LEVEL 5

VICTORIAN ESSENTIAL LEARNING STANDARDS

MATHS Quest 8
For Victoria
SECOND EDITION

Sonja Stambulic Chris Evangelou Lyn Elms
Contributing authors Robert Cahn • Steve Craven • Caroline Denney • Andrea Dineen Rodney Ebbage • Ray Hawkins • Elena Iampolsky • Linda Johnston • Carolyn Mews Mario Panaccio • David Phillips • Tony Priddle • Colin Shnier • Jenny Watson Support material Brett Barber • Stephen Broderick • John Dowsey • Dennis Fitzgerald • Stephen Heames Robert Johnston • Poppy Pantelidis • David Tynan • Jill Vincent • Don Wagstaff

Second edition published 2006 by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064 First edition published 2001 Typeset in 10.5/12.5pt Times © John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2001, 2006 The moral rights of the authors have been asserted. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication data Maths quest 8 for Victoria: level 5 Victorian essential learning standards 2nd ed. Includes index. For year 8 maths students in Victoria and their teachers. ISBN 978 0 7314 0329 5 (student edition) ISBN 978 0 7314 0333 2 (teacher edition) 1. Mathematics — Textbooks. 2. Mathematics — Study and teaching (Secondary). I. Stambulic, Sonja. (Series: Maths Quest series). 510 Reproduction and communication for educational purposes The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this work, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL). Reproduction and communication for other purposes Except as permitted under the Act (for example, a fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review), no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher. Illustrated by the Wiley Art Studio Cartography on page 305 was created by MAPgraphics Pty Ltd, Brisbane. Cover photograph, internal design images and CD-ROM label: © Digital Vision Printed in Singapore by Markono Print Media Pte Ltd 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

Contents
Introduction viii Acknowledgements xii
10 Quick Questions 1 Code puzzle 62 61

CHAPTER 1
Number skills
Are you ready? 2

1

Whole number operations 3 Exercise 1A 7 Code puzzle 9 Special groups of numbers 10 Exercise 1B 13 10 Quick Questions 1 14 Investigation — Darts competition 15 Addition and subtraction of fractions 15 Exercise 1C 17 Multiplication and division of fractions 19 Exercise 1D 20 10 Quick Questions 2 21 Investigation — Nude and cute numbers 22 Fractions to decimals, decimals to fractions 22 Exercise 1E 24 Addition and subtraction of decimals 25 Exercise 1F 25 Multiplication and division of decimals 26 Exercise 1G 28 Estimation 29 Exercise 1H 33 Binary numbers 35 Exercise 1I 38 Operations on binary numbers 39 Exercise 1J 43 Code puzzle 44 Summary 45 Chapter review 47

Addition of integers 63 Exercise 2D 65 Subtraction of integers 67 Exercise 2E 69 Multiplication of integers 70 Exercise 2F 71 Investigation — Movies 73 Investigation — Number pattern table 73 Investigation — Powers and roots of directed numbers 74 Division of integers 75 Exercise 2G 77 Combined operations 78 Exercise 2H 79 Investigation — Wet or dry reunion? 80 10 Quick Questions 2 81 Graphical representation of directed numbers 81 Exercise 2I 83 Directed number operations — fractions 84 Exercise 2J 87 Directed number operations — decimals 88 Exercise 2K 90 Investigation — Mountain climbing 91 Summary 92 Chapter review 93

CHAPTER 3
Set notation and theory 95
Are you ready? 96

CHAPTER 2
Positive and negative numbers 49
Are you ready? 50

Integers on the number line 51 Exercise 2A 54 Investigation — Comparing temperatures 56 Positive integers and zero on the number plane 56 Exercise 2B 58 Integers on the number plane 59 Exercise 2C 60

Introducing sets 97 Exercise 3A 99 Some special sets 102 Exercise 3B 107 Code puzzle 111 Venn diagrams 112 Exercise 3C 117 Investigation — Taking orders 120 10 Quick Questions 1 120 Karnaugh maps 121 Exercise 3D 123 Tree diagrams 126 Exercise 3E 130 10 Quick Questions 2 132 Logic 133 Exercise 3F 137

