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# Data and graphs

12

Jemma has been asked by the club president to analyse the results of her AFL football team for a season. The points scored in 22 matches were: 85, 96, 118, 93, 73, 71, 98, 77, 106, 64, 73, 88, 62, 97, 104, 85, 73, 92, 62, 76, 90, 79. What conclusions can you draw from these data? The data as listed are difﬁcult to work with so we need to present them in a way that makes them easier to analyse. This chapter looks at various ways of displaying data as well as different measures which describe aspects of the data.

areyou

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Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

**Are you ready?
**

12.2

Reading scales. (How much is each interval worth?)

Try the questions below. If you have difﬁculty with any of them, extra help can be obtained by completing the matching SkillSHEET. Either click on the SkillSHEET icon next to the question on the Maths Quest 8 CD-ROM or ask your teacher for a copy.

READY?

c

0 100 170 160 Height (cm) 150 140 130 120 110 100 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Years 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 20 21 22 23 24 Score Increase in Timmy’s height between 2001 and 2006

**1 On each of the following scales, state what each interval is worth. a b 60 4 5 80
**

Reading line graphs

12.3

2 The line graph at right shows the height of a child (Timmy) over 5 years. a How tall was Timmy at the start of the measurement period? b How much did Timmy grow in the ﬁrst year? c How much did Timmy grow over the ﬁve years? d How many years did it take for Timmy to grow 10 cm?

Producing a frequency table from a frequency histogram

12.4

3 Copy and complete the following frequency table to show the data represented in the frequency histogram. Score (x) 20 21 22 23 24 Frequency (f) 5

12.7 12.5

Finding the mean

4 a Find the sum of the following data: 6, 3, 5, 4, 5, 4, 6, 7. b Divide this sum by the number of items in the data set.

Arranging a set of data in ascending order

12.8

5 Arrange each of the following sets of data in ascending order. a 25, 20, 22, 21, 29, 34, 25 b 215, 381, 276, 345, 298, 277, 325, 400, 304 c 4.6, 0.3, 3.6, 5.8, 2.9, 1.8, 3.5, 5.8, 3.1, 2.8, 3.6

Finding the score in a data set that occurs most frequently

12.12 12.9 12.8

6 For each of the following data sets, ﬁnd the score that occurs most frequently. a 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5 b 23, 29, 25, 24, 23, 21, 25, 26, 25, 29 c 7, 12, 8, 3, 5, 11, 8, 4, 2, 1, 6, 10, 13

Frequency

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

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**Data collection and organisation
**

Information or data is constantly being collected. Different organisations collect different types of data. For example, at a cricket match, some of the statistics gathered for a batsman are: time spent batting, the number of balls faced, the runs off a particular delivery, where the ball was hit, the number of 4s or 6s hit, and so on. Once the data is collected, it can be organised, analysed and interpreted. Data can be collected from existing sources (such as government records), from experiments or by observation. A survey is the process of collecting data. If every member of a target population is surveyed, the process is called a census. A census is conducted in Australia every 5 years to obtain an accurate proﬁle of Australians. On census night each person in Australia is required to complete a detailed booklet containing a series of questions relating to age, marital status, employment, income, housing, education, modes of transport and so on. This allows the government to analyse the population and make decisions on how to improve services. Due to limitations in time, cost and practicality, in many cases a sample of the population is selected at random (not in any particular order or pattern) to prevent biased (leaning in a favoured direction) results. A sample can give us an indication of what the whole population is like. Consider these situations: 1. You cook a batch of mufﬁns to take to a party. Naturally, you want to test whether they turned out well. Do you eat the whole population of cakes as a check? 2. A factory produces 400 cars per day. Should there be a crash-test of every car before it is sold to the public? In both cases it is not practical or viable to test each item. Therefore, a sample needs to be taken.

The following investigations require you to research different ways to obtain un– biased samples and conduct surveys.

COMMUNICATION

Samples and surveys

Find out how samples are chosen and surveys conducted for: a television program ratings b top 10 songs, videos and movies.

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Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

THINKING

Bias

It is important that a sample is chosen randomly to avoid bias. Consider the following situation. The government wants to improve sporting facilities in Melbourne. They decide to survey 1000 people about what facilities they would like to see improved. To do this, they choose the ﬁrst 1000 people through the gate at a football match at the Telstra Dome. In this situation it is likely that the results will be biased towards improving facilities for football. It is also unlikely that the survey will be representative of the whole population in terms of equality between men and women, age of the participants and ethnic backgrounds. Questions can also create bias. Consider asking the question, ‘Is football your favourite sport?’ The question invites the response that football is the favourite sport rather than allowing a free choice from a variety of sports by the respondent. Consider each of the following surveys and discuss: a any advantages, disadvantages and possible causes of bias b a way in which a truly representative sample could be obtained. 1 Surveying food product choices by interviewing customers of a large supermarket chain as they emerge from the store between 9.00 am and 2.00 pm on a Wednesday. 2 Researching the popularity of a government decision by stopping people at random in a central city mall. 3 Using a telephone survey of 500 people selected at random from the phone book to ﬁnd if all Australian States should have Daylight Saving Time in summer. 4 A bookseller uses a public library database to survey for the most popular novels over the last three months. 5 An interview survey about violence in sport taken at a football venue as spectators leave.

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DESIGN

Collecting data for surveys and questionnaires

Great care must be taken when framing questions to collect data by post or by personal interview. It is common for people to misunderstand the point of a question. The answers to the questions must be in a form that makes them easy to collate.

Designing a questionnaire

When designing a questionnaire it is important to keep these key principles in mind. 1 Know exactly what kind of data you are after before you start framing the questions. 2 Adapt the questions to suit the target population. 3 Word each question for clarity and courtesy. 4 Keep the answers’ format as simple as possible. Some of the ways of doing this are: a b c d

0

circling or recording a number ticking a box Yes/No/Don’t know a scaled rating, such as the one below

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Totally disagree

Strongly disagree

Moderately disagree

Neither agree nor disagree

Moderately agree

Strongly agree

Totally agree

e

a single word.

5 Arrange all questions in a clear, uncluttered layout. 6 Go for the minimum possible number of questions. 7 Trial your best efforts on several people from the target group and rewrite as necessary. The members of the Student Representative Council (SRC) have drafted a questionnaire regarding their role in the school. Making your SRC work 1 In your opinion, how has the SRC gone about achieving its goals of the past year? 2 In your opinion, what should the SRC try to achieve this year? 3 If the SRC were to fundraise for a speciﬁc school-based project, what would be some realistic ideas you could offer that the money could go to? 4 To what extent are you prepared to support and assist your leaders this year? (continued)

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Each of these questions is open-ended. This means that the possible responses are unlimited and will be difﬁcult to collate. A more effective questionnaire follows. 1 In your opinion did the SRC achieve its goals last year? YES / NO / DON’T KNOW 2 On a scale of 1 (very unimportant) to 5 (very important) rate the following goals of this year’s SRC. a b c Improve sporting facilities for the school. Establish a senior study room. Have a separate canteen line for Year 8 students.

3 Rank the following fundraising projects from 1 to 4. Royal Children’s Hospital Appeal Two new computers for the library for student Internet access Replacement of worn sporting equipment 50 CAS calculators for student use. 4 I am prepared to assist with ALL / SOME / A FEW / NONE of the SRC activities over the next year.

These questions are much easier to collate and produce a snapshot of school opinion about the SRC. Now design a questionnaire of your own for one of the following issues. 1 Are school uniforms needed? 2 Are wages for teenage workers reasonable? 3 More leisure activities are required for teenagers. 4 There is too much violence in computer games, in movies and on television. 5 There is a need for a new Australian ﬂag. 6 Compulsory military service should be introduced for 18-year-olds 7 Speed limits throughout Australia should be changed. 8 Which radio stations throughout Australia are most popular? The results to a questionnaire can be tabulated using a database. Investigate how you may be able to do this.

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**Tables and charts
**

It is far better to present data in an organised manner rather than leave them in their raw form. The simplest way to sort and display information is to form a table or chart. Horizontal rows and vertical columns intersect to form boxes in which the data are given.

WORKED Example 1

This table represents the Food product Standard Large prices at Franky’s Fast $1.50 $2.50 Foods. Use the table to Fries answer the following: $2.00 $3.50 Chicken nuggets a What is the cost of a $1.80 $3.00 Homemade pies large homemade pie? b Which is more $4.95 $6.95 Whole BBQ chicken expensive, a family $1.95 $3.95 Lasagne lasagne or a family whole chicken? c How much more is paid for large fries than for a standard serving? d What is the total cost of a family chicken and family fries? e How much change would there be from $50 after buying 2 large fries, 3 large nuggets and a standard lasagne? f Considering all products, about how many times the cost of a standard serving (to the nearest whole number) is the cost of a family serving? g Based on your answer to part f, if a standard size pizza was $6.00 at this shop, what would you expect a family pizza to cost? THINK WRITE a

1

Family $4.00 $5.50 $5.00 $9.95 $6.95

Obtain the cost of a large homemade pie by reading directly from the table. Refer to the cell in which the Homemade pies row intersects with the ‘Large’ column.

a

Product Fries Chicken nuggets Homemade pies

Standard Large $1.50 $2.00 $1.80 $2.50 $3.50 $3.00

Family $4.00 $5.50 $5.00

2

Answer the question.

**The cost of a large homemade pie is $3.00.
**

Continued over page

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THINK b

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Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WRITE b Cost of a family lasagne = $6.95 Cost of a whole family chicken = $9.95 A whole family chicken is more expensive than a family lasagne. c Cost of large fries = $2.50 Cost of standard fries = $1.50 Difference = large fries − standard fries = $2.50 − $1.50 = $1.00 Large fries cost $1.00 more than standard fries. d Cost of whole family chicken = $9.95 Cost of family fries = $4.00 Total cost = family chicken + family fries = $9.95 + $4.00 = $13.95 The total cost of a family chicken and family fries is $13.95. e Cost of large fries = 2 × $2.50 = $5.00 Cost of 3 large nuggets = 3 × $3.50 = $10.50 Cost of a standard lasagne = $1.95 Total = $5.00 + $10.50 + $1.95 = $17.45 Change = $50.00 − $17.45 = $32.55 The change received from ﬁfty dollars is $32.55. Family fries 4.00 f -------------------------------- = --------Standard fries 1.50 = 2.67 (≈ 3)

Obtain the price of a family lasagne. Obtain the price of a whole family chicken. Compare the prices. Answer the question. Obtain the price of large fries. Obtain the price of standard fries. Subtract the price of standard fries from large fries. Answer the question.

c

1 2 3

4

d

1 2 3

Obtain the cost of a whole family chicken. Obtain the cost of family fries. Add the two amounts.

4

Answer the question.

e

1 2 3 4 5 6

Obtain the cost of 2 large fries. Obtain the cost of 3 large nuggets. Obtain the cost of a standard lasagne. Add the 3 amounts. Subtract the total amount obtained in step 4 from $50. Answer the question.

f

1 2

Divide each family product by its respective standard product. Round the answer to the nearest whole number.

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THINK Note: If the digit in the ﬁrst decimal place is greater than or equal to 5, round the value up.

WRITE Family nuggets 5.50 ---------------------------------------- = --------Standard nuggets 2.00 = 2.75 (≈ 3) Family pies 5.00 ------------------------------- = --------Standard pies 1.80 = 2.78 (≈ 3) Family chicken 9.95 ---------------------------------------- = --------Standard chicken 4.95 = 2.01 (≈ 2) Family lasagne 6.95 ---------------------------------------- = --------Standard lasagne 1.95 = 3.56 (≈ 4) On average, the cost of a family product is 3 times the cost of its respective standard product. g Family pizza ≈ 3 × $6.00 = $18.00 A family pizza would cost approximately $18.00.

Note: If the digit in the ﬁrst decimal place is less than 5, round the value down.

3

Answer the question.

g

1

2

To obtain the family price of a product, multiply the standard price by 3. Answer the question.

remember

1. Tables and charts should include: (a) an appropriate title (b) clear headings for columns (c) clear labels for rows (d) well-spaced data for easy reading. 2. Tables are read by looking at the combination of a row and a column.

12A

WORKED

**Tables and charts
**

Math

cad

Example

1 This table shows the maximum and minimum daily temperatures in a city over a oneweek period. 1 Day Maximum (°C) Minimum (°C) 1 26 18 2 25 18 3 27 19 4 25 17 5 24 17 6 22 16 7 23 16

Tables and charts

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Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Use the table to answer the following: a What was the maximum temperature on day 5? b Which day(s) had the lowest minimum temperature? c Which day was the hottest? d Which day had the warmest minimum temperature? e What was the temperature range (variation) on day 3? f Which day had the smallest range of temperatures? g What would you expect the maximum and minimum temperatures to be on day 8? 2 The cost of entry to Wild and Wet theme park is shown in this table: Number of children (under 15) Number of adults 0 1 2 3 4 0 $30 $58 $84 $100 $100 $116 $130 $16 $46 $30 $60 $88 $42 $72 $100 $126 $55 $85 $113 $139 $155

0

1

2

3

4

Parties of over 4 adults and 4 children by special arrangement

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a What is the cost of entry for 3 children with no adults? b What is the cost of entry for 2 adults and no children? c Which is more expensive, the cost of entry for 2 adults and 3 children or the cost of entry for 1 adult and 4 children? What is the difference in cost? d Fill in the costs left blank. e How much does each adult save by going in a party of four adults rather than going alone? f How much change from $150 would there be after a group of 2 adults and 4 children paid the admission? g Complete this sentence describing the overall pattern of costs. The greater the number of people in a group, the _____________ . h Four Year 8 students decided to go together to the Wild and Wet. How much did each student pay? 3 The country is divided into local telephone zones. If you ring outside of your area, you are making an STD (subscriber trunk dialling) call. These phone calls are charged at two rates depending on the day and what time of day you are making the call (and on what plan you have with the phone company). Peak charges apply to STD calls made between 7 am and 7 pm Monday to Friday. Off-peak rates apply to STD calls made at all other times. The following table shows the cost of making STD calls for the two rates. Call duration Rate Peak Off-peak 1 min 25c 18c 3 min 75c 54c 5 min $1.25 $1.90c 10 min $2.50 $1.80 20 min $5.00 $3.60 30 min $7.50 $5.40

a Use the table to calculate the cost of a 3-minute call: iii at 1.00 pm on Monday iii at any time on Sunday iv at 6.30 pm on Thursday. b Use the table to calculate the cost of each of the following calls: iii 10 min call at 5 pm on Saturday iii 1 min call at 10 pm on Monday iv 20 min call at 1.20 pm on Tuesday. iii 5 min call at 9.30 am on Friday iv 30 min call at 3 pm on Sunday iii at 8 pm on Tuesday iv at 2 am on Wednesday

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4 Satri decides to travel by train to Geometric for a holiday with relatives. The timetable for the Silver Streak Train Line is provided below. Timetable — Silver Streak Train Line Mathsville to Geometric Mathsville Integral Addsville Greater Rock Pronumeral Meal Break Halftown Wholetown Geometric Daily Monday–Friday 7.00 am 7.45 9.30 10.30 Arrive 11.30 Leave 12.30 pm 1.20 2.25 3.05 Every Monday 6.00 pm 6.45 8.30 9.30 10.30 no stop 11.20 12.25 am 1.05 Saturday and Sunday 7.30 am 8.15 10.00 11.00 12.00 noon 1.00 pm 1.50 2.55 3.35

Use the timetable to answer the following. a If Satri left on Saturday, what time would she arrive at Geometric? b On what day(s) could she catch an evening train? c How long does the journey from Mathsville to Geometric take? d Where does the train stop for a meal? For how long? e At what time does the Monday evening train pass through Wholetown? f If Satri took the Wednesday morning train and slept from 1.00 to 2.30 pm, what towns would she miss seeing? g If Satri wants to connect with a Friday 1400 hours ﬂight out of Geometric and the train (leaving Friday morning) is running on time, should she be able to make it? Explain.

