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How to Start Microsoft Word

To start Microsoft Word:

1. Click the Start button on the Windows taskbar. This opens the Windows Start menu.

2. Point to All Programs, and then select (click) Microsoft Word.

Microsoft Word opens, displaying a new, blank document.

Tip:
You can also start Word using various shortcuts to the program. The Microsoft Word
shortcut icon may appear in the top left of the Start menu (as in the picture above), in the
Windows taskbar, and on the desktop.

Start a New Document


1. In Microsoft Word, open the File menu and select New.

2. The New dialog opens. This dialog displays the various document templates available
for you to use.
3. To create a document based on the default template, click the General tab, and then the
Blank Document icon.

4. Click OK (or simply double-click the Blank Document icon).

A new, blank document opens. To begin entering text, simply start typing.

Tip:

You can also create a blank document based on the default template by clicking the New
Blank Document button on the Standard toolbar, or by pressing Ctrl+n on your
keyboard.

Open an Existing Document

To open an existing Microsoft Word document:

1. Start Microsoft Word.


2. Open the File menu and select open (or press Ctrl+o).
An Open button also appears on the Standard toolbar.

The Open dialog opens.

1. Browse to the location of the document file you want to open; then select the file
and click Open (or double-click the file).

The document opens in Microsoft Word.

You can also open a document by browsing to the file in Windows Explorer and double-
clicking it.

Tip:

Word displays a list of the files you’ve recently opened at the bottom of the File menu.
To open one of these files, simply select it.
Switch Between Open Documents

Each time you open a document, Microsoft Word opens another window. Buttons
representing these windows appear on the taskbar.

To work in a particular document, click the button for that window on the taskbar. This
brings the window to the front of the stack of open windows on the desktop.
You can also switch between open windows using Word’s Window menu.

A list of all the open documents appears at the bottom of the menu, with the current
document indicated by a checkmark. To switch to a different document, select it from the
list.

Save Your Work

To save your document, click the Save button on the Standard toolbar, or press Ctrl+s
on your keyboard.
If the document hasn’t been saved before, Word opens the Save As dialog.

Browse to the location where you want to save the file, then entire a file name and click
Save.

Close Your Work

To close the Microsoft Word window, click the Close button in the upper right corner.

If you’ve made changes to the document since the last time you saved it, Word asks you
if you want to save it now. Click Yes to save your changes, or click No to close the
document without saving the changes.

Tip:

For each document you open, Microsoft Word opens another instance of the window.
When you click the Close button, Word closes both the window and the document. If you
want to close your document without closing the Microsoft Word window, click the
document’s Close Window button, or open the File menu and select Close.

To close multiple documents at once and exit Microsoft Word, select Exit from the File
menu.

Back Up Your Work

The File menu contains commands for saving your work. While the Save button on the
toolbar lets you save your document quickly while you’re working on it, the Save As
command lets you save a copy of your work in another location:

1. Open the File menu and select Save As.

The Save As dialog opens.

1. Browse to the location where you want to save the copy.


2. If you like, enter a new file name.
3. Click Save.
Move the Insertion Point

To move the insertion point in your document, simply position your mouse pointer where
you want to type, and then click. The mouse pointer indicates where you can type by
changing to an I-beam .

You can also use the arrow keys on your keyboard to move up, down, left, or right. The
up and down arrow keys move the insertion point up or down one line at a time, while the
left and right arrow keys move the insertion point one character at a time.

Move around the Document 1

The vertical and horizontal scrollbars at the edge of Word’s document window let you
use your mouse to move around an open document. You move up and down, a line at a
time, by clicking the up and down scroll buttons. To scroll up or down a screen at a
time, click anywhere on the scrollbar above or below the scroll handle (box).

When you click and drag the scroll handle, Word moves up or down the document in the
direction you drag until you reach the beginning or end.

The left and right scroll buttons let you scroll to the left and right when the
document is viewed at a width larger than the Microsoft Word window.

You can also use keyboard shortcuts to quickly navigate to various points in your
document:

• Press HOME to move to the beginning of a line, and END to move to the end of
a line.
• Press Ctrl + HOME to move to the beginning of the document, and Ctrl + END
to move to the end of the document.
• Press Page Up to move up one screen, and Page Down to move down one screen.
• Press Ctrl + Page Up to move to the top of the previous page, and Ctrl + Page
Down to move to the top of the next page.

Move Around the Document 2

When viewing and editing long documents, it’s much easier to browse page by page, or
to jump directly to a specific page, than it is to use the arrow keys or mouse to scroll
screen by screen. Microsoft Word provides methods for browsing the document page by
page (or item by item, if you’re browsing by graphics, for example) and for moving
directly to a specified page (or item) in a document.

To browse the document page by page (or item by item), click the Next and Previous
buttons on the vertical scrollbar of the document window:
1. First, click the Select Browse Object button, located near the bottom of the
vertical scrollbar.
2. In the menu that pops up, select the type of item you want to find in your
document.

For example, select to move from page to page in your document.

1. Click the Next or Previous button to go to the next or previous item (for
example, page) in the document.

To go directly to a specific page (or item, such as a graphic) within the document:

1. Open the Edit menu and select Go To, or press Ctrl + g on your keyboard.

The Find and Replace dialog opens to the Go To tab.

1. Under Go to what, make sure Page is selected.

Tip:

As you can see, you can jump to many types of items in a document, not just a page. For
instance, to go to a graphic, select Graphic instead of Page.

1. Enter the page number you want to go to and click the Go To button (which
appears after you enter the page number).
Tip:

In most cases, you don’t have to enter anything into the field; you can browse item by
item simply by clicking Next.

When a Word document includes hyperlinks, you can use these to navigate to the linked-
to locations, both within and outside the document. Just click the hyperlink, and Word
jumps to the location, opening another file if necessary.

Word also opens the Web toolbar, which you can use to move back to your original
location and forward to the location whose link you followed.

How to Split the Screen

Splitting the screen in a Microsoft Word 2002 document allows you to view multiple
parts of a document at the same time. For example, you can have the table of contents in
a frame at the top and the document in the bottom frame.

1. Choose “Split” from the Window Menu.


2. A bar appears in the middle of screen, drag it up or down to set the size of each
“frame”.
3. You can scroll up or down independently in each frame section.
4. To remove the split, choose “Remove Split” from the Window menu.

Menu & Dialog Box Options

All the commands you use to create, edit, save, and print a document are found in
Microsoft Word’s menu bar, located at the top of the window.

Each menu groups together related commands, sometimes using submenus to further
group commands:

• File menu – Create, open, save, print, and close documents.


• Edit menu – Perform editing functions on your document, including copying,
cutting, and pasting text and objects, moving to various points in the document,
and undoing and redoing actions.
• View menu – Change the document’s display size and style.
• Insert menu – Insert objects into your documents, including graphics, page
numbers and other fields, symbols, AutoText, and hyperlinks.
• Format menu – Apply formatting to the text and objects in your documents.
• Tools menu – Use Word’s tools, such as the spell and grammar checker, macro
recorder, and track changes, and set your Microsoft Word preferences.
• Table menu – Insert and format tables.
• Window menu – Work with multiple open document windows.
• Help menu – Access Microsoft Word’s online help.

Note:

Additional menus may appear when you install a program that includes a Microsoft Word
plug-in.

To access a menu command, click the main menu to open it, and then select (click) the
command. Word hides those commands you don’t use frequently, so if you don’t see a
command, click the double arrows at the bottom of the menu to expand it. Word then
displays all the available commands. Once you select a command, Word includes it with
the others you commonly use.

