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REVIEW OF PARAFFIN CONTROL AND REMOVAL IN OIL WELLS USING SOUTHWESTERN PETROLEUM SHORT COURSE SEARCHABLE DATABASE
by

NOMAN SHAHREYAR, B.S.Ch.E. A THESIS IN PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Texas Tech University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Approved

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December, 2000

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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I am grateful to the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas Tech

^ University for providing me with competitive departmental graduate scholarship and giving me the opportunity to reach this stage in my education and development as an aspiring engineer. I am also thankful to the Southwestern Petroleum Short Course (SWPSC) Association and Watford Professors for financially supporting me as a research assistant throughout my education at Texas Tech University. To my thesis advisor, Dr. Lloyd Heinze, I would like to express my gratitude for all his valuable guidance. His assistance on the problems I faced to complete the thesis project was extremely helpful. In addition, I am thankful to Dr. Scott Frailey and Dr. George Asquith for agreeing to be on my thesis committee and patiently answering all my questions. Their suggestions were very helpful as I worked through the revisions of my thesis. I would also like to express my thanks to Dr. James Lea for providing me with the technical literature on the paraffin treatment methods. I am also grateful to Dr. Paulus Adisoemarta for his assistance and guidance in developing the SWPSC searchable database. I am thankful to Dr. Herald Winkler for volunteering the out-of-stock SWPSC conference proceedings from his personal collection, which were helpful to me as I needed them to make a complete set of the SWPSC volume to develop the SWPSC searchable database. I would also like to acknowledge Dr. Akanni Lawal's assistance in my efforts to complete my duties as a graduate student advisor and in my attempts to

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develop my technical writing skills. I am thankful to Ronda Brewer, Joan Blackmon. Jennifer Weitman, Joseph Mclnemey, Margaret Ceja, and my friends at the Texas Tech University for their co-operation. Finally, I am grateful to my Dad, Masood Shahreyar, my Mom, Races Fatima, and my brother, Rehan Shahreyar for encouraging me to attend Texas Tech University for my graduate education.

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1 Mechanical Methods 2.2.1.2.1 Causes of Paraffin Deposition 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1.3 Chemical Methods 2.1 Paraffin or Alkane Series 2. INTRODUCTION 1.1.3 Objectives 2.2.2 Thermal Methods 2.1 Chemistry of Petroleum Hydrocarbons 2.ty TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER 1.1 Background Information 1.2 Cycloparaffin or Napthene Series 2.2 Scope of Work 1.3 Aromatic or Benzene Series 2.2.2.2.2 Methods of Paraffin Prevention and Removal 2.2 Basics of Paraffin Deposits 2.4 Society of Petroleum Engineers ii vi vii viii 1 1 3 4 6 6 8 10 10 13 19 21 22 23 23 28 30 IV .3 Adobe Systems Incorporated 2.2.2.

1 Mechanical Treatment Methods 4.2.0 (Education Version) 3.2 Thermal Treatment Methods 4.4 Other Treatment Methods 5.' ^ 3.4 Other Treatment Methods 6. REVIEW OF SPE PAPERS ON PARAFFIN CONTROL AND REMOVAL METHODS 5.2 Review and Summary of Paraffin Treatment Methods 4.1 Installation of Computer Software 3.3 Chemical Treatment Methods 4.3 Chemical Treatment Methods 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES 34 36 37 38 39 45 50 53 60 60 63 74 75 80 84 95 95 107 108 111 115 117 .1.5 Customization of Adobe Acrobat 4.2.1 Test of the SWPSC Searchable Database 4.1 Installation of Acrobat Capture 2.2.2.0 Program 4.1.2 Installation of Adobe Acrobat Reader 4.0 3.1 Review and Summary of Paraffin Treatment Methods 5. EXAMPLE APPLICATION OF THE SWPSC DATABASE 4.4 Indexing of enhanced SWPSC PDF Files 3.2 Thermal Treatment Methods 5.3 Conditioning of SWPSC PDF Files 3. METHODOLGY 3.2 Scanning and Conversion of SWPSC Conference Proceedings 3.

a summary of thermal. the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) image library is used to retrieve technical papers on paraffin treatment methods from the SPE collection of technical papers. developed in this work. and field-proven techniques to efficiently and economically solve various field problems. chemical. The SWPSC database. The objective of the SWPSC is to disseminate technical knowledge about existing oil field problems. The paper retrieval efficiency of both of these technical paper databases is compared and analyzed for retrieving papers related to paraffin control and removal methods. VI . As of date. comprising of 1641 conference proceedings. In addition. After reviewing 19 out of 310 SPE technical papers. forty-six volumes of the SWPSC conference proceedings have been published over the past 46 years. An overview of mechanical thermal. on-going research projects. innovations/improvements in different areas of petroleum engineering. An initiative is undertaken to archive the SWPSC conference proceedings in the electronic format. is a non-profit educational organization. is tested for its efficiency to retrieve the technical papers on paraffin control and removal methods that have been presented over the past 46 years of the SWPSC annual conferences.</ ABSTRACT The SWPSC Association. and chemical methods for paraffin control is outlined. Inc. and other published methods for paraffin treatment is provided after reviewing the 24 out of 36 retrieved SWSPC papers. A detailed methodology is outlined to archive the SWPSC conference proceedings from paper to the electronic format and to develop the SWPSC searchable database with the use of previously available computer software.

^ LIST OF TABLES 4.1 A detailed summary of search results performed on the SWPSC searchable database with a keyword "Paraffin" A list of authors of the SWPSC technical papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods during the SWPSC annual conference (1954-1999) A detailed summary of search results performed on the SPE image library with a keyword "Paraffin" A list of authors of the SPE technical papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods.1 101 5.2 72 5.2 106 vn . Presented during the SPE conference (1951-1997) 67 4.

8 2.0 program's preferences window Adobe Capture 2.0 program's Output Folder Setup window Adobe Capture 2.3 2.0 program's main window Adobe Capture 2.1 3..35 Adobe Capture 2.7 3.4 14 16 2.4 3..0nprogram's Input Folder Setup w indow Adobe Capture 2.1 2.9 3.5 3.2 3.0 program's Open window Adobe Acrobat program's General Info window showing document details of some enhanced SWPSC PDF document Adobe Catalog 4.8 3.0 program's scan startup window Adobe Acrobat 4.6 3.LIST OF HGURES 2.2 Stmctural formulas of some of the members of Paraffin or Alkane Series Stmctural formulas of some of the members of Cycloparaffin or Napthene Series Stmctural formulas of some of the members of Aromatic or Benzene Senes A 1995 survey of the different states in the United States with paraffin related problems A molecular stmcture for Asphaltene Prediction of the amount of Asphaltene deposition from cmde oil versus the volume of six different n-paraffin solvents 9 11 12 2.3 3.0 program's New Index Definition window 41 42 43 44 46 48 49 51 vni .5 2.9 An illustration showing the electric downhole heater An illustration showing hot oil injection Screen shot of the SPE image library's paper search engine An illustration of steps involved in developing the SWPSC searchable database.7 2.6 18 24 25 32 2.

6 69 4.14 Adobe Acrobat program's built-in search engine window 4.10 Adobe Catalog program's Options window 3." Year-to-year (1954-1969) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers.5 66 4.4 65 4.11 Adobe Catalog 4." Year-to-year (1986-1999) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers versus SWPSC papers retrieved by keyword search "Paraffin. post-squeeze.7 70 4.^ 3. and after hot oiling is resumed 82 IX ." and papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods Year-to-year (1986-1999) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers. papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin." and papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods Hollow Sucker Rod String 52 54 55 57 58 61 62 4.0 program's search preferences window 3.1 Total Number of papers published each year during the SWPSC Conferences from 1954-1977 Total Number of papers published each year during the SWPSC Conferences from 1978-1999 Year-to-year (1954-1969) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers versus SWPSC papers retrieved by keyword search "Paraffin. papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin.10 Improvements in Oil Production during pre-squeeze.2 4.13 Adobe Acrobat program's Add Index window 3.0 program's main window 3." Year-to-year (1970-1985) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers versus SWPSC papers retrieved by keyword search "Paraffin.8 71 76 4." and papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods Year-to-year (1970-1985) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers.3 64 4.9 4. papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin.12 Adobe Acrobat 4.

papers retrieved by keyword '"Paraffin.3 98 5.6 Year-to-year (1951-1966) comparison of the total SPE technical papers. papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin.14 Improvement in well production with the installation of magnetic fluid conditioner 5.4 Year-to-year (1967-1981) comparison of the total SPE technical papers and SPE papers retrieved by keyword search "Paraffin*" 5.4.1 Total Number of papers published each year during the SPE Conferences from 1951-1975 Total Number of papers published each year during the SPE Conferences from 1976-1997 Year-to-year (1951-1966) comparison of the total SPE technical papers and SPE papers retrieved by keyword search "Paraffm" 88 91 92 94 96 5." and papers on Paraffin treatment methods 5.12 Number of remedial hot oil treatments required on the wells in Central Texas and Canada with biological treatment program 4.9 X .2 97 5.11 Schematic diagram of Linear Kinetic Cell 4." and papers on Paraffin treatment methods Year-to-year (1982-1997) comparison of the total SPE technical papers.5 Year-to-year (1982-1997) comparison of the total SPE technical papers and SPE papers retrieved by keyword search "Paraffin"' 5. papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin.8 105 110 5.7 Year-to-year (1967-1981) comparison of the total SPE technical papers."" and papers on Paraffin treatment methods Crude monthly rate producfion plot from well AG-50 against time 99 100 103 104 5.13 Number of remedial hot oil treatments required on the wells in Central Texas and Canada with biological treatment program 4.

help individuals to gain knowledge from the past experiences and keep them updated w ith the up-coming technology. and seminars that are hosted by different professional/educational organizations. (SWPSC) aims to disseminate valuable knowledge and to update educators. without any doubt. and industry professionals by hosting an annual conference in Lubbock. conferences. 1. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). researchers. These publications can be published as a result of annual meetings. and Southwestern Petroleum Short Course (SWPSC). technical workshops. Inc. Publications/journals. More can be learned about on-going research projects in the desired area of interest by referring to the publications. American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AICHE).1 Background Information The SWPSC Association. Texas. The Southwestern Petroleum Short Course Association. Inc. The SWPSC headquarters is in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas Tech . Publications also help individual to develop and master their professional skills. Some of the examples of such professional/educational organizations are: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE). is a non-profit educational organization. almost every individual in the industry refers to publications/journals pertaining to their concerned field.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Today.

The objective of the SWPSC is to disseminate technical knowledge about existing oil field problems. and drilling operations. researchers. Reservoir operations and enhanced oil recovery. on-going research projects. resulting from the SWPSC conference. Papers presented during the SWPSC conference are categorized into the following areas: • • • • • • • Drilling and well completions. and oil field personnel. The Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas Tech University annually hosts the SV^SC conference in Lubbock. 9 . gas lifting. well stimulation. are presented by the scholars.University. innovations/improvements in different areas of petroleum engineering. sucker rod pumping. enhanced oil recovery. Texas. Artificial lift. and field-proven techniques to efficiently and economically solve various field problems. production optimization. Texas. Production Handling. These categories contain subject areas such as corrosion and paraffin control. General Interest. The SWPSC technical papers. Stimulation and workovers. Environmental control. The next subsection illustrates the work required to organize the proceeding papers resulting from the SWPSC conference. Lubbock.

It can be a time consuming and aggravating process to find some desired conference paper from a set of SWPSC proceeding volumes that are not present at one place. Oil and gas operators have presented a majority of the conference papers from the Permian Basin region.1 nrrr' •' 1. As the time passes by. the SWPSC headquarters does not have a complete set of the 46 SWPSC volumes. Unfortunately. The SWPSC conference proceedings are one of the assets for the Petroleum Industry. with an average of 325 pages. The forty-six volumes of the SWPSC comprise of 1641 conference proceedings. . is added to the SWPSC storage closet every year. one volume of the SWPSC. these conference proceedings are a good knowledge base for petroleum engineering professionals. the SWPSC conference has also been successful in attracting presenters from all over the United States and different parts of the world. to gain knowledge and develop technical sidlls. and individuals all over the world. forty-six volumes of the SWPSC conference proceedings have been published over the past 46 years. In addition. It is required to find a way to save and archive this historical set of knowledge base on the past experiences. Therefore. the number of published proceedings will grow and storage of these catalogs might become a problematic issue.2 Scope of Work As of 2000. especially from the Permian Basin region. The Department of Petroleum Engineering is the place from where these published proceedings of the SWPSC are distributed to various libraries. oil companies. In addition.

to test the effectiveness of the SWPSC electronic database by retrieving the SWPSC conference papers on paraffin control and removal methods. This will save considerable paper-look-up time for finding any available particular information by eliminating the manual search process in the SWPSC paper volumes. The SWPSC proceeding volumes.An initiative is undertaken to archive the SWPSC conference proceedings in an electronic format that will preserve the conference papers presented o\'er the past 46 \cars. the SWPSC proceeding volumes will be facilitated with the efficient paper searching capabilities. published over the past 46 years. to summarize and categorize the knowledge gained after reviewing the SPE technical papers on paraffin treatment methods. 1. will be easily accessible and elimmate the storage limitation issue. in the electronic format. In addition. The next section outlines the objectives of this work. to retrieve and review the technical papers on paraffin control and removal methods using Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) papers database. . to summarize and categorize all the treatment methods for paraffin control and removal from the SWPSC electronic database.3 Objectives The objectives of this thesis are as follows: to develop an electronic database of the SWPSC technical papers using commercially available software.