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Questions 5 and 6 refer to the following table for International Parcel Post to zones A–C to calculate charges for posting parcels overseas.

Parcel mass and zones Zone A New Zealand Over 250 g up to 500 g Over 500 g up to 750 g Over 750 g up to 1000 g Over 1000 g up to 1250 g Over 1250 g up to 1500 g Over 1500 g up to 1750 g Over 1750 g up to 2000 g Extra 500 g or part thereof Zone B Asia Paciﬁc Over 250 g up to 500 g Over 500 g up to 750 g Over 750 g up to 1000 g Over 1000 g up to 1250 g Over 1250 g up to 1500 g Over 1500 g up to 1750 g Over 1750 g up to 2000 g Extra 500 g or part thereof Zone C USA/Canada/Middle East Over 250 g up to 500 g Over 500 g up to 750 g Over 750 g up to 1000 g Over 1000 g up to 1250 g Over 1250 g up to 1500 g Over 1500 g up to 1750 g Over 1750 g up to 2000 g Extra 500 g or part thereof

Air Mail $9.00 $12.50 $15.50 $19.00 $22.00 $25.50 $28.50 $3.50 $11.00 $15.50 $19.50 $24.00 $28.00 $32.50 $36.50 $4.50

Economy Air $8.00 $11.00 $13.50 $16.00 $19.00 $22.00 $24.50 $3.00 $9.50 $13.00 $16.00 $19.50 $22.50 $26.00 $29.00 $3.50

Sea Mail — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

EMS Documents $30.00 $34.50 $34.50 $39.00 $39.00 $43.50 $43.50 $4.50 $32.00 $38.50 $38.50 $45.00 $45.00 $51.50 $51.50 $6.50

EMS Merchandise $37.00 $41.50 $41.50 $46.00 $46.00 $50.50 $50.50 $4.50 $39.00 $45.50 $45.50 $52.00 $52.00 $58.50 $58.50 $6.50

$13.00 $18.50 $23.50 $29.00 $34.00 $49.50 $44.50 $6.50

$11.00 $15.50 $19.50 $24.00 $28.00 $32.00 $36.50 $5.50

$6.00 $12.50 $15.50 $19/00 $22.00 $25.50 $28.50 $3.50

$35.00 $43.50 $43.50 $52.00 $52.00 $60.50 $60.50 $8.50

$42.00 $50.50 $50.50 $59.00 $59.00 $67.50 $67.50 $8.50

Source: Australia Post

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5 Use the International Parcel Post table on page 559 to ﬁnd the total cost to send, from Australia: a a 700-g parcel to New Zealand (zone A) by Air Mail b a 2.3-kg parcel to the USA (zone C) by Economy Air c a 1.8-kg document to China (zone B) by EMS Documents d a 4-kg parcel to Malaysia (zone B) by Air Mail e a 6-kg parcel to Egypt (zone C) by Economy Air f a 300-g parcel to Japan (zone B) by Air Mail g a 420-g parcel to Fiji (zone B) by Economy Air h a 3.9-kg parcel to Canada (zone C) by Sea Mail i an 8-kg parcel to Papua New Guinea (zone B) by Air Mail j 11 kg of merchandise to India (zone B) by EMS. 6 How much more does it cost to post a 10-kg parcel to Indonesia (in zone B) by Air Mail than by Economy Air?

COMMUNICATION

Staying alive

Fatalities per 100 000 population 7.9 9.2 8.9 10.1 8.6 12.9 25.3 5.1

The table at right shows the comparison of road deaths in 2001 between NSW and other states.

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics and NSW Roads and Trafﬁc Authority

State/Territory New South Wales Victoria Queensland Western Australia South Australia Tasmania Northern Territory Australian Capital Territory

Killed 524 444 324 165 153 61 50 16

Use the table to answer the following questions. 1 Which state or territory had: a the most road fatalities? b the least road fatalities? 2 Which state or territory had 165 fatalities?

3 Which state or territory had: a the highest number of road deaths per 100 000 of population? b the lowest number of road deaths per 100 000 of population? 4 Which column — ‘Killed’ or ‘Fatalities per 100 000’ — is a more accurate measure of the risk of death on the road? Why? 5 Therefore, which state or territory is: a the safest? b the most dangerous for road deaths? 6 Out of the 8 states and territories, where does NSW rate in terms of road safety (ACT would be 1), based on the ‘Fatalities per 100 000’ column?

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1

Questions 1 to 4 refer to Pete’s pizza price list. Pete’s Pizzas Pizza Vegetarian Supreme Chicken Hot salami Mexican Small $5.00 $6.00 $6.50 $5.50 $5.50 Medium $7.00 $7.50 $8.00 $7.50 $7.50 Large $9.00 $9.50 $10.00 $9.80 $9.00 Family $11.00 $12.00 $12.80 $12.50 $11.90

1 What is the cost of a large Hot salami pizza? 2 What is the most expensive medium pizza? 3 What is the cost of a family Chicken pizza and a small Supreme pizza? 4 How much change would you have from $50 after buying a small Vegetarian pizza, a medium Mexican pizza and a family Supreme pizza? Questions 5 to 7 refer to the following frequency distribution table, which shows data collected on magazine sales in one week at a local newsagency. Answer true or false to the following statements. 5 The magazines Girlfriend and Smash Hits sold equally well in this week. 6 During this week 40 copies of House and garden were sold. 7 Dolly was the magazine sold. most popular Magazine Dolly Girlfriend House and garden Smash Hits Total Number of sales 50 60 30 60 200

Questions 8 to 10 refer to the following table. A number of people were surveyed as to their most preferred water sport. 8 List the sports in ascending order Water sports survey of preference. Water sport Number of people 9 What fraction of people surveyed prefer waterskiing? 10 What percentage of people surveyed prefer snorkelling? Snorkelling Waterskiing Whitewater rafting Diving 20 10 35 15

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Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

**Column and bar graphs
**

Graphs are very helpful when displaying and interpreting information. It is generally easier to analyse the data when it is displayed as a graph rather than in a frequency table.

Column graphs

When constructing column graphs, they should be drawn on graph paper and have: 1. a title 2. labelled axes which are clearly and evenly scaled 3. columns of the same width 4. an even gap between each column 5. the ﬁrst column beginning half a unit (that is, half the column width) from the vertical axis.

WORKED Example 2

Number preferring (frequency)

The graph at right represents the favourite pets of a particular Year 8 class. a How many students preferred a dog as a pet? b How many students in the class had a favourite pet? c Which was the least favoured pet? d How many times more popular than horses are dogs? e If there are 28 students in the class, how many do not have a favourite pet? THINK a Read the ‘Dog’ column of the graph and answer the question. b

1 2

**Year 8 Blue’s favourite pets 8 6 4 2 0
**

Dog Cat Bird Mouse Horse

Pet

WRITE a Eight people preferred a dog as a pet. b Number of students = 8 + 6 + 4 + 3 + 2 = 23 In the class, 23 students had a favourite pet. c The least favoured pet is the horse. d Students preferring horses = 2 Students preferring dogs = 8 Eight is four times as large as two; that is, 8 = 2 × 4. Dogs are four times more popular than horses. e Number of students = 28 − 23 =5 Five students do not have a favourite pet.

Add the numbers corresponding to the top of each column. Answer the question.

**c Make note of the shortest column and answer the question. d
**

1

2 3

Obtain the number of students preferring horses and those preferring dogs. Compare the two values. Answer the question.

e

1

2

Subtract the number of students who have a favourite pet (that is, 23) from the total number of students. Answer the question.

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Bar graphs

When constructing bar graphs, they should be drawn on graph paper and have: 1. a title 2. labelled axes that are clearly and evenly scaled 3. horizontal bars of the same width 4. an even gap between each horizontal bar 5. the ﬁrst horizontal bar beginning half a unit (that is, half the bar width) above the horizontal axis.

WORKED Example 3

The graph at right represents the favourite television shows of 500 teenagers aged between 13 and 15. a What percentage of the teenagers Favourite television shows preferred watching comedy Comedy television shows? Soaps b How many of the teenagers in the Police Drama sample preferred to watch science News Documentaries ﬁction television shows? Cartoons c What was the least favoured Science Fiction television show? Lifestyle d What were the two most popular Thriller television shows? 0 5% 10% 15% 20% e Which television show is three times Percentage favouring more popular than the news? f Which television show did 10% of the teenagers watch? g What scale has been used on the horizontal axis?

Television shows

25%

**THINK a Read the ‘Comedy’ bar of the graph and answer the question. b
**

1 2

WRITE a 10% of the teenagers preferred comedy television shows. b 8% of the teenagers preferred science ﬁction. 8% of 500 8 = -------- × 500 100 = 40 Forty teenagers enjoyed science ﬁction shows. c The least favoured television shows are the documentaries and lifestyle programs. d The two most popular television shows are the cartoons and police dramas.

Continued over page

Read the ‘Science Fiction’ bar of the graph. Find 8% of the sample.

3

Answer the question.

c Make note of the shortest bar(s) and answer the question. d Make note of the two longest bars and answer the question.

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THINK e

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Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WRITE e Teenagers preferring the news = 6% Required percentage is 3 × 6% = 18% 18% corresponds to the soaps.

4

Obtain the percentage of teenagers who preferred watching the news. Multiply the news percentage by 3. Find the percentage obtained in step 2 on the horizontal scale of the graph and see which bar it corresponds to. Answer the question.

f Find 10% on the horizontal scale of the graph and see which bar(s) it corresponds to. g 1 Read the horizontal scale and determine how many centimetres represent each marking. Answer the question. 2

The soaps are three times more popular than the news. f Comedy and thriller television shows are preferred by 10% of the teenagers. g 1 cm = 5%

From the graph, each one centimetre represents 5% favouring.

WORKED Example 4

These results were obtained when a Year 8 Number class was surveyed on their favourite leisure preferring activity. Leisure activity (frequency) a Select a suitable title and draw a column Reading 3 graph to display the data. Label the horizontal axis ‘Leisure activity’ and the Television 9 vertical axis ‘Number preferring Sport 7 (frequency)’. Scale the vertical axis from ‘Hanging out’ 5 0 to 10 so as to include the highest score. b How many students chose sport as their Other 2 favoured leisure activity? c What is the difference between the most and least favoured activity? d Which activity received 5 votes? e If everyone in the class completed the survey, how many students were in the class? THINK a

1

WRITE a

Number preferring (frequency) 10 8 6 4 2 0

Reading Television Sport ‘Hanging Other out’

Rule a set of axes on graph paper. Provide a title for the graph that relates to the data, for example, ‘Favourite leisure activity’. Label the horizontal and vertical axes.

Favourite leisure activity

Leisure activity

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THINK Scale the horizontal and vertical axes. Note: Leave a half interval at the beginning and end of the graph; that is, begin the ﬁrst column half a unit from the vertical axis. Draw a vertical column so that it 3 reaches a vertical height corresponding to 3 people. Label the section of the axis below the column as ‘Reading’. 4 Leave a gap (measuring one column width) between the ﬁrst column and the second column. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each of the 5 remaining leisure activities. b Read the ‘Sport’ column of the graph and answer the question. c 1 Make note of the tallest and shortest columns of the graph. 2 Subtract the number of students corresponding to the shortest column from those corresponding to the tallest column. Evaluate and answer the question. 3

2

WRITE

b Seven students chose sport as their favourite leisure activity. c Television (most favoured) = 9 students Other (least favoured) = 2 students Difference = 9 − 2 =7

d

1

2

e

1 2

Find 5 on the vertical scale of the graph and see which column it corresponds to. Answer the question. Add the frequencies corresponding to the top of each column. Answer the question.

The difference between the most and least favoured leisure activity is 7. d ‘Hanging out’ received 5 votes.

e Total = 3 + 9 + 7 + 5 + 2 Total = 25 There are 25 students in the class.

Column and bar graphs are used for displaying categorical data, that is, data relating to eye colour, pets, favourite pastimes and so on.

remember

1. Graphs should be drawn on graph paper for greater accuracy. When constructing column or bar graphs they must have: (a) a title (b) labelled axes that are clearly and evenly scaled (c) vertical columns or horizontal bars of the same width (d) an even gap between each column or bar (e) the ﬁrst column or bar beginning half a unit from the appropriate axis. 2. Column and bar graphs are used for displaying categorical data, that is, data relating to eye colour, pets, favourite pastimes and so on.

