‫ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻘﻲ‬

‫ذ‪ .‬ا ال‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ‬
‫‪. LA RADIOACTIVITÉ AU SERVICE DE L'ARCHÉOLOGIE‬‬

‫א‬
‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ‪ 14‬ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻊ ﻟﻌﻨﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻧﺮﻣﺰ ﻟﻪ ﺏ‪ 14C‬ﺑﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺠﻮ‬
‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﻟﻴﻨﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻮﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻮ ‪.‬‬
‫ُﻳﻤﺘﺺ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ) ﺳﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺮ ‪12C‬ﻭ ‪ 13C‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻊ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ(‬
‫ﻟﻴﺪﺧﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﻧﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺃﻡ ﺣﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ‪ 1950‬ﺃﺛﺒﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ‪ W Libby‬ﺃﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ‪ 14‬ﺃﻱ ‪:‬‬
‫) ‪N( 14 C‬‬
‫) ‪N( 12 C‬‬

‫ﻛﻞ ﻛﺘﻠﺔ ‪ m = 1g‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺇﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ‪ 14‬ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﻓﻲ ‪ 13.6‬ﺗﻔﺘﺖ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ ) *( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬
‫ﻳﻤﺜﻞ '' ﻋﻤﺮ ﺻﻔﺮ'' ‪«un âge zéro ».‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ''ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻲ '' ) ﺟﺪﻉ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻣﻘﻄﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺻﺪﻓﺎﺕ ﺃﺣﻔﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻈﺎﻡ ‪ (...‬ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍﺀ ﻟﻴﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻊ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺃﺳﻴﺔ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻟﺤﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻔﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻟﻜﺎﺋﻦ ﺣﻲ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻷﺣﻔﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ‪ 40 000‬ﺳﻨﺔ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺳﻮﻯ ‪ 1%‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ‪ 14‬ﻣﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻳﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺣﻴﺎ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬

‫ﻋﻤﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻠﻔﺖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺟﺪﺍﻻ ﻛﻼﻣﻴﺎ ﺟﻌﻠﺖ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻳﺸﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺼﺪﺍﻗﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺙ ﺏ ‪:‬ﻛﻔﻦ ﺗﻮﺭﻳﻨﻮ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﻣﻴﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻴﺢ ﻭﻓﻖ ﻃﺮﻕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬
‫‪le suaire de Turin‬‬

‫)*( ‪ :‬ﻧﻘﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺖ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺎ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬
‫ ‪Clefs CEA n°14 automne 1989 :‬‬

‫א

‫‪ (1‬ه ا   ا ي  أن ث    ! ‪ /0‬أوآ‪ ",‬ا ‪*+‬ن ) ا ('&ت ا ‪$* ! +' ) "#$‬د ‪،( 3(",* 3‬‬
‫وه ها ا   ‪ +"8/ 9:‬دون ‪ +67‬؟‬
‫‪  (2‬ه ا 'أ ا ي @&م ‪ !"#‬ه> ا (‪ +  3&+‬أ=ر؟‬
‫‪  (3‬ه ا ‪ +$‬ا‪ EBCD‬ا ي @‪ !* F,‬ه> ا (‪ 3&+‬؟‬
‫‪ (4‬ا*‪ 3BC  H‬آ @ر  و=ول ‪ = 3)+$‬ا ‪#‬‬