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Truth functions 139 Exercise 3G 144 Investigation — Boolean algebra and the World Wide Web 145 Investigation — Binary number adder 146 Summary 148 Chapter review 150 Substituting positive and negative numbers 209 Exercise 5D 211 Investigation — Rules of thumb 211 Code puzzle 212 10 Quick Questions 1 213 Number laws and pronumerals 213 Exercise 5E 218 Simplifying expressions 219 Exercise 5F 220 Multiplying pronumerals 221 Exercise 5G 222 Investigation — Sonar measurements 222 Dividing pronumerals 223 Exercise 5H 224 10 Quick Questions 2 225 Expanding brackets 225 Exercise 5I 227 Factorising 228 Exercise 5J 231 Summary 232 Chapter review 233

CHAPTER 4
Percentages
Are you ready? 154

153

Percentages as fractions 155 Exercise 4A 158 Percentages as decimals 160 Exercise 4B 161 Fractions to percentages 162 Exercise 4C 164 10 Quick Questions 1 165 Decimals to percentages 166 Exercise 4D 166 Finding percentages of an amount using fractions 168 Exercise 4E 169 Investigation — Savings on scooters 171 Code puzzle 172 Finding percentages of an amount using decimals 173 Exercise 4F 175 10 Quick Questions 2 176 One amount as a percentage of another 177 Exercise 4G 180 Applications of percentages 182 Exercise 4H 184 Finding percentages using a calculator 186 Exercise 4I 186 Common percentages and short cuts 188 Exercise 4J 190 Summary 193 Chapter review 194

CHAPTER 6
Equations
Are you ready?

235
236

CHAPTER 5
Algebra
Are you ready?

197
198

Using pronumerals 199 Exercise 5A 200 Substitution 204 Exercise 5B 205 Working with brackets 207 Exercise 5C 208

Backtracking — inverse operations 237 Exercise 6A 240 Keeping equations balanced 241 Exercise 6B 243 10 Quick Questions 1 244 History of mathematics — Diophantus of Alexandria (c. 200–c. 284) 245 Using algebra to solve equations 246 Exercise 6C 250 Equations with the pronumeral on both sides 252 Exercise 6D 255 Code puzzle 256 10 Quick Questions 2 257 Checking solutions 257 Exercise 6E 259 Solving word problems 261 Exercise 6F 264 Investigation — Save, save, save! 267 Inequalities and inequations 267 Investigation — Operations on inequalities 270 Exercise 6G 271 Investigation — Theatre design 273 Investigation — Mobiles 273 Summary 274 Chapter review 275

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CHAPTER 7
Ratios and rates
Are you ready? Code puzzle 348

277

278 Introduction to ratios 279 Exercise 7A 280 Simplifying ratios 282 Exercise 7B 285 Proportion 288 Exercise 7C 289 10 Quick Questions 1 292 Code puzzle 293 Comparing ratios 294 Exercise 7D 296 Increasing and decreasing in a given ratio 297 Exercise 7E 298 Dividing in a given ratio 301 Exercise 7F 302 10 Quick Questions 2 303 History of mathematics — The Rhind Papyrus (c. 1850 BC) 304 Scale drawing 305 Exercise 7G 307 Investigation — How high is that tree? 309 Rates 310 Exercise 7H 311 Speed 313 Exercise 7I 315 Summary 318 Chapter review 319

Angles in polygons 349 Investigation — Sum of angles in a polygon 349 Investigation — Angles in a regular polygon 351 Exercise 8F 352 Investigation — Regular polygons 353 Angles and parallel lines 353 Investigation — Angle relationships with parallel lines 355 Exercise 8G 357 10 Quick Questions 2 361 Constructing triangles 362 Exercise 8H 364 Isometric drawing 365 Exercise 8I 366 Geometric constructions 369 Exercise 8J 370 Nets and solids 371 Exercise 8K 372 Investigation — Box it! 373 Investigation — Geometry and the Sydney Harbour Bridge 374 Summary 375 Chapter review 377

CHAPTER 9
Measurement
Are you ready? 382

381

CHAPTER 8
Geometry
Are you ready?