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Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

12B

SkillS

Column and bar graphs

HEET

12.1

Reading column graphs

WORKED

Example

Mat

hca

d

**Column and bar graphs
**

EXCE

reads L Sp he

et

1 This column graph represents the Jumpin’ Jeans company’s proﬁts. Jumpin’ Jeans 20 2 company profits a Which year showed the highest proﬁt? How 10 much was it? 0 b In which year did losses start? What was the loss that year? –10 c What was the proﬁt or loss for 2005? –20 d i Find the total proﬁts and the total losses. ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 ii Calculate the company’s overall proﬁt/loss Year over the period shown. e In which year was the only improvement made? By how much? 2 The graph at right represents the preferred television snacks of 160 Year 8 students at Mathsville High. 3 a Which snack is most favoured? What perPreferred television snacks centage favoured it? Lollies b Which snack was preferred by 12% of those Popcorn surveyed? c How much greater was the percentage preferNuts ring corn chips than the percentage preferring Corn chips popcorn? d What must the total of all column percentages Potato chips be? Why? 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Percentage favouring e How many times more popular than nuts are potato chips? f What other choices could have been added to the survey? g What scale is used on the horizontal scale? 3 These results were obtained when a class voted to elect a captain. 4 a Select a suitable title and draw a column graph to display the data. Label the horizontal axis ‘Student’ and the vertical axis ‘Votes received’. Scale the vertical axis from 0 to 12 so as to include the highest score. b Who was elected class captain? c What was the winning margin over the next most popular candidate? d Which two candidates received the same number of votes? e If everyone in the class used their one vote, how many were in the class? Student Imran Renee Julian Gann Than Number of votes 6 3 11 9 3

Loss Profit ($millions)

Column graphs

reads L Sp he

WORKED

Example

et et et

EXCE EXCE EXCE

**Column graphs (DIY)
**

reads L Sp he

Bar graphs

reads L Sp he

Bar graphs (DIY)

WORKED

Example

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

567

4 The age-group composition of the Australian population in 2005 is shown in the table below. Age group 0–9 10–19 20–64 65 + a b c d Number of millions 2.4 2.5 9.5 3.9

Draw a bar graph to display the data. Which age groups are roughly equal in numbers? What percentage of the population were 65 or over? What percentage were in the income earning 20–64 age group?

Questions 5, 6 and 7 relate to the following table. A survey of houses in Statistics Street produced the data shown in the table below. Number of bedrooms 2 3 4 5 Number of houses 3 10 6 2

5 Select a suitable title and draw a column graph to display the data. Label the vertical axis ‘Number of houses’ and the horizontal axis ‘Number of bedrooms’. 6 multiple choice The most common number of bedrooms in the houses of Statistics Street is: A 10 B 3 C2 D5 E 6 7 multiple choice The number of houses surveyed in Statistics Street is: A 14 B 4 C 35 D7 E 21

Data and graphs — 001

Work

T SHEE

GAME

12.1

time

568

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

COMMUNICATION

Personal data sheet

This is a sample data sheet to be ﬁlled in by everyone in the class. You or your teacher may decide to omit some items and include others. The data collected will be used throughout this chapter. Name: __________________________ Age Height Hair colour (red, blond, brown, black) Eye colour (blue/grey, green, brown) Left-handed or right-handed Language(s) spoken Transport to or from school Number of children in the family (include yourself) Shoe size Favourite sport Favourite pet Class: 8 ______ Date: ___/___/___ ___ years ___ months ___ cm

**Tabulating data from the class survey
**

Collate and tabulate the information from your class’s personal data sheets. Using this information, create frequency distribution tables with the following categories: 1 Hair colour 3 Language(s) spoken 5 Favourite sport 7 Age 2 Eye colour 4 Children in family 6 Favourite pet 8 Height.

Recall from Year 7 that a frequency distribution table consists of three columns, headed ‘Score’ (or in his case ‘Category’), ‘Tally’ and ‘Frequency’.

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DESIGN

Displaying your data as column or bar graphs

Use the information from your personal data sheets for the class which has been organised into frequency distribution tables to complete the following tasks. 1 Draw a column graph to display the class data on the number of children in the families. 2 Draw a bar graph to display the data on favourite sports. 3 Choose another set of data and display this as either a column or a bar graph.

History of mathematics

N I C H O L A S O R E S M É ( 1 3 2 5 – 1 3 8 2)

Little is known of the early life of Nicholas Oresmé. It is believed that he was born near Caen in Normandy, France, in 1325. In 1348, there is a record of him attending the College of Navarre to study theology at the University of Paris. After the award of his Master’s degree, Nicholas became the bursar of the college until 1355 and then a teaching master until 1362. In 1358, Nicholas met and became ﬁrm friends with the Dauphin, the future Charles V of France. The Dauphin was having a terrible struggle to maintain the kingdom of France. Edward III of England (the Black Prince) had captured his father, John, and was holding him for ransom in London. It was a time of political turmoil and danger. The Black Death (the bubonic plague) swept through France, killing up to 800 people every day in the years 1358–59. Also, Europe was embroiled in the Hundred Years’ War. Nicholas was to become one of Charles’ chief advisers as well as a friend until Charles’ death in 1380. As well as helping Charles V in the ﬁnancial administration of France and taking on the role of canon in a number of cathedrals, Oresmé spent years working in the area of mathematics. He is credited as being the ﬁrst mathematician to use pictorial representations, or graphs, to represent the way elements vary. There is evidence that the ﬁrst primitive graphs were produced by an Italian, Giovanni di Cosali. However, di Cosali’s efforts lacked the clarity and purpose of those done by Oresmé. Oresmé also wrote on many scientiﬁc subjects, producing books such as the Book on the Sky and the World, where he rejected the theories of Aristotle that stated that the Sun revolved around the Earth.

Questions

1. What was dangerous about living in Europe in 1358 and 1359? 2. Which ruler of France did Nicholas Oresmé become chief adviser to? 3. Which area of mathematics did he gain credit in developing?

Research

Find out more about Nicholas Oresmé and some of his other mathematical work. What was his advice on the coinage used in France at that time?

570

°C 40 MILDURA Average monthly temperature and rainfall mm 400

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Line graphs

30 max. 300

20 min. 10

200

100

So far we have looked at graphs that make comparisons of some sort about such things as favourite leisure activities, heights, weights, eye colour and so on. We will now look at graphs that display changes over a period of time. These graphs, called line graphs, are commonly used to display such data as: temperature changes during the day, the state’s monthly employment ﬁgures, a company’s proﬁts and sales during the year. Line graphs are also used in business and sport to analyse trends or general patterns that occur over a period of time. A line graph is simply drawn by joining the given points with a line or smooth curve. When constructing line graphs they must be drawn on graph paper and include: 1. a title 2. a horizontal axis that is evenly scaled and labelled (usually as time) 3. a vertical axis that is evenly scaled and labelled 4. a line or smooth curve that joins successive plotted points. Line graphs also give meaningful information about the in-between values of particular data.

0

J F M A M J J A S O N D

0

WORKED Example 5

The line graph at right Temperature change during the day represents the temperature change during a particular day. 35° a What is the value of each 30° subdivision (grid line) on: 25° ii the horizontal axis? 20° ii the vertical axis? b What were the maximum 15° and minimum temperatures 10° during the day? At what 5° times did these occur? c What was the temperature 0 0 6 am 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 at: Time of day ii 8.00 am? ii 1.24 pm? d At what time was the temperature: i 15°C? ii 27°C? e What would you expect the temperature to be at 5.00 pm?

Temperature (°C)

3

4

5 6 pm

THINK a i 1 Look at the horizontal axis of the graph and count how many grid lines represent 1 hour (60 minutes).

2

3

Determine how many minutes one subdivision (grid line) represents; that is, divide 60 minutes by 5 grid lines. Answer the question.

WRITE a i 5 subdivisions (grid lines) = 1 hour That is, 5 subdivisions (grid lines) = 60 minutes. 60 1 subdivision = ----5 = 12 minutes Each subdivision represents 12 minutes on the horizontal axis.

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

571

THINK ii

1

WRITE Look at the vertical axis of the graph and count how many grid lines represent 5°C. Determine how many degrees one subdivision (grid line) represents; that is, divide 5°C by 5 grid lines. Answer the question. ii 5 subdivisions (grid lines) = 5°C

2

5 1 subdivision = -5 = 1°C Each subdivision represents 1°C on the vertical axis. b Maximum temperature = 30°C Minimum temperature = 9°C

3

b

1

Look at the graph and read the maximum (highest graph point) and minimum (lowest graph point) temperatures. Look at the maximum temperature point on the graph and read vertically down until the corresponding value on the ‘Time of day’ axis is obtained. Look at the minimum temperature point on the graph and read vertically down until the corresponding value on the ‘Time of day’ axis is obtained. Answer the question.

2

A temperature of 30°C occurs at noon.

3

A temperature of 9°C occurs at 6.00 am.

4

A maximum temperature of 30°C occurs at noon and remains at this level until 1.00 pm. A minimum temperature of 9°C occurs at 6.00 am. c i At 8.00 am the temperature is 18°C.

c i Read vertically up from 8.00 am on the ‘Time of day’ axis to the point intersecting the graph and then horizontally across to the ‘Temperature’ axis to obtain the corresponding value and answer the question. ii Repeat the process described in part i to obtain the corresponding temperature at 1.24 pm. Note: From part a each grid line on the horizontal (time) axis represents 12 minutes; therefore, 1.24 pm is 2 grid lines beyond 1.00 pm.

ii At 1.24 pm the temperature is 29°C.

Continued over page

572

THINK

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WRITE d i A temperature of 15°C occurs at 7.24 am.

d i Read horizontally across from 15°C on the ‘Temperature’ axis to the point intersecting the graph and then vertically down until the corresponding value on the ‘Time of day’ axis is obtained and answer the question. ii Repeat the process described in part i to obtain the required times. e 1 Extend the line graph so that it intersects with the vertical grid line corresponding to 5.00 pm. Note: Assume that the temperature continues to decrease at approximately the same rate. Locate the corresponding temperature at 2 5.00 pm and answer the question.

ii A temperature of 27°C occurs twice, ﬁrst at 10.36 am and then at 2.30 pm. e

At 5.00 pm the temperature is approximately 17–18°C.

WORKED Example 6

The sunrise times on successive Mondays are shown in the following table. Week Sunrise (am) 1 6.30 2 6.22 3 6.17 4 6.08 5 6.00 6 5.54 a Plot a line graph to display the data. b From your knowledge of the seasons, estimate the time of year covered by the graph. Explain your answer. THINK a

1

WRITE a

6.35 6.30 6.25 6.20

Rule and label a set of axes on graph paper. Plot each of the points onto the axes. Begin at 1 on the weeks axis and follow the vertical axis until the required sunrise time (that is, 6.30) is reached; mark the point. Repeat step 2 for each set of data. Join the points with a line.

Sunrise times

2

Time of day (am)

6.15 6.10 6.05 6.00 5.55 5.50 5.45 5.40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3 4

Week number

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

573

THINK b Observe the direction of the graph and make note of what is happening to the times as each week passes.

WRITE b The sunrise values are getting smaller as each week passes. This means sunrise is occurring earlier each week and the hours of daylight are increasing. The time of year represented by the graph could be the season of spring, as this is when sunrise begins to occur earlier.

remember

1. A line graph must be drawn on graph paper and include: (a) a title (b) a clearly labelled and evenly scaled set of axes (c) an appropriate line or smooth curve that joins the plotted points. 2. Line graphs are used when displaying changes over a period of time.

12C

WORKED

Line graphs

Cynthia’s pulse rate

120

12.2 SkillS

Reading scales (How much is each interval worth?)

HEET

Example

5

Pulse rate (beats/min)

1 The line graph at right represents Cynthia’s pulse rate over a six minute period. a What is the value of each subdivision (grid line) on the: i horizontal axis? ii vertical axis?

12.3 SkillS

Reading line graphs

HEET

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

E

Math

cad

**Line graphs Time (min)
**

L Spre XCE ad

sheet

b What was Cynthia’s pulse rate after: i 2 minutes? -ii 3 1 minutes? 2 c What were the maximum and minimum pulse rates and at what times did they occur? d At what times were the pulse rates: i 120 bpm (beats per minute)? ii 112 bpm? e What would you expect the pulse rate to be after 6 minutes? f What could have caused Cynthia’s pulse rate to increase?

Line graphs

L Spre XCE ad

sheet

Line graphs (DIY)

E

574

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

2 The line graph at right represents the conversion rate of Australian currency (A$) to American currency (US$) on a particular day. a What is the value of each subdiv$Australian – $US conversion graph 160 ision (grid line) on: 140 i the ‘A$’ axis? ii the ‘US$’ axis? 120 b How much American currency can be 100 exchanged for: 80 i A$20? 60 ii A$100? 40 c How much Australian currency can 20 be exchanged for: 0 i US$40? 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 ii US$90? A$ d What would you expect in American currency for A$200? 3 The line graph at right compares the heights Yasha’s and Yolande’s heights 200 of Yasha and Yolande over a twenty-year period. 170 a How tall was Yasha at age: 140 i 3? ii 5? iii 14? 110 b How tall was Yolande at age: Yasha 80 i 4? ii 10? iii 14? Yolande 50 c At what age(s) were they the same height? 20 0 5 10 15 20 d At what age was Yasha: Age in years i 140 cm tall? ii 176 cm tall? e Between what ages was Yolande taller than Yasha? f Between which two birthdays did each person show fastest growth? g How long did it take Yasha to double his birth height? h What do the horizontal intervals mean? i What was their height difference when they both reached maximum height? 4 The line graph at right displays a family’s weekly income over an eight-year period. a What was the family’s weekly income in: i 1999? ii 2006? b By how much had the income increased over that period? c In which two years did the income remain the same? d Between which two years did it show the biggest increase? e When did the income reach $650 per week?