Selecting a command from a menu often opens a dialog box, which prompts you to select
or enter information. Dialog boxes may use a combination of tabs, text fields, menus, and
preview panes to group selection choices and to display information. For instance, the
Preview pane in many dialog boxes, like the Page Setup dialog, displays the changes
that will result from your selections.

To navigate a dialog box like the one above, first click the tab containing the choices you
want to see, and then select your choices from the list boxes or drop-down menus.
Finally, click OK (or Close, in some cases) to accept the changes, or Cancel to discard
them.

Word provides you with a number of ways to accomplish most tasks. Besides the menu
bar, toolbars, and keyboard shortcuts, many dialog boxes include buttons that open
additional dialog boxes. Although these dialogs are normally directly accessible from the
main menus and the toolbars, Word lets you handle related tasks at the same time. In the
dialog box above, for example, you can apply borders your page at the same time you
define the other properties of the page layout, simply by clicking the Borders button.

Navigate in Word

The Microsoft Word window is made up of a menu bar, toolbars, a document window,
and the status bar.

The menu bar contains all the commands required to create, edit, format, print, and save
documents, grouped into logical categories. To access these commands, you just point to
the menu and click on it to view the available commands, then click the command you
want to access.

The toolbars group common commands together, using buttons to provide quick access.
While working in your document, you can click a button on a toolbar to apply formatting,
save or print a document, use Word’s drawing or reviewing features, and insert a variety
of objects.
You compose and format your text in the document window, which Word can display in
several different views—normal, print layout, web layout, or outline. Use your mouse or
the arrow keys on your keyboard to navigate through the pages of your document. To
move up or down your document several pages at a time, use the vertical scrollbar on the
right side of the document window.

In addition, the rulers at the top and left side of the document window display the
document’s measurements and let you use the mouse to change the document’s margins,
increase or decrease indentations, and quickly set tabs.

You can also view two parts of the same document at the same time. This is done by
splitting the window. Splitting the window is useful when you want to compare different
pages, or cut and paste text or objects from one page to another.

1. Move the mouse over the split handle , or box, at the top of the vertical scroll
bar.
2. When the mouse pointer changes to a double horizontal line with arrows, click
and drag the split handle down to the middle of the screen.

Tip:

You can also split the window by selecting Split from the Window menu.

To adjust the size of each of the windows, click and drag the border (split handle)
separating them.

To return to a single window, click and drag the split handle off the screen, or simply
double-click it. (You can also select Remove Split from the Window menu.)

In addition, you can zoom in on or out of your document, simply by changing the display
size in the Zoom menu (located on the Standard toolbar).
Finally, the status bar at the bottom of the Microsoft Word window displays information
about your current location within the document, and lets you quickly turn on and off
features like the spelling and grammar checker and track changes.

All of these elements will be covered in more depth in subsequent tutorials.

Word Toolbars

Word includes a number of built-in toolbars that provide shortcuts to the commands
found in the menus. To show or hide a toolbar, open the View menu, select Toolbars,
and then select the toolbar you want to show or hide.

Tip:

You can also access the toolbar menu by right-clicking anywhere on a visible toolbar.

The most frequently used toolbars are the Standard toolbar and the Formatting toolbar.

The Standard toolbar contains buttons for opening, saving, printing, and editing
documents.

The Formatting toolbar contains drop-down menus and buttons for changing the font
and applying formatting to text.

By default, these two toolbars appear next to each other, just below the menu bar.

Other toolbars available in Word are:


• AutoText – Create and insert AutoText.
• Clipboard – View and select the contents of the clipboard.
• Control Toolbox – Insert ActiveX controls into a form.
• Database – Insert and work with data from a Microsoft Access database.
• Drawing – Insert and format drawing objects.
• Forms – Insert form objects.
• Frames – Create framesets and frames for a Web document.
• Picture – Insert and format pictures.
• Reviewing – Insert, edit, and delete comments for or by document reviewers.
• Tables and Borders – Insert and format tables and apply borders to objects.
• Visual Basic – Record and run macros, and work with Microsoft Word Visual
Basic code.
• Web – Navigate a Web document.
• Web Tools – Insert Web objects into a Web document.
• WordArt – Insert and format WordArt.

You can customize any of these toolbars by adding and removing buttons, or you can
create your own toolbars to group your favorite commands.

Working With Toolbars

To show or hide a Microsoft Word toolbar, right-click any toolbar and select the one to
show or hide from the shortcut menu.
You can also access this menu by opening the View menu and selecting Toolbars.
Visible toolbars are indicated with checkmarks.

To show and hide several toolbars at once:

1. From the shortcut menu, select Customize.

1. Check the toolbars you want to display, and uncheck any toolbars you want to
hide.
2. Click Close.

You can use the Customize dialog to create your own, custom toolbars, as well:

1. Right-click any toolbar and select Customize from the shortcut menu. The
Customize command also appears in Word’s Tools menu.
2. In the Customize dialog, click New.
3. In the dialog that opens, enter a name for the toolbar, and select the template or
document where you want the toolbar to be saved.

Tip:

If you select a specific document, the toolbar will be available only in that document. If
you select Normal.dot, the default Microsoft Word template, the toolbar will be
available in any document you create that uses that template.

1. Click OK to save the new toolbar.


A small blank toolbar appears near the Customize dialog.

1. To add buttons to the new toolbar, click the Commands tab in the Customize
dialog. Then highlight a category to display a list of available commands.

1. To select a command, click and drag it from the Commands list to the toolbar.
The button appears on the new toolbar.

1. Continue dragging commands onto your toolbar. Notice that the toolbar expands
to accommodate the buttons.

1. You can also add a menu to your toolbar by selecting Buit-in Menus from the
Categories list, and then dragging a menu to the toolbar.
1. To add a custom menu to the toolbar, select New Menu from the Categories list,
and then drag the New Menu command to the toolbar. Next, name the menu and
add commands to it:
a. Right-click the New Menu button on your toolbar.

1.
a. In the menu that appears, click the box next to Name and enter a name.
b. Next, click the menu button on your toolbar to display the empty list.

1.
a. Drag a command from the Customize dialog to the empty space on the
menu.

The command now appears in the menu on your toolbar.

1. When you’ve finished adding buttons to your toolbar, close the Customize
dialog.
2. Finally, dock the toolbar below the others by clicking the title bar and dragging it
to the lower edge of the Standard toolbar.
A new row is added to accommodate the toolbar, which has changed from floating to docked.

Each of Word’s toolbars can be moved simply by clicking and dragging the title bar (if
the toolbar is floating) or the move handle (if the toolbar is docked).

The move handle is located at the left edge of the toolbar. When you move the mouse
over it, the pointer changes to horizontal and vertical arrows, indicating you can drag the
toolbar.

1. Drag the toolbar off the row. The toolbar changes from docked to floating.

1. Click the title bar and drag the toolbar back into place.

If you drag a toolbar to a full row, the surrounding toolbars will shrink to make room for
it. To access a button that’s no longer visible, click the chevrons at the right edge of the
toolbar.

Tip:

Remove buttons you don’t use, or add new buttons, by selecting Add or Remove
Buttons. In the menu, uncheck the buttons you don’t need, or check (select) new buttons
to add. Select Customize to choose from all the available commands.
From the Customize dialog, drag and drop the commands you want onto the toolbar.
Tip:

Make sure you drop the button inside the margin of the toolbar, or the button won’t be
added. When you’re inside the margin, you’ll see a large I Beam, indicating that you’re in
an editable region.