In chapter five all of the SPE technical papers are summarized and categorized on the paraffin control and removal methods. At the end conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made in the sixth chapter. The second chapter of this thesis provides a basic knowledge on the chemistry of petroleum hydrocarbons. provided by the retrieved papers from both of the electronic paper databases (SWPSC and SPE) in the area of paraffin control and removal methods. The objectives of this thesis are accomplished in the next five chapters.wmm^m^ • to analyze and compare the paper retrieval effectiveness and depth of the technical information. . the SWPSC technical papers are retrieved on the paraffin control and removal methods tests its search efficiency. A brief overview of the computer software required for developing SWPSC searchable database. all the paraffin treatment methods are summarized and categorized in the fourth chapter. and other treatment categories of paraffin prevention and removal. composition of paraffin deposits. and the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) is also outlined in the second chapter. After the SWPSC is developed. causes of paraffin deposition. The third chapter has a detailed methodology to develop SWPSC searchable database. After reviewing these retrieved papers. The SPE database is used to retrieve the set of technical papers.

nitrogen."' Cmde oil also contains small amount of compounds containing sulphur. A brief overview of the computer software is also given here to introduce the reader to the software that will be used to develop the SWPSC electronic database in this work. 2. causes of paraffin deposition. producing formation face. At the end of the chapter. A number of hydrocarbon series . This chapter presents a basic knowledge on the chemistry of petroleum hydrocarbons.1 Chemistry of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Petroleum crude consists mainly of a mixture of carbon and hydrogen compounds that are called "Hydrocarbon Compounds. thermal. and oxygen. Various types of mechanical. an overview on the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) organization and the SPE image library is presented. composition of paraffin.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Paraffin control and removal has always been considered a severe problem in the oil fields since the beginnmg of the oil industry. and chemical based methods have been available to the oil producers to economically combat the formation and removal of paraffin deposits. and flow-lines. Paraffin deposition can lead to loss in oil production and transportation problems by accumulating in the tubing. and general methods that are available to control and remove paraffin deposition. valves.

the reactivity of unsaturated hydrocarbons increases with the increasing molecular weight of the compound. the stability of chemical stmcturing or bonding of the carbon and hydrogen citoms in the dilferent series of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds is important factor 7 . General formulas for most of the commonly found hydrocarbon series in the cmde oil are given below: • • • Paraffin or Alkane Series (CnH2n+2). " The saturated hydrocarbons have only single bonds in the compounds.have been identified in cmde petroleum. Petroleum hydrocarbons that belong to the saturated hydrocarbon group are stable compounds. where n represents the number of each element in the hydrocarbon compound. FurtheiTnore. In addition. unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double bonds in the hydrocarbon compound. This is because of the absence of double bonds in the compound. In contrast. For this reason. they are the least chemically reactive among the petroleum hydrocarbon series. Petroleum hydrocarbons can be further categorized into saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Aromatic or Benzene Series (CnH2n-6). An unsaturated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon compound in which all the carbon atoms are attached to the hydrogen atoms. the hydrocarbons that are classified as the unsaturated hydrocarbons are unstable compounds due to the presence of double bond in the hydrocarbon compound. Cycloparaffin or Napthene Series (CnH2n). A saturated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon compound in which all the carbon atoms are attached to the hydrogen atoms rather than combining with themselves with one 1 '^ or more double bonds. In addition. Unsaturated hydrocarbons are reactive to chemicals and heat.

the possible number of isomers also increases rapidly. Figure 2.because it decides the placement of the first or simplest member in each series of the petroleum hydrocarbon series. 8 . Hydrocarbon compounds that have the same molecular formula but various stmctural arrangements are called isomers. propane.1 shows the stmctural formula of some of the members that belong to paraffin series. is the simplest hydrocarbon that belongs to the paraffin series."^' ^ For example. and hexane. As the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon compounds increases. ethane. each carbon atom is attached to one or a maximum of two other carbon atoms. In straight chain arrangement. CH4.'^ Methane.1. it can be seen that there are two possible aiTangements of carbon and hydrogen atoms in butane compound. Starting from butane (Figure 2. Paraffin hydrocarbons are the least reactive in nature among the different series of hydrocarbons. but in branched chain arrangement at least one of the carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon compound is attached to three other carbon atoms.1 Paraffin or Alkane Series Hydrocarbon compounds that belong to the paraffin or alkane series can be derived from a general molecular formula: CnH2n+2-' Alkanes are also called saturated hydrocarbons with a name of each member ending with "-ane" such as: methane. the carbon atoms of butane can be arranged either in a straight chain or in a branched chain and each carbon atom is linked as a single bond to other carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon compound.1). 2.

H I H H I I H H \ T H V H H H ft H H H J .1."^ . I H-C-C-C-H i \ J H H H Propiru. Structural formulas of some of the members of Paraffin or Alkane Series.. J [ I I H'~G~C—v~C"~'H I I I j H H H H H H 1 I H-'C-C-C-H j I i H H H )30blAiillv H-C-H H H H H H H"C'H::"'C--C-C-H H H-C-H H H H-C—C N H I ^ I I I I I I I I H H H H H Figure 2.

The existence of the cyclopropane and cyclobutane hydrocarbons is not possible because of the instability of chemical structuring or bonding in each of these members of cycloparaffin. Napthenes are saturated closed chain hydrocarbon compounds in which each carbon atom is attached to two other carbon atoms. toluene.2 shows the stmctural formulas of some of the members of the cycloparaffin hydrocarbon series.2 Cycloparaffin or Napthene Series Cycloparaffins or napthenes can be represented by the same chemical formula as olefins.'^ 2.3 illustrates some of the members that belong to the aromatic hydrocarbon series. A benzene ring contains six carbon atoms that are linked with a double bond to one of their neighbor carbon atoms. and naphthalene. Figure 2. Figure 2. The simplest napthene compound contains five carbon atoms attached with a single bond to each other. i. Aromatic hydrocarbons can contain single or multiple benzene rings in their stmctural formula.e.1. " ^ 10 .2.1. Benzene is the simplest hydrocarbon compound from the aromatic hydrocarbons series. CnH2n.3 Aromatic or Benzene Series The aromatic or benzene series hydrocarbons are closed chain hydrocarbon compound and can be derived from the general molecular formula CnH2n-6-'^ The chemical name of every aromatic hydrocarbon ends with "-ene" such as: benzene. xylene.

"^ 11 .iiii'c- Ha C C—H Mailsylcyclopefttime DimethylcyclopenUict.i. H^C K.K.T^ Figure 2. dobcxaa Mietliyicycloih^xwite ^C Hz 1. / ' -GH3 CKg HjC. HgC •c C-.2. Stmctural formulas of some of the members of Cycloparaffin or Napthene Series. HgC H. 2 I>iir.v'thyL«^vc-lobfK. «2 -C H2C ( "CH. S^ CyclQ}y.^t'.

H HC HC* / = \ ."^ 12 . / ' ^ CH J H .^ ^ X -CH. i CHj Meta-K'^luti.3. Stmctural formulas of some of the members of Aromatic or Benzene Series.^' CH HC 'C-C><. HC.CH " N MsiJbihalcno CH Figure 2.H . CH HC x^" H 1 C-CgHj CH C H H CH3 r H/ C ^ . ^ C-CHj HC ^CH HC--\H CH •r(JTtSx'"-xy"i-<:ric' 'N.

solid substance that naturally occurs in cmde oil. Such phenomenon of paraffin collection on the precipitated 13 . pore spaces of producing formation.flow-lines.2.2 Basics of Paraffin Deposits Paraffin is a w axy. These nucleation agents either adhere to the tubing w all and flow-lines or remain in the cmde oil in the form of dispersed paraffin w ax crystals. Paraffin wax tends to precipitate out from the cmde oil in the oil production operations due to reduction in temperature and pressure in the well-bore and the transportation lines. Paraffin deposits can range from pure white paraffin u ax to the deposits that totall> consist of asphaltenes. additional high-molecular-weight paraffin wax molecules precipitate out of the cmde oil and start collecting and forming a layer on the previously precipitated paraffin molecules. Paraffin wax molecules are classified as a group of straight or branched chain alkanes that can range from CigHsg to CsgHvg with very little branching. adhered to the tubing walls. "Precipitation" is the process in w hich the low -molecular-w eight paraffin w ax molecules become insoluble in the cmde oil at a specific temperature and pressure and come out from the cmde oil in the form of paraffin wax crystals. As the temperature and pressure decreases. wellbore perforations. and the surface equipment. flow-lines. Paraffin can cause producfion and transportation problems by accumulafion in the well tubing. Figure 2. and present in the crude oil. depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the cmde oil.^ The low-molecular-weight molecules of paraffin wax precipitate out of the cmde oil and act as nucleation agents for the high-molecular-weight paraffin molecules.4 shows a 1995 survey of \arious oil producing states in the United States that had paraffin build-up problems"^' (cited by Fan and Llava"^^).

Figure 2.4. ' 14 . A 1995 survey of the different states in the United States with paraffin related problems.

^''^''^ A number of quick tests can differentiate paraffin wax from the asphaltenes. and silt. Asphaltene deposition is mainly caused by the chemical changes in the crude oil. pentane. and gasoline can strip away the outer part (resins) of the asphaltene particles. hexane.000 to about 140. similar in composition to asphaltenes. resins. paraffin deposits may possibly contain aromatic hydrocarbons. Paraffin is soluble in warm gasoline whereas asphaltenes are insoluble in warm gasoline.^' ^^ Resins are high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons.' The molecular weight of the paraffin compounds can range from 250 to about 550. asphaltenes. In addition. Asphaltene are present in the cmde oil in dispersed/floating condition.''' ^^ These organic compounds are insoluble in acids and bases.paraffin hydrocarbons is called "Deposition. Introduction of fluids such as CO2. sand." Paraffin wax is chemically non-reacti\e by nature and insoluble in the cmde oil at producing conditions. present in the cmde oil. Paraffin wax melts in the temperature range of 104-248 °F whereas asphaltenes do not melt 15 .5) that can possibly contain nitrogen. Resins surround the asphaltene particles and help to keep asphaltenes in the dispersed form in the cmde oil. water. Asphaltene deposition is not as much dependent on the change in temperature and pressure as compared to paraffin wax deposition. oil. Such phenomenon causes the asphaltenes to precipitate out of the crude oil.000. HCl. and different metals in the molecule. Asphaltenes are dark-colored condensed aromatic hydrocarbons (Figure 2.'^ Asphaltenes are relatively high molecular weight compounds with the molecular weight ranging from 1. sulphur. napthanes. oxygen.

Figure 2.5. A molecular structure for Asphaltene

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but it decomposes at temperature above 300 '^.•^-''^ Aromatic solvents such as benzene, toluene, xylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon disulfide have the ability to dissolve asphaltenes and resins.^^ In addition, the asphaltenes and resins are insoluble in propane, butane, and refined petroleum products such as kerosene and diesel oil.'^^ Figure 2.6 illustrates a relationship between the amount of asphaltene deposifion by addition of paraffin solvents, ranging from C5H12 to C10H22, in the cmde oil.^^ According to Newberry,'^ "These deposits are very difficult to remove from a system because normal thermal methods of hot oil or water are totally ineffective. Removal is limited to tedious mechanical cutting operations or solvent soak techniques. The use of readily available cheaper solvents such as diesels, kerosene or condensates are also ineffective because their surface tension are too low for effective solution of the asphaltenes" (p. 4). Paraffin wax can be further categorized into macro-crystalline and microcrystalline paraffin waxes.^' Macro-crystalline wax is a mixture of straight chain saturated hydrocarbons with 20 to 50 carbon atoms. Macro-crystalline wax forms large needle-shape crystals during the deposition process. On the other hand, microcrystalline wax mainly consists of complex branched chain and cyclic compounds having 30 to 60 carbon atoms. Microcrystalline wax produces smaller crystals upon deposition as compared to macrocrystalline wax. Solubility of paraffin in cmde oil or pure petroleum solvents decreases with the increase in molecular weight of the paraffin molecule. " Paraffin waxes are soluble in solvents such as pentane and gasoline. These waxes are insoluble in aromatic soh ents such

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X

n-Co'

a.o

T

T

3O.0

10,0

50.0

VOLUME OF SOLVENT ADDED (CC.)

Figure 2.6. Prediction of the amount of asphaltene deposition from cmde oil versus the volume of six different n-paraffin solvents.^^

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after removing suspended material such as sand and silt. 2. these 19 .^ Cloud point is the temperature at which paraffin first begins to precipitate out of the cmde oil solution. contains:^^ • • • 40-60% paraffin wax.^' ^^ Reduction in either temperature or pressure or both contributes to the precipitation of paraffin from the cmde oil. 251). Generally. As the temperature decreases.^^' ^^ According to Singhal et al. The disturbance of equilibrium occurs due to reduction in temperature and/or pressure of the flowing stream" (p. Precipitation of paraffin can occur at any point from the bottom-hole of the wellbore to the storage tanks. 10% resins.as benzene and toluene. '^^ "When the equilibrium between the cmde oil and its paraffin molecules is disturbed. the composition of paraffin deposits. paraffin precipitation takes place. and asphaltenes..2.1 Causes of Paraffin Deposition Deposition of paraffin in the production and transportation equipment is mainly caused by the loss of solubility of wax in the cmde oil. Reduction in temperature and pressure causes loss of light hydrocarbons from the cmde oil solution that decreases the ability of the oil to hold the paraffin molecules in the cmde oil and causes precipitation of paraffin from the produced oil. "Cloud" point and pour point are the two common measurements of the paraffin characteristics. 30 % cmde oil.

During the deposition process. Paraffin accumulation is caused due to three deposition mechanisms:''^•'"'•"-^'' • • • Molecular diffusion.precipitated paraffin particles attract to each other and form an interiocking paraffinparticle-network. Molecular diffusion occurs when the temperature of the flowing fluid in the tubing and flow-lines falls below the cloud point temperature and paraffin molecules are transported towards the walls of tubing and flow-lines due to the concentration gradient. At one point. is caused by the expansion of gases. Such single crystals remain in the cmde oil solution in dispersed form and tend to agglomerate around a nucleus. heat loss to the casing and cement in the well-bore. paraffin precipitates out of the cmde oil as single crystals. either in the well-bore or the surface flow-line. In shear dispersion. each paraffin molecule interacts with the nearby paraffin molecules. heat loss to well-bore surrounding formation area. due to the rotary motion in theflowing fluid. The temperature at which the cmde oil does not pour is called the "Pour" point. 20 . in slower or faster moving streamlines. to form relafively larger paraffin particles. Brownian motion. Reduction in temperature. Shear dispersion. Such multiple collision leads to the dispersion of the paraffin particles in the flowing fluid. Precipitation of paraffin begins at the cloud point temperature and pressure of the dissolved paraffin content in the cmde oil. the crude oil become so thick that it does not pour. and soil). and heat loss to the surroundings of the transportation lines (air. namely asphaltenes.

With wax contents above 10% those cmde experience se\ ere deposition and flow problems necessitating constant treatment to ensure continued producfion" (p. thermally agitated oil molecules continually bombard small and sohd paraffin wax particles. Such phenomenon leads to a small random Brownian movement of the bombarded paraffin particles. these methods can be categorized into three main categories: ' "~ • • • Mechanical. ""If the wax content of the cmde oil is low to moderate (0-10%) these problems are periodic and handled on an as needed' basis. ^^ "'Molecular diffusion dominates at the higher temperatures and heat flux conditions.Molecular diffusion is driven by the concentration gradient whereas shear dispersion is dri\'en by the velocity gradient.2. 2. 26). According to Burger et al. Thermal. whereas shear dispersion is dominant mechanism at the lower temperatures and low heat fluxes" (p. Chemical.2 Methods of Paraffin Prevention and Removal Prevention of paraffin deposits can be achie\ed by keeping the paraffin wax dissoh ed in the produced oil or by minimizing the adhesion or aggregation process of w ax particles on the equipment surfaces. 21 .. Various methods are available to handle paraffin deposifion. According to Matlach and Newberry. In Brownian motion. 321). In general.

