Information technology in education

Information technology has found its own place in the field of education. It was earlier thought that information technology would make people more dependent on computers but it has resulted in a number of advantages. Technology has resulted in increased interaction between the students and the use of newer ways of educating them. If information technology is not used in a proper manner then it can be worse than the older technologies used in education. The students can make use of computers to do their regular practice sessions and drills, which is similar to their workbooks. Moreover with the use of information technology teachers can make their lectures more attractive and colorful helping students to understand better. Academic achievements of information technology In the past 15 years the schools in United States has increased their budget to focus on classroom technology to as much as $5 billion per annum.This is because of the fact that government and the educational experts believe that the use of information technology in education can result in improved learning. However there is one point that is constantly being argued on as to whether the use of information technology will pose as a challenge to the critical thinking capacity of the students. This particular issue is under scan and there are a lot of researches going on. But still when compared to the advantages that information technology focuses in education is more as compared to the issues that are brought into notice. With the use of information technology in educational institutes the communication servers have made it easy for the teachers to inform the parents about the absence of their children and their performance. It has also helped the teachers in solving various issues related to homework assistance. Conjugation of information technology and education The use of information technology is of primary importance in education. It?s use in education has two basic reasons.First that the students will become familiar with information technology and this would be helpful for their future as all as to get jobs. The second advantage is that the teaching standards will improve and will be effective. With the society increasingly becoming dependent on information technology and the processing of every work with it, made it important for every individual to have basic knowledge about information technology. The educational institutes should make sure that IT qualifications are developed by means of their incorporation in all activities in the education sector and an individual student must have an active and critical attitude to developments and not submissively allow technological development to set the pace. Information technology in education improving communication

If we would have talked 20 years ago then children were just taught computer basics and a few programs in computers. Information Technology as a part of syllabus Information technology especially.Students gain deep knowledge about the algorithm analysis. Personalized form of teaching helps individuals to develop in their field and increase their learning power. computer graphics. The teachers can also post information about the homework and any changes in its schedule. computers has been included as a part of the educational syllabus.The information systems used in school are affordable and easy to be used by the school authorities as well as by the students. Information technology opens new grounds. With this system any changes in the schedule or events that are made are recorded in the system and the parents and students can easily access this information. these vocational trainings can also help students in developing crucial skills necessary to achieve Bachelor or Doctorate degree in Computer Science through higher educational venues. Let's discuss more about the impact of information technology on business. It is very important that the IT policies of the educational institutes should make up-to-date qualifications and integrate new pedagogic opportunities. such as universities and colleges. Today the IT oriented education has become more organized and interesting as compared to the previous modes Impact of Information Technology on Business Everyone is aware of the fact that information technology certainly has had a significant effect on all business sectors. One of such systems is the computing system. Any alterations posted on the website can be accessed by both students and teachers. artificial intelligence. Besides. high-level language programming. . The basic computer knowledge gives the students the basic requirements to compete with the expanding technological world. It is now helping students in shaping their future for careers in technology. These days all the schools have their own websites and this has also resulted in improved communication. computer networking. There are also vocational programs in information technology focusing on computers. With these basic skills in IT such students can easily start a career in the technology industry after obtaining higher education. But now in school itself students are taught various languages that are taught in graduation. computer architecture. information technology (IT). data structures. These aim at software and hardware technologies and also computer theory and its applications.Learning the basic skills at a primary level helps students in understanding and developing their concepts. and operating systems.

be it any type of company like manufacturing or medicinal sector. The exact impact of information technology on business administration can be determined by the elements mentioned below. store. It has contributed largely to the process advancements in organizations. These are complex applications which enable people to efficiently manage all functions and operations of all processes in the Information technology is a wide field. and web browsers are some examples of different softwares.siemens.SAS. www. and has enabled organizations across the world to work in an efficient manner. Operating systems.Free Report www. Assess the impact of your upgrade. Hardware Devices These are various computer equipments that house the softwares. Without these computer applications the businesses wouldn't have been able to carry out their functions in a proper and efficient manner. program. All operations in the business sector are carried out by software that are assigned for executing specific tasks. and retrieve data as and when needed. There are some softwares which are exclusively built to contribute to the proper collaborative working of all sections of the businesses. . ERPs.Ads by Google Siemens answers: Early detection & prevention: Healthcare IT. Devices like microcomputers. It plays a very important role in effective management and running of a business. special purpose applications. The use of information technology in organizations is inevitable. Basic Elements of Information Technology Software and Applications Software is an important part of information technology which relates to computer applications that enable a company to JD Edwards Upgrade Upgrade on a tight Business Analytics Learn Key Benefits of Biz Analytics How it Relates to BI. which are known as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). www. There are many softwares developed for different purposes.

