Joseph M.

Juran Introduction
Joseph M. Juran made many contributions to the field of quality management in his 70+ active working years. His book, the Quality Control Handbook, is a classic reference for quality engineers. He revolutionized the Japanese philosophy on quality management and in no small way worked to help shape their economy into the industrial leader it is today. Dr. Juran was the first to incorporate the human aspect of quality management which is referred to as Total Quality Management. The process of developing ideas was a gradual one for Dr. Juran. Top management involvement, the Pareto principle, the need for widespread training in quality, the definition of quality as fitness for use, the projectby-project approach to quality improvement--these are the ideas for which Juran is best known, and all emerged gradually. A Lifetime of Professional and Worldwide Quality Braila, Romania. December, 1904. The threadbare Jakob Juran family welcomes a newborn son, Joseph Moses. Five years later Jakob leaves Romania for America. By 1912, he has earned enough to bring the rest of the family to join him in Minnesota. Despite this hopeful emigration and American opportunities, the family continues in poverty. Young Joseph Juran demonstrates his affinity for knowledge; in school, his level of mathematical and scientific proficiency so exceeds the average that he eventually skips the equivalent of four grade levels. In 1920, he enrolls at the University of Minnesota, the first member of his family to pursue higher education. By 1925, he had received a B.S. in

electrical engineering and is working with Western Electric in the Inspection Department of the famous Hawthorne Works in Chicago. The complexity of this enormous factory, manned by 40,000 workers, presents Juran with his first challenge in management. In 1926, a team of Quality Control pioneers from Bell Laboratories brought a new program to Hawthorne Works. The program, designed to implement new tools and techniques, required a training program. From a group of 20 trainees, Juran became one of two engineers for the Inspection Statistical Department, one of the first of such divisions created in American industry. By 1937, Juran was the chief of Industrial Engineering at Western Electric's home office in New York. His work involved visiting other companies and discussing methods of quality management. During WWII, Juran's temporary leave of absence from Western Electric stretched through four years. During that time, he served in Washington, D.C. as an assistant administrator for the Lend-Lease Administration. He and his team improved the efficiency of the process, eliminating excessive paperwork and thus hastening the arrival of supplies to the United States' overseas friends. Juran finally left Washington in 1945, but he didn't return to Western Electric. Rather, he chose to devote the remainder of his life to the study of quality management. As early as 1928, Juran had written a pamphlet entitled "Statistical Methods Applied to Manufacturing Problems." By the end of the war, he was a well-known and highly-regarded statistician and industrial engineering theorist. After he left Western Electric, Juran became Chairman of the Department of Administrative Engineering at New York University, where he taught for many years. He also created a

thriving consulting practice, and wrote books and delivered lectures for American Management Association. It was his time with NYU and the AMA which allowed for the development of his management philosophies which are now embedded in the foundation of American and Japanese management. His classic book, the Quality Control Handbook, first released in 1951, is still the standard reference work for quality managers. The following table outlines the major points of Dr. Juran's quality management ideas:

Quality Trilogy:
Quality Planning
• • • • •

Identify who are the customers. Determine the needs of those customers. Translate those needs into our language. Develop a product that can respond to those needs. Optimise the product features so as to meet our needs and customer needs.

Quality Improvement

Develop a process which is able to produce the product.

Optimise the process.

Quality Control

Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions with minimal inspection.

Transfer the process to Operations.

Dr. Juran first began developing a philosophy of quality in 1926 when he started working for the quality inspections division at Western Electric. At the time, managing for quality emphasized statistics and production techniques. Dr. Juran theorized that the field really depended on human factors, especially the work of managers, and that quality problems should be solved systemically. By engaging leadership in addressing quality at its most fundamental levels, Dr. Juran realized there would hardly be a limit to a company’s potential for success. He centered his philosophy on three key elements: planning, control, and improvement. Dr. Juran developed the Pareto principle, named after the Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, which observes that 80 percent of the problems in management arise from 20 percent of causes. Managers, says Dr. Juran, should concentrate on solving the 20 percent. In 1951, Dr. Juran’s philosophy coalesced in the first edition of Juran’s Quality Handbook, which is now in its fifth edition. It became the handbook for the new discipline of quality management and helped establish Dr. Juran’s international reputation as the thought leader of the quality field. Beginning in 1954, Dr. Juran heavily influenced the development of companies in Japan’s postwar economy. His work developing a culture of quality within these burgeoning companies helped lead to Japan’s preeminence in quality achievement in the 1970s and since. Dr. Juran’s work in Japan also helped many companies around the world develop an institutional memory of what it takes to be a quality leader. In those companies, quality work is properly valued from the lowestlevel worker to the highest-level manager. And a company with a cultural embrace of quality will continually strive to improve and learn from past mistakes. Knowing the importance of institutional memory within companies, Dr. Juran began to consider ways to fortify the effects of his work and