If you need to restore the default contents of a toolbar:

1. Right-click anywhere on a toolbar and select Customize.


2. In the Customize dialog, click the Toolbars tab.
3. Highlight the toolbar whose default contents you want to restore and click the
Reset button.
4. In the dialog that opens, you can choose to reset the toolbar for the default Word
template (Normal.dot) or just for the current document. Make a selection from
the menu and click OK.

The Reset button isn’t available for custom toolbars. Instead, if you decide you no longer
need the toolbar, you can delete it:

1. Right-click anywhere on a toolbar and select Customize.


2. In the Customize dialog, click the Toolbars tab.
3. Highlight the custom toolbar and click Delete.
4. When asked to confirm, click OK.

The Status Bar

The status bar at the bottom of the Microsoft Word window displays information about
where your insertion point is currently positioned in the document. From left to right, it
shows:

• The page number. This is based on the numbering you’ve defined, so if you’ve
set the first page of the document to begin at page 10, then on the first page the
status bar will display “Page 10.”

If you’ve inserted section breaks into your document, Word displays the page number
defined for that page in the section. For example, if the first section of your document is a
cover page, and the second section is front matter, such as a table of contents, and the
third section is Chapter 1 of a report, and you’ve set the front matter (Section 2) to begin
on page iv and Chapter 1 (Section 3) to begin on page 1, when you position your
insertion point on the first page of Chapter 1, the status bar will display “Page 1” and then
“Sec 3.”

• The section number.


• The physical page number (regardless of the numbering you’ve defined), out of
the total number of pages in the document. If you’ve set the first page of the
document to begin at page 10, the first page will still be displayed as “1” out of
the total number of pages (for example, “1/25”).
• The number of inches the insertion point is positioned below the top of the
page.
• The line number.
• The number of characters from the left margin to the insertion point.

Also displayed is the current status of:

• The macro recorder (REC)

• Track changes (TRK)

• Extend selection mode (EXT)

• Overtype mode (OVR)

These are dimmed when the corresponding features are turned off. You can double-click
inside the box in the status bar to turn on one of the features; for instance, to turn on the
track changes feature, double-click TRK. To turn it off, double-click TRK again.
The spelling and grammar check status is displayed on the book icon in the status bar. If
an error is found, an X appears on the book. Double-click the book to see Word’s
suggestion for correcting the error.

Finally, disk and printer icons may appear when Word is autosaving or background
printing the document, respectively. When you’re printing a document, Word displays the
number of the page currently being printed next to the printer icon.

Using Word Templates

Templates let you define a reusable design for multiple documents. Documents based on
a template will share the same styles, layout, and formatting, which you can then adjust to
suit the individual needs of each document.

Word includes a large number of pre-defined templates, which are available from the
New dialog. To create a document based on a template:

1. Open the File menu and select New.


2. In the New dialog box, click the tab containing the template you want to use.
3. Select the template and click OK.

A new, blank document opens containing the styles, layout, and formatting of the
template you selected.

You can create templates of your own simply by saving existing documents as template
files:

1. Create a new, blank document.


2. Specify the settings you want the documents based on this template to use. You
might define styles, for example, and lay out the page using the Page Setup
dialog.
3. When you’ve finished, open the File menu and select Save As.
4. From the Save as type drop-down menu, select Document Template.
1. Word automatically locates the Templates folder. If you save the template here, it
will appear on the General tab of the New dialog when you create a new
document. If you want the template to appear on a different tab, select (or create,
if necessary) the corresponding folder.
2. Enter a file name for the template.
3. Click Save.

Word uses two types of templates: global templates, whose contents are available to all
documents, and document templates, whose contents are available only to the documents
based on them. The Normal template, which is the default template for all new Word
documents, is a global template. For this reason, it’s important to be careful of the
changes you make to it, since these changes will apply to all new documents you create
(where you don’t specify an alternate template).

To change a document template, you need to open the template itself:

1. Open the File menu and select Open.


2. In the Open dialog, select Document Templates from the Files of type drop-
down menu.
3. Browse to the location of the template, highlight it, and click Open.
4. Make changes to the template as necessary, and then save and close it.

How to Change the Word Document Size


To change the size of a Word document:

1. Open the File menu and select Page Setup.

The Page Setup dialog opens.

1. Click the Paper Size tab.

1. Microsoft Word defaults to letter size, with portrait orientation. To change the
orientation of the page to landscape, select the Landscape option button. Word
changes the orientation of the page in the Preview pane so you can see how the
page will appear.
2. To change the paper size, select one of the pre-defined options from the Paper
Size menu, or select Custom size to define a size using the Width and Height
fields.

Although you can define any paper size in this dialog, the document won’t print correctly
unless your printer supports that paper size. When you click OK to exit this dialog, Word
will warn you if the margins of the page are outside the printable range for your printer.
You can choose to continue, or to return to the dialog to change the settings.

Tip:

Despite Word’s warning, you can often still print your document. For example, if you
define a custom paper size that’s smaller than letter size, then print the document on letter
paper, Word will confine the printable area to the size you specified. You can then trim
the paper as necessary.
Set Margins

To define the margins for a Word document:

1. Open the File menu and select Page Setup.


2. In the Page Setup dialog, click the Margins tab.
3. Enter the number of inches you want the main text of the page to appear from the
top, bottom, left, and right edges of the page.
4. The Gutter field lets you define extra space for the left or top margin of a
document for binding:
a. First, enter the amount of additional space you want to reserve for binding.
This prevents text from being cut off by the binding. Notice that Word
changes the picture in the Preview pane so you can see how the pages will
appear with the binding.

1.
a. Second, specify left or top binding by selecting the appropriate radio
button under Gutter position.
b. If you selected the Left gutter position, 2 additional options are available:
Mirror margins and 2 pages per sheet.

• Use Mirror margins to set up facing pages for double-sided documents. When you
check this option, the Left and Right margin fields change to Inside and Outside, letting
you specify the margins for the inside (binding side) and outside margins of the page.

• When you select 2 pages per sheet, Word reduces each page in your document by 50%
and fits 2 pages to each sheet of paper.
1. Finally, specify the position of your header and footer by entering the number of
inches you want these to appear from the edge of your page. The header and
footer will appear between the edge of your page and the top and bottom margins
you specified for your main text. For example, if you specified a top margin of 1
inch and a header margin of .5 inch, your header will appear .5 inch from the top
of the page, and the main text will begin 1 inch from the top of the page, or .5
inch below the header.

Tip:

It’s a good idea to keep at least a quarter of an inch between the top of the page and the
header, and between the header and the main text. Most printers are unable to print on the
outside quarter-inch of the page on all sides, since this is the space the printer uses to grip
the page.

1. When you’ve finished entering your settings, click OK to apply them to the
document and close the dialog.

Tip:

You can quickly change the page margins by clicking and dragging the margin
boundaries at the edges of the horizontal and vertical rulers.

Hold down the Alt key while you drag to display the measurements of the margins.

Using Page Setup in Microsoft Word

Use Word’s Page Setup dialog to define the layout for your page. From the File menu,
select Page Setup.
The Page Setup dialog has 4 tabs:

• Margins – Lets you define the margins for your page, including the placement of
the header and footer in relation to the edge of the page.
• Paper Size – Lets you specify the paper size and orientation (portrait or
landscape).
• Paper Source – Lets you specify a different paper source for a part of your
document (for example, if you want to print a cover page on special paper).
• Layout – Lets you add line numbers and borders, as well as specify additional
options for headers and footers.