Injecfing soluble or insoluble plugs from one end of the flow-line and then applying fluid pressure behind the plugs to push them along the flow-lines accomplish removal of paraffin deposits.1 Mechanical Methods There are several mechanical methods to remove paraffin from the production tubing and flow-lines. soluble and insoluble plugs are the most commonly used mechanical tools for cleaning paraffin deposits. Rod scrapers. One of the advantages of soluble plugs is their tendenc\ to dissolve in the cmde oil after the paraffin treatment operation.2. the need to reco\ er these paraffin-cutfing plugs is eliminated. The wire-line units can be operated and controlled manually or automafically by some timing device.2.^ a wire-line scraper is another type of paraffin cutting tool that is widely used for paraffin deposit removal in the flowing or gas lift wells. According to Allen and Roberts.2. ^•'^•^'•^2 A rod scraper is a cutting device that is attached to the sucker rod string in the rod pump wells. flow-line scrapers. 11 . wire-line scrapers. Soluble plugs are solid. a scraper is attached to the wire-line tool. The scraped paraffin wax falls in the produced formation fluid in the tubing and carries up to the surface with the produced fluid. insoluble plugs are usually hard mbber or sharp-edged plasfic spheres. Rods scrapers cut the accumulated paraffin from the inside wall of the producfion tubing due to the reciprocafing acfion of the rods. On the other hand. short cylinders that are made of microcrystalline wax or naphthalene. In wire-line scraper. Therefore. Soluble and insoluble plugs are mainly used to remove paraffin deposits from the flow-line.

2. or flow-lines.2. 2. but this method is limited due to high treatment expenses and electrical power availability.2. However. As documented.^^ In the cmde transportafion lines.2 Thermal Methods Paraffin treatment using thermal methods involves adding external heat to the system by minimizing heat loss to the surroundings. heat loss from the produced formafion fluid can be minimized by proper insulafion of flow-lines or maintaining high pressure in the flow-lines to prevent light hydrocarbons from coming out of the produced formafion fluid.7) comes into the thermal treatment category.3 Chemical Methods Chemicals are used to control paraffin deposifion by dissolving the accumulated paraffin. casing.2.8)."^^ Use of steam has also been reported in some areas to melt paraffin or asphaltenes in the tubing. inhibiting the paraffin wax crystal growth. after application of thermal methods it is necessary to maintain the temperature of the crude oil above the cloud point temperature of the paraffin content in order to prevent the further deposition.2. accumulated on the tubing wall and the producing formation face (Figure 2. and inhibifing the adherence of paraffin 23 .^' ^^' ^^''^ Installation of down-hole electric heaters for heafing crude oil near the producing formafion (Figure 2. the circulation of hot oil or hot water in the well-bore is one of the most popular thermal methods for paraffin removal.^' ^' ^^' ^^'^^ Hot oil or hot water is injected down the casing and up the tubing to melt or increase the solubility of the paraffin deposits in the produced oil.

An illustration showing the electric down-hole heater 33 24 i:-^ .Paraffin Deposition Production Tubing ownhole Heater Figure 2.7.

8.Hot Oil Paraffin_^ Deposition Production Tubing Figure 2. An illustrafion showing hot oil injecfion 33 25 .

Dispersants neutralize the attractive forces between paraffin crystals itself and the attractive forces between the paraffin crystals and tubing walls. transportation lines. xylene. Solvents such as produced condensate. kerosene. However. Such phenomenon prevents the paraffin crystals from unifing and forming layers on the pipe surfaces. diesel oil. benzene. butane. pentane.^'^''^^'"^^ Paraffin treatment. Kerosene. using dispersants involves pumping the mixture of dispersant and water/chemical solvent into the annulus of the well-bore. diesel oil. toluene. Dispersants. and toluene are excellent solvents for asphaltenes. casing head gasoline. The solvent treatment technique involves penetrafion of the soKent into the paraffin deposits to re-dissolve them into the crude oil. Solvents used for dissolving exisfing paraffin deposits generally contain high aromafic content. 26 . The dispersant mixture is pumped out with the produced formafion fluid. and carbondisulfide are used for remedial treatment of the paraffin deposits. xylene. and low aromafic content condensates do not dissohe asphaltenes. Dispersants are chemical compounds that have the ability to keep paraffin particles in the dispersed form as they crystallize in the produced cmde oil. condensates with high aromafic contents. Detergents. Chemical treatment of producing wells w uh paraffin problems involves use of four categories of chemicals: '^''^' ^'' ^^' ^ • • • • Solvents. carbon tetrachloride. Wax crystal modifiers. and surface equipment.w ax crystals to the tubing wall and flow-lines.

. Newberry and Barker recommended using paraffin dispersants and detergents prior to well stimulafion such as acidizing or fracturing for paraffin deposit removal in the well-bore.^^ "Crystal modifier are usually polymeric materials which prevent paraffin deposifion by dismpfing nucleation. 19.31. and flow-lines.• . Detergents help in breaking up the paraffin deposits and preventing the dispersed paraffin particles to accumulate along the tubing or flow-lines. According to Holloway. • r ^'i'^^'• oucn wetting action neutralizes the cohesive forces among the crystals and attracfive force between paraffin crystals. producfion tubing. 3). formafion. According to Woo et al.41 c u . 27 ."^ "It is now recognized that the application of chemical surfactants or detergents is extremely paraffin removal. and that the use of chemical dispersants and crystal modifiers are effecfive in prevenfing its deposifion" (p. They may also adsorb on the paraffin crystal prevenfing agglomerafion or deposifion" (p.Detergents are surface-acfive compounds that have a tendency to water-wet the paraffin crystals. ' ' These crystal modifiers combine with the paraffin molecules and alter the paraffin crystal growth. cocrystallizafion or modifying the crystal. . Crystal modifiers are usually polymeric materials such as polyethylene or any branched chain polymers that inhibit or alter the wax crystal growth to prevent paraffin crystal growth.40.39.. In addifion. and the flow-lines in the presence of \ x / a t ^ r ^ ' 1 5 .• . 2). tubing.

paper documents can be scanned as a bitmap page images followed by conversion into PDF documents. Adobe Systems. According to Tredennick."^ Reams of paper documents can be converted into searchable portable document format (PDF) files with the use of Adobe's Acrobat Capture 2. and graphics as the original paper pages. Efficient search capability. The company's headquarter is based in San Jose.^^ "PDF supports keyword searches within the documents or across an entire library.'^ Such electronic PDF files have exactly the same page layout. In 28 .0. Califomia. was founded in 1982 and is one of the software companies in the United States. Previously. 1).3 Adobe Svstems Incorporated With the advancement in computer and informafion technology. Inc. browse the results. Inc. Compact storage. there are several advantages of using documents in the electronic format: • • • Fast and easy distribufion. Using Adobe Capture 2. is one of the computer software companies involved in the development of software tools to convert information from paper to the electronic format. the demand for available literature/informafion in the electronic document format is increasing everyday to cut down the consumpfion of paper material. We can locate trial materials in seconds. Adobe Systems. support staff spent days sifting through rooms full of papers to accomplish this" (p.0 software.2."^^ As compared to paper documents. text format. and pnnt what we need.

0 program. Acrobat Capture works with four built-in optical character recognition (OCR) s>stem. Acrobat Capture finally generates characters to store them into the created PDF file of that particular paper image document. the Catalog program saves the document details into the same index file by extracting them from the document informafion secfion of each of the PDF document. The document information secfion is initially empty after documents are scanned and processed by the Capture 2. PDF documents provide an opportunity to the user to manually edit the document details such as paper title. and document related keywords into the document informafion section of the PDF file.'^^ 29 . author's name.0 builds a full-text index file by copying the words from the collecfion of PDF documents and then storing them into the index file.0 is facilitated w ith the built-in paper search capabilities to find the search the contents of the PDF document(s). Adobe Acrobat 4. these PDF files are fully searchable for any particular word or a stnng of words inside the PDF document or a set of PDF documents. subject. While processing text informafion from the paper image file.0 (Education Version) can be purchased to edit the document details in the document informafion secfion of the PDF files.0 (Educafion Version) program. Based on the combined information from each of the OCR engines. provided that document details were manually edited into the PDF document or a set of documents by using Adobe Acrobat 4. In addition. Adobe Acrobat 4. each of the OCR systems agrees upon the validity of each word or letter by comparing with the words in the dicfionary and then returns the informafion to the Capture program.addifion. Acrobat Catalog 4.

Currenfiy. Presently. 2.^^ The primary objective of the SPE organizafion is to gather and serve professional engineers. Acrobat Reader + Search is a modified version of the Acrobat Reader. Acrobat Reader and Acrobat Reader -i. scientists.000 technical papers in the SPE library's electronic database that have been published during past years of SPE conferences.Search. SPE membership list has more than 50. ' There are more than 30. created by the Adobe Catalog 4. there are 145 SPE secfions in 54 countries.4 Society of Petroleum Engineers The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Inc.0 software. Both. are freely distributed software and can be obtained from the Adobe Systems website. The disadvantage of using Acrobat Reader is that it cannot search the contents that are present in the PDF document or a collecfion of PDF documents. based on user provided keyword or a string of keywords. 30 . developed by Adobe Systems.^^ These papers are available both on the SPE image library CD-ROM and on the SPE website.Adobe Acrobat Reader can be used by the users for \ iew ing the PDF document. is the largest individual petroleum membership organizafion based in Richardson. that can be used to search for any particular informafion from a collecfion of PDF documents.000 registered professionals from different oil and gas producing countries.^^ Acrobat Reader's search engines access an index file of the PDF document(s). and managers in the explorafion and producfion of oil and exchange the emerging technology to meet the worid's energy needs all over the worid. to match the text in the PDF files with the word or phrase provided by the user. Texas.

author. the first-page text documents do not contain figures. a set of image discs. title.9) can be mn from the master disc to perform searches on the first page content of all the SPE papers. saved as a paper's photographic image on the SPE image discs. and equafions. and keywords. developed by Columbus Digital Connecfions. the first page of each of the SPE papers submitted since 1951. Each displayed fitle is electronically linked with the corresponding paper's first page text document and the paper's full photographic image for viewing the abstract or full contents of the original document. Each of this first page text document is linked with the corresponding complete paper including figures and equations. A search can be performed on a collecfion of SPE papers by providing a parameter or a combinafion of parameters such as SPE paper number. Such searchable document informafion fields include: SPE paper number. Greek symbols. a list of SPE paper fides is displayed on the screen. the user given search parameter(s) are matched with contents of the document information fields of all the SPE papers. Based on the provided search parameter(s). author(s)." The SPE image library consists of two parts: • • a master disc. The SPE master disc contains. In structured searches. 31 . The SPE image library uses structured and unstructured searching strategies for finding a list of SPE papers. Wordkeeper retrieval software (Figure 2.The SPE image library can be searched for any particular content in the collection of SPE papers by using Wordkeeper retrieval software. footnotes. In addifion. in the text format.

Meeting Name or Location. Or UNSOLICITED: Meeting/Journal Vear: Word(s): Phrase: NOTE: Use (*) for a Wildcard.' • * •• ! ? C D Answer . Middle.9. Connection J J" Figure 2.*'**^*-*^'vV.r. Authors nanes are inuerted: Last. Screen shot of the SPE image library's paper search engine.[The SPE Image LibfaryiMAIN SEARCH] 3 File Edi( Options Browse Da(a Window Help [•Txl |5ji(J y^ gg i^ JO Igg fift g3 THE SPE IMAGE LIBRARV Paper Number: Keywords in Title: Author: Organization: Journal Hane. 32 . First.

and university). conference name or locafion. present in the text document format. and journal's name (journal of petroleum technology). 33 . Unstructured searches rely on matching the user provided word or a phrase with the contents of the first page ot each of the SPE papers. author's organizafion (company.publicafion date.

are archived into the electronic format. in the paper format. With the use of previously available software.0 software is used to edit and manually feed the document details of all the conference papers into the document informafion section of the corresponding PDF documents. Data 34 . contained in the SWPSC proceedings in the electronic format.0 software. Forty-six years of the SPWSC conference proceedings. the storage limitation issue to store the SWPSC paper volumes will be eliminated.1) is used to develop the SWPSC searchable database: 1. Condition the previously converted raw PDF files. 2.CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The purpose for developing the SWPSC searchable database is to provide the petroleum industry with a tool that would help them quickly retrieve any available informafion. The following sequence (Figure 3. Scan and convert the paper copies of SWPSC conference proceedings to PDF files using Adobe Capture 2. the electronic version of the SWPSC proceedings will be fully searchable for the contents that are contained in the collecfion of SWPSC documents. This chapter describes the detailed methodology to develop the SWPSC searchable database. In addifion. 3. Adobe Acrobat 4. Install the computer software required to develop the searchable electronic database for the past 46 years of SWPSC conference proceedings.

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List of the necessary computer software is given belov\': • • Acrobat Capture 2.entry includes the following: conference paper fitle.1 Installafion of Computer Software It is required to install the computer software for later use to develop the SWPSC searchable database. 3. 36 .0 software."^^ ^'^ Because the computer being used to develop searchable database has Windows NT 4. author's name. Customize the Acrobat Reader 4. The next five secfions give a detailed descripfion of the procedure involved in developing SWPSC searchable database. Given below is the step-by-step procedure to install the above-menfioned software.0 installed on it as an operating system. using Adobe Catalog 4.0. Adobe Acrobat 4. by creafing an index file.0.0 software to perform an electronic search/query on the collection of conditioned or enhanced SWPSC conference PDF files. subject. 4. 5. This index file is used by the Acrobat Reader's built-in search engine to find the desired conference papers from the SWPSC electronic database.0 (Educafion Version). Index the condifioned PDF electronic files. all of the software installafion procedure is given for Windows NT 4. and technical keywords related to the corresponding conference paper.

3. A component selecfion window appears on the screen. Restart and log on to the computer with administrative privileges. The Acrobat Capture installafion wizard window appears on the screen. 5. If more than 20. Place the compact disc containing Acrobat Capture 2. provided with the Acrobat Capture 2. 2. Select all the programs and proceed to the next screen.0 software.0 software compact disc. located under the Capture2 file folder on the inserted compact disc. Run the Acrobat Capture installafion program by clicking on setup icon.0. 37 .000 pages.0. 4.000 pages are required to be processed. the following sequence is followed: 1. The hardware key is required to be plugged in into the parallel port in order to process the documents in Acrobat Capture 2. A new window appears on the monitor screen showing different file folders available on the Capture 2. On the backside of the computer processor box.0 software into the CD-ROM drive. This hardware key is designed to scan and process a maximum of 20. Follow the step-by-step instrucfions on the screen.1.3.1 Installafion of Adobe Capture 2. 7.0 To install the Adobe Capture 2. locate any available parallel port and plug the hardware key. 6. An account with administrafive privileges is required to install software on the computer. into the parallel port. showing the program files available for installafion. an addifional hardware key is required to continue the processing job. Read the software license agreement and then click the Accept button to proceed to the next screen.