Height (cm) Family income per week

1000 800 600 400 200 0

US$

Income ($)

’99 ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 ’06 Year

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

575

5 The line graph at right displays the trafﬁc ﬂow on a particular road. a At what time of day did trafﬁc ﬂow hit its peak? b During the period studied, when was the number of vehicles at the lowest level? c How many cars used the road at: i 11.00 am? ii 9.30 am? d At what times of the day were: i 300 cars on the road? ii 225 cars on the road? e Discuss why the trafﬁc ﬂow shows the pattern displayed.

**Traffic flow on a main road Number of vehicles (hundreds)
**

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 6 am 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 pm

Time of day

6 A Year 8 student doing an exercise program recorded her pulse rate at one-minute intervals, as shown in the graph at right. a What was her pulse rate after: i 2 min? ii 4 min? b After how many minutes did her pulse rate reach its maximum? c After how many minutes was her pulse rate 80 bpm? Explain why there are two answers to this question. -d What was her pulse rate after 3 1 minutes? 2 e For how long was her pulse rate above 80 bpm?

WORKED

Exercise pulse rates Pulse rate (beats/min) 120 80 40 0 0 1 2 3 4 Time (min) 5 6

Example

6

7 Sunset times on six successive Fridays are shown in the table below. Week 1 2 3 4 5 6

Sunset (pm) 6.15 6.08 6.00 5.54 5.47 5.40 a Plot a line graph to display the data. Label the horizontal axis ‘Week’ and the vertical axis ‘Sunset (pm)’. b Estimate the time of year covered by the graph for your location. Explain your answer. 8 Weekly CD sales for the pop group The Mathemagics are shown in the table below. Week Sales 1 1500 2 2800 3 3750 4 4000 5 3600 6 3000 7 2400 8 1900

a Construct a line graph of the data. b Estimate the sales for week 9.

576

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

9 The average daily minimum temperatures for a city are shown in this table. Month Temp (°C) January 29 February 26 March 22 April 19 May 15 June 10

a Construct a line graph to display the data. b What would you expect the average daily minimum temperature to be in July? 10 Vani’s times for the 100 m sprint in training sessions are shown below. Run Time (s) 1 12.4 2 12.1 3 11.9 4 12.2 5 11.8 6 12.0

a What do you notice about Vani’s times? How will this affect the graph? b How might the time axis scale be adjusted to better highlight the time variations? c Using the suggestion from part b, show the information as a line graph. d What was Vani’s average time over all training sessions?

11 Jani and Kosmo are twins. These heights were recorded each year on their birthday. Age (year) Jani’s height (cm) Kosmo’s height (cm) 1 49 50 2 56 58 3 64 65 4 74 76 5 83 86

a Display the height records as two lines of different colours on the one graph. b At which age was the height difference the greatest? c How tall would you expect each of the twins to be at age 6? Questions 12, 13 and 14 relate to the following table showing variation in temperature on a snowﬁeld on one day. Time of day Temperature (°C) 5.00 am −10 7.00 am −8 9.00 am −6 11.00 am −1 1.00 pm 4 3.00 pm 3 5.00 pm 1 7.00 pm −2

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

577

12 a Draw a line graph to show the temperatures recorded at a snowﬁeld resort during the ski season. b Estimate the temperatures at: i 10 am ii 8 pm.

**13 multiple choice The temperature at 8.00 am would be approximately: --A −8°C B −7 1 °C C −7°C D −6 1 °C
**

2 2

E −6°C

14 multiple choice At what time(s) was the temperature at freezing point (0°C)? A 12.00 pm B 11.30 am, 5.30 pm C 11.30 am, 6.30 pm D 12.30 am, 5.30 pm E 6.00 pm

THINKING

Recording temperature

Use a thermometer to measure classroom temperature at hourly intervals from 8 am to 3 pm. Record the data in a table; then display it as a line graph. Label the horizontal axis ‘Time’, the vertical axis ‘Temperature’. Scale the axes and add a title to the graph.

**Histograms and frequency polygons
**

In this section we will use our knowledge of column and line graphs to create two similar types of graphs: the histogram and the frequency polygon.

Histograms

A special type of column graph is called a histogram. It must be drawn on graph paper and have the following characteristics.

578

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

1. All columns are of equal width. 2. No gaps are left between columns. 3. Each column ‘straddles’ an x-axis score; (value) that is, the column starts and ﬁnishes halfway between scores. 4. Usually a half-interval is left at the beginning and end of the graph. That is, the ﬁrst score is one unit in from the frequency (y)-axis. The histogram at right displays the data collected in a survey conducted to ﬁnd the number of children in a family. The data collected for 20 families is shown in the table below. Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 Tally

|||| |||| |||| || ||| |

f 8 Frequency 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 Score 5 6 x Children in family

Frequency 4 5 7 3 0 1 20

Total

Frequency polygons

A special type of line graph, called a frequency polygon, has the following characteristics. 1. The frequency polygon uses the same scaled axes as the histogram. 2. The midpoints of the tops of the histogram columns are joined by straight intervals. 3. The polygon is closed by drawing lines at each end down to the score (x) axis. The data presented in the histogram above can be used to create a frequency polygon.

f 8 Frequency 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 Score 5 6 x Children in family f 8 Frequency 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 Score 5 6 x Children in family

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WORKED Example 7

The table at right represents the number of hours of sport played per week by Year 8 students. a Draw a histogram which represents the data in the table. b Which is the most common score (that is, the most common number of hours of sport played per week)? c Which is the least common score (that is, the least common number of hours of sport played per week)? d How many students play at least 6 hours of sport per week? e How many students play at most 3 hours of sport per week? f How many students were included in the survey? g Draw a frequency polygon of the data. Score (hours of sport played) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Frequency (f) 3 8 10 12 16 8 7 64

THINK a

1 2

WRITE a

f

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

3

4

Rule and label a set of axes on graph paper. Give the graph a title. Add a scale to the horizontal and vertical axes. Note: Leave half an interval at the beginning and end of the graph; that is, label the ﬁrst score one unit in from the vertical (frequency) axis. Draw in the ﬁrst column so that it starts and ﬁnishes halfway between scores and reaches a vertical height of three units. Repeat step 3 for each of the other scores. Use the frequency distribution table to determine the largest frequency value and which score it corresponds to. Answer the question.

Hours of sport played by Year 8 students

Frequency

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Score (hours of sport played)

8

x

b

1

2

b The largest frequency value of 16 corresponds to 5 hours of sport played per week. The most common number of hours of sport played per week is 5 hours.

Continued over page

580

THINK c

1

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WRITE c The smallest frequency value of 3 corresponds to 1 hour of sport being played per week. The least common hours of sport played per week is 1 hour. d At least 6 hours: 8 + 7 = 15. There are 15 students who played at least 6 hours of sport per week.

2

Use the frequency distribution table to determine the least frequency value and which score it corresponds to. Answer the question.

d Add all of the frequencies that correspond to at least 6 hours of sport being played per week (that is, 6 and 7 hours) and answer the question. e Add all of the frequencies that correspond to, at most, 3 hours of sport being played per week (that is 1, 2 and 3 hours) and answer the question. f

1

e At most 3 hours: 3 + 8 + 10 = 21. There are 21 students who played at most 3 hours of sport per week.

2

Add each of the frequencies to determine the total number of students surveyed. Answer the question. Mark the midpoints of the tops of the columns obtained in the histogram from part a. Join the midpoints by straight line intervals.

**f Total = 3 + 8 + 10 + 12 + 16 + 8 + 7 = 64 64 students were surveyed. g
**

f 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Score (hours of sport played) 8 Frequency Hours of sport played by Year 8 students

g

1

2

x

3

4

Frequency

Close the polygon by drawing lines at each end down to the score (x) axis. The frequency polygon may be left overlayed on the histogram or may be transferred to a separate set of axes.

f 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Hours of sport played by Year 8 students

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Score (hours of sport played)

8

x

The histogram in worked example 7 can also be obtained on the graphics calculator.

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**Graphics Calculator tip! Plotting a histogram
**

1. Clear the Y= editor and turn off any existing plots by pressing and choosing 4: PlotsOff . 2. Press STAT , select 1: Edit and enter x data in L1 and frequencies in L2. (For grouped data use the midpoint of the class interval for x.) 3. Press

2nd [STATPLOT] then press ENTER 2nd [STATPLOT]

CASI

O

Plotting a histogram

(or

select 1 ). Choose settings for a histogram as shown at right using arrow keys and press ENTER .

4. Press ZOOM and choose 9: ZoomStat ; this will set up the vertical scale. 5. Press WINDOW and change the settings as follows: Xmin = 1, the smallest value in L1. Xmax = 8, the sum of the largest value in L1 and the Xscl value; that is, 7 + 1 = 8. Xscl = 1, the difference between two successive values in L1. 6. Press TRACE .

**Grouping data using class intervals
**

When the data are spread over a wide range or there is a large amount of data, it is helpful to group the scores into class intervals. The size of the class interval is important when drawing up a frequency distribution table. In general, the choice for the size of a class interval should lead to the formation of 5 to 10 groups.

WORKED Example 8

The following data are the results of testing the lives (in hours) of 100 torch batteries. 20, 31, 42, 49, 46, 36, 42, 25, 28, 37, 48, 49, 45, 35, 25, 42, 30, 23, 25, 26, 29, 31, 46, 25, 40, 30, 31, 49, 38, 41, 23, 46, 29, 38, 22, 26, 31, 33, 34, 32, 41, 23, 29, 30, 29, 28, 48, 49, 31, 49, 48, 37, 38, 47, 25, 43, 38, 48, 37, 20, 38, 22, 21, 33, 35, 27, 38, 31, 22, 28, 20, 30, 41, 49, 41, 32, 43, 28, 21, 27, 20, 39, 40, 27, 26, 36, 36, 41, 46, 28, 32, 33, 25, 31, 33, 25, 36, 41, 28, 33 a Choose a suitable class interval for the given data and present the results in a frequency distribution table. b Draw a histogram of the data. c Add a polygon to the histogram.

Continued over page

582

THINK a

1

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WRITE a Range = largest value − smallest value = 49 − 20 = 29 29 Number of class intervals: ----- = 5.8 5 ≈6

Choose a suitable size for the class interval. Obtain the range for the given data; that is, subtract the smallest value from the largest. Divide the results obtained for the range by 5 and round to the nearest whole number. Note: A class interval of 5 hours will result in 6 groups.

2

3

4

Draw a frequency table and list the class intervals in the ﬁrst column, beginning with the smallest value. Note: The class interval 20–<25 includes hours ranging from and including 20 to less than 25.

**Lifetime (hours) 20–<25 25–<30 30–<35 35–<40 40–<45 45–<50
**

|||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||||

Tally

|| |||| |||| |||| || | |||| |||| ||| |||| | |

Frequency (f ) 12 23 20 16 13 16 100

5

Systematically go through the data and determine the frequency of each class interval.

Total

6

Calculate the total of the frequency column.

b

1

Rule and label a set of axes on graph paper. Give the graph a title. Add scales to the horizontal and vertical axes. Note: Leave a half interval at the beginning and end of the vertical axis. Draw in the ﬁrst column so that it starts and ﬁnishes halfway between class intervals and reaches a vertical height of 12 units. Repeat step 3 for each of the other scores.

b

f 25 20 Frequency 15 10 5 0

Battery life

2

3

4

20 –< 2 25 5 –< 3 30 0 –< 3 35 5 –< 4 40 0 –< 4 45 5 –< 50

0

x

Lifetime of torch batteries (hours)

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

583

THINK c

1

WRITE c

f 25 Frequency 20 15 10 5 0

20 –< 2 25 5 –< 3 30 0 –< 3 35 5 –< 4 40 0 –< 4 45 5 –< 50

0

2 3

Mark the midpoints of the tops of the columns obtained in the histogram from part b. Join the midpoints by straight line intervals. Close the polygon by drawing lines at each end down to the class interval (x) axis.

Battery life

x

Lifetime of torch batteries (hours)

Histograms are used for displaying numerical data.

remember

1. A histogram must be drawn on graph paper and should include: (a) a title (b) clearly labelled and evenly scaled axes (c) columns of equal width with no gaps between them (d) columns that each straddle a score on the x-axis (e) a half-interval left at each end of the x-axis. 2. Frequency polygons should include: (a) the same scaled axes as the histogram (b) straight lines that join the midpoints of the tops of the columns (c) lines drawn (that close the polygon) at each end down to the score (x) axis. 3. Class intervals are used when: (a) data are spread over a wide range (b) there is a large amount of data. 4. The size of a class interval should lead to the formation of 5 to 10 groups. 5. Histograms are used for displaying numerical data.

12D

**Histograms and frequency polygons
**

f 20 Frequency 15 10 5 Student heights

12.4 SkillS

Producing a frequency table from a frequency histogram

HEET

1 The following histogram displays the heights of a group of students. a Which is the most common height? b Which is the least common height? c How many students are taller than 156 cm? d How many students are shorter than 156 cm? e Which height occurred 18 times? f How many students were included in the survey?

Math

cad

Histograms 0 and x 0 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 frequency Height (cm) polygons

584

WORKED

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Example

7

2 The following frequency distribution table represents the scores obtained by a group of Year 8 students in a test. Score (x) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Frequency (f ) 2 3 6 9 11 7 4

EXCE

reads L Sp he

**Histograms and frequency polygons
**

EXCE

reads L Sp he

et

sio

**Histograms and frequency polygons (DIY)
**

HEET

a Draw a histogram that represents the data in the table above, using grid paper. To decide on scaling for the axes, ask yourself: ‘What is the highest score (x-axis)?’ ‘What is the highest frequency (y-axis)?’ Use the title: ‘Student Ratings’. b Which is the most common score? c Which is the least common score? d How many students received a score of at least 5? e How many students received a score of, at most, 3? f How many students were included in the survey? g Draw a frequency polygon of the data. 3 A quality control ofﬁcer obtained random samples of bags of corn chips from the production line and weighed them. Here are the data: Corn chips: Net weight (grams) 252, 247, 249, 250, 248, 246, 251, 248, 250, 249, 246, 249, 247, 248, 247, 248, 249, 248, 250, 249, 250, 246, 247, 251, 248 a Sort the data into a frequency distribution table. b How many packets of corn chips were in the sample? c How many packets weighed less than the printed weight of 250 g? d How many packets weighed more than the target weight? e Present the data in the table as a histogram, and overlay a frequency polygon on it. Be sure to label the graph and give it a title. 4 These are the results of a test out of 10 for a Year 8 class: 2, 6, 5, 9, 8, 7, 3, 6, 9, 4, 8, 8, 6, 7, 6, 4, 7, 8, 7, 8, 6, 7, 8, 5, 3, 9, 2, 6, 5, 8 a Present the data in a frequency distribution table. b How many students were in the class? c What was the most common test score? d Give the highest and lowest test scores. e Display the data as a histogram frequency polygon combination graph. Questions 5 and 6 refer to the following information. The number of hours of sleep during school week nights for a Year 8 class are recorded below:

-------6, 9, 7, 8, 7, 8 1 , 6 1 , 8, 7 1 , 7 1 , 8, 8 1 , 6 1 , 8, 8, 7, 7 1 , 8, 9, 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

12.5

Presenting data in a frequency table

et

SkillS

GC p

GC p

am – rogr TI

Univariate statistics

am – rogr Ca

Univariate statistics

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

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5 a b c d e

Sort the information into a frequency table. Draw a histogram of the data. How many students were in the sample? How many students slept for at least 8 hours? How many students slept for fewer than 7 hours?