Preview and Print

Use the Print Preview button on the Standard toolbar (or select Print Preview from the
File menu) to preview your document before you print it.

The Preview window lets you see exactly how your document will appear on the page.
Notice that the pointer appears as a magnifying glass with a plus sign in the middle. Click the mouse to
zoom in on the document. Click again to zoom back out.

You can also zoom in and out by specifying a value in the Zoom box on the toolbar.

To view several pages at once, click the Multiple Pages button on the toolbar, then select
a layout from the menu.
Use the One Page button to change the view back to one page.

To print your document from the Preview window, simply click the Print button on the
toolbar.

Or, to return to the document without printing, click the Close button.

To print your document without previewing:

1. Open the File menu and select Print (or press Ctrl+p).

The Print dialog opens.

1. Make sure the correct printer is selected in the Name field.

Tip:
The Properties button lets you specify additional options specific to your printer. These
include paper type, collating and hole punching, and color settings.

1. Select the page range. To print a specific page range, select the Pages option and
enter the beginning and ending page numbers separated by a hyphen (for
example, 5-20).
2. Enter the number of copies.
3. Click OK.

Microsoft Word prints your document using the selected printer.

Tip:

Click the Print button on the Standard toolbar to print a document using the default
settings. Word will send the document to your default printer without opening the Print
dialog.

Change Document Views

Microsoft Word provides 4 document views, which you can choose from the View menu:

• Normal view displays the text and objects you insert, as well as page and section
breaks, and natural page breaks (indicated by dotted lines). However, the layout
of the page is not displayed—page numbers are not shown, for example, and any
text-wrapping you’ve applied to objects does not appear.
• Web Layout view displays the document as a web page, including any graphics,
text-wrapping, and backgrounds you’ve applied.
• Print Layout view displays the document as it will be printed. Each page is
shown in its entirety, including any white space at the bottom, as well as headers
and footers, page numbers, and text-wrapping.
• Outline view displays the structure of the document, allowing you to reorganize
text by dragging and dropping headings. You can collapse and expand the
document depending on whether you want to view only headings or all the text.
The View Buttons

To quickly change between document views in Word, use the View buttons at the bottom
left corner of the window:

• Click to switch to Normal view.


• Click to switch to Web Layout view.
• Click to switch to Print Layout view.
• Click to switch to Outline view.

Move and Copy Text

To copy text from one place in your document to another:

1. Select the text you want to copy.


2. Open the Edit menu and select Copy.
3. Position the insertion point in the location where you want to copy the text.
4. Open the Edit menu and select Paste.

This creates a copy of the text in the new location, leaving the original text in place.

Tip:

Instead of using the Edit menu, you can use the Copy and Paste buttons on the
Standard toolbar, or press Ctrl+c on your keyboard to copy and Ctrl+v to paste.

You can use the Paste command to paste as many copies of the text as you like. There’s
no need to recopy the text, because Microsoft Word keeps the original copy on the
clipboard until you exit the program.

To move text to a new location, you use the Cut command:

1. Select the text you want to move.


2. Open the Edit menu and select Cut.
3. Position the insertion point in the location where you want to move the text.
4. Open the Edit menu and select Paste.

Tip:

You can also click the Cut button on the Standard toolbar, or press Ctrl+x on your
keyboard.
The Copy, Cut and Paste commands also appear in a shortcut menu, which you can
access by right-clicking anywhere in your document:

1. Select any text or object (such as graphic).


2. Right-click and select Copy from the menu that pops up.

1. Move to another location in your document, right-click, and select Paste from the
menu.

The selection is copied to the new location.

Drag and Drop Method to Move Text

Microsoft Word includes drag-and-drop functionality, which allows you to use the mouse
to move a selection from one place to another:

1. Select a block of text to move.


2. Hold down the mouse button and drag the selection to another location in the
document.

1. Release the mouse button.

Word drops the text in that location.


The selection doesn’t have to be text; it can be any object on the page.

Work with AutoText

AutoText items are pre-built text and objects that you can quickly insert into a document.
When Word’s AutoComplete option is turned on, these items appear as pop-ups when
you type. You can insert the complete entry simply by pressing Enter.

For example, when you begin typing a date, Word interprets the first few letters of the
month and displays the word in a popup. Press Enter to insert the completed word into
your document.

If you then press the space bar, Word displays today’s date, which you can insert by
again pressing Enter.

If you don’t want to insert Word’s AutoComplete suggestion, you need only continue
typing.

To turn AutoComplete on and off:

1. Open the Insert menu and select AutoText, and then AutoText again.
The AutoCorrect dialog opens.
1. Select or clear Show AutoComplete tip for AutoText and dates.

Tip:

Additional AutoCorrect options are available on the AutoCorrect tab. You can, for
example, leave AutoCorrect on, but choose to prevent Word from replacing text as you
type.

1. Click OK to close the dialog.

Word includes a large number of pre-built AutoText entries, which you can select from
the AutoText submenu:

1. Position the insertion point where you want to insert the AutoText.
2. Open the Insert menu and select AutoText.
3. The AutoText submenu contains additional submenus for AutoText categories.
Select a submenu, and then the particular AutoText entry you want to insert.
Create New AutoText

You can create your own AutoText entries, formatted text and objects you use repeatedly,
so you don’t have to continually recreate them. To create an AutoText entry:

1. First, create the text or graphic and format it as you want it.
2. Select the entry. To include the formatting in the AutoText entry:
a. Show paragraph marks by clicking the Show/Hide Paragraph button on
the Standard toolbar.
b. Select the text or graphic and the final paragraph mark .
3. If necessary, show the AutoText toolbar: From the View menu, select Toolbars
and then AutoText.
4. On the toolbar, click the New button.
5. In the Create AutoText dialog, enter a name for your entry. Use at least 4
characters; this allows Word to insert the entry when you type using
AutoComplete.
1. Click OK.

The entry is listed in the AutoText submenu under the style that was used to create the
entry (for example, Normal). To insert the entry into a document, open the Insert menu
and select it from the appropriate AutoText submenu.

Use AutoCorrect

The AutoCorrect feature in Word automatically corrects spelling and capitalization errors
as you type. To turn on AutoCorrect:

1. Open the Tools menu and select AutoCorrect.

The AutoText dialog box opens to the AutoCorrect tab.

1. Select or clear the options you want Word to use when autocorrecting your
document. To enter your own corrections, complete the Replace and With fields,
and then click Add.
2. Select Replace text as you type. (Clear the check box to turn off AutoCorrect.)
3. Click OK.
Spell Check Your Work

To spell check your document:

1. Open the Tools menu and select Spelling and Grammar (or press F7 on your
keyboard).

Word begins checking the document. When it finds a word it doesn’t recognize, it opens
the Spelling and Grammar dialog.

The word is colored red in the top pane, which also displays the surrounding text.
Suggested corrections are listed in the bottom pane.

Tip:

If Word displays a word or phrase in green, it is indicating a possible error in grammar.


To stop it from checking grammar, uncheck the Check grammar box at the bottom left
of the dialog.

2. To correct the error using one of the suggestions, highlight the suggestion and click the
Change button.

Tip:

Click the Options button to select options for the spell check, such as ignoring words in
uppercase and checking spelling as you type.
3. If the correct word doesn’t appear in the list, you can make corrections directly in the
top pane. Just click inside the pane and type as you would in the document. Then click
the Change button to apply your changes.

