-
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 95
y[me y&dnmtus,fum;
Ak'¨bmom omoemü vkd&if;y"mejzpfaom y[mew&m;
onf ig;yg;&Sd\/
(1) w'*Fy[mewpfyg;?
(2) 0du©rÇey[mewpfyg;?
(3) orkapä'y[mewpfyg;?
(4) y#dyó'¨dy[mewpfyg;?
(5) edó&Py[me wpfyg;?
þig;yg;wnf;/
xkdig;yg;wkdYukd xif&Sm;apjcif;iSg udavomwkdY\ tckduf
twefY[laom blrdtjym;oHk;yg;wkdYukd jyqkd&m\/
bl r d t jym;oH k ; yg; qkdonfum;
(1) tEko,blrdwpfyg;?
(2) y&d,k|me blrdwpfyg;?
(3) 0Dwduúr blrdwpfyg;?
þoHk;yg;wnf;/ xkdoHk;yg;wdkYwGif-
tEko,blrd qkdonfum; Oyg'fç XDç biftm;jzifh toD;
tjcm; apwodufwpfyg;taeESifh jzpfay:jcif; r&SdMuukefrlí
pdwfoEÅmefüom tpOfpGJuyfikyf"mwfç 0yf"mwfç tdyf"mwfç udef;
"mwfjzpfí aeMuukeaf om udavomwk\ Yd ude;f 0yfrI tcku
d t
f cGihf
BuD;onf tEko,blrd rnf\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 96
ajcmuf'gG &wGif wpfcw k pfcak om'Gg&ü udavom"r® x<u
jzpfay:&ef tm½Hkwkdufqkdufvmojzifh raem'Gg&wGifrQ x<uívm
Muaom udavomwk\ Yd ude;f 0yf&mrS x<ujzpfay:ívmjcif; tcku d f
tcGifhBuD;onf y&d,k|meblrd rnf\/
raem'Gg&wGirf Q rwefrY &yfMuukerf í l ud,
k t f *Fgç EIwt f *Fg
vIy&f mS ;rIwidk f a&mufatmif usL;vGeí f vmMuukeaf om udavom
wkdY\ usL;vGefjcif; tckduftcGifhBuD;onf 0Dwduúrblrd rnf\/
avmbudavomonf terw*¾oHo&mwGif owå0g
wpfa,muf\ pdwfoEÅmefü avmbudavom wpfckrSmyif bHkoHk;
qifh &Sd\? xkdYtwl a'goudavomrSmvnf; bHkoHk;qifhç arm[
udavomç 'd|u d ad vomç rmeudavom ponfwrYdk mS toD;toD;
bHkoHk;qifhpD &SdMu\/
Ak'¨bmomü oDvç orm"dç ynm[laom odu©moHk;yg;
wkw
Yd iG f oDv[laom yXrodum© onf udavom wk\ Yd 0Dwu d rú blrd
[laom wwd,bHrk Qom y,fEikd \ f ? wwd,bHrk Quodk m y,fEidk o f nfh
twGuf 'kwd,bHkç yXrbHk&SdaeMuao;aomaMumifh oDvjzifhy,f
tyfaom udavomwkdYrnfonf rMumcPjzpfay:í x<uojzifh
0DwduúrbHkwdkifatmif jynfhNrJjynfhEdkifMujyef\? xkdYaMumifh oDvjzifh
y,fjcif;ukd w'*Fy[mef ac:ownf;? xkdxkd oDvt*Fgjzifh xkdxkd
udavom tpdwfrQukd y,fjcif; qkdvkdonf/
yXrpsmefç 'kwd,psmef tp½Sdaom psmeform"d[laom
orm"d odu©monf oDvy,fcsufrS usef½Sdaom blrdESpfyg;wdkYwGif
y&d,k|meblrd[laom 'kwd,bHkrQudk y,fEdkif\? tEko,blrd
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 97
usef½SdonfhtwGuf psmeformywfwdkYjzifh y,ftyfaom udavom
rsm;onfvnf; psmef\qefYusifbufw&m;ESifh awGUMuKHvmcJhvQif
psmefudkyif zsufqD;í 0DwduúrbHkwdkifatmif jynfhjrJjynfhEdkifjyef\?