Marketing Management Vijeta Malviya BE. Professor . manage. There are several departments in business organizations such as HR and recruitment. Other IT services include Internet marketing and email marketing. and security. Businesses have to maintain a huge collection of important data. B2B. B2C. MBA Asst. Ph. Other hardware devices include network devices that are used for providing Internet access to the businesses to work and communicate expeditiously. operational. The information technology role in business sector certainly is of a great importance. and huge mainframe systems are some examples of hardware. as several advancements are focused on to be implemented in various business processes. Manufacturing businesses may make use of servers and databases to store their vast data regarding inventory. Automobile manufacturers use computers to guide manufacturing and designing tools to function in a precise manner. All these departments utilize IT to carry out their respective operations in a productive manner and efficient manner. Businesses all around the globe have to take the aid of information technology in some way or the other to keep themselves in sync with the market and the world. etc. which enables businesses to effectively and successfully plan. IFDP-IIM Indore Director Incharge Dr. the impact of information technology on business is on the rise. For this purpose. Asst. FMCG (in the retail business sector). Larger businesses on the other hand have their own operational and functional employees who develop software applications and work on several IT needs of the businesses. finance and payroll. they need to approach firms and IT manufacturers who deal in such software applications. administration. Running Businesses with Information Technology Small scale businesses need to buy software packages that would cater to their specific management. web hosting and promotions. Professor . execute strategies which lead to profit. There are even devices which enable manufacturing tools and equipments to work accurately in the industrial sector. and functional needs. and maintaining client networks. Pankaj Tiwari MBA. ruling out the possibilities of any human error.mid-size servers. which is actually more convenient. they employ these devices which are responsible for storing confidential company data and retrieving it back when required. Applications of Information Technology in Retailing By Vikas Saraf MBA. Moreover. They usually purchase ERP softwares to coordinate different processes and functions into a single application.D.Human Resource Management Vidyasagar Institute of Management (VIM) . For this purpose.

It's all about ensuring that the customer first of all comes to the store and then buys. Introduction "Retailing includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumer for their personal. and receive data and information. Retailing includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services for the final consumer. The retail market is a state of exponential growth. development. selling big and selling huge. store. This paper focused on how Information Technology may be beneficial in retailing? Information technology is the capability to electronically input process. non business use". Retail is all about selling. A typical pan national retail operation would have multiple regional warehouses. These activities include demand and sales forecasting. Need of Information Technology in Retailing Information Technology Information technology. as well as the ability to control machines of all kinds electronically. as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA). New technologies evolved in retailing are Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). operational efficiencies and by extension. sound. . transmit. including text. transportation etc. information technology is the capability to electronically input. The right solution can result in improved productivity and major cost saving through key advantages such as more accurate supply chain. output. The result indicates that. and receive data and information.Vallabh Nagar (BHEL). This also means that one should connect to the customer and should be able to hold him in one place and give him all that he desires from one location. Bhopal±462 021 Abstract This paper presents the applications of Information Technology in retailing. how does one store know if a stock ± out item in its own inventory is available at another store location for whom it is slow moving item? Most of these issues can be solved by the appropriate use of technology. how does it know which products are selling the most in which region at which outlet. It plays a very important role in today's business world. One of the key factors in achieving an organized and efficient retail operation is the use of technology as an enabler . particularly software applications and computer hardware. is " the study. profitability. forecasting and better inventory management. In such an operation. transmit. support or management of computer-based information systems. We are now wireless and seamless and cashless and everything less and can get any information we want and need. process. inventory management. and output. store management. Information Technology also help retailers to solve major problems related to customer services like customer loyalty and customer satisfaction. design. how does the headquarters know the daily turnover at each of its outlets. store. Technology has been the great enabler of business and especially retail enterprise. and video." Encompassing the computer and information systems industries. retail complexities may reduce with the help of Information Technology solutions. graphics. offices and retail outlets. Information Technology is the key enabler to improving customer satisfaction. implementation. and Point of Sale (POS) etc. Smart Operating Solution Smart Ops.