3. 5. Follow the step-b} -step instrucfions on the screen provided by the Acrobat installation wizard. Click the next button located on the welcome window. Read the software license agreement and then click the Accept button to proceed to the next screen. 4. Acrobat Capture program is now ready to scan paper documents and convert them to the desired file format.0 can be installed by following the steps below: 1. 12. 38 . 3. Click the "Install Adobe Acrobat 4. In the next window.0" button. click the Xext button to start the software installafion. Check the custom button and then click the next button.8. Restart Windows NT 4.2 Installafion of Adobe Acrobat Reader 4. Select the driver that matches with your scanning device and then proceed to the next screen by clicking the OK button. 6.0 (Education Version) Acrobat Reader 4. 2. After completing the user informafion form. your organizafion and the serial number for the Capture software. A new window appears with a list of a\ ailable drivers for the scanning de\ ice. 11. enter your name.0 software is done. A message window appears after the software installation is complete.0 (Educafion Version) compact disc in the CD-ROM.0 and log on to the computer with administrator privileges. An Adobe welcome window appears on the screen. Insert the Adobe Acrobat 4. Fill out and submit the software registration form and then restart the computer. Installafion of Acrobat Capture 2. 9. 10.1.

10. and the serial number for your Adobe Acrobat 4. 39 . 8. Hewlett Packard's Scan Jet n scanner. Because approximately 14. Click on the next button to the start softw are installafion. 9. Once the registration is complete. is selected to scan the conference paper documents. Select all the program files and then click on the next button to proceed to the user information window. 3. Fill out and submit the software registrafion form and then restart the computer. a registrafion window appears on the screen. equipped with an automafic document feeder (ADF). the paper copies of all the conference papers are to be scanned that have been published during the last 46 years.2 Scanning and Conversion of SWPSC Conference Proceeding-^ After the installafion of required computer software.0 software. After complefion of software installafion. your organizafion (optional). the ADF scanner is the best selecfion to scan a stack of conference pages at a fime rather than scanning each single page manually. Fill out your name. all the SWPSC conference proceeding catalogs are gathered and separated into single pages starting from the 1954 conference year catalog. a message window appears on the screen asking to restart the computer in order to complete the software installation. 11.7.580 conference proceeding pages were scanned and converted to image files. Therefore.

Start the Acrobat Capture 2. it is required to customize the program settings for the Acrobat Capture 2.4. The following sequence of steps accomplishes the scanning of the SWPSC conference papers followed by format conversion of the scanned papers: 1. 7. as shown in Figure 3. An Input Folder Setup window appears on the screen.0 program followed by format conversion of the scanned copies is outlined. and then click the OK button. as shown in Figure 3. Select the Preferences option on the pull-down bar. 4.3. 8. Select the setup opfions in the Output Folder window. and then click the OK button. Fill out the Description and Locafion text fields. 5. A Capture-Preferences window appears on the screen. as illustrated in the Figure 3.2. The scanning procedure using Capture 2.0 program is complete. Select the opfions. 6. 40 . as shown in Figure 3. and then click the OK button. Run the Acrobat Capture 2.0 program.5.0 program. 3. A step-by-step procedure to setup the Capture 2. Click the Input tab on the menu bar followed by Add Input Folder. 2.Prior to starting the paper-scanning job. An Output Folder Setup window appears on the screen.0 program before performing a paper-scanning job. Customizafion of the Acrobat Capture 2. Click the Output tab on the menu bar followed by Setup Output Folder.0 program is given below: 1. Click the File tab on the menu bar. located on the Input tab's pull-down bar.

41 . j ^ " ^ Samples Out (•J/ Samples < Path Not Available > Watch paulus c. Adobe Capture 2. I Most Accurate {ACQ} c:\capture2\review Figure 3.0 program's main window.. ^^'^ Alt>F4 \ Tab ^Mk n&B — Menu Bar ess rocess \Zy 'O To Review PDF < Path Not Available > HTML I slJ-Scan \ I 0 In r 1 Pull-down Bar i m ^toceis Word Processo . 1 | Edit Custom Dictionary.Acapture2\samplus ^ •"vrnfm.1^ Acrobat Capture 2... J..2.0 Input Process Output Help j ^ Eefresh Folders F5 Preferences.

Adobe Capture 2. 42 .Capture .0 program's preferences window.365} Location for Temporary Files: c:\capture2\temp\capture OK Defaults Cancel Figure 3.3..Preferences ' Confirmations: R jConfirrn Deleting of Filesl W Confirm Replacing of E>dsting Documents I F Confirm Appending to Existing Documents I Iv' Confirm Canceling of Processing I PDF Compression Options: ^ Use Capture Defaults r Use PDFvVriter Settings P Downsample images (optimized) jv* Show Splash Screen On Startup Retain 30 Newest Daily Log Files {1 .

Input Folder Setup Description: SWPSC r^Watch Folder for New Image Files i W Collate Files by Common Prefix r Collate All Selected Files OK Defaults if'A Cancel Figure 3. Adobe Capture 2.4. 43 .0 program's Input Folder Setup window.

JiiH~ c \capture2 (Ctrl+Clickto toggle selection) Bi Acrobat Capture (ACD) Acrobat PDF [Normal] Acrobat PDF flmaqel Acrobat PDF rimaqe + Hidden Text ASCII Text Rich Text Format yuspectSetting$ Processed Images zJ Figure 3.0 program's Output Folder Setup window.Output Folder Setup Description. Adobe Capture 2.5. Location File Formats SWPSC . 44 .

Click the Process tab on the menu bar followed by the Scan to Input Folder tab.6. Place a set of complete conference paper on the scanner's ADF with the paper title facing in the opposite direction to the scanner's ADF surface. The main objective for finding technical keywords from each of the conference papers. 1984043. . Click the Start button on the Scan window to start the scanning of the conference paper. was to use them as an input parameter in the document information section of each of the conference paper's PDF files. presented during 46 years of the SWPSC conference. 6. 45 . 4.A scan window appears on the screen. where the first four digits stand for the year when the paper was published and the last three digits are used to differentiate each paper as they are numbered in the conferences' paper catalogs. click the Process tab followed by the Process Input folder tab. Fill out the Document Name text field.3 Conditioning of SWPSC PDF Files It was required to read all of the SWPSC conference proceedings and make a list of keywords for each of those read papers to condition the SWPSC PDF documents.2. 5. it is recommended to use document names such as 1954001. Repeat the steps 2-6 to scan and convert the whole collection of SWPSC conference papers into the PDF format. 7. As shown in Figure 3. 3. Once the scanning job is done for any particular set of a conference paper. 3. This starts the format conversion of the scanned paper from image to the portable document format (pdf).

6. 46 .Scan Document N ami e: 195^001 Start Scanning at: Front Side of Sheet Number: First Image Filename: ]l 95-1001^001 atif 1 1 Start Defaults Cancel Figure 3.0 program's scan startup window. Adobe Capture 2.

and technical keywords from the displayed conference paper. listed on the pull-down bar. to save the conditioned or enhanced conference paper PDF document. author's name. 3. Click the File tab on the menu bar. 6.In addition. located on the pull-down bar. 9. 8. other parameters were also entered in the document information section of each paper such as: paper title. located on the pull-down bar. a stepby-step procedure is outlined below on how to condition the SWPSC conference papers: 1. subject. 10. As an example. A pull-down bar appears on the screen. Click the Open tab. Click the OK button to close the General Info window. 2. i 1. 7.7.0 program. Fill out all of the empty fields in the general info box by entering the title. Locate the file folder containing SWPSC files by pressing the arrow button as shown in Figure 3. A General Info window appears on the screen. 12. Move the mouse pointer to the Document Info tab. For demonstration puipose. 5. Click the File tab and then click the Save tab. and author's name. 47 . Double click on any of the SWPSC conference paper's PDF file to display the paper. completed Document Information of one of the SWPSC PDF documents as shown in Figure 3. subject. Click the File tab on the menu bar. Click the General tab. An open window appears asking to locate the SWPSC PDF files on the computer. Start the Abode Acrobat Reader 4.8. 4.

Files of Ivpe.Open Look in: ^1954001 §1954002 11954003 S i 954004 S i 954005 B1954006 pe_apps on 'Pelroleum_engr1' • •. 48 . 1954001 Acrobat (^pd[) Cancel Figure 3.11954 —j Removable Disk (D:) mj (E:) ^ (F:) ^^ 13 m 15 16 7 1954019 1954020 1954021 _jJ Swpsc on 'Petroleum_engr1' (G Zl Swspc ZjCdl 18 ±1 Open • •i •• Ml Filename: .0 program's Open window.7. Adobe Acrobat 4.

49 .0 Producer: AcrobatPDFWrlter3.2 File Size (Bytes): 362540 j j OK Cancel Figure 3.pdf Title: Jubject: Author: Care and Maintenance of Long Stroke Artificial Lift Clyde H Lietzow Keywords: I hydraulic pump production rod air bale finding: ] Left Edge Creator: Acrobat Capture Server 2.1999 4:46:08 PM Modified: 8/10/1999 3:41:52 PM Optimized: Yes PDF Version: 1.01 forWindows Created: Wednesday.Geneial Info E:\ThesisM954020. June 30.8. Adobe Acrobat program's General Info window showing document details of some enhanced SWPSC PDF document.

Click the New tab on the pull-down bar.0 program. 2. Click the Options button. 3. A new Browse for Folder window appears requesting location of the file folder that contains conditioned or enhanced PDF files of all the SWPSC conference papers. and click the OK button.10. Run the Adobe Acrobat Catalog 4. As shown in Figure 3. Fill out the Index Title field with an appropriate title for the index file. Click the Index tab on the menu bar. a New Index Definition window appears on the screen. A searchable database of all the text present in a PDF document or a collection of documents is called a ''full-texf index.13. as shown in Figure 3. Adobe Acrobat Reader uses a fulltext index file to locate any desired PDF document from the collection of indexed PDF documents. Click the Add button located to the right of the Include Directories text field area on the New Index Definition window. Select the appropriate option boxes. 5. 3. An Options window appears on the screen.4 Indexing of enhanced SWPSC PDF Files Adobe Acrobat Catalog software builds a single full-text index tile of all the PDF document files. Repeat the steps 2-12 to scan and comert the whole collection of SWPSC" conference papers. 4.9. 6. The steps below create the full-text index file for the collection of 46 \ ears of SWPSC enhanced PDF documents: 1. 50 .

.'-. RfeTnove '".9. Adobe Catalog 4.New Index DeMnilion Index File: UNTITLED Index Title: j Cancel Index Description: i>e Save As.0 program's New Index Definition window.. Semove *«"»»4*' • i.<MAig -Exclude DirectoriesAdd... "3 •r j Include Directories Qp'iions..-. HJdiiiBtfi....'iiiHiiiaiir Figure 3.. 51 .:. Build Add.

<4-. rV/ord Options F iCase Sensitive^ r r Optimize for CD-ROM Add I D s to Acrobat 1.10.ff • Cancel Figure 3. 52 . Adobe Catalog program's Options window.Options Words to not include in index Add Remove Word: f Do not include numbers .0 PDF files OK R^Sounds Like p Word Stemming v:-.

1. 4. Click the Build button to start creating an index file. a step-by-step procedure is presented on how to customize the search parameter fields in the Acrobat search engine. as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. 5. Locate the file folder that contains SWPSC conditioned PDF files and then click the OK button. Sa\ e the index file in the same folder where the SWPSC enhanced PDF files are saved and then press the OK button to start the indexing process. 3. 8. In addition. 2. a procedure is also outlined on how to link the SWPSC index file with the Acrobat search engine for finding information from a collection of SWPSC conference papers.0 program.12. Click the Edit tab on the menu bar and move the mouse pointer to the Search tab. Move the mouse pointer to the Preferences tab on the pull-down bar and click the Search tab. An Acrobat Search Preferences window appears on the screen.11 shows the indexing of enhanced PDF files in progress. 53 .0 program In this section. 3.5 Customization of Adobe Acrobat 4. A new w mdovv appears on the screen asking to specify the file directory or location to save the index file. Click the File tab on the menu bar. A new pull-down bar appears. Select the options.7. 6. Start the Acrobat Reader 4. and click the OK button. An Index Selection window appears. Click the Select Indexes tab.

G:\SWSPC\Cd3Vl 999\1999030. 54 .pdf 4 out of 8 31 out Of 512 Files in Group 1 IH 6% £top Messages: Exfracting from Extracting from Extracting from Extracting from Extracting from G:\SWSPC\Cd3\1999\1999027.pdf. Adobe Catalog 4.pdf G:\SWSPC\Cd3\1999V1999028.pdf G:\SWSPC\Cd3\1999V1999029. File: Page: File Count: q:\swspc\cd3\1999\1999031 .0 program's main window. G:\SVVSP0\Cd3\1999\1999031 pdf ^ ij Figure 3.11.pdf.Acrobat Catalog File Index Help Status: Index: Indexing Group 1 SWPSC 0 files in index.

J d Cancel OK Figure 3. 55 .12. ..f ^ 1: iis." f~ Show Date - ..) Score ''^ Show l o p |100 'r Hide on View .sfa..f ~7 \i^ iSfiow Fieidsi W Show Options r~ Hide on Search Resul^^ •Sim's.. zJ Documents -Highlight 1^ Disfilay JBy Page • . 'M w SortB^..Acrobat Search Preferences Query— s ..r77 .0 program's search preferences window. • •!>• ' . Adobe Acrobat 4.•-•• .. \ --'.