0dur© eÇ y[mef ac:\? psmeform"d rnfonf tyÜembm0em ukov kd f
rsKd ;jzpfayí oDvukov kd xf uf tmEkabmfMu;D rm;vsu½f adS omaMumifh
udavomwdkYudk ½kwfw&ufx<u aomif;usef;jcif;iSg rwwfom
atmif a0;pGm cGgypfjcif; qdkvdkonf/
0dyóemynmç avmukwÅ&mr*fynm[laom wwd,
odu©monfrlum; oDvç orm"dwdkY ry,fEdkifMuaom tEko,
blrd[laom yXrbHkudky,fEdkif\? þyXrbHkudk y,fjcif;onfum;
t<uif;tusef r&Sdaom y,fjcif;rnf\? xdkynmjzifh yXrbHkyg
uRwv f w G af tmif y,ftyfaom udavomwdo Yk nf xdyk *k Kd¾ vf oEÅmef
rSm b,ftcgrS wpfzef jzpfay:vmjcif; r&SdavNyD? þy,fjcif;udk
orkapä'y[mefac:\? tjrpft&if;ESifhwuG t<uif;tusef r½Sd
atmif y,fjzwfjcif;qdv k o kd nf? avmukw&Å m r*fynmwd\ Yk y,fjcif;
udyk ifvQif avmukw&Å mzdv k f ynmwdu Yk t½Sed t
f aiGUrQ ruse&f atmif
xyfrí H wpfzefjird ;f apjcif;onf y#dyó'¨yd [mef rnf\? edAmÁ efjzifh
y,fjcif;onf edó&Py[mef rnf\? xdkoEÅmefESifhrQ rpyfreD;&
atmif tjyD;uRwfvGwfí oGm;apjcif; qdkvdkonf? xdkynmonf
0dyóemynmç r*fynmç zdv k yf nm[lí oH;k yg;&Sod nfwiG f jyqdck jhJ y;D
aom wD&Py&dnmynmonf tEko,blru d kd y,fjim;aomfvnf;
tuket f pif ry,fEikd af o;? r*fynmwdo Yk nfomvQif rdrw d \ Ykd qdik &f m
udavomwdkYudk t<uif;r½Sd tukeftpif y,fEdkifMuukef\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 98
aomwmywådr*fynm nmonf 'd|d[lorQ 0dpdudpäm [lorQ
wdu
Yk kd tjrpft&if; t<uif;tuserf ½Sd y,fay\? tyg,*grd 'kp½ö u kd f
w&m;wdkYESifh tyg,fb0wdkYudkvnf; xdkoEÅmefrSm aemifwpfzef jzpf
ay:&ef t<uif;tusefr&Sd y,fay\/
ou'g*grdr*fynm onf ½ke&Yf if;aom umr&m*ç Asmyg'
wdkYudk t<uif;r&Sd y,fay\/
tem*grdr*fynm onf xdkoEÅmefwGif usef&Sdao;aom
odrfarGU ao;zGJaom umr&m*ç Asmyg'wdkYudk t<uif;r&Sd
y,fay\? xdyk *k Kd¾ vo
f nf umrEG,jf ywfav\? jA[®mb h v
kH Qif
vm;&m*wd &Sdav\/
t&[wå r *f y nmnmonf xdkoEÅmefwGif usef&SdorQaom
udavomwdkYudk tukeftpify,fay\? xdkyk*¾dKvfonf
udavomukejf ird ;f aom &[EÅmjzpfav\? bHo k ;kH yg;rS uRwf
vGwfav\? Ak'¨bmom omoemrSm orkapä'y[mefonf
om vdk&if;y"mejzpf\/
y[mey&dnmtus,f jyD;\/
y&dnmuxm jyD;\/
————Ä————
0dyóemvkyfief;
0dyóemur®|mef;tvkyu f kd tm;xkwMf uaom yk*Kd¾ vw f \
Ykd
vd&k if;tcsuu
f kd jyaytH/h 0dyóem ÓPfo;kH yg;wGif a½S;OD;pGm tedpö
xifjrifrIonf ta&;tMuD;qHk;jzpf\? tb,fodkY xifjrifEdkif&
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 99
rnfenf;[lrl t&dyfyGJjy&mü wpfckaomt&dyfrSm wpfcPtwGif;ü
yifvQif vIyf&Sm;rIawG? tqufquf tqifhqifh ajymif;vJrIawG
tb,frQ vsifjrefavoenf;? tb,frQ taxGaxGtjym;jym;