commonly a shop or stall for the retail sale of commodities. but also a place where wholesale supplies are kept. The in-store system use magnetic strips or barcodes or RFID to monitor actual versus intended product location on the floor or in the stockroom. To optimize the deployment of inventory. This allows retailers you to significantly reduce inventory without adversely affecting service levels. practically all the information companies need to do business involves the use of computers and information technology. This means the underlying IT systems to drive operations are equally complex. stored. tracking payments received and payments to be made. Retail Demand Forecasting: Modern demand-forecasting systems provide new opportunities to improve retail performance. This allows them to improve their inventory forecasting ability and accurately set inventory targets. Large-scale systems are now capable of handling the mass of retail transaction data ± organizing it. Business leaders engage in this process because much of what happens in businesses today depends on what is going to happen in the future. or sold. That alerts out-of-place or stock-out items. exhibited. Retail's Complexity: the Information Technology Solution Much of the retail operations functionality is driven by customized point solutions in areas such as merchandizing. * Inventory Management: Inventory can be either raw materials. the future of business in the economy. Business leaders and economists are continually involved in the process of trying to forecast. or goods in the process of being manufactured. In fact. A store. Although the art of the individual merchant may never be replaced. in-store operations. 1. and tracking supplies needed and items produced. This new approach to demand forecasting in retail will contribute to the accuracy of future plans. How Information Technology involved in Retailing Operations * Forecasting: Forecasting is the process of estimation in unknown situations. Inventory is recorded as an asset on a company's balance sheet. the satisfaction of future customers and the overall efficiency and profitability of retail operations. It's an essential and very important process in any business organization. objective and scientific approach to forecasting demand. or predict. Computers in Business One of the first and largest applications of computers is keeping and managing business and financial records. it can be augmented by an efficient. seasonality and promotions planning. Similar programs and databases are used in such business functions as billing customers. at every location throughout supply chain. people use computers in new ways. and sold. Computers are increasingly affordable. constraints. * Store Management: Another example where Information technology can be beneficial is a store management. An IT solution is a proven and market leading solution for determining optimal time-varying inventory targets for every item. and complexities across their global supply chain on continuous basis. they continue to be more powerful as information-processing tools as well as easier to use.Information Technology's Role Today Every day. shipped. Most large companies keep the employment records of all their workers in large databases that are managed by computer programs. A place where something is deposited for safekeeping is called store. supply chain management. mining it and projecting it into future customer behavior. retailers need to manage the uncertainties. finished items already available for sale. .

customized and managed effectively for the retailer to improve its top line. place ever-greater demands on retailers. In challenges. . the IT systems become part of the problem rather than components of the solution. This becomes particularly crucial when the retailer is implementing new systems and a large data conversion effort is required²it becomes essential that the old data be effectively cleaned.IT systems are at the heart of retail operations and hence play a central role in alleviating pressure points in the retail sector. retailers need to effectively mine large amounts of data and leverage this data to carry out effective forecasting. If the data is bad. and collaboration with its suppliers so that promotions and other merchandizing activities are effective and efficient. scale and processes. Supply chain systems are key from a bottom line point of view as they play a key role in getting the right product to the right place at the right time²which in turn impacts the inventory levels and the rate of flow of products through the retailer's stores. It systems are at the complexity of products. To achieve this. and thereafter. both of which are significant components of the retailer's cost of doing business. effective mining (via large data warehouses) is fundamentally important in the retail space because so much decision-making is based on data. There are two critical areas where IT can reduce Complexity and improve results: FUNCTIONAL RETAIL AREAS Merchandizing systems impact top-line revenues and need to be configured. DATA CLEANSING AND ARCHITECTURE IMPROVEMENT Data cleansing. along with supply chain heart of retail operations and hence play a central role in alleviating pressure points in the retail sector. The converse also holds true²retailers who do not manage their IT landscape effectively will find that. so that the business functions can make decisions effectively. in time. re-architect and made ready in the new system. assortment planning. the effectiveness and efficiency of carrying out retail operations is hampered.