4. To ignore the word and keep it as you typed it, click the Ignore button.

Tip:

Use the Change All or Ignore All button to change or ignore the word throughout the
document.

Word completes the spell check and closes the dialog.

Create a New Dictionary

You can create a new custom dictionary, which you might use, for example, to maintain
entries for particular types of documents, such as legal reports or medical reports.

To create a new dictionary:

1. Open the Tools menu and select Options.


2. In the Options dialog, click the Spelling & Grammar tab.
1. Click the Dictionaries button.
2. Click the New button.
5. Enter a file name into the dialog that opens and click Save.

The new dictionary is now available for selection in the Custom Dictionary menu on the
Spelling & Grammar tab of the Options dialog.

Add to the Custom Dictionary

Microsoft Word includes the ability to add words to a custom dictionary used when you
spell check your document.

For example, if you use a proper noun in your document, you might want Word to ignore
it as an error. Adding it to the custom dictionary also causes Word to check the document
for misspelled instances of the word, as you entered it into the dictionary.

To add a word to the custom dictionary:

1. Open the Tools menu and select Options.


2. In the Options dialog, click the Spelling & Grammar tab.
1. Click the Dictionaries button.
2. In the Custom Dictionaries dialog, highlight the dictionary you want to edit (but
be careful not to uncheck it) and click Edit.
1. In the new window that opens, add the word as it should be spelled in the
document. To add multiple words, press Enter after each word.

1. On the Standard toolbar, click Save to save the entries.


2. Close the window.

Tip:

You can quickly add a word to the custom dictionary during a spell check:

1. Spell check your document by pressing F7 on your keyboard (or selecting Spelling
and Grammar from the Tools menu).

2. When the spell check highlights a word you want to add to the custom dictionary, click
the Add button.

Word adds the word to the dictionary and resumes the spell check.

Remove from the Custom Dictionary

To remove a word from the custom dictionary:

1. Open the Tools menu and select Options.


2. In the Options dialog, click the Spelling & Grammar tab.
1. Click the Dictionaries button.
2. In the Custom Dictionaries dialog, highlight the custom dictionary and click
Edit.
1. In the window that opens, delete the word from the list.
2. On the Standard toolbar, click Save to save the change.
3. Close the window.

Undo Problems

Use the Undo button on the Standard toolbar (or press Ctrl+z) to undo your last action.

To undo a series of actions:

1. Click the down arrow next to the Undo button.


2. The menu that appears displays your last 25 actions. Notice that as you scroll
through the list, Word highlights the actions.

1. Stop at the earliest action you want to undo.

Word removes the highlighted changes from the document, returning the document to its
earlier state.

Tip:

If you find you moved too far back in the document’s history, you can use the Redo
button (or press Ctrl+y) to redo each action.

Quick Tabs

The easiest way to set tabs in Microsoft Word is to use the horizontal ruler. In the left
corner, click the to select the alignment (left , center , right , decimal , or bar
), and then click the ruler in the location where you want to set the tab.
You can move the location of tabs simply by dragging and dropping the tabs on the ruler.
To remove a tab, drag it off the ruler.

The tabs you set apply only to the current (or selected) paragraph(s).

Set Tabs

To set additional options for tabs, such as defining a leader style, open the Format menu
and select Tabs. This opens the Tabs dialog.

For each tab you want to set:

1. Enter the precise measurement, in inches, into the Top stop position field.
2. Select the alignment.
3. Select the leader style, if appropriate.
4. Click Set.

To clear a tab, select it from the list and click Clear, or click Clear All to clear all tabs
from the list.

Use Section Breaks

Use section breaks to divide the formatting of your document into sections. Each section
can use a different page layout, size, and orientation, as well as different headers and
footers, to name just a few examples.

To insert a section break:


1. Position the insertion point where you want to insert the section break.
2. Open the Insert menu and select Break.

The Break dialog opens.

1. Select the break type, and then the section break type. The section break type tells
Word where to begin the new section (for example, on a new page, or on the same
page).
2. Click OK.

To delete a section break, just highlight it and press Delete on your keyboard. (If you
don’t see the section break, click Show/Hide on the Standard toolbar.) Be aware that
when you delete a section break, you delete all the formatting for the preceding section.

Types of Section Breaks

Word provides several types of section breaks, all of which are displayed in the Break
dialog box. (Open the dialog by selecting Break from the Insert menu.)
• Next page starts a new section on the next page.
• Continuous starts a new section on the same page, where you insert the break.
• Odd page and Even page start a new section on the next odd- or even-numbered
page. If the preceding section ends on a page of the same number type (odd or
even), then Word inserts a blank page. The blank page is not displayed on-screen,
but it is included when the document is printed. This is a handy way to create
divisions when, for example, you want the first page of each chapter in a
document to begin on an odd page.

If you need to, you can change the type of an existing section break:

1. Position the insertion point inside the section whose type you want to change.
2. Open the File menu and select Page Setup.
3. In the Page Setup dialog, click the Layout tab.
4. From the Section start menu, select the section break type.

1. Click OK.

Find and Replace

In Word, you can quickly find instances of a word or phrase—even of a particular symbol
or formatting—and replace one or all instances with something else:

1. Open the Edit menu and select Replace, or press Ctrl + f on your keyboard.

This opens the Find and Replace dialog.


The dialog box has 3 tabs: Find, Replace, and Go To. Use Find to find a word or phrase
in your document; use Replace instead if you want to replace that text with something
else. The Go To tab lets you jump to a specific page, section, line, etc. in your document.

Tip:

Press Ctrl + h on your keyboard to open the dialog to the Replace tab, or Ctrl + g to
open it to the Go To tab.

1. Click the Replace tab.

1. In the Find what field, enter the text you want to find.
2. In the Replace with field, enter the new text you want to replace the original text
with.
3. Click Find Next.

Word moves to, and highlights, the next instance of the text you’re searching for.
1. Click Replace to replace the text, or Find Next to keep searching.
2. If you’re sure you want to replace all instances of the text in the document (for
example, if you’ve misspelled a person’s name), click Replace All.
3. Word replaces all instances of the text.
4. To see additional options for finding and replacing text, click the More button.

1. Under Search Options, select the Match case box to restrict the search and
replace to the specific case format you enter, such as replacing “white” with
“White.”
2. Select Find whole words only to search only for whole words that match the text
you entered. By default, Word searches for all instances of letters matching the
text you entered, whether they’re whole words or only parts of words. So when
you search for “the,” Word finds “them,” “theme,” and “then.” Selecting this box
restricts the search to “the.”
3. You can also use the drop-down menu to specify the direction of your search: Up
(toward the beginning of the document), Down (toward the end of the document),
or All (from this point to the end of the document, and then from the beginning of
the document back to this point).
4. To search for text containing a particular formatting, click the Format button.
This opens a menu from which you can select the formatting options you want to
replace.
For example, you can search for all text in your document that uses the Heading 1 style
by clicking the Format button, selecting Style, and then selecting Heading 1 from the
dialog box that opens.

1. Notice that Word includes the style under the Find what field.
1. To replace the style with a different style, such as Heading 2, move the insertion
point to the Replace with field, click Format, and then select Style again. Select
the new style from the dialog box that opens.

Tip:

You don’t have to enter any text into the Find what and Replace with fields in order to
search and replace formatting elements. Only enter text when you want to replace that
specific text (and its formatting) with new text containing different formatting.