research so that his principles and ideas would be a constant resource to companies in America and around the world. In 1997, the University of Minnesota proposed establishing its thennamed Quality Leadership Center, founded in 1993, as a repository of Dr. Juran’s work, and as an anchor for continually developing knowledge in the field of quality. Today, the Joseph M. Juran Center for Leadership in Quality serves as a collective institutional memory for organizations seeking to make permanent their quality advantage, as well as for scholars examining various facets of leadership in quality. The Juran Center’s research and resources have been called on by legendary companies like Motorola seeking to renew their quality advantage and by newer companies like Hutchinson Technology that strive to build a governance structure that secures the company’s future for generations. The Juran Center has also worked with a number of other organizations on quality leadership issues, including the Mayo Clinic, 3M, Carlson Companies, Cargill, Ford Motor Company, Target Corporation, and Honeywell.

Joseph Moses Juran (December 24, 1904 – February 28, 2008) was a 20th century management consultant who is principally remembered as an evangelist for quality and quality management, writing several influential books on those subjects.[He was the brother of Academy Award winner Nathan H. Juran.

Pareto principle
In 1941 Juran stumbled across the work of Vilfredo Pareto and began to apply the Pareto principle to quality issues (for example, 80% of a problem is caused by 20% of the causes). This is also known as "the vital few and the trivial many". In later years Juran preferred "the vital few and the useful many" to signal that the remaining 80% of the causes should not be totally ignored.

Management theory
When he began his career in the 1920s the principal focus in quality management was on the quality of the end, or finished, product. The tools used were from the Bell system of acceptance sampling, inspection plans, and control charts. The ideas of Frederick Winslow Taylor dominated. Juran is widely credited for adding the human dimension to quality management. He pushed for the education and training of managers. For Juran, human relations problems were the ones to isolate. Resistance to change—or, in his terms, cultural resistance—was the root cause of quality issues. Juran credits Margaret Mead's book Cultural Patterns and Technical Change for illuminating the core problem in reforming business quality. He wrote Managerial Breakthrough, which was published in 1964, outlining the issue.

Juran's vision of quality management extended well outside the walls of the factory to encompass non-manufacturing processes, especially those that might be thought of as service related. For example, in an interview published in 1997 he observed: The key issues facing managers in sales are no different than those faced by managers in other disciplines. Sales managers say they face problems such as "It takes us too long...we need to reduce the error rate." They want to know, "How do customers perceive us?" These issues are no different than those facing managers trying to improve in other fields. The systematic approaches to improvement are identical. ... There should be no reason our familiar principles of quality and process engineering would not work in the sales process.

Juran's Trilogy
He also developed the "Juran's trilogy," an approach to cross-functional management that is composed of three managerial processes: quality planning, quality control and quality improvement. These functions all play a vital role when evaluating quality.

Transferring quality knowledge between East and West
During his 1966 visit to Japan, Juran learned about the Japanese concept of Quality Circles which he enthusiastically evangelized in the West. Juran also acted as a matchmaker between U.S. and Japanese companies looking for introductions to each other.

Juran was born to a Jewish family in 1904 in Brăila, Romania, and later lived in Gura Humorului. In 1912, he immigrated to America with his family, settling in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Juran excelled in school, especially in mathematics. He was a chess champion at an early age, and dominated chess at Western Electric. Juran graduated from Minneapolis South High School in 1920. In 1924, with a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota, Juran joined Western Electric's Hawthorne Works. His first job was troubleshooting in the Complaint Department. In 1925, Bell Labs proposed that Hawthorne Works personnel be trained in its newly-developed statistical sampling and control chart techniques. Juran was chosen to join the Inspection Statistical Department, a small group of engineers charged with applying and disseminating Bell Labs' statistical quality control innovations. This highly-visible position fueled Juran's rapid ascent in the organization and the course of his later career. In 1926, he married Sadie Shapiro, and they subsequently had four children: Robert, Sylvia, Charles and Donald. They had been married for over 81 years when he died in 2008. Juran was promoted to department chief in 1928, and the following year became a division chief. He published his first quality related article in Mechanical Engineering in 1935. In 1937, he moved to Western Electric/AT&T's headquarters in New York City. As a hedge against the uncertainties of the Great Depression, he enrolled in Loyola University Chicago School of Law in 1931. He graduated in 1935 and was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1936, though he never practiced Law. During the Second World War, through an arrangement with his employer, Juran served in the Lend-Lease Administration and Foreign Economic Administration. Just before war's end, he resigned from

Western Electric, and his government post, intending to become a freelance consultant. He joined the faculty of New York University as an adjunct Professor in the Department of Industrial Engineering, where he taught courses in quality control and ran round table seminars for executives. He also worked through a small management consulting firm on projects for Gilette, Hamilton Watch Company and Borg-Warner. After the firm's owner's sudden death, Juran began his own independent practice, from which he made a comfortable living until his retirement in the late 1990s. His early clients included the now defunct BigelowSanford Carpet Company, the Koppers Company, the International Latex Company, Bausch & Lomb and General Foods.