Depending on the type of tag and application. To improve their supply chains. Transmitting in the kilohertz. tags may be battery-powered or derive their power from the RF waves coming from the reader. RFID tags do not require line of sight and can be embedded within packages. With the help of RFID it becomes easy for the sales staff to locate a particular item in the store and check its availability in less time. RFID tags identify items. which must be in close proximity and line of sight to the scanner for reading." "transponder" or "code plate. yet significant profitability improvements have remained elusive. megahertz and gigahertz ranges. Largely unaddressed has been the opportunity to use enterprise and supply chain data to support key inventory planning decisions that fuel execution systems and activities -.The High Technology Retailing Environment New Technologies Evolved in Retailing 1." is made up of an RFID chip attached to an antenna. unlike bar codes.finding ways to better manage growing uncertainty and complexity to improve supply chain performance. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Radio Frequency Identification in the retail industry has solved major problems related to customer services. RFID in retail helps in the following ways: (a) Improves the level of customer service (b) Increases customers loyalty (c) Better Inventory Management (d) Item level tracking The future of RFID is very bright in retail sector. companies across industries have made sizable investments in a range of technology solutions. also known as an "electronic label. In addition. as right from inventory management to product manufacturing. It's a data collection technology that uses electronic tags for storing data. But companies across industries share a common challenge -. they can be read at a varying range of distances. Smart Operating System Supply chains can look very different from industry to industry.something beyond a mere spreadsheet or desktop solution. 2. Like bar codes. SmartOps customers are proactively managing supply chain uncertainty across all stages to improve their total . The tag. this system provides a more efficient and advanced retail experience to both the customer and the seller. However. RFIDtagged cartons rolling on a conveyer belt can be read many times faster than bar-coded boxes.

and creating reports for use in making purchases. analyzing sales (on a daily. including refining target marketing strategies. Point of Sale Capturing data at the time and place of sale. Point of sale systems may be online to a central computer for credit checking and inventory updating. monthly. and Sales & Operations Planning (S&OP) activities. determining customer purchasing patterns. POS systems have been touted as valuable tools for a wide variety of business purposes.chain inventory planning. Conclusion This result demonstrates the significant role of information technology in today's business world and in retail management. It indicates that a sound Information Technology system is imperative to success in large format retail. but each has features that are unique. and Six Sigma initiatives. bar code readers. to postponement strategies. SmartOps enterprise software solutions support many initiatives and challenges associated with different manufacturing and distribution industries from Lean Manufacturing. IT system can be leveraged to increase efficiencies in supply chain and vendor management as well as centralize their control. etc. All function essentially as sales and cash management tools. also known as ECRs. SmartOps is able to do that because it looks at the right granularity of data to adequately manage safety stock levels and understand where the biggest ongoing opportunities for improvement are within their supply chains. The findings from this study shows that with an efficient IT system a retailer can observe sales and consumer behavior more efficiently and accurately and thus plan its sourcing and customer promotions more effectively. so that their customer service levels can be stabilized and even increased while overall costs to the business are minimized. Retailers need to understand that technology is not a sunk cost but rather an investment to reduce heavy longterm costs. Forecasting. department. It is an investment to maintain competitive advantage for long-term growth. or supplier. Point of sale systems use computers or specialized terminals that are combined with cash registers. or they may be stand-alone machines that store the daily transactions until they can be delivered or transmitted to the main computer for processing. This result also lead to the conclusion that use of new technologies in retailing helps to increase customer loyalty and customer satisfaction. and Replenishment (CPFR). An IT system is also beneficial for various retailing related operations. SmartOps inventory optimization algorithms manage uncertainties in the data and offer visibility into the drivers of inventory at the item-location-time period level of detail. or annual basis) of each inventory item. 3. tracking supplier purchases. reorders. optical scanners and magnetic stripe readers for accurately and instantly capturing the transaction. References . Just-In-Time (JIT). ECR-based network systems. Point of sale (POS) systems is electronic systems that provide businesses with the capability to retain and analyze a wide variety of inventory and transaction data on a continuous basis. and controller-based systems. to Collaborative Planning. Basic point of sale systems currently in use includes standalone electronic cash registers.