321

322

Triangles 323 Exercise 8A 325 History of mathematics — Euclid (c. 300 BC) 328 Angles in a triangle 329 Exercise 8B 331 Exterior angles of a triangle 333 Investigation — Exterior angles of a triangle 333 Exercise 8C 336 Investigation — Exterior angles 338 Quadrilaterals 338 Exercise 8D 340 Investigation — Forming quadrilaterals 342 10 Quick Questions — 343 Angles in a quadrilateral 344 Exercise 8E 345

Introduction 383 Accuracy of measurement 383 Investigation — Measuring distance 384 Investigation — Judging the winning result 385 Investigation — Measuring height 385 Estimation and approximation in measurement 386 Investigation — Estimating measurements 386 Exercise 9A 387 Error 389 Exercise 9B 393 Perimeter 395 Exercise 9C 398 Circumference 400 Investigation — The diameter of a circle and its circumference — any connection? 400 History of mathematics — Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287–212 BC) 403 Exercise 9D 405 Code puzzle 408

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Area of rectangles and triangles 409 Exercise 9E 411 10 Quick Questions 1 414 Area of a parallelogram 415 Investigation — Area of a parallelogram 415 Exercise 9F 416 Area of a circle 418 Investigation — Area of a circle 418 Exercise 9G 420 Area of a trapezium 422 Investigation — Area of a trapezium 422 Exercise 9H 424 Composite shapes 425 Exercise 9I 427 Investigation — Designing a one-bedroom unit 429 10 Quick Questions 2 430 Total surface area 431 Exercise 9J 432 Volume of prisms and other shapes 434 Exercise 9K 437 Investigation — Prize money 439 Summary 440 Chapter review 442

CHAPTER 11
Coordinates and graphs
Are you ready? 488

487

CHAPTER 10
Transformations
Are you ready? 446

445

Transformations 447 Translations 447 Exercise 10A 450 Reflections 452 Exercise 10B 455 10 Quick Questions 1 457 Rotations 458 Investigation — In a spin 459 Exercise 10C 460 Investigation — Designing a patchwork quilt 464 10 Quick Questions 2 465 Congruent figures 466 Exercise 10D 467 Code puzzle 469 Dilations 470 Exercise 10E 474 Investigation — Braille 478 Similar figures 478 Exercise 10F 480 Summary 482 Chapter review 484

Interpreting graphs 489 Exercise 11A 491 The Cartesian plane 494 Exercise 11B 496 Investigation — Drawing by numbers 497 Linear patterns 498 Exercise 11C 501 10 Quick Questions 1 502 Finding the rule for linear relationships 503 Investigation — Finding the rule for linear patterns 503 Exercise 11D 507 Plotting linear graphs 508 Exercise 11E 510 Gradient and y-intercept 512 Exercise 11F 515 10 Quick Questions 2 517 Investigation — Gradient and y-intercept 518 Finding the rule for linear graphs 519 Exercise 11G 521 Sketching linear graphs 522 Exercise 11H 524 Code puzzle 525 Investigation — Predicting a person’s height 526 Applications of linear graphs 526 Exercise 11I 530 Graphs and relationships 534 Exercise 11J 539 Summary 542 Chapter review 543

CHAPTER 12
Data and graphs
Are you ready? 548

547

Data collection and organisation 549 Investigation — Samples and surveys 549 Investigation — Bias 550 Investigation — Collecting data for surveys and questionnaires 551 Tables and charts 553 Exercise 12A 555 Investigation — Staying alive 560 10 Quick Questions 1 561 Column and bar graphs 562 Exercise 12B 566 Investigation — Personal data sheet 568 Investigation — Displaying your data as column or bar graphs 569

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History of mathematics — Nicholas Oresmé 1325–1382 569

CHAPTER 14
Networks
Are you ready?

Line graphs 570 Exercise 12C 573 Investigation — Recording temperature 577 Histograms and frequency polygons 577 Exercise 12D 583 10 Quick Questions 2 586 Stem-and-leaf plots 587 Exercise 12E 589 Mean, median and mode 590 Investigation — What is the difference? 595 Exercise 12F 596 Code puzzle 599 Investigation — Denim blues 600 Measures of spread 600 Exercise 12G 604 Analysing data 606 Exercise 12H 609 Investigation — Analysing your class data 610 Investigation — Footy season 611 Investigation — Obtaining your own data 611 Summary 612 Chapter review 613