rsm;avoenf;[k "mwf&dyfBuD; i,fwpfckudk aphpHkpGmpOf;pm;í
Munf½h MI uygvQif "mwf&yd üf 0dy&dPmrç tnxmbm0 tcsuw f oYkd nf
wpfrdepf wpfpuúefYtwGif;rSmyif &maxmifru &SdaeMuonfudk
awGUjrifMuukef&m\? awGUjriforQaom xdk0dy&dPmrç tnxm
bm0rIwdkYonf xdk"mwf&dyfrSm tedpöcsnf;aywnf;? r&PrIBuD;
aywnf;? "mwf\ aoqHk;rIcsnf;aywnf;/
xk"d mwf&yd u
f dk oGm;jcif; tcduk tf wefçY &yfjcif;tckud tf weYçf
xkdifjcif; tckduftwefYç tdyfjcif; tckduftwefYç auG;jcif; tckduf
twefYç qefYjcif; tckduftwefYç xkdxkdudk,ft*Fg tpdwfwkdY\
taxGaxG ajymif;vJjcif; tckduftwefYwkdYukd vkyfBuHí aphpHkpGm
Munf½h MI uygvQif xkt d &dyrf mS xkx
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tedpörIawGç r&PrIawG jynfhvsufaeonfukdodjrifMuukefvwåHY?
oGm;jcif; tckduftwefYwGif wpfckwpfckaom ajcvSrf;twGif;ü
"mwfwkdY\ tedpöawGç r&PawG jynfhvsufaeonfukd odjrifMu
ukefvwåHY? <uif;usefaom tckduf twefYwkdYüvnf; xkdenf;wl
toD;toD; tedpötrIawGç r&PtrIawG jynfhvsuf aeMuukef
onfomwnf;/
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b,ftcgrSmrqkd ½ky"f mwf emrf"mwfw\ Ydk tedprö aI wGç r&PrIawG
ukd,fESifhtjynfh acgif;ESifhtjynfh xkdxkdt*FgBuD;i,fwkdYESifh tjynfh&Sd
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 100
vsuaf eMuuke\ f ? xku d o hJ Ydk b,ftcgrqkd wpfu, dk v f ;kH wpfaumif
vHk; jynfhvsuf&SdaeMuukefaom tedpötcsufç r&PtcsufwkdYukd
ÓPfjzifh aygif;½Hk;í Munfh½IwwfMuygukefrlum; rdrdrdrdwkdY\
ukd,fcE¨m udk,ft*FgwkdYonf wpfpuúefY wpfrdepf twGif;rSmyif
tcgrsm;pGm ysuq f ;kH NyKd uJG ajymif;vJíaeMuonfuv dk nf; odjrifEikd f
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ajymif;vJrIç OD;acgif;t*Fg tcgcgajymif;vJrIç ajct*Fgç vuft*Fg
tcgcgajymif;vJrçI ausmt*Fgç 0rf;t*Fg tcgcgajymif;vJrçI tonf;
t*Fgç tqkwt f *Fg tcgcgajymif;vJrI wku Yd vkd nf; odjrifMuukev f wå/YH
þokYd odMu jrifMu xifMuukeo f nf&adS omf tedpmö Ekyóem
tvkyfawG ae&musNyD[krSwf? tedpömEkyóem tvkyfae&mus
vQiv f nf; tewåmEkyóemtvkyv f nf; ae&musavawmhonf/
ae&musqkdonfum; wpfoufvHk; pJGNrJMu&ef tcsufus
onfudk qko d nf? r*fÓPfç zkv d Ó f PfoYdk aygufa&mufonfudk qko d nf
r[kwf? r*fÓPfç zkdvfÓPfokdY aygufa&mufrIrSmrlum; yg&rD£a`E´
t&ifhtEkokdY vkdufí tjreftaES; &Sdjyef\? r*fÓPfç zkdvfÓPfokdY
aygufa&mufrIrnfonf trSeftm;jzifh tvGefodEdkifcJ\/
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udavomwk\ Yd tEko, tcku d t f wefY eufev J aS om aMumifw h nf;?