DSSs include knowledge-based systems. A decision support system (DSS) is a computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. A DSS differs from a traditional information system (IS) or management information system (MIS) in that it . the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. projected revenue figures based on product sales assumptions. search Example of a Decision Support System for John Day Reservoir. Typical information that a decision support application might gather and present are: y y y y inventories of information assets (including legacy and relational data sources. personal knowledge. comparative sales figures between one period and the next. operations. which may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance. or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions. data warehouses. The decision support system option educates the student in the design. A decision support system (DSS) is a computer system that typically encompasses mathematical models as well as informational databases and a user interface in order to provide recommended decisions to manager-users. implementation and use of computerized systems that support business managers in the decision-making process. and data marts). cubes. documents. A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from a combination of raw data. and planning levels of an organization and help to make decisions.Decision support system From Wikipedia. DSSs serve the management.

management and JAVA. but it also provides answers to user queries. decision support system development and implementation. systems developer. which are still offered by companies such as Intermec and Motorola. It can run on portable wireless mobile devices running Windows Mobile 5 and 6. database management. however. Specific computing language skills include C++. network administrator.e. It can also be used on the warehouse floor to reconcile the physical inventory against what is recorded in the database. information manager. programming consultant. With the software. security. databases or reports. The job market for graduates of the DSS option is excellent. visual interface design. programmer analyst. project analyst. and information management consultant. and simulation as well as various mathematical modeling techniques. numerous other types of companies and organizations hire DSS graduates to work in various IT-related jobs. PricewaterhouseCoopers. artificial intelligence. The software does not run on the more recently released Windows Phone 7. among many others. as does an IS or MIS. Course topics include information systems. client/server systems. among many others. DSS graduates typically obtain jobs in the information technology field. but Oracle is working on a version for that operating system as well. Deloitte & Touche.. applications developer. It requires a copy of the PeopleSoft Inventory and Fulfillment Management application to operate. has been folded into Oracle's PeopleSoft Enterprise Supply Chain Management suite. have a potential release date for that version. decisions. The app. However. internet systems development. users can check the inventory for the availability of items without having to walk to the actual storage location. . Application of it in inventory Oracle has introduced a Windows-based mobile client that will allow workers to access its supply chain management software directly from the retail floor or warehouse. technical consultant. Visual Basic (VB. The app is aimed mainly at industrial devices. through its modeling component. The company does not. Students in the DSS option take a variety of specialized courses in the information technology field that enhances their ability to develop computer decision support systems. systems analyst. called PeopleSoft Mobile Inventory Management. It will also work on a desktop version of Windows. which are still primarily using versions of Windows Mobile. i.y y y not only provides the user with information. In essence a DSS is a computer system that helps managers make decisions. Over 100 companies and government organizations annually interview BIT seniors. CGI. an Oracle spokesperson confirmed. Booz Allen Hamilton. The largest single type of employer of DSS option graduates is typically consulting firms such as Accenture. Job titles include consultant. networks and telecommunications. KPMG. database developer. the precursor to Windows Phone 7. software developer.

the software can scan barcodes and reconcile them directly with the back-end inventory systems. and planning levels of an organization and help to make decisions. User log-ins are authenticated directly against the back-end PeopleSoft system. middleware that manages the information exchange between the handheld clients and back-end Oracle systems. the free encyclopedia Example of a Decision Support System for John Day Reservoir. The software runs in the Windows Mobile browser and communicates with the Java-based application logic located on an application server. DSSs serve the management. though the software can be used across all industries with physical inventory. The user interface has the same look and feel across multiple devices. The client was developed for health care customers as a way to get better control over inventory and receipt of medical supplies. . operations. potentially reducing the errors that may occur when inventory numbers are entered by hand. the company claims. This is the first mobile Oracle application that uses the company's Application Development Framework (ADF) Mobile.With the appropriate hardware attached. Decision support system From Wikipedia. A decision support system (DSS) is a computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. which may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance.