7. Click the Add button and locate the index file, as shown in Figure 3.13. Select the index file and click the Open button. 8. Click the Ok button on Index Selection window. The customization of the Acrobat Reader is done. A search can be performed from any available information in the developed SWPSC searchable database. The given sequence below is followed to find desired technical information from the SWPSC searchable database:

1. Run the Acrobat Reader 4.0 program. 2. Click the Edit tab on the menu bar. 3. Move the mouse pointer to the Search tab and click the Query tab. An Adobe Acrobat Search Engine appears on the screen, as shown in Figure 3.14. 4. Complete the desired text field(s) in the search engine window and click on the Search button. Based on the entered information, a list of found SWPSC technical paper(s) is displayed on the screen. After the SWPSC database is developed, the whole database is copied to compact disc (CD). Only 3 CDs are required to accommodate this whole collection of SWPSC PDF documents. Searches can be performed on the SWPSC papers' database by paper title, subject, author's name, keyword(s), or any combination of all these search parameters. This searchable database supports both structured and unstructured searching methods. Unlike the unstructured search routine in SPE image library where only the contents on the first

56

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58

the SWPSC database permits to search for any particular information from the full content of the SWPSC PDF file or set of PDF files. 59 .page of the conference paper can be searched.

present on the first page of the collection of SPE technical papers. the SWPSC searchable database allows searches from the full contents of the SWPSC PDF documents.CHAPTER 4 EXAMPLE APPLICATION OF THE SWPSC DATABASE The SWPSC searchable database.1 Test of the SWPSC Searchable Database By using the Adobe Reader (Adobe Reader with built-in search engine) software. it is now possible to perform searches for any particular information that is available in a collection of the SWPSC PDF documents. Available literature can be quickly found on the possible solutions to a particular existing problem. The SWPSC searchable database supports both the structured and unstructured search strategies. The SWPSC searchable database is used in the next section to test its efficiency for retrieving SWPSC technical papers that have been published on paraffin control and removal methods over the past 46 years of the SWPSC annual conference. 60 . Unlike the unstructured search procedure in the SPE image library where only the word or a phrase. developed in this work. 4. can be matched with the user provided search parameter (word or phrase). a search is performed to retrieve the SWPSC conference papers.1 and 4.2). is a fast and efficient knowledge base tool for the petroleum industry especially from the Permian Basin. There are 1641 SWPSC conference papers that have been published over the past 46 years (Figures 4. By using the SWPSC searchable database.

61 .(0 > 0) o o c k. Total Number of Papers published each year during the SWPSC Conferences from 1954-1977.1. 0) 0) «•- c o o o 0) </) # of SWPSC Papers Figure 4.

62 .IH 1 a. 0) c o 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 ' 1985 1984 ^ 1983 1982 lEz:' 1981 1980 1979 1978 BS • ' " ' . .-' ^Jip.^V/.-1 46 ^ ' ' ^ ' • ' ^ .^yy^"'j'^^/^^^'r^?rr- . ' ' " 1141 nr _] '*• 1 J J '"A".f^«^W> ' ' "'-'^"». 40 1 .(0 0) >- o o c o o 0) Q.'^7 J 43 "™"""""J ?B ' "" A"-'-y^^WW^ • ..'!*J... • ."^7 . I .-i •'''"":5 • Z] 26 " ™™^ pft *^"-^" 1 32 1 AA 40 # Of SWPSC Papers Figure 4.''-'• "^'^im^^-P'y'-"'J^ '^'-'"•'••-• O 1 3 41 '.. '/"'''/ . Total Number of papers published each year during the SWPSC Conferences from 1978-1999."|S^WW^^l ..2... y • ^1 3 3 ^ " ..

The search results.4. are found b> performing a search using a word "Paraffin" in the keyword text-field secdon of the Adobe Reader search engine (Table 4.4 and 4. retrieved after the paper search from the SWPSC searchable database.8). and 4. 4.1 provides detailed search results of the retrieved papers.1). These 36 SWPSC papers are reviewed to find all the treatment methods for paraffin control and removal. 4.6. Table 4.2. 63 . After reviewing all these 36 papers. are illustrated in Figures 4. Thirty-six out of 1641 SWPSC conference papers are retrieved that contain literature related to paraffin. a list of authors is tabulated who have presented technical papers on paraffin control and removal methods over the past 46 years of the SWPSC annual conference.5. In Table 4. All the published treatment methods for paraffin control and removal are categorized and summarized in the next four subsections. by using keyvsord textfield.The word "paraffin" is used one-by-one in the title and key\\ ord text-field sections of the Adobe Reader's built-in search engine. it is found out that 24 out of 36 contain literature on paraffin treatment methods (Figures 4.7.3.2 Review and Summarv of Paraffin Treatment Methods The SWPSC searchable database is fast and precise tool for retrieving the SWPSC conference papers on paraffin treatment methods. The maximum number of papers.

" 64 . Year-to-year (1954-1969) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers versus SWPSC papers retrieved by keyword search "Paraffin.3. ^ H- u x. • Total # of Papers • Papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin" Figure 4.46 0) (0 Q. (A) 4* i in CD CD CD i i I 05 CD o •^ •^V 3 -y -/ [/-/II LD LO 1 CD i 00 CO ID in CD C75 CJ> CJ) c:) CM CD CJ) CO CD CD 05 CD C7) en SWPSC Conference Year (1954-1969) L. £ 48 44 44 43 45 a c o V 39 v 75 o j 21 31 1 34 29 32 28 26 26 26 ^- o (fi Q.

40 v' 43 38 o CL <Q Q. i 00 V/ o 4<: I o r^ O) // i en C35 Tr-CJ5 c\j f^ CJ) C O r^ <J) -^ hCD in h(3) CO en en o CO en en ••00 CM 00 en CO CO AM 00 in 00 en SWPSC Conference Year (1970-1985) • Total # of Papers • Papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin" Figure 4.-." 65 .'T7' 44 (0 43 36 . Year-to-year (1970-1985) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers versus SWPSC papers retneved by keyword search "Paraffin. 33 28 31 29 32 "m o "E o o H O ^ 1^ 25 27 24 1 26 'A (/) Q.4.

" 66 .46 40 39 Q. o a (0 37 I i 40 37 41 41 41 41 35 37 31 "<5 _o 'E u 28 i y/ 1 i I I I O (/) 0. 1 0) o CD 00 C7) r^ 00 00 00 CD in en CD C3) en C3^ 00 CD en en en en SWPSC Conference Year (1986-1999) • Total # of Papers • Papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin" Figure 4.5. Year-to-year (1986-1999) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers versus SWPSC papers retrieved by keyword search "Paraffin.

1 1 1 1 - i - 1 ! 67 .Table 4. A detailed summary of search results performed on the SWPSC searchable database with a keyword "Paraffin. 1 - 1 1 ." Papers retrieved with a word "Paraffin" Search by Title text-field 2 2 2 1 3 - Year 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 Total # of Papers 21 31 46 44 44 48 43 39 45 34 29 32 28 26 26 26 24 29 25 31 27 44 47 36 33 Search by Keyword text-field 3 3 ") Papers containing Paraffin Treatment Methods 1 1 -) 1 3 - 1 - i 1 j 1 1 - 1 - 1 - 2 - 1 1 1 - 1 1 - 1 2 - .1.

1.Table 4. (Continued) Papers retneved with a word "Paraffin" Year 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 ^ Total # of Papers 28 32 40 26 38 43 43 37 28 40 39 46 37 40 41 31 41 37 41 35 41 Search by Title text-field - Search by Keyword text-field - Papers containing Paraffin Treatment Methods 1 - 1 4 - - 4 - ! 2 " - 1 2 - 1 2 - 1 1 1 2 1 - 1 2 1 - 1 2 1 - 1 - 1 - 2 2 ! 2 68 .

6. papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin. Year-to-year (1954-1969) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers. "(5 o 34 29 32 28 „ 26 26 26 »- o o o Q. 69 . (/) o 4»: 1 CNJ CD 1 in CD CD CD CD ^1. to a. 00 CD CO CD CO en CO en en en en en en en Oi SWPSC Conference Year (1954 -1969) • Total # of Papers • Papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin" E Papers containing Paraffin Control and Removal Methods D Figure 4." and papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods.45 o Q.

1985) • Total # of Papers • Papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin" E Papers containing Paraffin Control and Removal Methods D Figure 4. Year-to-year (1970-1985) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers. "TO 43 43 36 n 31 29 27 24 25 33 28 32 26 u </) Q. 70 " ^ •s^ ." and papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods.47 44 40 38 Q. (0 Q. hO o o 1 1 CM CO Ii in CD 00 CD en en CJ) en en cn cn o CO CO CM 00 CO 00 ^ CO in 00 cn SWPSC Conference Year (1970 . papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin.7.

Year-to-year (1986-1999) comparison of the total SWPSC technical papers. papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin." and papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods.to 00 00 00 00 en cn 00 O) o o) O) Ta> o> SWPSC Conference Year (1986 -1999) • Total # of Papers • Papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin" Dl Papers containing Paraffin Control and Removal Methods Figure 4.8. 71 .

Other (Plastic Coating) Other (Plasuc Coating) Chemical (Solvent) Author Addison G. C. Garbis J. Jordan R. Herman J. J. B. Haynes J. S. Cotney C. Crawford J. KingS. D. Cushner M. Brock R. # of papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods Category and Method for Paraffin Treatment Thermal (Hot Oiling) Thermal (Exothermic Reaction) Other (Biological Treatment) Chemical (Squeeze Treatment with Dispersant) Thermal (Hot Oiling) Chemical (Crystal Growth Modifier) Chemical (Solvent) Other (Magnefic Fluid Conditioning) Other (Biological Treatment) Thermal (Hot Oiling) Chemical (Solvent) Thermal (Exothermic Reaction) Chemical (Crystal Wax Modifier) Other (Linear Kinetic Cell) Thermal (Hot Oiling) Thermal (Hot Oiling). Bishop M. Brown M. A. Ivanhoe K.2. DobbsJ. D. E. M. M.v* ^0r Table 4. D. Chee W.R. 2 2 72 L . R. Cunningham J. Barker K. Comey J. A list of authors of the SWPSC technical papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods during the SWPSC annual conference (1954-1999).

T. Trainer J. Dispersant) Thermal (Hot Oiling) Chemical (Sohent. MsCaskill B. Lukehart C. C. Young M. J. Woodward D. Dispersant. R.2. Olsen H. Mansure A. Crystal Wax Modifier) Chemical (Crystal Wax Modifier) Other (Biological Treatment) Mechanical (Scraper. O'GradyC. L. L. (Continued) # of papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods Category and Method for Paraffin Treatment Chemical (Solvent) Chemical (Dispersant) Other (Butane Injection) Chemical (Solvent) General Chemical (Solvent. Woo G. Wilson J. Soluble Plug) Other (Linear Kinetic Cell) General Chemical (Crystal Wax Modifier) Other (Biological Treatment) Other (Biological Treatment) Other (Plastic Coating) Mechanical (General) Mechanical (Rod Scraper) Author KingS. A. M. KostoffN. Mancillas G. While J.R. B. Snedeker K. 2 Ward J. L. M. O McKinneyT.Table 4. Mendell J. 73 . Shroyer L. D. J. V. R.

One of the mechanical methods for paralTin removal from the production tubing was based on using the wire-line scraping tool. ^' One of the advantages of soluble plugs was their tendency to dissolve in the crude oil after the paraffin treatment operation. placed below the bottom level of paraffin deposits in the tubing string. available for paraffin removal from tubing strings and flow-lines. Soluble plugs had strength enough to clean the paraffin accumulation from the inside walls of the tubing string and flow-lines by applying a fluid pressure behind the plug. After the well production is resumed. Another effective mechanical method. which is dropped down through the tubing string while well is in shut-in condition. it is retrieved out from the wellhead. was the use of soluble plugs. the need to recover these paraffin-cutting plugs was eliminated. A rabbit is a mechanical scraping device.'^ The wire-line scraping device is equipped with the knife-edge cutters which could thoroughly scrape the paraffin deposits from the inside surface of the tubing string while pulling the wire-line tool up through the tubing.^^ It is allowed to fall down freely to the stop ring. A variety of different 74 . the well fluid pressure pushes the rabbit up back towards the wellhead.2. In the 1950's. a device called a "rabbit" was available in the market for commercial use. more importance was given to removal of paraffin deposition rather than prevention of paraffin formation.4. Therefore. Once the rabbit reaches to the top. The diameter of the rabbit gets bigger as soon as it hits the stop ring. Paraffin deposits are scraped from the tubing wall by cutting edges of the rabbit and carried up to the surface with the produced fluid.1 Mechanical Treatment Methods Before the 1950's.

heat loss to the well-bore CC -ic surrounding formation was considerably reduced. sunshine continuous spiral.9). Ward^^ recommended using hollow rod string in high paraffin producing fields because of high installafion costs as compared to convendonal rod installations. After the injected hot oil reaches the check valve. Snedeker^^ emphasized more on running soluble plugs on a strict schedule to clean flow-lines from paraffin deposits. The oil industry was introduced with a new technology for paraffin removal from rod pumped wells by using rod type paraffin scrappers.2. low cost to accomplish treatment jobs. triple horn spiral. According to Young. With the advent of hollow sucker rod string (Figure 4. where all the flow-lines with low flow rate were installed below the ground surface.diameter soluble plugs were available for several tubing and flow-line sizes. and crall type spiral were the most popular types of the sucker rod paraffin scrappers. it enters to the tubing string and further flows down to the bottom of the well-bore to melt and dissolve paraffin deposits from the tubing wall. 4.^^ the rod scrappers gained populanty between 1946 and 1950. Because the use of soluble plugs was not an expensive operation. The hollow rod had a check valve at its bottom end. and 75 .2 Thermal Treatment Methods The hot oiling or watering method gained wide acceptance for paraffin deposit removal because of its simplicity in application. ' Hot oil was injected down to the tubing through the hollow rod string. Ward^^ recommended using soluble plugs frequently to prevent a large paraffin accumulation. For cultivated areas. The Huber rotating flat blade.

Figure 4. Hollow Sucker Rod String n 76 -'M.1^ i^l^^ .9.

^^ the hot oiling and steaming were two of the most common thermal methods for paraffin deposit removal in the rod pumped wells. It was a general practice to draw source oil for hot oiling from the bottom of the storage tanks. as the produced oil coming to these storage tanks was usually from the same wells that were to be treated for paraffin deposits removal. These storage tanks usually contained crude oil with high quanfifies of paraffin contents. However. accumulated on the inner surface of the tubing string. located near the paraffin treatment wells. Steam or crude oil with a temperature approximate!) 300 F vscre miccted into the annular space between the tubing stnng and casing. This technique allovsed the injected steam or hot oil transferring heat to the paraffin deposits. paraffin and asphaltic components of the crude oil have a greater tendency to precipitate and settle on the bottom of the storage tanks. Paraffin melts and dissolves in the tubing fluid and carries up to the surface with produced formation fluid. through the tubing walls and thus softening and dissoh ing the paraffin into the produced formation fluid. Crude oil with paraffin content oil is heated and pumped down to the well-bore for paraffin removal. and fluid produced by the formation. casing. According to Snedeker. there were many disadvantages in using this method which had been ignored during the past years of paraffin removal operadons. It starts losing heat to the walls of the tubing. it can loose enough heat to precipitate 77 .immediate paraffin treatment results. By the time injected hot oil reaches the bottom of the annular space between casing and tubing string. At the surface pressure and temperature conditions.^^'^' One of the disadvantages in hot oiling operations was the composition of the source oil used for paraffin treatment operations.