Dr Joseph M Juran is a charismatic figure, acknowledged world-wide for his extensive contribution to quality management. While often referred to as one of the leading figures of total quality management, much of Juran's work actually preceded the total quality concept. He became a legend in his own time, and has been instrumental in shaping many of our current ideas about quality. Recognised as one of the architects of the quality movement in Japan, his influence on manufacturing throughout the world has been substantial. Life and career Juran was born in a small village in Romania in 1904. He was the third of four children and lived in poverty for much of his childhood. His father left the family in 1909 to find work in America and some three years later there was enough money for the rest of the family to join him in Minnesota. Juran excelled at school in America and his affinity for mathematics and science meant that he soon advanced the equivalent of three year grades. He enrolled at the University of Minnesota in 1920 and became the first member of his family to enter higher education. By 1924 he had earned himself a B.S. in Electrical Engineering and in 1936 a J.D. in Law at Loyola University. During his career, Juran has produced many leading international handbooks, training courses and training books that have all been widely received and have collectively been translated into 16 languages. He has been awarded more than 40 honorary doctorates, honorary memberships, medals and plaques around the world. For his work on quality in Japan he was awarded the Second Order of the Sacred Treasure for `the development of quality control in Japan …

J. M. Juran's major contribution to society was in the field of quality management and he is often called the "father" of quality. Perhaps most importantly, he is recognized as the person who added the managerial dimension to quality—broadening it from its statistical origins. His writings are numerous; from the first standard reference work on quality management, the Quality Control Handbook, to his memoir, Architect of Quality. We will bring you many of his articles and white papers through the e-Lifeline. The Quality Trilogy Dr. Juran notes several premises leading him to the conclusion that our companies need to chart new direction in managing for quality. He also notes that those who wish to chart a new course will inevitably be faced with resistance when creating a unified approach in the form of nonuniformities inherent in any company. Dr. Juran’s answer to these obstacles is a universal thought process he calls the “Quality Trilogy.” The underlying concept of the Quality Trilogy is that managing for quality consists of three basic quality-oriented processes; quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. Dr. Joseph Juran, the Pioneer of Quality Management “Whatever advances American manufacturing has made in the last 30 to 40 years, we owe to Joe Juran.” —Dr. Peter Drucker What better way to open a retrospective on Dr. Joseph M. Juran than with a quotation from another renowned visionary: Dr. Peter Drucker. Dr. Juran and Dr. Drucker, winner of AMA’s Leadership Visionary Award presented at AMA’s 80th Anniversary Leadership Forum, were lifelong friends. A Close Shave

In 1947 Dr. Juran had occasion to examine the test the Gillette Company was using to evaluate the quality of shaves made by razor blades. His analysis led to extensive changes in the design of the test, which in turn contributed to a remarkable improvement in shaving comfort. Non Pareto Principle – Mea Culpa Years ago Dr. Juran gave the name "Pareto" to the principle of the "vital few and trivial many." On subsequent challenge, he was forced to confess that he had mistakenly applied the wrong name to the principle. This confession changed nothing – the name "Pareto principle" has continued in force, and seems destined to become a permanent label for the phenomenon. Dr. Juran, A Quality World, A Quality Life The main reason quality receives the attention it does today is because of the life work of Joseph M. Juran, Ph.D., who has taken theories based in statistics and created an enduring quality manufacturing and management philosophy. Juran’s global influence is reflected in those who follow his doctrines, his numerous accolades from organizations and heads of state, and the legacy of the Juran Institute he founded in 1983. Here is a candid conversation with Joseph Juran on the past, present, and future of his field.