executive information systems (EIS). data warehousing and on-line analytical processing (OLAP) began broadening the realm of DSS. cubes.[3][4] Beginning in about 1990. and end 1980s DSS faced a new challenge towards the design of intelligent workstations. In the 1980s DSS should provide systems "using suitable and available technology to improve effectiveness of managerial and professional activities". data warehouses. group decision support systems (GDSS). Examples of this can be seen in the intense amount of discussion of DSS in the education environment. As the turn of the millennium approached.[2] In 1987 Texas Instruments completed development of the Gate Assignment Display System (GADS) for United Airlines. It is considered that the concept of DSS became an area of research of its own in the middle of the 1970s. personal knowledge. or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions.DSSs include knowledge-based systems.[1] the concept of decision support has evolved from two main areas of research: The theoretical studies of organizational decision making done at the Carnegie Institute of Technology during the late 1950s and early 1960s. beginning with O'Hare International Airport in Chicago and Stapleton Airport in Denver Colorado. new Web-based analytical applications were introduced. Late 1970s the DSS movement started focusing on "interactive computer-based systems which help decision-makers utilize data bases and models to solve ill-structured problems". In the 1970s DSS was described as "a computer based system to aid decision making". The advent of better and better reporting technologies has seen DSS start to emerge as a critical component of management design. In the middle and late 1980s. . mainly carried out at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1960s. and organizational decision support systems (ODSS) evolved from the single user and model-oriented DSS. This decision support system is credited with significantly reducing travel delays by aiding the management of ground operations at various airports. before gaining in intensity during the 1980s. History According to Keen (1978). and data marts). documents. According to Sol (1987)[2] the definition and scope of DSS has been migrating over the years. projected revenue figures based on product sales assumptions. Typical information that a decision support application might gather and present are: y y y inventories of information assets (including legacy and relational data sources. and the technical work on interactive computer systems. A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from a combination of raw data. comparative sales figures between one period and the next.

certain researchers. completes. data-driven DSS.[6] y y y y y A communication-driven DSS supports more than one person working on a shared task. The system again improves. although hypertext researchers have generally been concerned with information overload. or in similar structures. retrieves. documentdriven DSS. active. examples include integrated tools like Microsoft's NetMeeting or Groove[7] A data-driven DSS or data-oriented DSS emphasizes access to and manipulation of a time series of internal company data and. before sending them back to the system for validation. there is no universally-accepted taxonomy of DSS either. The whole process then starts again. external data. single-user DSS is a small system that runs on an individual manager's PC. knowledge-driven DSS. they are not necessarily data-intensive. Power[9] differentiates enterprise-wide DSS and desktop DSS. Model-driven DSS use data and parameters provided by users to assist decision makers in analyzing a situation. or refine the decision suggestions provided by the system. and model-driven DSS. and refines the suggestions of the decision maker and sends them back to him for validation. A knowledge-driven DSS provides specialized problem-solving expertise stored as facts. Using the mode of assistance as the criterion. and manipulates unstructured information in a variety of electronic formats. Power differentiates communication-driven DSS. Different authors propose different classifications. Using the relationship with the user as the criterion. financial. A desktop. but that cannot bring out explicit decision suggestions or solutions. An active DSS can bring out such decision suggestions or solutions. rules. or simulation model. and cooperative DSS. A document-driven DSS manages. Both the University of Vermont PROMIS system (for medical decision making) and the Carnegie Mellon ZOG/KMS system (for military and business decision making) were decision support systems which also were major breakthroughs in user interface research. procedures. have been focused on decision makers in particular. Furthermore. Another taxonomy for DSS has been created by Daniel Power.[6] A model-driven DSS emphasizes access to and manipulation of a statistical. notably Douglas Engelbart.DSS also have a weak connection to the user interface paradigm of hypertext. [edit] Components .[8] Using scope as the criterion. Haettenschwiler[5] differentiates passive. A cooperative DSS allows the decision maker (or its advisor) to modify. complete. until a consolidated solution is generated. sometimes. A passive DSS is a system that aids the process of decision making. Dicodess is an example of an open source model-driven DSS generator. optimization. [edit] Taxonomies As with the definition. An enterprise-wide DSS is linked to large data warehouses and serves many managers in the company.