^^'^'' recommended the following possible solufions to the disadvantages of using high paraffin content oil: • Use of oil from the top of the storage tanks as the source oil for hot oiling operations. Such increase of paraffin's percentage in the injected oil raises the cloud point and thus. Such light hydrocarbons. • Use of other available fluid (low salinity water) as a source injection fluid. light hydrocarbons vaponze from the injected hot oil and cause the loss of oil from the hot oil. Injection of high paraffin content hot oil and the loss of light hydrocarbons causes severe damage to the producing formafion by plugging the face of the formation with paraffin. escaped from the injected hot oil. This pressure forces the hot oil with precipitated paraffin content to invade into the producing formafion face. This happens when the hydrostafic pressure. travel up to the wellhead as a gas and cause an increase in the percentage of paraffin in the remaining hot oil. precipitated from the injected hot oil and formadon fluid near the bottom of the well-bore. Use of chemical dispersants in the source oil to prevent paraffin precipitafion from the injected hot oil itself. present in the injected hot oil itselfi In addifion.paraffin deposits. 78 . becomes greater than the formation pressure and fluid column exerts pressure on the injected hot oil near the producing formation. causing paraffin precipitation in the injected hot oil at relatively higher temperature. • • Periodical clean up of the producing formafion face. HeiTnan et al. applied by the fluid column in the annulus near the bottom-hole area of the well-bore.

After the treatment well was shut-in for 20-40 minutes. The process of the exothermic reacfion involved generafion of heat by mixing an organic acid compound with an organic base compound or inorganic base on the surface and pumping the mixture through the tubing to generate temperature enough (>212 °F) to melt and disperse paraffin wax and asphaltene deposits. One of the advantages of non-aqueous based exothermic reacfion was to prevent the formafion of water/oil emulsion while treafing crude oil for paraffin removal. a novel method was introduced to the oil industry for paraffin wax and 1^ asphaltene removal by generafing an exothermic reacfion. • Excellent behavior of reactant-carrier solvent at elevated temperatures.Oil field operators were also successful in removing paraffin deposits from the face of the producing formafion by using different expensive techniques such as explosive shots of nitroglycerine. The importance of direct heat of the sunshine was also considered as one of the available methods for controlling paraffin deposition in the flow-lines. pumping the injected fluid back to the surface retrieved melted or dispersed paraffin wax and asphaltenes. down-hole electrical heaters. The reacfion process was reported to be non-aqueous and produced a paraffin dispersant as a reaction by-product that prevented re-deposition of dispersed paraffin in the treated fluid at normal temperature. and heat-generating chemical reactions that heat up and dissolve paraffin deposits from the producing formafion face. Brown and Dobbs' stated three major advantages of using exothermic method for paraffin removal: • Sufficient heat release to melt paraffin deposits. A number of solvents were available to carry the reactants to the paraffin affected area in the production zone. laying on the surface.^^ Recently. 79 .

Complete removal of paraffin affected lines due to produced paraffin dispersant from in-situ exothermic reacfion.2.*^"^ Chemical solvents were used as a paraffin softening agents to break up or soften accumulated paraffin into small and soft paraffin particles from the inside surface of the producfion and transportafion lines so that produced formafion fluid could flush the dispersed paraffin particles along the line. 4. The type and amount of the paraffin deposits were the two major deciding factors for the volume of solvent to be used for paraffin treatment purpose. a small amount of solvent was suggested to flush through the line to gradually remove paraffin without clogging the flow-lines followed by pumping larger volume of solvent along the flow-lines. most of the paraffin removal jobs wcie accomplished by mechanical means only. For softer paraffin deposits (composed of lighter paraffin hydrocarbons). McKinney^^'^^ recommended obtaining a paraffin sample from the troublesome wells with paraffin accumulation problem and testing the sample in different chemical solvents to And the best solvent available to treat the well. 80 I .3 Chemical Treatment Methods Before the second half of the 20"^ century. For cleaning flow-lines with severe paraffin deposifion. a mixture of white gasoline or kerosene with chemical solvents was frequently used to treat such deposits.^^ Use of mechanical methods to prevent or remove paraffin accumulation became economically prohibitive with the advent of offshore production technology. It became necessary to use chemical methods for paraffin build-up inhibifion or removal.

Confinuous injection of paraffin inhibitors into the well casing and surface lead lines was often reported to minimize build-up and accumulation of paraffin crystals in the produced formation fluid. Figure 4.5 barrels per minute..10 shows the improvement in well production in one of the treated wells. Extreme care was recommended in handling carbon bisulfide because of its potential to quickly react upon exposure to flame Reduction in hot oiling operations was achieved with the development of systematic squeeze treatment technique. in June 1983. during pre-squeeze. caused severe corrosion problems in many production facilities and consequently was banned by the government for use in the oil fields. After the squeeze treatment. At the same time.^^ the squeeze treatment method was tested on two of the producing wells in Test Lease No. carbon bisulfide was widely accepted as an efficient chemical solvent for paraffin inhibition. Use of an efficient chemical solvent of chlorinated type.^ Chemical treatment of wells with paraffin problems required frequent injecfion of chemical solvents in the annular space between tubing string and casing to mix with the crude oil in the bottom of the hole. and after hot oiling was resumed. and flushing the annulus with 150 barrels of produced water at a controlled pumping rate not exceeding 2. hot oiling method was practiced on both of the test wells to prevent paraffin accumulation on the producing formation face and the tubing. pumping the mixture into the annulus. from Test Lease No. West Texas. According to Brock. it was reported that none of the test wells were hot oiled for over one year. namely carbon tetrachloride.^° 81 t . 3. Before squeeze treatment operation. The squeeze treatment was performed by mixing 25 barrels of crude oil with one drum of chemical (dispersant).3 in Spraberry Formation. post squeeze.

AA / ^ ^ 3 ^ .' r 10. post-squeeze. Improvements in Oil production during pre-squeeze." ANO AFTER HOT OILING RESJMEO Figure 4.1 2 post-squeeze. ji. 0 . and after hot oiling is resumed. ^ ~ A A .v^^Bl***'-'-'' •MMII W^ 30/DAY 25.0 MONTHS BEFORE AND AFTER SQUEEZ.0 5.^ ( 1 2 . 0 .0 — > * i — \.0 pre-squeeze.10.9 hot oiling) 82 i ..0 0.

under well and flow-lines operating conditions.''^ a study on the paraffin deposition mechanism revealed that the key factor behind paraffin separation from the crude oil.200 over previous control methods on that particular well. in an attempt to reduce the paraffin treatment costs. a novel method was tested on one of the producing wells in the Ackerly Dean Unit in the Dawson County. Oil operators were able to reduce the paraffin control cost as much as 90 percent over hot watering that was previously practiced on this well for paraffin control.According to Lukehart. became popular for dissolving and/or controlling paraffin and 83 . In April of 1956. In general. The technique involved the addition of crystal growth modifier in both solid and liquid forms to the well fracturing fluid. Texas. Use of blended and refined condensate feedstock consisting of high multiple aromatic hydrocarbons. Because the addifion of paraffin inhibitor was a one-time job. was the solubility of paraffin in the produced oil. Oklahoma. The reason \\ h\ butane was selected for the injection purpose was because of its availability and cost effectiveness. After two years of successful operation. an experimental butane injection unit was installed on one of the oil producing wells in Carter County. it allowed for the operators to evaluate economics and choose from the available paraffin deposition control and/or removal methods for the well treatment in future time. In an attempt to minimize the treatment costs on producing wells with potential paraffin problems. After the successful fracture treatment of the well. paraffin control using this butane injection technique saved approximately $2. no paraffin deposition problem was reported during the next six months. the frequency and amount of butane injection was dependent upon surface temperature conditions.

loss of light hydrocarbon compounds from the crude oil mixture. One of the techniques to enhance the paraffin treatment by hot oiling or hot watering was to add the natural solvents (10% by volume) to the hot oil or water treatment. The condensate will wash all the solvents to bottom and provide a diluting fluid to the paraffin saturated production" (p.^^ "Although condensate should not be injected into the formation it may be economical and practical to use them as flush volumes. demulsifying and wettability properties. 262). 4. and pre\cntion of precipitated paraffin cr\stals to agglomerate in the well producing fluid.asphaltene related problems.4 Other Treatment Methods A number of production techniques were practiced in the oil fields to prevent paraffin precipitation. According to Ward.2. Ward^^ further mentioned that the above stated method could lead to formation damage due 84 . These natural solvents proved to be cost effective and offered enhancement to the other available paraffin treatment methods. A number of oil field operators were successful in removing the semi-fluid paraffin deposits from high capacity oil wells by periodically pumping the wells at higher flow rates. It was suggested that changes should be made in the operating conditions which cause paraffin accumulation such as temperature change in the production tubing and flow lines.^^ more emphasis was put on paraffin control than deposit removal.^^ Petroleum distillates were blended and refined to get natural solvents with high solvency. Injecting 5% to 20% of the refined natural solvents in front of the condensate treatments can greatly enhance the performance. According to King and Cotney.

to gas or water coning.^^ Removal of paraffin deposits had always been a never-ending problem lor the oil operators. Oil industry was always in search of more economical method for paraffin removal. Injection of heated gas was also reported in some gas lifted wells to prevent paraffin deposition. Several production methods were suggested to control paraffin build-up problems as follows:^^ • Maintaining a vacuum in the annulus of the well-bore to reduce heat loss from the produced formation fluid in the tubing. According to Jordan. White stated that the success of plasfic coafing to prevent paraffin build-up was 80-85% dependent upon the coating application procedure and from 15-20% on the plastic coating material. Small diameter pipe reduces the travel time of flowing fluid that leads to lower heat loss to the surrounding through pipe walls. This method was limited to field application due to the low heat capacity of the injected gas. • Minimizing heat loss from the produced formation fluid in the transportation lines with a use of small diameter flow-lines.^^ surface roughness 85 •X . • Using a backpressure regulator on the production tubing to prevent vaporization of light hydrocarbons from the produced oil. The presence of vacuum minimizes the heat loss by eliminating the medium required to transfer heat between the tubing and the surrounding formation. Plastic coated pipes served a two-fold purpose in wells with potential paraffin and corrosion problems by preventing paraffin build-up and protecfing the tubing string or flow-line against the corrosive elements.

it deforms ver\ badly and thus affects the surface smoothness. polyurethane has a tendency to deform slightiy and maintain its smoothness. chemicals. H2S. in some cases plastic coated equipment was not able to prevent paraffin build-up on the inner surfaces of the production and transportation lines. 86 "sv .^ was the main factor contributing to the characteristics and amount of the paraffin deposition. In the case of an abrasive environment. use of polyurethane was recommended to control paraffin build-up problems. By looking at the physical characteristics of all these plastic coating types. chemicals. temperature. Even though the use of plastic coated tubing strings and flow-line was proved to be a successful means of preventing paraffin deposition. and molecule infusion such as H2O. Jordan^^ explained this phenomenon by analyzing the physical and chemical characteristics of three widely used oil field plastics that are given below: • Phenol formaldehyde . it was recommended to use phenol formaldehyde or epoxy phenolic in abrasion free producing wells. and CH4. and molecule infusion as compared to phenol formaldehyde. In the case of contact with abrasive material such as sand. • Epoxy Phenolic . smooth surface. It has more erosion resistance to abrasive materials than phenol formaldehyde.It has excellent resistance to temperature. It has a vcr\ glossy. and small molecule infusion among all these mentioned plastic coating types.This type of coating has less resistance to chemicals. In case of abrasive environment. • Pol> urethane -This type of plastic coating is the least resistant to temperature.

Once the molecular chain of the paraffin molecules is formed. untreated crude oil with paraffin molecules enters from one end of the LKC system and passes through the highly charged electric field. these paraffin molecules have posifive and negafive charge ends. and increased producfion. routine hot oiling operations to remove paraffin deposits. Use of the LKC system for paraffin removal resulted in the eliminafion of chemical solvents. Such phenomenon results in the suspension and stabilization of the paraffin molecules in the crude oil and prevents molecules to adhere on the tubing walls and flow lines.11. Paraffin molecules are present in the crude oil in dipole stage.^' Such high-energy electrical forces polarize the charged molecules in the oil and orient the positive and negative ends of the polarized molecules in such a way that the molecules come out from the LKC system in the form of a molecular chain. The LKC system involves polarization of charged paraffin molecules to prevent deposifion and thus molecular suspension within the flowing fluid. Due to the intimate contact with oil for several years. Tests of LKC s\ stem showed positive results in preventing paraffin accumulafion by polanzation and stabilization of molecules within the fluid. 87 •"-^v . paraffin disposal problems. The LKC system had great advantages over the past methods of paraffin removal. As shown in Figure 4.'^' In the eariy 1980s. the LKC system was tested on various types of oils in an attempt to find the applications of LKC system in oil industr\.In 1978. a linear kinetic cell (LKC) was introduced to control scale formation in the water system. the force of attracfion between the tubing wall and paraffin molecules is weakened due to the unavailability of free positive and negative ends.

71 88 .r<^ -# ^ (l Figure 4. Schematic diagram of Linear Kinetic Cell.11.

a mixture of brine water and powdered product used to pump in the annular space between the tubing string and casing followed by a brine water flush. the frequcnc) of treatment varied from one to two treatments per month. the third biological product was in the powdered form and contained a mixture of aerobic bacteria with a cell concentration of 10^^ cells/gm. Depending on the severity of paraffin accumulation. three biological products were tested in the field. The treatment was followed by brine water flush to allow the liquid biological product mixture to reach the paraffin-affected area in the well bore.During late 1980s. While using liquid biological product. Before injecfion of the flush water. supplied b\ three different manulaciurci>. 89 . In addition. Had non-toxic and non-hazardous properties. one to six gallons of the liquid was used to pump down in between the tubing string and casing. When treating with the powdered product.^' ^^ During experimental treatment " operations. it was required to add specific amount of biocatalyst and inorganic nutrient in the flush water. These biological products. A liquid biocatalyst and an inorganic nutrient were also included in the powdered biological product system to supplement the growth of aerobic bacteria and to enhance the metabolic (decomposition) reactions of high molecular weight paraffin into smaller molecules within the crude oil. Two of those three biological products were in a liquid form and contained anaerobic bacteria in the range of 10^-10^ bactena cells/ml. a large number of wells with severe paraffin accumulation problems were treated by using biological products. which would supplement the bacterial growth in the injected biological product mixture and enhance metabolic reactions in paraffin deposits.