DR. JOSEPH JURAN (B. 1904)
Dr. Juran was born on December 24, 1904 in Braila, Romania. He moved to the United States in 1912 at the age of 8. Juran's teaching and consulting career spanned more than seventy years, known as one of the foremost experts on quality in the world. A quality professional from the beginning of his career, Juran joined the inspection branch of the Hawthorne Co. of Western Electric (a Bell manufacturing company) in 1924, after completing his B.S. in Electrical Engineering. In 1934, he became a quality manager. He worked with the U. S. government during World War II and afterward became a quality consultant. In 1952, Dr. Juran was invited to Japan. Dr. Edward Deming helped arrange the meeting that led to this invitation and his many years of work with Japanese companies. Juran founded the Juran Center for Quality Improvement at the University of Minnesota and the Juran Institute. His third book, Juran's Quality Control Handbook, published in 1951, was translated into Japanese. Other books include Juran on Planning for Quality (1988), Juran on Leadership for Quality (1989), Juran on Quality by Design (1992), Quality Planning and Analysis (1993), and A History of Managing for Quality (1995). Architect of Quality (2004) is his autobiography.

SELECTED JURAN QUALITY THEORIES
Juran's concepts can be used to establish a traditional quality system, as well as to support Strategic Quality Management. Among other things, Juran's philosophy includes the Quality Trilogy and the Quality Planning Roadmap.
JURAN'S QUALITY TRILOGY.

The Quality Trilogy emphasizes the roles of quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement. Quality planning's purpose is to provide operators with the ability to produce goods and services that can meet customers' needs. In the quality planning stage, an organization must determine who the customers are and what they need, develop the product or service features that meet customers' needs, develop processes which are able to deliver those products and services, and transfer the plans to the operating forces. If quality planning is deficient, then chronic waste occurs. Quality control is used to prevent things from getting worse. Quality control is the inspection part of the Quality Trilogy where operators compare actual performance with plans and resolve the differences. Chronic waste should be considered an opportunity for quality improvement, the third element of the Trilogy. Quality improvement encompasses improvement of fitness-for-use and error reduction, seeks a new level of performance that is superior to any previous level, and is attained by applying breakthrough thinking.

While up-front quality planning is what organizations should be doing, it is normal for organizations to focus their first quality efforts on quality control. In this aspect of the Quality Trilogy, activities include inspection to determine percent defective (or first pass yield) and deviations from quality standards. Activities can then focus on another part of the trilogy, quality improvement, and make it an integral part of daily work for individuals and teams. Quality planning must be integrated into every aspect of the organization's work, such as strategic plans; product, service and process designs; operations; and delivery to the customer. The Quality Trilogy is depicted below in Figure 2.
JURAN'S QUALITY PLANNING ROAD MAP.

Juran's Quality Planning Road Map can be used by individuals and teams throughout the world as a checklist for understanding customer requirements, establishing measurements based on customer needs, optimizing

Figure 2 Quality Trilogy Source: J.M. Juran, Juran on Planning for Quality, The Free Press, New York, pp. 1112. product design, and developing a process that is capable of meeting customer requirements. The Quality Planning Roadmap is used for Product and Process Development and is shown in Figure 3.

Juran's Quality Trilogy and Quality Roadmap are not enough. An infrastructure for Quality must be

Figure 3 Dr. Juran's Quality Planning Roadmap Source: J. M. Juran, Juran on Planning for Quality, The Free Press, NY, 1988, pp.1415. developed, and teams must work on improvement projects. The infrastructure should include a quality steering team with top management leading the effort, quality should become an integral part of the strategic plan, and all people should be involved. As people identify areas with improvement potential, they should team together to improve processes and produce quality products and services.

Under the "Big Q" concept, all people and departments are responsible for quality. In the old era under the concept of "little q," the quality department was responsible for quality. Big "Q" allows workers to regain pride in workmanship by assuming responsibility for quality.

CONCLUSION
Throughout his career Joseph M. Juran has led a very successful life and has made many contributions to the fields of quality control and quality management. During his career Juran taught many of society’s leaders and affected the entire world. There are many people who haven given quotes of approval regarding Juran. Among these people are Steve Jobs founder of Apple Computer and Next, Peter Drucker a writer and theorist and Lawrence Appley chairman emeritus of the American Management Association. The quote that says the most is given by Jungi Noguchi, Executive Director of the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers, who stated, “Dr. Juran is the greatest authority on quality control in the entire world.” Juran never sought fame through his work; he only wanted to make sure that his accomplishments were purposeful and genuine. Juran was once quoted saying that “…it wouldn’t bother me if I’m not remembered at all.” As long as there is an interest in quality, Juran will not be forgotten.

BIBIOGRAPHY http://www.public.iastate.edu/~vardeman/IE361/f02mini/ kroh.pdf http://www.wetherhaven.com/~conversation/Documents/ vitalfew-juran-ppt.pdf http://www.jmjuran.com/biography.htm http://www.skymark.com/resources/leaders/juran.asp

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