1. To find or replace special characters, click Special.


When you select an item from this menu, Word inserts a symbol (or symbols) into the
field representing the one you chose, so don’t be alarmed if the character doesn’t appear
recognizable in the field. The example below shows the symbols that appear when you
select Em Dash from the menu.
Correct Your Document

Word has two typing modes: Insert and Overtype. Insert mode (the default) lets you
insert text as you type. This means that you can position your insertion point anywhere
inside a block of text and begin typing, and the new text will be inserted before the
existing text.

Use Overtype mode to type over existing text. To switch to Overtype mode, press the
Insert key on your keyboard. Notice that OVR appears in black on the status bar at the
bottom of Microsoft Word.

To switch back to Insert mode, press the Insert key again.

Tip:

You can also switch between Insert and Overtype modes by double-clicking OVR on the
status bar.
It’s often easier, however, to simply select the text you want to replace and then type over
it. You don’t need to switch to Overtype mode to do this, and remaining in Insert mode
ensures that you don’t inadvertently replace text you meant to keep.

You can select text using your mouse or keyboard:

• To select text using your mouse, click and drag the mouse over the entire
portion of text you want to select.

Tip:

To select an entire word, simply double-click the word. Click the word a third time to
select the entire paragraph.

To select a line of text, click outside the left margin of the line. You can continue to
select text, line by line, by holding down the mouse button and dragging to the end of the
text you want to select.

• To select text using your keyboard, position your insertion point at the
beginning of the text, press and hold the Shift key, and then use the arrow keys to
move to the end of the text.

Selected text appears highlighted in black.

To delete selected text, use either the Backspace or Delete key on your keyboard. You
can also use these keys to delete one character at a time, without selecting a block of text:

• The Backspace key deletes the character to the left of the insertion point.
• The Delete key deletes the character to the right of the insertion point.

Indent Text

To quickly indent text in Word, use the Increase Indent button on the Formatting
toolbar. Word indents the paragraph by one tab stop each time you click the button.

To decrease the indent, click the Decrease Indent button.

Note:
You can use these buttons to change the level of text in a numbered outline, as well. For
instance, if Level 2 is indented by one-quarter inch and Level 3 is indented by one-half
inch, and you want to change a paragraph of Level 2 text to Level 3, click the Increase
Indent button (with the insertion point positioned somewhere in the text). Word changes
the level of the text, increasing the indent as appropriate, and adjusting the numbering or
bullet style as appropriate.

You can also change indentation using the Left Indent and Right Indent markers on
Word’s ruler. Simply position the insertion point inside the paragraph whose indentation
you want to change and then click and drag the marker to the appropriate place on the
ruler.

The upper and lower paragraph markers can be moved separately; the upper marker
represents the paragraph’s first line, and the lower marker represents the remainder of the
paragraph. You can drag the upper Left Indent marker, for example, to create a hanging
indent.

If you have trouble dragging both markers at once, be sure to drag them using the small
box at the bottom of the markers.

To set more specific options for indenting text, use the Paragraph dialog box:

1. Open the Format menu and select Paragraph.

The Paragraph dialog opens.

1. If necessary, click the Indents and Spacing tab.


2. Change the left or right indentation using the up and down arrows next to the Left
and Right fields. You can enter positive or negative numbers. Negative numbers
extend the text beyond the current margins.

Notice that in the Preview pane, Word shows you how the text will appear relative to the
surrounding paragraphs.
1. To create a hanging or first-line indent, select the appropriate option from the
Special drop-down menu. You can specify the precise indentation by entering a
value into the By field.
1. Click OK to apply the settings and close the dialog.

Create a Table

To insert a table into your document, open the Table menu and select Insert Table. This
opens the Insert Table dialog, which lets you specify the number of columns and cells.
You can also draw a table using your mouse:

1. From the Table menu, select Draw Table, or click the Tables and Borders
button on the Standard toolbar.

A floating toolbar appears, and the mouse pointer changes to a pencil.

If necessary, click the Draw Table button.

1. To draw the first cell of the table, click and drag a rectangle on a blank area of the
page.

1. To draw an adjoining cell, click near the edge of the existing cell and draw the
new cell, giving it roughly the same height.

Word snaps the new cell to the border of the first one, adjusting the height as necessary.
1. Continue drawing cells in this fashion until your table is complete. You don’t
have to draw cells of the same width.

Format a Table

The text and objects you insert into table cells can be formatted the same way you’d
apply formatting to selections outside of tables. To format text inside a cell, for example,
simply select the text and format it as usual. You can also select the table cell itself by
clicking at the edge of the cell. When the mouse is in the correct position, the pointer
changes to a small black arrow.

To select multiple cells, click and drag along the cells you want to select.

By selecting the cell, rather than just the contents, you can apply formatting to any text
you later enter into the cell—the formatting is applied to the cell, rather than just to the
text. The same is true when you select a row or column, or the entire table.

• To select a row, click just outside the left or right edge of the row.
• To select a column, click at the top or bottom edge of the column. When the
mouse is in the correct position, the pointer changes to a small black arrow.

• To select an entire table, move your mouse to the upper left corner and clicking
the plus sign when it appears.

General table properties, such as width, height, cell margins, and cell spacing, can be
defined using Microsoft Word’s Table menu:

1. Position the cursor inside a table cell. (You can also select the table, a cell, a row,
or a column.)
2. Open the Table menu and select Table Properties.

The Table Properties dialog opens.


Tip:

Table Properties is also available from a shortcut menu, which you can access by right-
clicking the table or cell(s).

1. Use the Table tab to select properties that apply to the whole table: its width and
alignment, and whether or not surrounding text should wrap around it.
2. To apply a table border, click the Borders and Shading button. This opens the
Borders and Shading dialog, which lets you specify the border’s style, color, and
weight.
Tip:

You can apply a border or shading more quickly by selecting the table (or cells) and then
using the Border button and drop-down menu on the Tables and Borders toolbar, or by
right-clicking the appropriate cells and selecting Borders and Shading.

Click OK to close the dialog and return to the Table Properties dialog.

1. Click the Options button on the Table tab to change the default cell margins and
spacing.
Note:

These values apply to the entire table. If you need to specify margins for a particular cell,
click the Options button on the Cell tab instead.

1. The Row and Column tabs of the Table Properties dialog let you select options
for the table’s rows and columns.
Use the Previous and Next buttons to scroll from one row or column to the next. You can
set different options for each row or column in the table.

1. The Cell tab lets you specify the width and vertical alignment of the selected
cell(s). In addition, you can click the Options button to define cell margins, and
to specify text wrapping within the cell.
For faster table formatting, Word provides a large number of pre-formatted table styles,
which you can apply to any selected table:

1. Select the table you want to format.


2. Open the Table menu and select Table AutoFormat.

The Table AutoFormat dialog opens.


1. For each format you highlight in the list, Word displays a preview of the table.
Select the format you want to apply, and any special formatting options.
2. Click OK.

Insert Symbols

In Microsoft Word, symbols are special characters that don’t appear on a standard
keyboard. These can range from a copyright symbol to icons like smiley faces and
checkmarks.

To insert a symbol into a document:

1. Open the Insert menu and select Symbol.

The Symbol dialog opens.


1. Different fonts offer different symbol menus, though many include the same
standard symbols. By default, the Symbol dialog opens with the Symbol font
selected. You can select different fronts from the drop-down menu to view all the
available symbols.
2. Many standard special characters, such as the em-dash, the en-dash, the trademark
symbol, and the copyright symbol, appear on the Special Characters tab.
1. Select a symbol from the menu and click Insert.