However. a combination of biological. the concentration of H2S reduced the bacterial count to 10^ bacteria cell/ml that resulted in the failure of paraffin treatment operation. gas expansion. In addition. For high fluid level wells.^^ the biological treatment was failed in two wells with a H2S concentration in excess of 6% in the solution gas. or thermal methods was also suggested for treating wells with a water cut less than 1%. The presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the well can inhibit bacterial activity. Reduction in bactenal activit) was reported in low water cut wells. Figures 4. According to Bishop and Woodward.12 and 4. a number of difficulties were encountered while treating flowing wells due to high flow rates. One of the reasons for paraffin treatment failure using biological treatment methods was the high fluid level of produced formation fluid in the annulus. mechanical. circulation of biological mixture was recommended for proper placement of the treatment mixture to the production zone for paraffin deposit removal.Because bacteria need water to live and metabolize available hydrocarbons through contact with oil/water interface. After 60 days of treatment operations. The need for hot oiling as a combination method to control problems was completely eliminated in most of those wells. Bishop and Woodward^" recommended selecting the wells for biological treatment that had water cut in excess of 1%. and lower water cut. High fluid level in the annulus hindered the placement of biological products to the paraffin affected area in the well-bore. 90 " ^ . The biological treatment method was pracficed on 563 wells in Central Texas and Alberta.13 show the number of remedial hot oil treatments. required after the wells were put on the 72 biological treatment program for paraffin deposit removal.

POWDER BACTERIA PRODUCT HOT OIL (5. 91 .7%) NO HOT OIL (94. Number of remedial hot oil treatments required on the wells in Central Texas and Canada with biological 72 treatment program.3%) LIQUID BACTERIA PRODUCT NO HOT OIL (47.12.7%) HOT OIL (52.3 Figure 4.

^ POWDER BACTERIA PRODUCT HOT OIL (12.4%) NO HOT Olu {87.72 92 m-m>^mmif N .6%) Figure 4.6%J LIQUID BACTERIA PRODUCTS NO' HOT OIL (58. Number of remedial hot oil treatments required on the wells in Central Texas and Canada with biological treatment program.13.

Strong magnetic fields inhibit the accumulation of scale and paraffin by changing the growth pattern of paraffin and scale crystals.^"^ Prior to MFC installation. It was necessary to determine the environment in the well for effective MFC design. The MFC system made a great contribution in reducing paraffin treatment costs and increasing oil production. or mechanical methods. Michigan.^"^ No external power was required to operate this magnetic tool.Some oil producers used magnetic fluid conditioners (MFC) to treat paralTin accumulation problems in the oil well. hot oiling. Figure 4. 93 . In the MFC system. and chemical treatment methods were used to control paraffin build-up problems.14 illustrates the increase in well production after MFC was installed to control the severe paraffin accumulation problems in a particular well in Manistee County. thermal. Installafion of the MFC system required the rods and pump to be pulled up to the surface so that magnefic tool could be attached to the bottom of the pump. MFC installations were cost effective and environmentally safe as compared to chemical. produced crude oil and water is passed through strong permanent magnetic field within the tool.

After Mag-well MFC (graph on the backside) .14.^ ' Tw—im 0 wmm(mmmmm^/<^:^mmmr<^^^^ 0 A«er Maq-W€« M^C 5 10 iggg 16 20 25 30 05 OAVS 40 45 50 55 Figure 4.0-55.0-55] 94 . Improvement in well producfion with the installation of magnetic 74 fluid conditioner. [Before Mag-well MFC (graph on the front side) .

All the reviewed treatment methods for paraffin control and removal are categorized and summarized in the next subsecfions.5.2 show the year-to-year distribution of these published SPE papers. The word "Paraffin" is used one-b\-onc in the tide and keyword text-field secfions of the Wordkeeper retrieval software.918 SPE technical papers (Table 5. performed with a word "Paraffin" in the keyword text-field. containing literature on paraffin. 5. a built-in software facilitated with the SPE image library.2. and 5. In addition.CHAPTER 5 REVIEW OF SPE PAPERS ON PARAFFIN CONTROL AND REMOVAL METHODS The SPE image library contains 29. 5. a search was performed to retrieve the SPE papers.1 and 5.3. and 5. These 314 SPE papers are reviewed to find all the treatment methods for paraffin control and removal. The search results are illustrated in Figures 5.4. 5.8). In Table 5.7. resulted with 310 papers out of 29.1 provides detailed search results of the retrieved papers. 95 • Nv . Figures 5. a list of authors is tabulated who have presented technical papers on paraffin control and removal methods.918 technical papers that have been presented in the SPE conference from 1951-1997.6. Table 5. After reviewing these papers it was found that only 19 out of 314 papers contained literature on paraffin treatment methods (Figures 5. By using the Wordkeeper retrieval software.1).1 Review and Summarv of Paraffin Treatment Methods Paper search on the SPE image library.

>> "JiHWiM^ I 4 g 5 454 3 407 3 348 3 317 3 291 2S3 263 = 3 245 =1251 =1242 3 231 = 3 252 226 3 189 177 86 =]76 3 73 =3 39 3 35 3 34 ^••y"j'.?" P7.X. # of SPE papers Figure 5. 0) 975 974 973 972 971 970 969 968 967 966 965 964 963 962 961 960 959 958 957 956 955 954 953 952 951 'MMmmjmim 3 393 426 •'>"". (0 o > 0) o c o c 0 o l U Q. Total Number of papers pubhshed each year during the SPE Conferences from 1951-1975.1. 96 .'iJ^"'M.

gffl^-^iyg''g^ «'g>'»>^'.» n » ' ^ .\ 1 8 0 1 •' ' 3 1736 w)'»«v-wjv*?!>w-y!j'M! ••>.""j wn'vi11612 mm-w'i^i^.' <".I 907 221584 3 472 =1526 3 471 Z1497 3 471 # of SPE papers Figure 5.'m.»i»»ggi 99Q ^m^m^m^^^imi'^^^^iif^ 3 998 ^S^^859 733 ZZZSS11813 -'**•• .-:wim.n ^ . 97 • «> M i l .r:>^ii^ii^MM«wMifw'iP4#'^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^Z^^^^^^^^^' ^^^^^^^Sl]^ ! j ^ i ^ ^ ^ ^ 1933 223 1598 > 'v>m>mAM>->. ! . Total Number of papers published each year during the SPE Conferences from 1976-1997.'. (/) 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 " . .>». wrm^^^mim'mmmj^my^^^^mmmm. i t l » ." \ 1 5 7 9 '.>>>>>mwm>m^i^wmmM'w>'>r'''rr''^. 3 1220 1251 'gTyj^g-wj'jjag'^.1 ^ (0 o > o o c 0) c 0 o LU Q.2. ' ' ' -T Z a 1940 " ""^ vmj»h>".mwm 1 2 9 0 wm7.

X3 o 34 35 39 7 EX ." 98 MlJiW • " ""'^ ^- . 210 189 177 226 231 242 ^^^ r-1 245 a Q. (0 86 73 76 ^ I OO LO II i .-.3.^ 252 (0 L. U 0) IliJ Q. Year-to-year (1951-1966) comparison of the total SPE technical papers and SPE papers retrieved by keyword search "Paraffin. cn csj CO CD rO LO ^3LO CD cn r^ _r) CD (-0 LO r-LO CD cn LO ' • •"3- CT5 CTi a-> u5 cn cn OT cn cn SPE Conference Year (1951-1966) • Total # of Papers MPapers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin": Figure 5.

584 0) a n CL "re o 'E u IUJ Q. CO »^ o SPE Conference Year (1967-1981) D Total # of Papers MPapers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin" Figure 5. Year-to-year (1967-1981) comparison of the total SPE technical papers and SPE papers retrieved by keyword search "Paraffin." 99 .4.

" 100 T " Jil .5.SPE Conference Year (1982-1997) DTotal # of Papers "Papers retrieved tDy keyword "Paraffin' Figure 5. Year-to-year (1982-1997) comparison of the total SPE technical papers and SPE papers retrieved by keyword search "Paraffin.

1. A detailed summary of search results performed on the SPE image library with a keyword "Paraffin.w ^ Table 5." Papers retrieved with a word "Paraffin" Year 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 Total # of Papers 7 34 35 39 73 76 86 177 210 189 226 252 231 242 251 251 263 291 317 348 407 454 393 Search by Title text-field - Search by keyword text-field - Papers containing Paraffin Treatment Methods - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 2 - 1 1 2 1 - 1 1 1 2 - 3 1 3 2 3 5 5 5 4 8 4 3 4 2 2 6 - 1 = - 1 - 101 .

1 2 102 = ^ .1.Table 5. (Continued) Papers retrieved with a word ""Paraffin" Year 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Total # of Papers 465 426 471 494 471 526 472 584 807 813 733 859 998 990 1251 1220 1290 1940 1579 1736 1801 1598 1933 1612 Search by Title text-field 1 2 1 - 1 - 1 - 2 4 2 3 - 1 3 2 4 2 3 6 4 2 7 Search by keyword text-field 4 4 3 1 2 2 3 7 6 6 15 8 12 7 14 16 10 14 14 14 16 21 23 25 Papers containing Paraffin Treatment Vleihods - 1 1 - 1 i - 1 - 2 1 2 - ! ! 2 4 1 .

papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin. 0 -— LO cn CNJ LO ro cn cn LO SPE Conference Year (1951 -1966) nTotal# of Papers Bi Papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin" n Papers coritaJning ParaffJnJ3qntrol and Removaj Methods Figure 5.6. "(5 o 'E o I- m w «^ Q.1 2 a Q. Year-to-year (1951-1966) comparison of the total SPE technical papers.'" and papers on Paraffin treatment methods. 103 j f ^ a »rr-«'-^'n i -^r ^ F* "Ifc ^'' " .

w 584 526 12 0) a n Q. Year-to-year (1967-1981) comparison of the total SPE technical papers.7. papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin. 75 o 'E o hLU CL (} / 1^ 454 407 317 291 263 ri 348 n 465 426 471 497 „ 471 472 393 '/ ^ y 0 > SPE Conference Year (1967 -1981) D Total # of Papers B Papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin" jP Papers containing Paraffin Control and Removal Methods j Figure 5. 104 jir^^^ ." and papers on Paraffin treatment methods.

105 :.8.:H>>» ^ Q." and papers on Paraffin treatment methods.2s^ . Year-to-year (1982-1997) comparison of the total SPE technical papers.a E z SPE Conference Year (1982 -1997) nTotal# of Papers • papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin" D Papers containing Paraffin Control and Removal Methods| Figure 5. a re "re o 'E u ILU OL W . papers retrieved by keyword "Paraffin.

Stefanesu M. T. Collesi J. Tyler M. W. Velasco T. Osbom D. Donovan S. N. Cheyne A. S. E.2. D. SantamariaS. 0 . Lazar 1. Santos P. DobrotaS. M. H Brown F. presented during the SPE conference (1951-1997). H. J. Mitchell T. Credeur D. Barker K. B. McSpadden H. Streeb L. B. Haynes H. M.Table 5. T. I Mansure A. J. Khahl C. Number of Papers Presented on Paraffin Treatment Methods Category and Method for Paraffin Treatment 1 2 2 2 2 3 1 Thermal Other (Down-hole Emulsification) Other (Biological Treatment) Thermal (Hot Oiling) Other (Vacuum Insulated Tubing) Thermal (Heat & N2 System) Thermal (Heat & N2 System) Other (Biological Treatment) Thermal (Heat & N2 System) Other (Biological Treatment) Chemical (Squeeze Treatment) Thermal (Heat & N2 System) Thermal (Heat & N2 System) Chemical (Squeeze Treatment) i Other (Biological Treatment) Other (Butane Injection) Thermal (Heat & N: System) Thermal (Heat & N: System) Thermal (Hot Oiling) Thermal (Heat & N2 System) Other (Down-hole Emulsificafion) Other (Vacuum Insulated Tubing) Other (Biological Treatment) Thermal (Heat & N2 System) Thermal (Heat & N2 System) Thermal (Heat & N2 System) Other (Aqueous Solufion System) Chemical (Solvent) Other (Biological Treatment) Other (Biological Treatment) Thermal (Heat & N2 System) 1 Thermal (Heat & N2 System) Other (Biological Treatment) Thermal (Heal t!v N: S\stcm) 1 Thermal (Heal ( > . Romeu R. L. Kirspel L. Sutton G. Pelger J. Rabinovitz ?? Rocha N. Beyer A. Scott T. A list of authors of the SPE technical papers on Paraffin Treatment Methods. G. C. K. Lukehart C O . C.J.\2 SN^ICIH) S: 106 . SilvaE.1. George R. P. E. J. L. Purdy I. A. W.C. P. Nguyen H. Author Ashton J. L. Lenderman G.

Heat loss was also minimized by controlling the rate of chemical reaction that was one of the main disadvantages in the hot oil or hot water treatments. In addifion.^ 5. Even though the chemical reacdon between the two aqueous solutions started at the surface. the injection of the mixture was preferred through the tubing to predict the heat loss and maximum generated heat more accurately.^' stated that the paraffin treatment by heat and niiiogcn generating system was long lasdng than treatment by hot oil or chemical solvents in the treated wells. heat. and non-damaging by-products (water.2 Thermal Treatment Methods Development of a thermal treatment process by generafing in-situ heat and nitrogen offered an alternative method to hot oil and hot water treatments'^" ^~ The heat and nitrogen generafing method required mixing of an aqueous solution of sodium nitrate (NaNOs) with an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride (NH4CI). McSpadden et al. Even though it was possible to inject the aqueous mixture either in the tubing or the casing. Chemical reaction between these tv\ o solutions produces nitrogen gas. Treatment procedure using heat and nitrogen generating system is as follow s: 107 ^x . The heat and nitrogen generafing system was designed to reach the maximum temperature of 462 °F. the rate of reacfion was controlled by adding a calculated amount of methanol/ acetic acid solution and manipulating pump rates to attain maximum generated heat at the predetermined depth in the well. Mixing of these i\s o aqueous solufions was performed on the surface. and sodium chloride). it was recommended to pump the mixture in the annulus to avoid sucker rod pulling.

located in the Main Pass field area. Northeastern Brazil. Shut-in of the well for 24 hours transfer the heat by conduction to the paraffin affected areas near the producing formation face. The well that was connected to the flow-line was shut-in and the treatment solution was pumped through the flow-line to remove paraffin. 5.^ • Injection of xylene as a preflush in the amount of 50 gallons per foot of the depth interval.9) in a time span of 10 months.^^ the solvent treatment was applied on one of the paraffinaffected wells (AG-50) in Renconcavo Bainano Basin.^^ stated that after successful treatment of paraffin affected wells using heat and nitrogen generating system. 59r was dispersant. and NH4CI) and the chemical solvent (xylene) that would increase the paraffin dissolving capabilifies of the chemical solvent due to generated heat in the system.^" the treatment using heat and nitrogen generating system was applied on well B during September 1985. 43% xylene.. and 2% emulsifier.3 Chemical Treatment Methods According to Santos. Four treatments were pertormed on this well (Figure 5. According to Kirspel et al. The funcfion of the emulsifier was to create an emulsion of the aqueous solution (NaNO:. The treatment mixture contained 50% aqueous solution of NaNOs and NH4CI. • • Injection of NaNOs and NH4CI as an aqueous mixture in the tubing. the application of this method was extended to treat the flow-lines. after the first 108 ^ . A monthly production of the crude oil from this well (AG-50) before treatment. Collesi et al.

the well was shut-in for four days after naptha was injected as a chemical sol\ ent into the annulus. a slug of diesel oil was injected into the annulus and then well was shut-in for ten days to soak the well-bore nearby formation with injected diesel oil. mixed with six drums of activator. Santos^^ stated that the soaking fime of solvents in chemical treatment jobs was an important factor to dissolve and remove paraffin deposits. In 1985. 109 I I llllMHimHHIH^^^ .9. On the first job. After the first treatment job.^ treatment. According to Hayne and Lenderman. A step-by-step procedure was followed to perform squeeze treatment in one of the wells in West Texas and is as follow: • Injection and circulation of hot oil with one drum of paraffin dispersant down the annulus and up the tubing to pre-flush the well-bore before the squeeze treatment. these two wells were being treated by hot oiling 3-4 times every year. The paraffin inhibitor was squeezed into the formafion in liquid form and then caused to precipitate by an activator" (p. • Injection of 10 barrels of crude oil down the annulus. and after the second treatment is illustrated in Figure 5. • Injection of 10 barrels of water into the annulus to separate the activator from the inhibitor. a new squeeze treatment method was tested on two oil-producing wells in West Texas. "The aim was to put a slow- dissolving solid paraffin inhibitor into the formation. Prior to the squeeze treatment. 552). This well was treated twice using chemical solvent method with a four-month time interval.