659

660

CHAPTER 13
Probability
Are you ready? 618

What is a network? 661 Exercise 14A 665 Code puzzle 666 Basic properties of networks 667 History of mathematics — Leonhard Euler (15 April 1707–18 September 1783) 670 Exercise 14B 671 10 Quick Questions 1 673 Application of networks to problem solving 674 Exercise 14C 677 Paths and circuits — part I 678 Exercise 14D 681 Paths and circuits — part II 682 Exercise 14E 684 Investigation — Sprouts 685 Investigation — The bridges of Königsberg 686 10 Quick Questions 2 686 Trees and networks 687 Exercise 14F 692 Summary 694 Chapter review 695

617

Probability scale 619 Exercise 13A 622 Experimental probability 623 Exercise 13B 626 10 Quick Questions 1 629 Investigation — Rock, paper, scissors 630 Sample spaces and theoretical probability 630 Investigation — Symmetry of chance 634 Investigation — In the long run — tossing a coin 635 Exercise 13C 636 Code puzzle 639 Simulations 640 Investigation — Simulation 642 Exercise 13D 643 10 Quick Questions 2 645 Tree diagrams and two-way tables 646 Investigation — Dice game 649 Exercise 13E 652 Investigation — Green is for go, red is for stop! 654 Summary 655 Chapter review 656

Strategies for problem solving 697
Introduction to problem solving 698 Strategies for investigation and problem solving 699 Questioning skills 699 Create a table, then look for a pattern or a result 700 Draw a diagram, then look for a pattern or a result 702 Use a pattern of numbers, making use of technology such as a computer spreadsheet 703 Work backwards from the answer 704 Use a process of elimination 706 Look at similar but simpler problems 706 Use trial and error (guess and check), making use of technology such as a computer spreadsheet 708 Communicating, reasoning and reflecting 710 Glossary 713 Answers 721 Index 782

Introduction
The second edition of Maths Quest 8 for Victoria is one of the exciting award-winning Maths Quest resources specifically designed for the Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS). This resource contains: • a student textbook with accompanying CD-ROM • a teacher edition with accompanying CD-ROM • a student homework book • a teacher support book.

Student textbook
The key features added in the second edition include: • an introductory set of questions at the start of each chapter to establish the students’ current level of understanding. Each question is supported with a SkillSHEET to explain the concept involved and provide extra practice if needed. • a new chapter on problem-solving strategies to assist students’ skills in working mathematically • eTHINKING multi-level interactive problem-solving games to encourage deeper understanding of concepts and to challenge students’ mathematical thinking and reasoning (see page xi for details) • updated and revised interactive technology files to foster Information and Communications Technology (ICT) skills and aid conceptual learning • a glossary to enhance students’ mathematical literacy. The second edition textbook continues to offer the following awardwinning features. The use of full colour throughout produces clearer graphs and headings, provides bright, stimulating photographs and makes navigation through the text easier. Clear, concise theory sections contain worked examples, graphics calculator tips (Texas Instruments in the text and Casio on the CD) and highlighted important text and remember boxes. Worked examples in a Think/Write format provide clear explanations of key steps and suggestions for presentation of solutions. Exercises contain many carefully graded skills and application problems, including multiple choice questions. Cross-references to relevant worked examples appear beside the first ‘matching’ question throughout the exercises. Many exercises finish with Maths Quest challenge questions designed to extend students. Code puzzles reinforce mathematical skills and History of Mathematics sections highlight mathematical concepts in context. Two sets of 10 Quick Questions in each chapter provide a cumulative review of concepts covered. Investigations focus on links to the interdisciplinary strands, providing further opportunities for discovery learning. Each chapter concludes with a summary and chapter review exercise helping consolidate students’ learning of new concepts.

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Technology is fully integrated (in line with VELS recommendations) and features graphics calculators, computer algebra systems, spreadsheets, dynamic geometry software and several graphing packages. Maths Quest continues to promote these technologies as learning tools, providing demonstration versions of the programs (with the exception of Microsoft Excel) as well as hundreds of supporting files on the bonus accompanying CD-ROM.
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Student CD-ROM
The accompanying CD-ROM contains the entire student textbook. Students may work from the CD on laptops, school or home computers, and cut and paste material for revision or assignments. Clearly labelled icons within the electronic version of the text hyperlink to hundreds of technology files for programs such as Mathcad, Excel and Cabri Geometry to allow further exploration of ‘what if’ scenarios.