6 multiple choice The number of students who slept between 6 and 7 hours inclusive is: A1 B 4 C6 D5 E 3 Questions 7 and 8 refer to the following information. The amount of pocket money (in dollars) available to a random sample of 13-year-olds each week was found to be as shown below: 10, 15, 5, 4, 8, 10, 4, 15, 5, 6, 10, 6, 5, 10, 8, 10, 5, 10, 10, 6 7 a b c d Compile a frequency distribution table from the data. Draw a histogram that represents the given data. What was the most common amount of pocket money? How many received less than $8 per week?

**8 multiple choice The number of 13-year-olds who received at least $8 per week is: A9 B 3 C6 D5 E 11
**

WORKED

Example

8

9 The following data give the results of testing the lives (in hours) of 100 torch batteries: 25, 36, 30, 34, 21, 40, 36, 46, 29, 38, 20, 41, 34, 45, 25, 40, 31, 39, 24, 45, 27, 44, 23, 35, 47, 49, 20, 37, 43, 26, 35, 28, 48, 30, 20, 36, 41, 26, 32, 42, 21, 31, 45, 42, 26, 37, 33, 24, 45, 38, 36, 43, 21, 34, 38, 35, 28, 41, 30, 22, 29, 32, 39, 25, 44, 21, 35, 38, 41, 35, 30, 23, 37, 43, 33, 34, 28, 39, 22, 31, 35, 42, 38, 27, 36, 46, 28, 34, 37, 29, 24, 30, 39, 44, 31, 24, 36, 28, 47, 21 a Choose a suitable class interval for the given data and present the results on a frequency distribution table. b Draw a histogram of the data. c Add a polygon to the histogram. 10 For each of the following data, choose a suitable class interval and represent the result on a frequency distribution table. a The data below show the fat content (%) of 30 types of biscuits selected from a supermarket’s shelves: 6, 12, 1, 5, 8, 13, 20, 18, 12, 2, 25, 13, 18, 20, 8, 9, 17, 21, 7, 22, 30, 28, 12, 19, 29, 12, 28, 2, 7, 17

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Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

b The following data give the number of hours of television watched by a group of 28 students in a typical week: 16, 20, 5, 2, 60, 40, 13, 2, 25, 30, 45, 24, 12, 8, 10, 16, 9, 25, 0, 50, 16, 29, 32, 41, 30, 12, 12, 6 c Anna was required to measure the mass (in grams) of a variety of ingredients for her home economics assignment. The following data represent Anna’s results in the range of 0 g ≤ mass ≤ 250 g: 8, 29, 110, 56, 74, 128, 160, 205, 227, 16, 5, 61, 27, 130, 92, 35, 50, 230, 80, 160

Work

T SHEE

12.2

d Nadia’s duties at the delicatessen require her to weigh out a number of products. The following data represent Nadia’s results in the range of 250 g ≤ mass ≤ 500 g: 260, 300, 410, 289, 310, 278, 316, 480, 410, 270, 360, 492, 321, 325, 380, 252, 312, 291, 315, 280, 460, 400, 280, 265, 350, 290, 460, 370, 425, 310

2

Questions 1 to 3 refer to the column graph at right. 1 How many people support Hawthorn? 2 Which two clubs are supported by 50 people? 3 Which football club has the highest number of supporters?

Frequency Favourite football clubs 80 60 40 20 0

H aw th or n Ca rlt on Ri ch m on Co d lli ng w oo d

**Questions 4 to 6 refer to the line graph at right.
**

Distance (m)

100 80 60 40 20 0 0

Marie’s trip

4 After how much time was Marie furthest away from her starting point? 5 What was her speed during the ﬁrst two distance minutes? (Remember: Speed = ------------------ ). time 6 What total distance did she travel?

1

2 3 4 Time (min)

5

6

Chris received the following results (out of 10) in his mathematics tests in semester 1: 5, 8, 7, 9, 10, 6, 8, 9, 8, 8, 5, 6, 7, 5 7 Organise the data into a frequency distribution table. 8 Display the data as a histogram frequency polygon combination graph. 9 What was the highest score Chris obtained? 10 Which score has the highest frequency?

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**Stem-and-leaf plots
**

When displaying data, a stem-and-leaf plot may be used as an alternative to the frequency distribution table. Each piece of data in a stem-and-leaf plot is made up of two components: a stem and a leaf. For example, the value 28 is made up of a tens component (the stem) and the units component (the leaf) and would be written as: Stem Leaf 2 8 It is important to provide a key when drawing up stem-and-leaf plots, as the plots may be used to display a variety of data; that is, values ranging from whole numbers to decimals.

WORKED Example

THINK a

1 2 3

9

WRITE a Key: 12 1 = 121 Stem Leaf 12 9 5 1 13 7 9 4 14 8 8 15 2 8 16 3 8 17 2

Prepare an ordered stem-and-leaf plot for each of the following sets of data. a 129, 148, 137, 125, 148, 163, 152, 158, 172, 139, 168, 121, 134 b 1.6, 0.8, 0.7, 1.2, 1.9, 2.3, 2.8, 2.1, 1.6, 3.1, 2.9, 0.1, 4.3, 3.7, 2.6

4

5

Rule two columns with the headings ‘Stem’ and ‘Leaf’. Include a key to the plot that informs the reader of the meaning of each entry. Make a note of the smallest and largest values of the data (that is, 121 and 172 respectively). List the stems in ascending order in the ﬁrst column (that is, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17). Note: The hundreds and tens components of the number represent the stem. Systematically work through the given data and enter the leaf (unit component) of each value in a row beside the appropriate stem. Note: The ﬁrst row represents the interval 120–129, the second row represents the interval 130–139 and so on. Redraw the stem-and-leaf plot so that the numbers in each row of the leaf column are in ascending order.

**Key: 12 1 = 121 Stem Leaf 12 1 5 9 13 4 7 9 14 8 8 15 2 8 16 3 8 17 2
**

Continued over page

588

THINK b

1 2

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WRITE b Key: 0 1 = 0.1 Stem Leaf 0 871 1 6296 2 38196 3 17 4 3

3

4

Rule the stem and leaf columns and include a key. Make a note of the smallest and largest values of the data (that is, 0.1 and 4.3 respectively). List the stems in ascending order in the ﬁrst column (that is, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4). Note: The units components of the decimal represent the stem. Systematically work through the given data and enter the leaf (tenth component) of each decimal in a row beside the appropriate stem. Note: The ﬁrst row represents the interval 0.1–0.9, the second row represents the interval 1.0–1.9 and so on. Redraw the stem-and-leaf plot so that the numbers in each row of the leaf column are in ascending order to produce an ordered stem-and-leaf plot.

Key: 0 1 = 0.1 Stem Leaf 0 178 1 2669 2 13689 3 17 4 3

From worked example 9 it is evident that there are some advantages in displaying grouped data in a stem-and-leaf plot compared with a frequency distribution graph. All the original data are retained; therefore, it is possible to identify the smallest and largest values as well as any repeated values. This cannot be done when values are grouped in class intervals. Stem-and-leaf plots also give a graphical representation of the data, as they resemble histograms turned on their side. 9 6 6 2 1 9 8 6 3 1 2

Leaf Stem

8 7 1 0

7 1 3

3 4

remember

A stem-and-leaf plot allows: 1. all the original data to be retained 2. a graphical representation of the data to be seen as it resembles a histogram turned on its side.

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12E

**Stem-and-leaf plots
**

Key: 2 4 = 24 Stem Leaf 1 78899 2 2479 3 1338 4 022266 5 57 6 4

1 The following stem-and-leaf plot gives the age of members of a theatrical group. a How many people are in the theatrical group? b What is the age of the youngest member of the group? c What is the age of the oldest member of the group? d How many people are over 30 years of age? e What age is the most common in the group? f How many people are over 65 years of age? 2 The stem-and-leaf plot at right represents data for the height of trees (in cm) in a nursery. a Redraw this stem-and-leaf plot as an ordered stem-and-leaf plot. b Write the tenth number in the ordered stem-and-leaf plot.

WORKED

Key: 23 7 = 237 Stem 20 21 22 23 24 Leaf 7429 207 93386 021216 5

12.6 SkillS

Presenting data as a stem-and-leaf plot

HEET

Example

3 The following data give the number of fruit that have formed on each of 40 trees in an orchard: 9a 29, 37, 25, 62, 73, 41, 58, 62, 73, 67, 47, 21, 33, 71, 92, 41, 62, 54, 31, 82, 93, 28, 31, 67, 29, 53, 62, 21, 78, 81, 51, 25, 93, 68, 72, 46, 53, 39, 28, 40 Prepare an ordered stem-and-leaf plot that displays the data. 4 The number of errors made each week by 30 machine operators is recorded below: 12, 2, 0, 10, 8, 16, 27, 12, 6, 1, 40, 16, 25, 3, 12, 31, 19, 22, 15, 7, 17, 21, 18, 32, 33, 12, 28, 31, 32, 14 Prepare an ordered stem-and-leaf plot that displays the data. 5 Prepare an ordered stem-and-leaf plot for each of the following sets of data: a 132, 117, 108, 129, 165, 172, 145, 189, 137, 116, 152, 164, 118 b 131, 173, 152, 146, 150, 171, 130, 124, 114 c 196, 193, 168, 170, 199, 186, 180, 196, 186, 188, 170, 181, 209 d 207, 205, 255, 190, 248, 248, 248, 237, 225, 239, 208, 244 e 748, 662, 685, 675, 645, 647, 647, 708, 736, 691, 641, 735

590

WORKED

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Example

6 Prepare an ordered stem-and-leaf plot for each of the following sets of data: a 1.2, 3.9, 5.8, 4.6, 4.1, 2.2, 2.8, 1.7, 5.4, 2.3, 1.9 9b b 2.8, 2.7, 5.2, 6.2, 6.6, 2.9, 1.8, 5.7, 3.5, 2.5, 4.1 c 7.7, 6.0, 9.3, 8.3, 6.5, 9.2, 7.4, 6.9, 8.8, 8.4, 7.5, 9.8 d 14.8, 15.2, 13.8, 13.0, 14.5, 16.2, 15.7, 14.7, 14.3, 15.6, 14.6, 13.9, 14.7, 15.1, 15.9, 13.9, 14.5 e 0.18, 0.51, 0.15, 0.02, 0.37, 0.44, 0.67, 0.07

**Mean, median and mode
**

We collect data in order to ﬁnd out what is going on now in our area of interest. Then we can interpret the results to make decisions and predictions such as: Where should the new school be built? What do we expect its enrolment to be by 2010? When do most teenagers watch television? What food should be sold at the school canteen? If sales continue to rise at this rate, what proﬁts can we expect next quarter? Simple calculations based on collected data can help give us typical values, or values that show how the data cluster. These typical values are commonly referred to as averages. We will look at 3 different types of averages used in interpreting data: mean, median and mode.

Mean

The mean or average of a set of scores is the sum of all the scores divided by the number of scores. It is denoted by the symbol x (pronounced x bar).

WORKED Example 10

Jan’s basketball scores were: 18, 24, 20, 22, 14, 12. What was his mean score? Calculate your answer, correct to 1 decimal place.

THINK

1

WRITE Total score = 18 + 24 + 20 + 22 + 14 + 12 = 110

Calculate the total of the basketball scores.

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

591

THINK

2 3

WRITE Number of scores = 6 total score Mean = ---------------------------------------number of scores 110 x = -------6 = 18.333 33 … ≈ 18.3

Count the number of basketball scores. Deﬁne the rule for the mean. Substitute the known values into the rule. Evaluate, rounding to 1 decimal place. Note: The mean is often not one of the given scores.

4 5

WORKED Example 11

Calculate the mean of the frequency distribution data given below. Score (x) Frequency (f ) THINK

1

1 3

2 2

3 4

4 0

5 1

6 5 WRITE Score (x) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total Frequency (f ) 3 2 4 0 1 5 15 Score × frequency (x × f ) 1×3=3 2×2=4 3 × 4 = 12 4×0=0 5×1=5 6 × 5 = 30 54

2

3

4

Rearrange the rows as columns and include an extra column headed: ‘Score × frequency (x × f )’. Enter the information into the third column; that is, the score of 1 occurred 3 times. Therefore, x × f = 1 × 3 = 3. The score of 2 occurred 2 times. Therefore, x × f = 2 × 2 = 4. Continue this process for each pair of data. Determine the total of the ‘Frequency’ column. This shows how many scores there are altogether. Determine the total of the ‘Score × frequency’ column. This shows the overall value of all the scores. Deﬁne the rule for the mean. Substitute the known values into the rule. Evaluate the answer to 1 decimal place. Note: The mean is often not one of the given scores.

5

total of score × frequency values Mean = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------total frequency values 54 x = ----15 = 3.6

6 7

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Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Median

The median is the middle score for an odd number of scores and the average of the two middle scores for an even number of scores. n+1 Alternatively, if a set of data contains n scores, the median is given by the ------------ th 2 score. To obtain the median, the scores must be arranged in numerical order.