9. after first treatment = 0 to 4 months. Crude monthly rate production plot from well AG-50 against time 38 (Pre-treatment = -48 to 0 months. after second treatment = 4 to 24 months) 110 . months Figure 5.1000' JlOO ft 6 •53 10 T—T—I I I—r—1—f r I I—j—I—I—I—r-T-T'i—r—i—i—r—i—r~r--i—i—i—i—i—i—i -48 T T'T -3^ -24 -12 0 12 24 Time.

'"^ "Unique condensate feedstocks can be blended and refined to produce formation and reservoir fluid compafible natural sohenis" (p. In 1991. • Over-flush of 270 barrels of water into the annulus to push the previoush injected fluids into the formation. Cotney'^ recommended injecting natural solvents in the rafio of 5-10% to the total volume in front of the condensate treatment. 5. the biological treatment was applied on 91 wells with paraffin accumulation problems in 111 . Such combinafion allowed the hot oil to dissolve low molecular weight paraffin and solvents to dissolve the high-molecular-weight paraffin particles.^^" ^^ These microorganisms were neutrally charged naturally occurring marine organisms that required water to survive and metabolize available hydrocarbons through contact with oil/water interface. The natural solvents were also used in combinafion with the hot oil at a rafio of 10% by volume to the hot oil treatments. According to King and Cotney. In addition.^ • Injecfion of a mixture containing six drums of paraffin inhibitor w ith 60 barrels of crude oil down the annulus. these microorganisms required the biocatalyst and inorganic nutrient to supplement the bacterial growth and enhance the metabolic reacfions in paraffin deposits. • Shut-in the well for 24 hours. 120). When using condensates for paraffin treatment.4 Other Treatment Methods Biological treatment using microorganisms (bacteria) was also one of the methods to control paraffin accumulation problems.

the vacuum insulated tubing was installed in one of the wells in the Norman wells oilfield. the well was also being hot oiled four times per year. located in Northwest Canada. and flushing the well with 3 barrels of w ater. Each of these wells was batch treated by mixing one pound of paraffin treafing bacteria and 12 gallons of biocatalyst with one banel of water. One of the wells was located in Canadian County. The average oil producfion was increased by 36. The wells were then shut-in for 24 hours to allow the biological product to react w ith the paraffin deposits in the well-bore. In addifion. The biological treatment method reduced the paraffin treatment costs by 18.Oklahoma. Oklahoma. Pelger^^ recommended using the biological treatment method on this well. and reducing mechanical cutting frequency of paraffin from the wells in that area.1% by eliminating chemical treatments. injecfing the mixture in the annulus. Previously. Santamaria and George^^ concluded that the biological treatment was limited to wells that produced water and that had bottom-hole temperature below 210 '^. reducing hot oiling treatments cycles. The average increase in production of oil from those 91 wells was 2664 barrels of oil per month.5 barrels of oil per month. In 1990. This oilfield had 167 producing 112 . This well w as previously being treated with paraffin solvent and paraffin dispersant to control the paraffin deposition. these wells were being treated by hot oiling as often as twice a week. The frequency of biological treatment on these 5 wells ranged from 1 to 2 treatments per month. Another attempt was made on the five wells with paraffin deposifion problems in the Ausfin Chalk Formafion in East Texas. The well was batch treated with the biological products and then shut-in for 24 hours.

and formafion). Vacuum insulated tubing was comprised of two tubings with different diameters.^"^ Application of this method was dependent on the water cut and gas-oil ratio (GOR) of the producing well. surrounded by the tubing (casing. cement. This method required the water cut to be above 35% in the producing well to provide sufficient water for forming an oil-water emulsion and protective water film. Down-hole emulsificadon of the produced formation fluid was also one of the methods to reduce paraffin deposifion by forming an oil-in-water emulsion from the produced fluid in the well-bore and water wetfing the steel surfaces with a water film to inhibit the adherence of paraffin wax on the tubing wall.wells of which 52 wells were rod-pumping wells and rests of them were gas lift wells. The purpose of creating a vacuum in the tubing annulus was to minimize the heat loss to the area. Gases with high flow rates would pre\ cnt the formation of an oilwater emulsion and water film. In addition. The frequency of paraffin treatment was once after every 3 days. The annular section of these welded tubings was evacuated to vacuum. of gas per 1 barrel of oil was required to suppress the gas turbulence in the tubing. the paraffin was being removed by using the wire-line dewaxing/scraping tools. the treatment frequency using wire-line scraping tools was reduced to once per month. After the installadon of vacuum insulated tubing. 113 » I I'lHl . welded at both ends of the tubing joints. the producing GOR below 1000 standard cubic ft. Below given sequence of steps w as followed to treat each of those 6 wells using down-hole emulsificadon method: • Injecfion of 300 barrels of hot oil down the annulus and up the tubing to clean the exisdng wax deposits from the well bore. Prior to the vacuum insulated tubing installation.

After the chemical treatment. 114 .2^f (by volume) detergent w iih hot water (225 '^) into the annulus to coat the steel surfaces in the well-bore. The chemical mixture was injected down the annulus and pumped back to the surface through the tubing. the monthly hot oiling need to treat these 6 wells was reduced by 44%. During the seven weeks of treatment period. an aqueous based chemical mixture was used for paraffin treatment in one of the wells. On an average.^^ Prior to the water based chemical treatment. located in Trenton Formafion. the well was maintained its increased producfion for six months and no hot oiling was required during that fime on this well. In addition. In 1974. The chemical treatment was applied once every two weeks on this well. no hot oiling w as required in 4 out of 6 treated wells. this well was being hot oiled on monthly basis for paraffin deposit removal. The aqueous based chemical treatment required the injection of 20 barrels of warm water with 20 gallons of chemical A into the well-bore.• Injecdon of a 100 barrel mixture of 0. • Injecfion of 2% (by volume) aqueous solufion down the annulus confinuously for 7 weeks. the oil producfion was increased by almost 25%.

It can be concluded that the SWPSC literature is more field-oriented whereas the SPE literature is more theoretical and research-oriented in the area of paraffin control and removal methods.^ CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The SWPSC searchable database provides eas> and fast searching/retneving facilities to retrieve technical papers by searching paper fitle. author. twenty-four papers were found to have treatment methods for paraffin control and removal. available in the SWPSC database. Chapters 4 and 5 of this thesis provide a summary of all the methods on paraffin control and remo\ al that have been published in the SWPSC and SPE publicaUons over the past five decades. retries ed 36 technical papers that have been published over the past 46 years. subject. A search on the SWPSC database. After a review of those 310 SPE technical papers. it was found out that 19 papers had literature on the paraffin treatment methods. In contrast. In addition. and keywords. by usmg Adobe Reader software. with a keyword "Paraffin". The paper retrieval capability of the SWPSC searchable database is more precise than the SPE image library for retrieving technical papers on the paraffin control and removal methods. some of the advantages of SWPSC PDF documents include fast and easy electronic distribudon and compact storage. a search with a same word (Paraffin) on the SPE image library resulted with 310 technical papers. 115 • I IHIIW •<^. A full-text search can be performed on the knowledgebase. . After reviewing these 36 papers. presented over the past 46 years of SWPSC annual conference.

Names of only three authors (Mansure A. It is further recommended to invite the authors of Heat and Nitrogen generating s> stem and Biological treatment method to the SWPSC conference in future. On the other hand. and enhanced oil recovery. Barker K. contained in the SWPSC and SPE databases. As a matter of fact. on paraffin control and removal methods is not evenly distributed by the paper authors. who have presented different methods for paraffin treatment over the past fi\'e decades. the authors in the SPE papers are more inclined to talk about thermal (Heat and Nitrogen generating system) and biological ways of curing paraffin accumulafion problems. O) were found to be in common in both the SPE and SWPSC databases. respecdvely. 116 IIII " i ^ i ^ i ™ " ^ . there were 5 technical papers on the Heat and Nitrogen generafing system (Thermal) and 5 technical papers on Biological treatment method. It is recommended to further test the paper retrieval efficiency of the SWPSC searchable database on other topics related to oil field operafions such as well fractunng. There are 34 authors in the SWPSC publicafions and 35 authors in the SPE technical papers. A majority of papers that have been published in the SWPSC publications are related to chemical methods for paraffin treatment. paraffin treatment by Heat and Nitrogen generadng system has never been introduced in the SWPSC annual conference in the past.The knowledgebase. and Lukehart C. J. Out of the 19 reviewed SPE technical papers that provided knowledge on the paraffin treatment methods. artificial lift methods.. M..

" SWPSC. D. Kurtz. and Chandra. O. 12. Petroleum Refinerv Engineering. Volume 2. K. 5. Nelson. Paper presented at the 1965 SPE Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting. John Wiley & Sons. C.: "Formafion. Louisiana. TX. B. A." SPE 13796. Texas. Inc. New York.. L. Bucaram..: "Formafion Damage Prevention Through the Control of Paraffin and Asphaltene Deposifion.^y REFERENCES 1. October 6-9.. New York. L. Pundeer. October 2-5. 117 ^ . New York.. 8. June 10-11. Paper presented at the 1986 SPE Symposium on Formafion Damage Control. Paper presented at the 1985 SPE Producfion Operadons Symposium. B.. G. March 10-12. 6.: "Designing and Selecfing Wax Crystal Modifier for optimum Field Performance Based on Crude Oil Composidon. Bell. 10. 1965. 1982. Houchin. E. and Barker.. T. 1975.. 4. American Petroleum Refining. Texas. 1945. Allen. W." SPE 1544. S. Inc. McGraw Hill Book Company.S. 1985. Organic Chemistrv. February 2627..: "An Improved Paraffin Inhibitor. Newberry. and Treatment of Formadon Damage Caused by Organic Deposition.. Montana. C. R. Singhal. P. H. 1966.. and Schmeriing. and Dobbs. Fuson. R... and Hudson. Crowe. Van Nostrand Company. Petroleum Refining. Oklahoma. Inc. J. R. Second Edifion. 1954. 3. R. M. W. M. H. 9. Chemistry of Petroleum Hvdrocarbons. Third Edidon. Lubbock. Gary. and Snyder. Marcel Dekker. J. Tulsa. Third Edition. Moore. and Hendrickson.: "The Predicfion. Inc.: Production Operations. B. G. Sahai. 7. Oil & Gas Consultants Intemafional. 1999. A. Inc. Brown. C. W. 1986. 1991.. and Roberts. \'olume I. 11." SPE 22784. H. Effect and Prevenfion of Asphaltene Sludges During Stimulafion Treatments. Paper presented at the 1966 SPE Annual Fall Meefing. Evaluation." SPE 1163. L. M. E. S. K. J. K. "A Novel Exothermic Process for the Removal of Paraffin Deposits in Hydrocarbon Production. Reinhold Publishing Corporadon." SPE 14818. M. Paper presented at the 1991 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibidon. M. 1954.. 2. H.. New York. 1949.

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13. Addison, G. E.: "Idenfificafion and Treafing of Down-hole Organic Deposits." SPE 18894, Paper presented at the 1989 SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma, March 13-14, 1989. 14. King, S. R., and Cotney, C. R.: "Development and Applicadon of Unique Natural Solvents for Treafing Paraffin and Asphaltene Related Problems," SPE 35265, Paper presented at the 1996 SPE Mid-Condnent gas Symposium, Texas, April 2830, 1996. 15. Newberry, M. E.: "Crude Oil Producdon and Flow-line Pressure Problems," SPE 11561, Paper presented at the 1983 Production Operafion Symposium, Oklahoma, February 27-Marh 1, 1983. 16. Tutde, R. N.: "High-Pour-Point and Asphaldc Crude Oils and Condensates," SPE 10004, Paper presented at the 1982 SPE International Petroleum Exhibition and Technical Symposium, China, 1982. 17. Sutton, G. D.: "Aqueous Systems for Paraffin Removal." SPE 5704, Paper presented at the 1976 SPE Symposium on Formafion Damage Control, Texas. January 29-30, 1976. 18. Pacheco-Sanchez, J. H., and Mansoori, G. A.: "In Situ Remediadon of Heavy Organic Deposits Using Aromadc Solvents," SPE 38966, Paper presented at the 1997 SPE Lafin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference and Exhibition, Brazil, August 30-September 3, 1997. 19. Broaddus, G.: 'Well- and Formafion Damage Removal with Nonacid Fluids," SPE 17111.1988. 20. Tejeda, P., Lira-Galeana, C, and Rodriguez, F.: "Analysis of a Thermodynamic Micellization Model for Asphlatene Precipitation," SPE 38968, Paper presented at the 1997 SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference and Exhibidon, Brazil, August 30-September 3, 1997. 21. Elsharkawy, A. M., Al-Sahhaf, T. A., Fahim, M. A., and Al-Zabbai, W.: "Determinadon and Prediction of Wax Deposition from Kuwaiti Crude Oils," SPE 54006, Paper presented at the 1999 SPE Lafin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Venezuela, April 21-23, 1999. 22. Rai, R., Sarkar, B.. and Dalai, V.: "Mulfiphase Transportafion of High Waxy Crudes," SPE 27061, 1995.

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