Tip:

Keyboard shortcut keys for these symbols appear in the Shortcut key column. You can
use these to insert the symbol without opening the Symbol dialog. To create your own
keyboard shortcut keys, highlight the symbol and click the Shortcut Key button. This
opens the Customize Keyboard dialog. Enter a new keyboard combination into the
Press new shortcut key field and click Assign.

Click Close to close the Customize Keyboard dialog.

1. Once you’ve inserted a symbol, click Close to close the Symbol dialog.

Enhance Your Work

Use the Formatting toolbar to quickly change the type, size, style and color of text in
your document.

1. Select the text you want to change, or, to apply formatting to new text, place the
insertion point where you plan to type.
2. Select a font name from the Font box.
1. Select a size from the Size box.
2. Click the Bold button to apply bold formatting.

You can also click the Italics and Underline buttons. Click the buttons again to remove
the formatting from the text.

Tip:

To apply simple formatting using keyboard shortcuts:

1.
• For bold, press Ctrl+b.
• For italics, press Ctrl+i.
• For underline, press Ctrl+u.

1. To change the color of the text, click the down arrow to the right of the Font
Color button and pick a color from the menu that appears.
Tip:

When you pick a color, the Font Color button changes to display the new color. To apply
that color to more text, select the text and click the Font Color button.

The Font dialog provides more options for formatting text, as well as for enhancing text
with special effects such as embossing, engraving and animation.

To access the Font dialog, open the Format menu and select Font.

Tip:

You can also open the Font dialog by right-clicking and selecting Font from the menu
that pops up.

In the Font dialog, click the Font tab to select a font (type), size and style:

1. Select Verdana from the Font list.


2. Select Bold from the Font style list.
3. Select 11 from the Size list.
The Preview pane shows you how the font will appear in your document.

You can also change the font color and add special formatting, such as a shadow:

1. Open the Font color menu and pick Red.


2. Under Effects, select the Shadow check box.
1. Click OK to close the dialog.

This is how the text now appears in the document:

You can choose from a number of formatting options under Effects; simply select the
check boxes to apply an outline, embossing, engraving or other effects.

To add animation to text, use the Text Effects tab:

1. With your text selected, open the Font dialog again and click the Text Effects
tab.
2. Select Blinking Background from the Animations list.
1. Click OK.

The text now appears with a blinking black background.

The Character Spacing tab lets you adjust the width of text, the spacing between
characters, and the position of text in relation to the normal baseline:

1. Select a short block of text.

2. Open the Font dialog and click the Character Spacing tab.

3. The Scale menu lets you select a percent by which to scale the width of your text. The
first figure below shows text with a default scale; the second figure shows the same text
scaled to 200%.

4. Use the Spacing menu to specify spacing, in points, between characters:


a. From the Spacing menu, select Expanded or Condensed. Expanding text adds space
between characters, while condensing compresses the space between characters.

b. In the By box, enter the number of points by which you want to expand or condense the
text.

Notice that the Preview pane shows the effect on the text.

You can continue to adjust the number of points using the up and down arrows next to
the By box.

5. Use the Position menu to move the text above or below the baseline. The baseline is
represented by the horizontal black lines in the Preview pane.

a. From the Position menu, select Raised or Lowered.

b. In the By box, enter the number of points by which you want to raise or lower the text
in relation to the baseline.
In the figure below, I’ve raised the text by 5 points. It appears above the horizontal lines
in the Preview pane.

Tip:

Raising and lowering text is not the same as creating a superscript or subscript, which
makes text smaller. To change a character to superscript or subscript, click the Font tab
and, under Effects, select Superscript or Subscript.

Introduction to Styles

Styles are collections of formatting choices that you can apply to the text or objects in
your document. Later, you can quickly change the formatting of all the text in your
document that uses a particular style, simply by changing the formatting of the style.

Microsoft Word includes a large number of built-in styles, which you can apply to body
text, to headings and subheadings, and to headers and footers, as just a few examples.
The styles available in a document appear in the Style drop-down menu on the
Formatting toolbar. To apply a style to a selection of text, select the style from the
menu.

You can also view and apply styles from the Style dialog:

1. Select the text or object you want to apply the style to.
2. Open the Format menu and select Style.

The Style dialog opens.


The Style dialog lists all the current styles available for use. (You can filter this list by
selecting Styles in use or User-defined styles from the List menu.)

1. Highlight a style and click the Apply button.

Create a New Style

Although Word includes many built-in styles, you may need to modify some of them, or
create new styles of your own. You do this using the Style dialog (from the Format
menu, select Style).
To change the formatting of an existing style:

1. Highlight the style in the Styles list.


2. Click the Modify button.

The Modify Style dialog opens.


1. Click the Format button to select the type of formatting you want to change. For
example, selecting Font opens the Font dialog, which lets you select a new font,
as well as a weight, style, size, color, etc.
1. You can select as many options as needed from the Format menu. When you’ve
finished formatting the style, click OK to close the Modify Style dialog.

To create a new style from the Style dialog:

1. Click the New button.

The New Style dialog opens.


1. Enter a name for the new style. Be sure the name is unique, as Word won’t allow
a style to uses the names it’s reserved for built-in styles (like “Heading 1”).
2. To build the style from an existing style, select the existing style from the Based
on drop-down menu. This prevents you from having to select formatting that
another style may already include.
3. The Style type drop-down menu lets you specify the type of style you’re creating,
and Style for the following paragraph tells Word what style to apply to the text
that follows the paragraph using your new style.

For instance, if you’re creating a heading style, Word, by default, will apply the same heading style to the paragraph that follows
your heading. However, it’s more common for body text to follow a heading; in such a case, telling Word to automatically apply
the “Normal” or “Body Text” style to the paragraph following your heading prevents you from having to change the style over
and over again.

1. Click the Format button to select the formatting you want the new style to use.
2. When you’ve finished formatting the style, click OK to close the dialog.

Add Borders

You can add custom borders to a paragraph, a table or table cell, or to entire pages:

1. Select the element you want to add a border to.


2. Open the Format menu and select Borders and Shading.

Tip:
You can also right-click the element and select Borders and Shading from the shortcut
menu.

The Borders and Shading dialog opens.

Note:

To add a border to the pages of your document, open the File menu, select Page Setup,
and in the Page Setup dialog, click the Layout tab. On the Layout tab, click the Borders
button. Word opens the Borders and Shading dialog with Whole document selected
under Apply to.

In the Page Setup dialog, click the Layout tab.

1. Under Setting, select the type of border you want to use.

Tip:

You can use the Preview pane to apply the border manually, and you should do this if
you’re adding a custom border. Simply click the button indicating the side of the element
where you want to apply a line. Click the button again to remove the border. You can
also click on the edge of the picture to apply a border to that side of the element without
using the buttons.

Note that if you use the Preview pane to apply a custom border (for example, if you add
a vertical line to the left side of the page), Word automatically selects Custom, changing
the selection if necessary.

1. Select the line style, color, and width. Optionally, you can select a picture border
from the Art menu.

Tip:

If you change elements of the line style after applying a custom border, you will need to
remove the border using the Preview pane and then reapply it. When you reapply the
border, it will appear in the Preview pane with your new line style settings.

1. To adjust the margins of the border, click the Options button.


2. When you’ve finished, click OK to apply the border and close the dialog.

Aligning Text

Microsoft Word provides four options for aligning text: left, right, centered, and
justified. Because text is aligned in relation to the paragraph margins, any alignment you
apply to a text selection will be applied to the entire paragraph.