udavomwk\ Yd tEko,tcku d t f wefY eufeyJ u kH kd rodMuukeaf om
a,m*Dy*k K¾d vw f o Ydk nf 'd|çd 0dpu d pd mä wd\
Yk 0dur© eÇ udpEö iS hf uif;uGmí
ae½HkrQudkyif igaomwmyefjzpfNyD[k xifwwfMu\/
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 101
'd|dç 0dpdudpämwkdY\ orkapä'udpöESifh tEko,bHkBuD;yg
uif;jywfí oGm;rSomvQif aomwmyef tppftrSefjzpfayonf?
0dyóem a,m*Dyk*¾dKvfwkdYrSmrlum; txiftjrif ae&musaom
tedpömEkyóem ÓPfukd&í ae&vQifyif aumif;jrwfvSNyD[k
0rf;ajrmufíom xkdtvkyfukd wpfoufvHk; pGJNrJMuukef&rnf?
&[EÅmjzpfNyD;aom yk*¾dKvfwkdYrSmaomfvnf; pdwåokc tusdK;iSg
xktdk vkyu
f dk rvTwMf uayuke?f a,m*Dy*k Kd¾ vf wkrYd mS vnf; xktd vkyuf dk
toufxufq;kH pGNJ rMJ uonf&adS omf ÓPfynmtqifq h ifh &ifo
h efí
oGm;Muojzifh ,ckb0wGiyf if raorD tMum;üaomfvnf;aumif;ç
aocgeD;tcgüaomfvnf;aumif;ç ykxkZÆeblrdç ykxkZÆe*wdwkdYukd
vGeaf jrmufí t&d,blrçd t&d,*wdoYdk aygufa&mufMuukev f wå?YH
,ckb0üyif raygufa&muf&MdS uaomfvnf; aemufb0ü ewfjynfoYdk
a&mufMuí aygufa&mufMuukefvwåHU/
0dyóemtvkyNf y;D \/
0dyóem'DyeD NyD;\/
————Ä————
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 102
ed*Hk;
þwGiaf &GUum; Oa&mywku d o f m; Ak'b ¨ mom vltrsm;wk\ Yd
tusdK;iSg 0dyóemur®|mef;tvkyfukd tusOf;csKyf pD&ifcsufNyD;\?
tus,frlum; ygVdbmomjzifh tus,fa&;om;NyD;&Sdaomfvnf;
tacsmrwif&ao;onfhtwGuf aemufrSay;ykdY&ef BuH&G,fvsuf
&Sdayownf;/
rEÅav;NrKd U taemufjyif pif&iS v f rf; usKH ;xdyw
f iG f Edik if jH cm;
Ak'¨bmomomoemjyKtoif;BuD; ESpfpOf pnf;a0;&mXme &wem
od&Dausmif;wkdufBuD;ü ¤if;toif;BuD; tpnf;ta0;udpöESifh <u
a&mufaexkdifpOf pD&iftyfaom ]]0d 0d y óem'D y eD u srf ;}} onf
jrefrmouú&mZf 1276-ck? waygif;vqef; 14-&ufaeYwGif NyD;pD;
ayownf;/
ed*;kH Ny;D \/
--------- Ä ---------
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 103
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 104
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 105
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 106
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 107
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 108
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 109
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 110
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 111
tpodYk 0dyóem'DyeDusrf; 112