WORKED Example 12

Find the median of the scores: a 10, 8, 11, 5, 17 b 9, 3, 2, 6, 3, 5, 9, 8. THINK a

1 2

WRITE a 5, 8, 10 , 11, 17

Arrange the values in ascending order. Select the middle value. Note: There are an odd number of scores, that is, 5. Hence, the third value is the middle number or median. n+1 Alternatively, use the rule ----------- , where n = 5 2 gives the position of the median. The location 5+1 of the median is ----------- = 3 ; that is, the 3rd 2 score. Answer the question. Arrange the values in ascending order. Select the middle values. Note: There are an even number of scores that is, 8. Hence, the fourth and ﬁfth values are the middle numbers, or median. n+1 Again the rule ----------- could be used to locate 2 the position of the median. Obtain the average of the two middle values.

3

The median of the scores is 10. b 2, 3, 3, 5 , 6 , 8, 9, 9

b

1 2

3

5+6 Median = ----------2 11 = ----2

-= 5 1 (or 5.5) 2 -The median of the score is 5 1 or 2 5.5.

4

Answer the question. Note: The median in this case is not one of the actual scores.

Note: For sets of data containing an odd number of scores, the median will be one of the actual scores, while for the sets with an even number of scores, the median will be positioned halfway between the two scores.

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

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**Graphics Calculator tip! Finding the median
**

(or the mean)

To ﬁnd the median of a list of numbers press Press

2nd 2nd [LIST] , arrow across to MATH and select 4: Median( . [ { ] and enter the scores separated by a

CASI

O

comma. Press 2nd [ } ] to close the brackets and then press ENTER . You can ﬁnd the mean easily by following the same steps but selecting 3: Mean( rather than 4: Median( . When determining the median, recall: 1. there are as many scores above the median as there are below it. 2. for an even number of scores, the median may not be one of the listed scores.

Finding the median (or the mean)

WORKED Example 13

Find the median of the data presented in the following stem-and-leaf plots. a Key: 14 5 = 145 Stem 14 15 16 17 18 Leaf 2788 24 1399 022266 5 b Key: 25 3 = 253 Stem 21 22 23 24 25 26 THINK a

1 2 3

Leaf 306 432497 9315 262067 57 47311

WRITE a The stem-and-leaf plot is ordered. There are 17 pieces of data. Therefore, the middle value is the ninth term. The median is 169. b The stem-and-leaf plot is not ordered. Key: 25 3 = 253 Stem Leaf 21 0 3 6 22 2 3 4 4 7 9 23 1 3 5 9 24 0 2 2 6 6 7 25 5 7 26 1 1 3 4 7

Continued over page

Check that the given stem-and-leaf plot is ordered. Count the pieces of data and determine the middle value. Answer the question. Check if the stem-and-leaf plot is ordered. It is not. Order the stem-and-leaf plot.

b

1 2

594

THINK

3

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WRITE There are 26 pieces of data. Therefore, the two middle values are the thirteenth and fourteenth terms. 239 + 240 Median = ----------------------2 479 = -------2 = 239.5 The median is 239.5.

Count the pieces of data and determine the middle values. Add the two middle terms and divide by 2; that is, obtain the average of them.

4

5

Answer the question.

Mode

The mode is the most common score in a set of data. It is the score with the highest frequency. It measures clustering of scores. Some sets of scores have more than one mode or no mode at all; that is, there is no score that corresponds to the highest frequency, as all values occurred once only.

WORKED Example 14

Find the mode of the following scores: a 5, 7, 9, 8, 5, 8, 5, 6 b 10, 8, 11, 5, 17 THINK a

1 2 3

c 9, 3, 2, 6, 3, 5, 9, 8. WRITE a 5 , 7, 9, 8 , 5 , 8 , 5 , 6 The number 5 occurs 3 times. The mode for the given set of values is 5. b 10, 8, 11, 5, 17 No values have been repeated. The following set of data has no mode, since none of the scores correspond to a highest frequency. Each of the numbers occur only once. c 9 , 3 , 2, 6, 3 , 5, 9 , 8 The number 3 occurs twice. The number 9 occurs twice. The modes for the given set of values are 3 and 9.

Look at the set of data and circle any values that have been repeated. Choose the values that have been repeated the most. Answer the question. Look at the set of data and circle any values that have been repeated. Answer the question. Note: No mode is not the same as having a mode which equals 0.

b

1 2

c

1 2 3

Look at the set of data and circle any values that have been repeated. Choose the values that have been repeated the most. Answer the question.

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COMMUNICATION

What is the difference?

Mean, median and mode are all types of averages. 1 Provide two examples of situations where each type of average is the best one to use. 2 At times, these measures are used to mislead people. Describe some situations where this may occur. 3 Write a paragraph to describe the difference between the three types of average.

Graphics Calculator tip!

**Finding the mean, median and mode
**

CASI

To enter data into the TI–83 graphics calculator, press STAT and select 1:Edit. Type O your data in the L1 column. Press ENTER after each entry. (You can type over existing Finding numbers or press DEL to delete.) To ﬁnd the mean and median of your data, press the STAT ; then arrow across to select CALC and 1:1 – Var Stats and press ENTER . The mean, median mean is the value given for x . Scroll down to ﬁnd the median. This is shown as Med=. and You will also be able to view the lowest value, minX, and the highest value, maxX, of mode the data. To assist you in ﬁnding the mode, you can sort the data list into ascending order. Press STAT select 2:Sort A(; then press 2nd L1 (to sort List 1) and press ENTER . (Note that selecting 3:Sort D( sorts the data in descending order.) You can view the sorted data by pressing STAT 1:Edit. (Highlighting L1 shows the full list of the data across the bottom of the screen for easier viewing.) The screens below show the summary statistics for the data: 3, 4, 8, 4, 5, 6.

Mean = 5

Mode = 4

Median = 4.5

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Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

remember

1. To determine the mean, x , of values in a list, obtain the total of all the scores and divide by the number of scores. 2. To determine the mean of values in a table, add the (x × f ) column, and divide by the total of the frequency column (f ). 3. For an odd number of scores arranged in numerical order, the median is the middle score. For an even number of scores arranged in numerical order, the median is the average of the two middle scores. There are as many scores above the median as there are below it. n+1 4. The median can be located using the rule ----------- , where n represents the number 2 of data. 5. The mode is the most common score.

12F

SkillS

Mean, median and mode

HEET

12.7

Finding the mean

WORKED

Example

10

1 Caroline’s basketball scores were: 28, 25, 29, 30, 27, 22. What was her mean score? Give the answer correct to 1 decimal place.

GC p

Univariate statistics

hca

GC p

am – rogr TI

2 Find the mean (average) of each set of the following scores. Give the answers correct to 2 decimal places. a 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 9 am – rogr Ca b 2, 7, 8, 10, 6, 9, 11, 4, 9 c 3, 27, 14, 0, 2, 104, 36, 19, 77, 81 Univariate statistics d 4, 8.4, 6.6, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 6.9

sio

d

Mean

3 Francesca’s soccer team has the following goals record this season: 2, 0, 1, 3, 1, 2, 4, 0, 2, 3 a What total number of goals have they scored? b How many games have they played? c Find the team’s average score. 4 multiple choice Frisco’s athletics coach timed 5 consecutive 200 m training runs. He recorded times of 25.1, 23.9, 24.8, 24.5 and 27.3 seconds. His mean 200 m time (in seconds) is: A 24.60 B 25.20 C 25.12 D 25.42 E 26.12 5 An Olympic ﬁgure skater was given these scores by the panel of judges: 4.8, 4.6, 4.5, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.2, 4.0, 4.8. Find the average score correct to 1 decimal place. 6 Two Year 8 groups did the same mathematics test. Their results out of 10 were: Group A: 5, 8, 7, 9, 6, 7, 8, 5, 4, 2 Group B: 5, 6, 4, 5, 9, 7, 8, 8, 9, 7 a Which group had the highest mean? b Compare the spread of the marks for the groups.

Mat

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

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sheet

E E E E

7 A third Year 8 group had the following results in the same test as in question 6: L Spre XCE ad 5, 7, 8, 4, 6, 8, 5, 9, 8 Mean a What is the average score of this group? from a b What must a tenth student (who was originally absent) score to bring this group’s frequency table average to 7?

WORKED

Example

8 Calculate the mean of this frequency distribution. Score (x) Frequency (f ) 1 4 2 3 3 2 4 1 5 0

L Spre XCE ad

sheet

11

Mean from a frequency table (DIY)

12.8 SkillS

Arranging a set of data in ascending order

HEET

9 Calculate the mean of this frequency distribution. Score (x) Frequency (f ) 6 2 7 8 8 3 9 4 10 2

12.9 SkillS

Finding the location of the median

HEET

10 A survey of the number of occupants in each house in a street gave the following data: 2, 5, 1, 6, 2, 3, 2, 4, 1, 2, 0, 2, 3, 2, 4, 5, 4, 2, 3, 4 Prepare a frequency distribution table with an x × f column and use it to ﬁnd the average number of people per household.

12.10 SkillS

HEET

Finding 11 These scores show the number of people in each apartment in a block of ﬂats. Use a frequency table to calculate the mean number of people per unit, correct to 1 the middle score of a decimal place. set of data 1, 3, 2, 4, 2, 1, 3, 5, 3, 2, 4, 1, 3, 2, 1, 2

12 The mean of 10 scores is 8. What is the total of all the scores? 13 The mean of 5 scores is 7.2. a What is the sum of the scores? b If four of the scores are 9, 8, 7 and 5, what is the ﬁfth?

WORKED

12.11 SkillS

HEET

**Finding the middle score of data arranged in a stem-and-leaf plot
**

CEL Spread

X 14 Find the median of the following scores: Example a 5, 5, 7, 12, 13 b 28, 13, 17, 21, 18, 17, 14 Median 12a WORKED 15 Find the median of the following scores: Example a 2, 52, 46, 52, 48, 52, 48 b 4, 1.5, 1.7, 2.0, 1.8, 1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9 12b

WORKED

L Spre XCE ad

sheet

Example

16 Find the median of the data presented in the following stem-and-leaf plots. a Key: 1 5 = 15 b Key: 24 7 = 247 c Key: 17 4 = 174 L Spre 13 XCE ad Stem Leaf Stem Leaf Stem Leaf Mode 1 12789 24 2 7 15 6 2 4 2 28 25 2 4 6 6 8 16 8 6 1 3 9 3 1379 26 0 1 3 5 9 17 0 2 1 8 6 7 3 4 4 0126 28 5 6 6 8 18 4 1 5 2 7 1

E

12.12 SkillS

E

sheet

Median (DIY)

L Spre XCE ad

sheet

sheet

Mode (DIY)

HEET

WORKED

Example

17 For each set of scores in questions 14 and 15, ﬁnd the mode.

14

Finding the score in a data set that occurs most frequently

598

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

Questions 18 and 19 refer to the following set of scores: 1, 1, 1, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6, 3, 3, 7, 6, 5, 4, 6, 2, 1, 8 18 multiple choice The median of the given scores is: A1 B 4.5 C4 19 multiple choice The mode of the given scores is: A5 B 6 C4

D5

E 8

D3

E 1

20 Over 10 matches, a soccer team scored the following number of goals: 2, 3, 1, 0, 4, 5, 2, 3, 3, 4. a What was the most common number of goals scored? b What was the median number of goals scored? c In this case, does the mode or the median give a score that shows a typical performance? 21 Here are Tiger Woods’s scores (numbers of strokes) hole by hole for the ﬁrst 9 holes of a major golf tournament. Hole number Score 1 4 2 4 3 3 4 2 5 4 6 3 7 3 8 2 9 4

GAM

me E ti

a How many strokes were most commonly hit? b What was his median score? c As Woods prepares to tee off towards the next hole, how many strokes could the crowd expect him to take to complete the hole? Discuss factors which could inﬂuence the outcome.

Data and graphs — 002

Work

T SHEE

12.3

22 A small business pays the following annual wages (in thousands of dollars) to its employees: 18, 18, 18, 18, 26, 26, 26, 40, 80. a What is the mode of the distribution? b What is the median wage? c What is the mean wage? d Which measure would you expect the employee’s union to use in wage negotiations? e Which might the boss use in such negotiations?

M AT H

S

QU EST

E

CH LL A

E NG

1 Find ﬁve numbers that have a mean of 10 and a median of 12. 2 The mean of 5 different test scores is 15. What are the largest and smallest possible test scores, given that the median is 12? All test scores are whole numbers. 3 The mean of 5 different test scores is 10. What are the largest and smallest possible values for the median? All test scores are whole numbers. 4 The mean of 9 different test scores that are whole numbers and range from 0 to 100 is 85. The median is 80. What is the greatest possible range between the highest and lowest possible test scores?

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**Two important inventions of 1862
**

24 14 16 13 5 16 13 8 11 12 11 17 22 23 18 19 14 15 11 4 7 25 12 13 16 3 12 15 8

Calculate the mean, median and mode for each set of data to find the puzzle’s code.

18 23 12 16 26 20 11

14 16 13 27 16 12

23 12 10 6 11 6 10 12 4 5 6 H = mode = 9 6 12 7

E = mean = D = mode = G = median =

A = mean = C = median = 14 15 20 14 15 20 14 21 18

Age of university students (yrs) Age Frequency 1 1 0 1 0 1 3 4

22 21 19

22 16 19

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

I = mean = K = median = 9 2 2 11 20 9 17 21 10

L = mode =

M = mean = N = median =

P = mode =

25 20 25

2 1 21

10 3 3 W = mean =

3 4 5

5 5 3

2 12

S = mean = T = median =

U = mode =

I = mode =

A = median =

11 22 12 8

6 4 13

8 15 3

22 6 7

3 18 23 8

14 23 12

19 8 18

18 5 23 2

23 16 13

7 13 4

600

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

COMMUNICATION

Denim blues

The owner of a clothing store sells denim jeans in the following sizes. 12 12 14 16 18 12 14 10 8 12 12 14 8 12 18 10 10 10 12 14 What is the most typical size of denim jeans sold in this store? Which size jeans should the store stock most of? Use the following questions to guide you to an answer. 1 Place the data in a frequency distribution table including a column for f × x and cumulative frequency. 2 Use the table to ﬁnd the mean size of denim jeans sold. 3 Use the table to ﬁnd the median size of denim jeans sold. 4 Which size of denim jeans sold is the mode? 5 Which of the mean, median and mode is most useful to the owner of the clothing store? Explain your answer.