This is the part of the application that allows the decision maker to make decisions in a particular problem area. The actual application that will be used by the user. Such a framework includes people. 2. Three fundamental components of a DSS architecture are:[5][6][10][11][12] 1. The user can act upon that particular problem.[10] DSS technology levels (of hardware and software) may include: 1.e. the user interface. This level makes use of case tools or systems such as Crystal. Once the system is designed. The users themselves are also important components of the architecture. and 3. AIMMS. the model (i. . and the development approach. the database (or knowledge base). it will need to be tested and revised for the desired outcome. DSS generators including special languages. and iThink. technology. the decision context and user criteria). 3. Generator contains Hardware/software environment that allows people to easily develop specific DSS applications.. Tools include lower level hardware/software. function libraries and linking modules An iterative developmental approach allows for the DSS to be changed and redesigned at various intervals.Design of a Drought Mitigation Decision Support System. 2.[5][12] [edit] Development Frameworks DSS systems are not entirely different from other systems and require a structured approach.

numbers. 4. but may be a mix of two or more architectures. Other examples include a bank loan officer verifying the credit of a loan applicant or an engineering firm that has bids on several projects and wants to know if they can be competitive with their costs. Group Support. principles.[edit] Classification There are several ways to classify DSS applications. Database-oriented DSS. and Organizational Support. A compound DSS is the most popular classification for a DSS. DSS is extensively used in business and management. Not every DSS fits neatly into one category. Rule-oriented DSS. DSS components may be classified as: 1. Spreadsheet-oriented DSS. Inputs: Factors. A growing area of DSS application. identification of negative trends. and better allocation of business resources.[15][16] .[13] The support given by DSS can be separated into three distinct. 2. 3. the DSSAT4 package. and Compound DSS. marketing for sustainable development. there are theoretical possibilities of building such systems in any knowledge domain. One example is the clinical decision support system for medical diagnosis. and techniques is in agricultural production. and characteristics to analyze User Knowledge and Expertise: Inputs requiring manual analysis by the user Outputs: Transformed data from which DSS "decisions" are generated Decisions: Results generated by the DSS based on user criteria intelligence needed] DSSs which perform selected cognitive decision-making functions and are based on artificial or intelligent agents technologies are called Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS). concepts. [edit] Applications As mentioned above. Executive dashboard and other business performance software allow faster decision making. interrelated categories[14]: Personal Support. For example. and applies engineering principles such as Design and Quality assurance to an explicit representation of the elements that make up a decision. Holsapple and Whinston[13] classify DSS into the following six frameworks: Text-oriented DSS.[citation The nascent field of Decision engineering treats the decision itself as an engineered object. Solver-oriented DSS. It is a hybrid system that includes two or more of the five basic structures described by Holsapple and Whinston.

which tests its equipment on a regular basis using a decision support system. has allowed rapid assessment of several agricultural production systems around the world to facilitate decisionmaking at the farm and policy levels. Improves personal efficiency Speed up the process of decision making Increases organizational control Encourages exploration and discovery on the part of the decision maker Speeds up problem solving in an organization Facilitates interpersonal communication Promotes learning or training Generates new evidence in support of a decision Creates a competitive advantage over competition Reveals new approaches to thinking about the problem space Helps automate managerial processes . 2. [edit] Benefits 1. from log transportation. however. There are. 10. 8. which can result in hundreds of derailments per year. Under a DSS. 11. A problem faced by any railroad is worn-out or defective rails. CN managed to decrease the incidence of derailments at the same time other companies were experiencing an increase. All aspects of Forest management. 6. 9. 5. A comprehensive list and discussion of all available systems in forest management is being compiled under the COST action Forsys A specific example concerns the Canadian National Railway system. 3. harvest scheduling to sustainability and ecosystem protection have been addressed by modern DSSs. many constraints to the successful adoption on DSS in agriculture. 7.developed through financial support of USAID during the 80's and 90's. 4.[17] DSS are also prevalent in forest management where the long planning time frame demands specific requirements.

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