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TI-83 and Casio CFX-9850GB PLUS graphics calculator programs can be downloaded to students’ calculators using the Graphlink and FA-123 software provided. Game time icons link to interactive games that reinforce mathematical skills as well as being good fun. There are two in every chapter.

CHAPTER

test yourself

3.2 10.8
Right angles

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WorkSHEET icons link to editable Word 2000 documents, and may be completed on the screen, or printed and completed by hand. The Test yourself tests are interactive, allowing students to select their answers and receive instant feedback. SkillSHEET icons link to printable pages designed to help students revise required concepts, and contain additional examples and problems. eTHINKING icons link to multilevel interactive problem-solving games.

eTHINKING

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SkillS

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Minimum system requirements
Windows 95/98 or NT Processor: Pentium CD-ROM drive speed: 4× 16 Mb RAM speakers Macintosh Macintosh OS 7.6 Processor: PowerPC CD-ROM drive speed: 4× 16 Mb RAM

Programs included
Mathcad Client: a computer algebra system and graphing program Graphmatica: an excellent graphing utility GrafEq: graphs any relation, including complicated inequalities Poly: for visualising 3D polyhedra and their nets Tess: for producing tessellations and other symmetric planar illustrations TI Connect and Casio software FA-123: calculator screen capture and transfer programs Cabri Geometry II PLUS: dynamic geometry program Adobe® Acrobat® Reader v7

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eTHINKING

GREYGUM

S O F T W A R E

eTHINKING Software developed by cooperation between Greygum Software Pty Ltd and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd. Ten interactive problem-solving games are vibrantly presented. Each game is content-based and contains 7 to 10 multi-level tasks, increasing in complexity and difficulty. Due to the multi-level nature of the eTHINKING problem-solving games, students can attempt these at various stages throughout the chapter. Titles, placement and descriptions of these games follow. Number bases Chapter 1 Number skills Nine puzzles involving the recognition of numbers in different bases, conversions between bases and calculations involving the basic operations. Nine puzzles that consolidate and extend the participant’s knowledge of directed number.

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Positive and negative Chapter 2 Positive and negative numbers Logic gates Chapter 3 Set notation and theory Balancing numbers Chapter 5 Algebra

eTHINKING

Eight puzzles incorporating truth tables and the operators AND, OR, NOT in a variety of settings. Eight puzzles ranging from straightforward to more complex calculations involving logic and addition. Nine puzzles involving the concepts of algebra, formulating equations and checking solutions. Seven puzzles that consolidate the ideas of linking written information to graphical form.

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Guess and check Chapter 6 Equations

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Interpreting graphs Chapter 7 Ratios and rates

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Patterns Chapter 8 Geometry

Ten puzzles employing geometrical shapes and logic in pattern solving.

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Combining Nine puzzles ranging from the introduction of transformations the effects of single transformations to more Chapter 10 Transformations complex combinations. Coordinates Chapter 11 Coordinates and graphs Traversing networks Chapter 14 Networks Nine puzzles involving the concept of plotting and identifying coordinates in each of the four quadrants, and the intersection of straight lines. Eight puzzles exploring traversable networks.

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Troubleshooting
If you have problems with the operation of this CD-ROM: • Check that you have the right equipment (see Minimum system requirements). • If you continue to experience operational problems with this CD-ROM, please contact the producer directly. You will need to explain the problem and provide details of the type of computer and the amount of RAM you have, the processor type and the CD-ROM speed. If you return the disk, please package it appropriately to protect it during transit. Email: multimedia@johnwiley.com.au Phone toll free: 1800 777 474 (ask to be transferred to the Multimedia Hotline) or direct Multimedia Hotline 07 3859 9649. Fax toll free: 1800 02 258 (Attention: Multimedia Hotline) or direct: 07 3859 9755 (Attention: Multimedia Hotline). • You can also write to John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd. Postal address: Multimedia Assistant John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd PO Box 1226 MILTON QLD 4064

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Teacher edition with accompanying CD-ROM
The teacher edition textbook contains everything in the student textbook and more. To support teachers assisting students in class, answers appear in red next to most questions in the exercises. Each exercise is annotated with relevant standards. The readily accessible and comprehensive VELS planning document, Work program and curriculum grid list available resources and curriculum coverage. The accompanying teacher CD-ROM contains everything in the student CD-ROM and more. Four tests per chapter, fully worked solutions to WorkSHEETs, interactive Test yourself tests in editable Word format, the work program and other curriculum advice in editable Word 2000 format are provided.