Measures of spread

In analysing a set of scores, it is helpful to see not only how the scores tend to cluster, or how the middle of the set looks, but also how they spread or scatter. Two classes may have the same average mark, but the spread of scores may differ considerably.

Range

The range of a set of scores is the difference between the highest and lowest scores.

WORKED Example 15

Find the range of the following sets of data. a 7, 3, 5, 2, 1, 6, 9, 8. b

x f

7 1

8 3

9 5

10 2 WRITE a Highest value = 9 Lowest value = 1 Range = highest value − lowest value =9−1 =8 The set of values has a range of 8.

THINK a

1 2 3 4 5

Obtain the highest and lowest values. Deﬁne the range. Substitute the known values into the rule. Evaluate. Answer the question.

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

601

THINK b 1 Obtain the highest and lowest values. Note: Consider the values only, not the frequencies. 2 Deﬁne the range. 3 Substitute the known values into the rule. 4 Evaluate. 5 Answer the question.

WRITE b Highest value = 10 Lowest value = 7 Range = highest value − lowest value = 10 − 7 =3 The frequency distribution table data have a range of 3.

**Mean absolute difference
**

When the range and mean of two data sets is exactly the same, information regarding the measure of spread is limited. Another way to measure the spread of results is to compare how far values are from the mean. This shows whether the range of values has been caused by a few extreme values or whether values are spread consistently over the range. The mean absolute difference can be obtained by following the given steps: 1. Subtract the mean from each data value. Note: The calculation for mean absolute difference is performed in a pair of vertical bars and is called the modulus. It means that you ignore the sign of the number. For example, −7 = 7 and 7 = 7; that is, the absolute value (or modulus) of −7 is 7 and the absolute value (or modulus) of −7 is 7. 2. Calculate the mean (average) of the absolute differences; that is, (a) add each of the absolute differences (b) divide the sum of the absolute differences by the number of data values. The larger the mean absolute difference, the more spread out the data is.

WORKED Example 16

Calculate the mean absolute difference (correct to 1 decimal place) of the following data: 2, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 7; the mean is 4. THINK 1 Subtract the mean from each data value, and calculate the modulus or absolute value of this number. WRITE Absolute difference: 2 – 4=– 2= 2 Absolute difference: 2 – 4=– 2= 2 Absolute difference: 3 – 4=– 1= 1 Absolute difference: 4 – 4=0= 0 Absolute difference: 5 – 4=1= 1 Absolute difference: 5 – 4=1= 1 Absolute difference: 7 – 4=3= 3 Mean absolute difference 2+2+1+0+1+1+3 = ---------------------------------------------------------7 10 = ----7 = 1.428 571 429 ≈ 1.4

2

Calculate the mean (average) of the absolute differences; that is, (a) add each of the absolute differences (b) divide the sum of the absolute differences by the number of data values. Evaluate and simplify. Round the answer to 1 decimal place.

3 4

602

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WORKED Example 17

Calculate the mean absolute difference (correct to 2 decimal places) of the following data; the mean is 3.5. Score (x) 0 1 2 3 4 5 THINK

1

Frequency (f) 1 1 8 13 16 11 WRITE

Absolute difference × frequency Ωx - x Ω ¥ f 3.5 × 1 = 3.5 2.5 × 1 = 2.5 1.5 × 8 = 12 0.5 × 13 = 6.5 0.5 × 16 = 8 1.5 × 11 = 16.5 49

2

3 4

5 6 7 8

Draw a table with 4 columns. The column headings are, in order, ‘Score (x)’, ‘Absolute difference, x − x ’, ‘Frequency (f)’ and ‘Absolute difference × frequency, x − x × f ’. Note: Remember x is the mean of the data set. Subtract the mean ( x ) from each score value (x) leaving the answer as a positive number. Enter the absolute difference values into the appropriate column. Multiply the absolute difference values by the corresponding frequencies. Enter the values obtained in step 4 into the appropriate column. Determine the total for the frequency column. Determine the total for the x − x × f column. Deﬁne the rule for the absolute mean difference. Substitute the known values into the rule. Evaluate and simplify, rounding answer to 2 decimal places.

Score (x) 0 1 2 3 4 5

Absolute difference Ωx - x Ω 0 – 3.5 = 3.5 1 – 3.5 = 2.5 2 – 3.5 = 1.5 3 – 3.5 = 0.5 4 – 3.5 = 0.5 5 – 3.5 = 1.5 Total

Frequency (f) 1 1 8 13 16 11 50

9 10

Mean absolute difference total absolute difference × frequency values = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------total frequency values 49 = ----50 = 0.98

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WORKED Example 18

The results of a test marked out of 20, given to three Year 8 classes, were collated and organised in the following table. a What were lowest and highest marks in each class? b Can the range be used to indicate which class had the most consistent marks? Explain your answer. c Which class had the most consistent results? Explain your answer. Class A Mean test score Range Mean absolute difference THINK a

1

B 10 20 10

C 10 20 5

10 20 2

WRITE a The test is marked out of 20 and the range is equal to 20. Range = highest score − lowest value = 20 − 0 = 20 For each class, the lowest mark was 0 and the highest mark was 20. b In this case the range cannot be used to distinguish between the three groups as each class had the same mean and range values. c Class A has the smallest mean absolute difference value. The smallest mean absolute difference value corresponds to more consistent test results, because the scores are spread out less. Therefore, Class A’s test results are the most consistent, followed by Class C. Class B’s test results are the least consistent.

Read the question carefully and highlight any relevant information.

2

Answer the question.

**b Compare the range values for each class and answer the question. c
**

1

Compare the mean absolute difference values for each class. Select the class with the smallest mean absolute difference value and answer the question. Note: The smallest mean absolute difference value corresponds to more consistent results, because the data are spread out less.

2

remember

1. The range is the difference between the highest and lowest scores. 2. The mean absolute difference is the average amount of variation of spread from the mean.

604

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

12G

Mat

hca

Measures of spread

b 28, 13, 17, 21, 18, 17, 14 d 4, 1.5, 1.7, 2.0, 1.8, 1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9 b

d

WORKED

Example

**Median, mode and range
**

GC p

15a

WORKED

1 Find the range of the following scores: a 5, 5, 7, 12, 13 c 2, 52, 46, 52, 48, 52, 48 a

Example

2 Find the range of the following sets of data. x f c x f a Key: 1 Stem 1 2 3 4 6 1 5 1 7 5 10 5 8 10 15 10 9 7 20 7 b Key: 24 Stem 24 25 26 28 10 3 d x f x f 7 = 247 Leaf 27 24668 01359 5668 1 7 110 2 c 2 9 111 2 Key: 17 Stem 15 16 17 18 3 6 112 2 4 8 5 10 113 3 6 10 114 3

am – rogr TI

15b

Univariate statistics

am – rogr Ca

sio

WORKED

GC p

Univariate statistics

3 Find the range of the data presented in the following stem-and-leaf plots. 5 = 15 Leaf 12789 28 1379 0126 4 = 174 Leaf 624 86139 02186734 415271

Example

16

4 Calculate the mean absolute difference (correct to 1 decimal place) of the following data: 4, 5, 6, 6, 7, 8; the mean is 6. 5 The number of sunny days per week over a 10-week period were: 4, 4, 2, 2, 1, 5, 6, 6, 7, 3. a Find the mean number of sunny days per week. b Find the mean absolute difference. 6 For each group of numbers calculate the mean and the mean absolute difference (correct to 2 decimal places where appropriate). a 16, 17, 18, 18, 20 b 1, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12 c 95, 120, 115, 122, 114, 113, 112 7 Complete the following table and calculate the mean absolute difference. Score (x) 4 5 6 7 8 Total Absolute difference Ωx - x Ω 4 – 5.8 = 5 – 3.5 = 0.8 3.5 – 5.8 = 1.5 3.5 – 3.5 = 0.5 7 9 50 Frequency (f) 11 13 Absolute difference ¥ frequency Ωx - x Ω ¥ f 1.8 × 11 = 3.5 2.5 × 13 = 10.4 0.2 × 10 = 12 1.2 × 13 = 8.4 2.2 × 16 = 8 60.4

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WORKED

Example

17

8 Calculate the mean absolute difference of the following data (correct to 2 decimal places where appropriate). a The mean is 9. b The mean is 3.47. Score (x) 2 3 6 8 10 Frequency (f) 2 1 3 8 37 Score (x) 1.5 2.2 3.6 4.2 5.9 Frequency (f) 14 4 10 13 9

9 For each of the following tables of values, ﬁnd: i the mean ii range iii mean absolute difference. Answers should be correct to 2 decimal places where appropriate. a x f b x f c x f d x f

WORKED

8.2 8 107.1 4 0.08 23 40.2 10

10.4 4 113.7 3 0.17 17 40.3 7

11.2 11 123.5 5 0.36 18 40.9 6

11.9 16

13.7 4

14.8 7 136.4 3 0.73 14 42.4 5 149.5 2

128.3 8 0.66 28 41.9 2

Example

10 The results of a test marked out of 30, given to three Year 8 classes, were collated and organised in the following table. 18 a What were the lowest and highest marks in each class? b Can the range be used to indicate which class had the most consistent marks? Explain your answer. c Which class had the most consistent results? Explain your answer. Class A Mean test score Range Mean absolute difference 15 30 1.5 B 15 30 6.4 C 15 30 4.2

606

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

11 Samples of 10 icy-pole sticks made by three separate machines were collected and entered in the following table. All lengths are given in millimetres. Machine A Machine B Machine C 129.9 124.9 127.4 122.1 126.2 129.7 124.9 120.3 124.7 128.8 127.7 121.8 127.5 120.4 128.5 130.0 127.4 129.9 125.2 124.5 129.6 122.8 126.3 125.8 120.2 129.8 123.8 127.9 129.2 127.6

a For each machine ﬁnd: i the mean length of icy-pole sticks ii the range iii the mean absolute difference. Answers should be correct to 2 decimal places where appropriate. b Comment on the range of lengths produced. c If the length of icy-pole sticks is required to be approximately 126 mm, which machine is the most consistent? Explain your answer. 12 The following data represent the mathematics exam results (as percentages) for 28 Year 8 students: 65, 70, 67, 82, 71, 25, 83, 78, 58, 72, 94, 66, 86, 73, 71, 31, 71, 87, 65, 76, 86, 66, 98, 74, 84, 96, 100, 73 a Present the data as an ordered stem-and-leaf plot. b Find the median result. c Find the mode. d Find the range. e Comment on the results obtained by the class.

Analysing data

To understand what information the data give, and perhaps to draw conclusions from it, we must appreciate what each statistical measure does. Statistical measures Mode Deﬁnition and purpose The most common score or category. It tells us nothing about the rest of the data. Data may have no mode, one mode or more than one mode. The score in the exact middle of the values placed in numerical order. It tells us nothing about the rest of the data. It is unaffected by exceptionally large or small scores. The sum of all the scores divided by the number of scores. It is affected by exceptionally large or small scores. The difference between the highest score and the lowest score. It shows how far the scores are spread apart. It is particularly useful when combined with the mean or the median. The mean of the absolute value of the difference between each data value and the mean. It shows us the average spread of data from the mean of the data. It is useful when combined with the mean.

Median

Mean Range

Mean absolute difference

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WORKED Example 19

Explain which statistical measure is referred to in these statements. a The majority of people surveyed prefer Activ-8 sports drink. b The ages of fans at the Rolling Stones concert varied from 8 to 80. c The average Australian family has 2.5 children. THINK a

1 2 3

WRITE a The majority of people surveyed prefer Activ-8 sports drink. Majority implies most, which refers to the mode. This statement refers to the mode. b The ages of fans at the Rolling Stones concert varied from 8 to 80. The statement refers to the range of fans’ ages at the concert. This statement refers to the range. c The average Australian family has 2.5 children. The statement deals with surveying the population (census) and ﬁnding out how many children are in each family. This statement refers to the mean.

Write the statement and highlight the key word(s). Relate the highlighted word to one of the statistical measures. Answer the question. Write the statement and highlight the key word(s). Relate the highlighted word to one of the statistical measures. Answer the question. Write the statement and highlight the key word(s). Relate the highlighted word to one of the statistical measures. Answer the question.

b

1 2 3

c

1 2

3

WORKED Example 20

Elio’s batting scores in last year’s cricket series were 65, 30, 0, 0, 0, 80. Gaetano’s scores were 0, 30, 30, 80, 25, 20 in the same matches. a Calculate the range for each. Does this show that both had equal results? b Find the mean absolute difference for each. Does this give a measure of their abilities? c What combination of statistics is needed to give a better measure of their abilities? THINK a

1

WRITE a Range = highest value – lowest value Elio: Range = 80 – 0 Elio: Range = 80 Gaetano: Range = 80 – 0 Gaetano: Range = 80 Elio’s and Gaetano’s range values are the same. This does not show that they have equal results as the range gives no information of their other scores.

Continued over page

Calculate the range for each person’s batting scores by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score.

2

Compare the ranges and answer the question.

608

THINK b

1

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

WRITE b Elio’s total score = 65 + 30 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 80 Elio’s total score = 175 Number of scores = 6 total scores Mean = ---------------------------------------number of scores 175 x = -------6 ≈ 29.2 Difference: |65 – 29.2| = 35.8 |30 – 29.2| = 0.8 |0 – 29.2| = 29.2 |0 – 29.2| = 29.2 |0 – 29.2| = 29.2 |80 – 29.2| = 50.8 Mean absolute difference 35.8 + 0.8 + 29.2 + 29.2 + 29.2 + 50.8 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 175 = -------6

Calculate the mean of Elio’s batting scores: (a) Calculate the total of the batting scores. (b) Count the number of batting scores. (c) Deﬁne the rule for the mean. (d) Substitute the known values into the rule. (e) Evaluate, rounding the value to 1 decimal place. Find the absolute difference of each of Elio’s batting scores; that is, subtract the mean from each data value, leaving the answer as a positive number. Calculate the mean (average) of the absolute differences; that is,

2

3

4 5 6

(a) add each of the absolute differences (b) divide the sum of the absolute differences by the number of data values. Evaluate and simplify. Round the answer to 1 decimal place. Repeat steps 1 to 5 for Gaetano’s mean.

= 29. 166 666 67 = 29.2 Gaetano’s total score: = 0 + 30 + 30 + 80 + 25 + 20 = 185 Number of scores = 6 185 x = -------6 ≈ 30.8 Difference: |0 – 30.8| = 30.8 |30 – 30.8| = 0.8 |30 – 30.8| = 0.8 |80 – 30.8| = 49.2 |25 – 30.8| = 5.8 |20 – 30.8| = 10.8

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THINK

WRITE Mean absolute difference 30.8 + 0.8 + 0.8 + 49.2 + 5.8 + 10.8 = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 98.2 = --------6 = 16. 366 666 67 ≈ 16.4 Gaetano’s results were more consistent than Elio’s. However, as a measure by itself, it does not give a measure of their abilities. c When both their batting means and mean absolute difference values are compared, it can be seen that Gaetano’s batting average is slightly higher and that he is more consistent than Elio.

7

Compare the mean absolute difference values, and answer the question.

c Answer the question.

remember

This is a summary of what each statistical measure does. Mean: Uses all the scores as a total, divided by the number of scores. Median: The score in the exact middle of values placed in numerical order. Mode: The most common value or category. Range: The highest score minus the lowest score. Mean absolute difference: Shows the average spread of data from the mean of the data.

12H

WORKED

Analysing data

Math

cad

Example

1 Explain which statistical measure is referred to in these statements. a There was a 15° temperature variation during the day. 19 b Children at this school are absent 3.4 days per semester, on average. c Most often you have to pay $79.95 for those sports shoes. d The average Australian worker earns about $470 per week. e A middle-income family earns about $35 000 per annum.

Summary statistics

program GC

–TI

WORKED

Example

2 Frank scored 5, 7, 6, 8, 7 in a series of spelling tests. Erik scored 8, 8, 6, 8, 9 in the same tests. 20 am progr –C a Calculate the range for each. Does this show that both had equally good results? b Find the mean absolute difference for each. Does this give a measure of their Univariate abilities? Answers where appropriate should be correct to 2 decimal places. statistics c What combination of statistics is needed to give a better measure of their abilities?

GC

Univariate statistics

asio

610

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

3 The following scores were made by four teams in sports matches. Jackals: 4, 0, 5, 9, 4, 8 Panthers: Tigers: 7, 10, 10, 11, 10, 9 9, 10, 20, 25, 0, 14

Wallabies: 2, 15, 1, 17, 10, 3

a Which team has the highest mean? b Compare modal scores for Jackals and Panthers. c Find the median score for each team. d Which team shows the greatest range of scores? 4 End of semester tests produced the following results in mathematics for a class: Rating Number of students a What is the mode? b What is the median rating? c Is it possible to calculate the mean and mean absolute difference? Explain. 5 Jennifer’s batting scores in indoor cricket were: 28, 35, 31, 29, 37, 30, 34, 40, 28, 33. a What measure shows the degree of consistency in her performances? Calculate it. b Find the mean, mean absolute difference, median and mode. c Which of the measures in b would selectors use to evaluate her performance? Why? d If you were Jennifer, would you use the mode to describe your record to others? Explain your reasoning. 6 Here are Mark’s scores in the same matches as Jennifer in question 5: 57, 14, 68, 0, 22, 80, 9, 49, 16, 62 a Find range, mean, mean absolute difference, median and mode. b Compare each measure with Jennifer’s from question 5. c If you were the team selector, whom would you choose? Give reasons. d Which measure would Mark use in talking about his performance? Explain. A 3 B 8 C 10 D 5 E 2

DESIGN

Analysing your class data

You will need: Personal data sheets Analyse your class statistically by using the measures range, mode, median, mean and mean absolute difference for the attributes for which you gathered data: age, height, and so on. Develop a proﬁle of the ‘average’ student in your class. You may like to compare the results from your class with another class’s results.

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COMMUNICATION

Footy season

Let us look at the data presented at the start of this chapter. Jemma obtained the following data for the results of her AFL football team over a season. The points scored in 20 matches were: 85, 96, 118, 93, 73, 71, 98, 77, 106, 64, 73, 88, 62, 97, 104, 85, 73, 92, 62, 76, 90, 79 1 Decide on an appropriate class interval and complete a frequency distribution table. 2 Display these data as a histogram and overlay it with a frequency polygon. 3 What is the modal class of these data? 4 Display the data as a stem-and-leaf plot. 5 Calculate a the mean b the mode c the median. 6 What is the range of the data? 7 What is the mean absolute difference of the data? 8 What conclusions can you draw from analysing these data? Michael has obtained a similar set of data for his local football team. The points scored in 20 matches were: 83, 75, 93, 67, 62, 105, 118, 96, 84, 99, 92, 81, 88, 93, 100, 98, 87, 104, 84, 76, 115, 80 9 Repeat the analysis described in 1 to 8 above. 10 Compare the two sets of data. Write a summary of your ﬁndings. 11 At the start of the season, the president of Jemma’s football club offered an incentive to the team. If the team’s average over the season was 90 or more, they would be rewarded with a night out at a restaurant. Does the team receive their reward? 12 If Michael’s football team had the same incentive plan, would they receive the reward? Explain your answer.

COMMUNICATION

Obtaining your own data

1 Use the Internet or library to obtain two sets of data related to an area of interest to you. (Try the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ website, www.abs.gov.au.) Write a report on the analysis of these data. Explain whether the data have been obtained from a sample or from the entire population. 2 Collect two sets of data for yourself by surveying students in your class on a question of your choice. For the ﬁrst set, survey the whole population of your class (census). For the second set, work out a way of randomly choosing 10 students (sample). Write a report on your ﬁndings. How do the two sets of data compare? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a sample compared to surveying a whole population? Note: When comparing the data, make use of the mean, mean absolute difference, mode, median, range and graphs.

612

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

summary

Copy the sentences below. Fill in the gaps by choosing the correct word or expression from the word list that follows. 1 2 3 Statistics involves collecting data using a survey of the target , or of the whole population (census). The data are then sorted into a frequency each score and the number of times it occurs. samples of table, which shows

To display the results we can use and charts, consisting of data arranged in columns and rows; column graphs, bar graphs or graphs. Column and bar graphs should have these features: i an appropriate ii labelled and clearly scaled width.

4

iii all columns or bars of the 5

Histograms are special graphs showing scores on the horizontal (x) axis and (f ) on the vertical axis. No gaps are left between columns, which straddle the scale marks on the x-axis. Frequency the top of the x-axis. A side. and are special line graphs joining the midpoints of columns, and starting and ﬁnishing on the plot resembles a histogram turned on its

6

7 8

Data analysis uses the (average) = total of all scores ÷ number of scores, median ( score), and (most common score) as measures of how scores cluster. The is deﬁned as the highest score minus the lowest score and gives an overall impression of how scores tend to . The mean how the data is spread. and range are both used to measure

9 10

WORD

mode distribution axes middle leaf

LIST

spread random mean population title range column absolute frequency tables same line polygons stem difference histogram

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CHAPTER review

1 A random sample of 24 families was surveyed to determine the number of vehicles in each household. Use the frequency distribution column at right to answer the following questions. a How many families have no vehicles in their household? b How many families have 2 or more vehicles in their household? c Which score has the highest frequency? d Which is the highest score? e What fraction of families had 2 vehicles in their household? Cars 0 1 2 3 4 Total Frequency 6 4 8 5 1 24

12A

2 The following table represents the statistics for the various Rugby League teams. Key: P = matches played W = number won D = number drawn L = number lost F = points for A = points against Pts = competition points awarded

12A

Brisbane Newcastle Wests Parramatta Melbourne North Queensland Sydney St George–Illawarra North Sydney Penrith Canberra Auckland Cronulla Canterbury South Sydney Manly–Warringah

RUGBY LEAGUE

Standings P 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 W 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 D — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — L — — 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 F 166 146 114 112 102 78 110 105 84 126 90 87 68 76 46 62 A 58 64 56 68 78 95 85 102 58 119 86 111 102 98 88 106 Pts 10 10 8 8 8 8 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2

a b c d

How many matches had most teams played? Which teams had won 3 matches and lost 2? Which team shows the narrowest gap between F and A? Why is Brisbane placed ahead of Newcastle if they have both gained the same number of competition points? e How many points are awarded for a win?

614

12A

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

3 This table shows the maximum and minimum daily temperatures in a city over a one-week period. Day Maximum (°C) Minimum (°C) 1 12 3 2 13 3 3 10 2 4 11 1 5 9 0 6 10 4 7 8 2

Use the table to answer the following questions. a What was the maximum temperature on day 3? b Which day had the lowest minimum temperature? c Which day was the coldest? d Which day had the warmest minimum temperature? e What was the temperature range (variation) on day 2? f Which day had the smallest range of temperatures?

12B

4 The table below shows the components that make up the body mass of a typical teenager. Bone 12.5 kg Brain 2.5 kg Fat 5 kg Blood 10 kg Muscle 25 kg Other 5 kg

a What is the teenager’s total mass? b What fraction of the teenager’s body mass is muscle? c How much more mass of blood than fat does he have? d What percentage of the total mass is the brain? e Draw a column graph to display the data.

12B

5 This table below shows the weekly expenses of a typical Australian family. Item Food and drink Rent or mortgage Transport Clothing Recreation Other a b c d e Amount ($) 120 180 60 40 60 140

Select a suitable title and draw a bar graph. Which item is the least expensive? Which item is half as expensive as food and drink? What fraction of the family’s expenses goes on other expenses? What percentage of the family’s expenses goes on rent and mortgage?

Chapter 12 Data and graphs

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12C

6 The graph at right represents the acre–hectare conversion. a Convert to hectares: i 5 acres ii 7.4 acres. b Convert to acres: i 4 hectares ii 2.4 hectares iii 3.5 hectares.

Acre–hectare conversion graph 4 Hectares 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Acres 7 8 9 10

7 The table below represents the estimated insect population in a particular region of Victoria. Year 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Population 120 000 160 000 230 000 330 000 460 000

12C

a Draw a line graph to display the data in the table of insect population growth. Label the horizontal axis ‘Year’ and the vertical axis ‘Population’. Choose your own scale for the horizontal axis. Use the scale 1 cm = 50 000 for the vertical axis, starting at 100 000. b i Which decade showed the smallest increase? ii Which decade showed the largest increase? c i What should be the approximate population in 2009? ii What should be the approximate population in 2015? d If the trends continue, in what year should the insect population reach: i 250 000 ii 370 000? 8 A number of people were asked to rate a video on a scale of 0 to 5. Here are their scores: 1, 0, 2, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 2, 3, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 5, 3, 1, 0 a Sort the data into a frequency distribution table. b Display the data as a histogram with a frequency polygon overlay. 9 The number of hours spent watching TV on a Friday night by students in a selected Year 8

--------class is: 1 1 , 2, 0, 1 , 1, 2, 1 1 , 3, 0, 1 , 1, 2, 2, 3, 3 1 , 0, 1, 4, 2, 1 , 1, 0, 2, 1 1 , 0, 1 1 . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

12D 12D

a Compile a frequency distribution table of the data. b How many students were surveyed? c What was the most common time that students spent watching TV? d How many students spent more than 2 hours watching TV? e How many students watched less than 1 hour of TV? f Display the data as a histogram with a frequency polygon overlay. 10 The following data give the speed of 30 cars recorded by a roadside speed camera along a stretch of road where the speed limit is 80 km/h. 75, 90, 83, 92, 103, 96, 110, 92, 102, 93, 78, 94, 104, 85, 88, 82, 81, 115, 94, 84, 87, 86, 96, 71, 91, 91, 92, 104, 88, 97 Present the data as an ordered stem-and-leaf plot.

12E

616

12E 12F 12F

Maths Quest 8 for Victoria

11 Comment on the data recorded by the roadside speed camera in question 10. 12 Calculate the mean of the following scores 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 5, 4 and 6. 13 The mean of 10 scores was 5.5; nine of the scores were: 4, 5, 6, 8, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 9; what was the tenth score? Questions 14 and 15 refer to the following distribution table. x f 2 3 3 2 5 8 6 2

12F 12F,G 12F,G 12F,G 12H

14 Calculate the mean of the given frequency distribution table. 15 For the given frequency distribution table, determine: a the mode b the median

c the range.

16 a Determine the mode of the following values: 3, 2, 6, 5, 9, 8, 1, 7. Explain your answer. b Determine the median of the following values: 10, 6, 1, 9, 8, 5, 17, 3. c Calculate the range of the following values: 1, 6, 15, 7, 21, 8, 41, 7. 17 Find the mode, median and range of the data in question 8. 18 A frozen goods section manager recorded the following sales of chickens by size during a sample week: 16, 14, 13, 12, 15, 14, 13, 11, 12, 14, 14, 16, 15, 13, 11, 12, 14, 13, 15, 17, 13, 12, 14, 16, 13, 11, 15, 14, 12, 11, 15, 12, 13, 12, 12, 15, 13, 11, 11, 13, 16, 13, 12, 15, 17, 13, 14, 16, 12, 15 a Construct a frequency distribution table showing x, f, and x × f columns. You may include a tally column if you wish. b Draw a histogram to display the data. c Identify the mode of the distribution. d Calculate the mean and median sizes of the chickens sold. e Of which size should the manager order most? Explain. f What is the range of sizes? g What percentage of total sales are in the size 12 to 14 group? h Is the mean a useful measure to the manager? Explain.

12F,G,H

19 The following table displays the results of the number of pieces of mail delivered in a week to a number of homes. Number of pieces of mail Frequency a b c d e 0 7 1 25 2 34 3 11 4 8 5 2 6 4 7 5 8 3 9 1

CHAPTER

test yourself

12

What is the most common number of pieces of mail delivered? What is the mean number of pieces of mail delivered? Calculate the range. Calculate the mean absolute difference. Interpret the data.