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Student Homework Book
The Homework Book is a valuable new addition to the Maths Quest series and complements the student textbook with a variety of activities including WorkSHEETs, rich tasks and fun code puzzles.

Teacher Support Book
This fully photocopiable resource contains all the WorkSHEETs in the Homework Book, plus teacher support material that includes assessment sheets, a VELS planning grid and extra activities for students to further develop their skills in working mathematically. All answers to the WorkSHEETs and additional teacher support materials are also provided. Website: www.jaconline.com.au/mathsquestvic The Maths Quest web site will provide support in the form of additional technology files, worksheets, links to other sites, assessment materials including practice tests and more. Maths Quest is a rich collection of teaching and learning resources within one package.

Acknowledgements
The authors and publisher would like to thank the following copyright holders, organisations and individuals for their assistance and for permission to reproduce copyright material in this book.

Illustrative material
• © Ateco Automotive Australia Pty Ltd, page 653 • © Australia Post, page 559 (2 images) • © APL, pages 390/John & Lorraine Carnemolla, 549/ Corbis/Tim Wright (bottom) • © Brand X Pictures, pages 110 (top left), 155, 327 (top), 377 • © Comstock, page 125 (bottom) • © Corbis Images, pages 138/Digital Stock (bottom), 150 (left), 151, 163, 195 (2 images), 197, 207, 250, 265, 281 (left), 360, 528, 543, 557, 566, 567, 622, 643, 692 • © Creative Cohesions — Jennifer Wright, pages 153, 277, 295, 312, 342, 371 (2 images), 425, 443 (bottom), 649, 665 • © Dendy Cinema Pty Ltd, page 131 (top) • © Digital Stock, pages 202 (top), 620 • © Digital Stock/ Corbis Corporation, pages 49, 54 (top), 66, 91, 100 (centre), 165, 386, 533, 558, 575, 596 (left), 689 • © Digital Vision, pages 35 (centre), 102 (centre right), 102 (top right), 159/Stephen Frink, 167, 201, 202 (bottom), 233, 237, 289, 298, 300, 311, 383 (top), 491, 633, 661 • © Kjeld Duits, page 131 (bottom) • © Getty Images, pages 101/Sport/Paul Kane (bottom), 550/Sport/ Robert Cianflone/Staff • © Image Addict, pages 170, 617 • © Image Disk Photography, pages 192, 368 • © Image Source, pages 180, 246 • © Image 100, page 676 • © ImageState, page 573 • © John Wiley & Sons Australia, pages 95/Luciana Fantacci, 102/Jo Patterson (top left), 209/Malcolm Cross, 264/Joe Marsiglio, 347/Narelle Kremmer, 365/John Nolan, 373/Kari-Ann Tapp (left, bottom right), 373/Catherine Spedding (top right), 414, 492/Nola Evangelou, 579/Narelle Kremmer, 585/Sharon Way (top), 590/Sharon Way (top), 600/Jennifer Wright, 613, 630/Jennifer Wright (6 images), 662/Bettina Jessup, 678/Sonja Stambulic, 684 • © Melway Publishing Pty Ltd, page 309 • © Microsoft Corporation, page 489 • © MAPgraphics Pty Ltd, Brisbane, page 305/John Wiley & Sons, Australia • © Newspix, pages 161/Troy Bendeich, 290, 296/Joe Mann, 315/Richard Cisar-Wright, 316/AFP, 547/Michael Dodge, 549/Phil Hillyard (top) • © Jennifer Nolan, page 433/John Nolan • © PhotoDisc, Inc., pages 1, 3, 5, 7, 18, 21, 26, 35 (bottom), 37, 51 (2 images), 54 (bottom), 67, 70, 72, 78, 80, 93, 94, 98, 99, 100 (top), 101 (top), 102 (centre left), 107, 108 (2 images), 110 (top right), 117 (left), 119, 121, 124, 125 (top), 130, 135, 137, 138 (top), 150 (right), 152, 168, 175, 176, 183, 185 (2 images), 191, 199, 203, 206, 213, 241, 257, 261, 266, 279, 281 (right), 282, 285, 286, 317, 320 (bottom), 323, 326, 337, 338, 351, 362, 380 (2 images), 381, 383 (lower left, upper left), 384 (2 images), 392, 393, 394, 395, 407 (2 images), 409, 413 (3 images), 428, 435, 438 (2 images), 443 (top), 445, 447, 456, 459, 477 (2 images), 478, 487, 490, 512, 531, 532, 553, 556, 576, 577, 578, 585 (bottom, centre), 589, 590 (bottom), 596 (right), 597, 614, 619, 621, 624, 628, 629, 632, 635, 636, 637, 640, 644, 652, 656, 659, 674, 677, 687, 693 • © photolibrary.com, pages 328/Science Photo Library (left), 328/Science Photo Library/Jean-Loup Charmet (right), 399/ Claver Carroll, 403/Science Photo Library • © Pixland, page 110 (centre left, centre right) • © Royal Australian Mint, page 439 • © Rubberball

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Productions, page 109 • © Maggy Saldais, page 361 • © Sony Australia Ltd, pages 235, 267 • © Stockbyte, pages 327 (bottom), 430 • © Tattersall’s Sweeps Pty Ltd, pages 302, 320 (top) • © The Trustees of The British Museum, page 304 • © Viewfinder Australia Photo Library, pages 117 (right), 321, 374, 481 • © Alex Wild 2004, page 200.

Text
• © Australia Post, page 559

Software
The authors and publisher would like to thank the following software providers for their assistance and for permission to use their materials. However, the use of such material does not imply that the providers endorse this product in any way. Third party software — registered full version ordering information Full versions of third party software may be obtained by contacting the companies listed below. Texas Instruments TI Connect™ and TI-GRAPHLINK software TI Connect™ and TI-GRAPHLINK software reproduced with permission of the publisher Texas Instruments Incorporated. TI Connect software available from Texas Instruments Web: http://education.ti.com/us/product/software.html Note: The TI Connectivity cable can be purchased from educational booksellers or calculator suppliers. Casio FA-123 Software used with permission of Casio Computer Co. Ltd. © 2001 All rights reserved. Distributed by Shriro Australia Pty Ltd 23–27 Chaplin Drive Lane Cove NSW 2066 Web: http://www.casioed.net.au and find the calculator product range Mathcad® Client Included with permission of MathSoft Engineering & Education, Inc. Web: http://www.mathsoft.com Distributed in Australia by Hearne Scientific Software Pty Ltd Level 6, 552 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne 3000 e-mail: info@hearne.com.au Web: http://www.hearne.com.au/ Phone: (03) 9602 5088 Mathcad is a registered trademark of Math Soft Engineering & Education, Inc.

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Graphmatica Reproduced with permission of kSoft, Inc. 345 Montecillo Dr., Walnut Creek, CA 94595-2654. e-mail: ksoft@graphmatica.com Web: http://www.graphmatica.com Software included is for evaluation purposes only. The user is expected to register shareware if use exceeds 30 days. Order forms are available at www.graphmatica.com/register. txt Cabri Geometry™ II PLUS Reproduced with permission of Cabrilog. Cabrilog 6, Robert Schuman Place 38000 Grenoble FRANCE Web: http://www.cabri.com 1. Due to copyright restrictions, the demo version of Cabri Geometry™ II Plus must not be used in the classroom for presentation on a regular basis. 2. For site licences contact Cabrilog — Grenoble-France at www.cabri.com or «sales@cabri.com» GrafEq, Poly and Tess Evaluation copies of GrafEq™, Poly™ and Tess™ have been included with permission from Pedogoguery Software, Inc. e-mail: peda@peda.com Web: http://www.peda.com Microsoft® Excel Microsoft Excel is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. eTHINKING Software Developed by cooperation between Greygum Software Pty Ltd and John Wiley and Sons Australia, Ltd. 345 Kelvin Grove Rd Kelvin Grove Queensland 4059 Phone: (07) 3352 4940 Fax: (07) 3352 4950 Email: support@greygum.com.au Every effort has been made to trace the ownership of copyright material. Information that will enable the publisher to trace the copyright holders or to rectify any error or omission in subsequent reprints will be welcome. In such cases, please contact the Permission Section of John Wiley & Sons Australia, who will arrange for the payment of the usual fee.

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