By default, the text you type is left-aligned—that is, it is aligned along the left margin.
Use the Formatting toolbar to change the alignment:

1. Select the text you want to align (or position the insertion point where you plan to
type).
2. On the Formatting toolbar, click the Align Right button.

The text is aligned with the right margin, but not with the left.

1. Now, click the Align Left button.

The text is once again aligned along the left margin.

1. Click the Center button.

The text is centered between the left and right margins.

1. Finally, click the Justify button.


Word inserts spaces between the words, forcing the text to line up along both the left and
right margins.

Tip:

Because Word inserts additional spaces when justifying text, justification is not normally
recommended for Word documents.

The alignment options also appear in the Paragraph dialog box:

1. From the Format menu, select Paragraph.


2. If necessary, click the Indents and Spacing tab.
3. Select the alignment from the Alignment drop-down menu.

Set Line Spacing

Line spacing is the amount of vertical space between the lines in your document.
Commonly, lines are single-spaced or double-spaced. In Word, you specify line spacing
using the Paragraph dialog:

1. Open the Format menu and select Paragraph.

The Paragraph dialog box opens.

1. If necessary, click the Indents and Spacing tab.


2. From the Line Spacing drop-down menu, select the line spacing you want.
1. You can specify more precise spacing by selecting Exactly and then entering a
point value into the At field.
1. Use the Before and After fields to specify different values for the amount of
space you want to appear before (above) and after (below) a line of text. The
Preview pane shows how the text will appear.
Add Line Numbers

Line numbers are often included in draft documents to facilitate reviewing by readers. To
add line numbers to a document:

1. Open the File menu and select Page Setup.

The Page Setup dialog opens.

1. Click the Layout tab.


1. Click the Line Numbers button.

The Line Numbers dialog opens.

1. Select the Add line numbering check box.

1. The remaining fields in the dialog box are enabled, allowing you to set options for
the line numbers. When you’ve finished, click OK.

Tip:

Line numbers can create instability in Word documents and may potentially cause Word
to crash. Don’t use line numbers unless absolutely necessary, and save your document
frequently.
Create a Header

A header is a line of text appearing across the top of each of your pages. Sometimes, the
information in the header (such as title and page number) is the same on every page of
the document; other documents, often those using facing pages, use two or more headers,
so that different information appears on different pages (for example, the report title on
even-numbered pages and the chapter title on odd-numbered pages). There may be still
other pages in a document—the cover page, for example—on which you want no header
at all to appear. Word lets you accomplish all these tasks with relative ease.

To create a header:

1. Open the View menu and select Header and Footer.

Word displays a dashed rectangle at the top of the page (the header region) and opens the
Header and Footer toolbar.

1. Type your header directly into the header region. You can use the buttons on the
toolbar to insert AutoText, page numbers, and other automatically updated fields.
2. When you’ve finished, click Close.

The dashed rectangle disappears, and the header text you entered appears at the top of the
page.

Tip:

Headers and footers are inserted and formatted the same way. Just use the Switch
Between Header and Footer button on the Header and Footer toolbar to move
between the header and footer.

The Header and Footer Toolbar

While you work within the body of your document, header text appears faded. When you
scroll through the document, the cursor ignores this text, which is essentially inactive. To
edit the header, just double-click anywhere in the header region.

Each time you activate the header, the Header and Footer toolbar appears.
Use the buttons on the toolbar to navigate among multiple headers, to insert AutoText
and fields into your headers, and to link headers in multiple sections so the contents
remain the same:

• To move between multiple headers in a document, use the Show Previous and
Show Next buttons.

• To insert AutoText, click Insert AutoText and select the text from the menu.

• Use the Insert Page Number , Insert Number of Pages , Insert Date and
Insert Time buttons to insert those fields into the header. Word automatically
calculates the values for, and updates, the fields as necessary.

• You can link the header of the current section to the header of the previous section by
clicking the Same as Previous button. Be aware that the header you’re linking will
lose all its current formatting. To remove the link, click the button again.

• To switch between the header and footer on a page, click the Switch Between Header
and Footer button.

• To hide the document text while you work with the header, click the Show/Hide
Document Text button.

Format Headers and Footers

You format headers and footers the same way you format text in the body of your
document: simply select the text and apply the font and paragraph formatting of your
choice using the Formatting toolbar.

The Header and Footer toolbar contains additional commands for formatting page
numbers and for changing the layout of your headers and footers using the Page Setup
dialog:

• To format page numbers, click the Format Page Number button. This opens the
Page Number Format dialog, where you can define the number format and starting page
number.

• Click the Page Setup button to open the Page Setup dialog, where you can specify
that different headers and footers should appear on odd- and even-numbered pages, or
that the first page of the document should have a different header and footer from the
rest.
Insert Page Numbers

To insert page numbers into a Word document:

1. Open the Insert menu and select Page Numbers.

The Page Numbers dialog opens.

1. From the Position drop-down menu, you can choose to place the page numbers at
the top or bottom of the page. Bottom of page is selected by default.
2. From the Alignment drop-down menu, select Left, Center, Right, Inside, or
Outside. Inside and Outside are used for facing pages.
3. Click the Format button to view additional options:

1.
a. Number format lets you specify Arabic or Roman numerals, uppercase or
lowercase, or numbers or letters.
b. Include chapter number inserts the chapter number, based on the style
that’s been applied to the chapter’s heading, before the page number,
using the separator you select.
c. Under Page numbering, you can specify the page number the document
(or section) should begin on. When a document includes multiple sections,
each page is numbered consecutively by default. However, you can choose
to have a new section in a document begin on “Page 1”; you might do this,
for example, if one section contains a table of contents using lowercase
page numbers, and the next section of the document contains “Chapter 1,”
which should begin on “Page 1.”
d. Click OK to return to the Page Numbers dialog.
2. To insert the page numbers, click OK.

Tip:

Follow the same steps to change the formatting of existing page numbers (for example, if
you only need to change the number a page or section begins on). When you’ve finished
making your selections from the Page Number Format dialog, close the dialog and, in
the Page Numbers dialog, click Close instead of OK. Word applies the formatting to the
existing numbers.

Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes and endnotes contain supplemental information that’s referenced in the body of
the document. Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page containing the reference, while
endnotes appear together at the end of the document.

When you insert a footnote or endnote, you actually insert the reference—a number or
symbol—into the body of your text. Once you insert the reference, Word jumps to the
location of your reference text, so you can enter it. When you use reference numbers
(rather than symbols), Word automatically updates the numbering as you insert new
references. The references always remain linked to their corresponding text.

To insert a footnote or endnote:

1. Position the insertion point where you want to insert the reference.
2. Open the Insert menu and select Footnote.

The Footnote and Endnote dialog opens.


1. Select the type of note you want to insert: Footnote or Endnote.
2. Under Numbering, select AutoNumber or Custom mark.

If you choose Custom mark, click the Symbol button to select the symbol you want
your references to use (such as an asterisk).

1. Click OK.

Word inserts the references and then moves to the cursor to the location of the reference
text.

1. Type the reference text.


2. Use the mouse to return to the location in your document where you left off.

Tip:

To quickly return to your previous position, right-click inside the reference text and, from
the shortcut menu, select Go to Footnote or Go to Endnote, as appropriate. Word
returns the cursor to location of the reference in the body of your document.
You can also use the shortcut menu to convert a footnote to an endnote, and vice versa.
Simply right-click the reference text and choose the appropriate Convert to option from
the menu.

You can view reference text at any time by moving your mouse over the reference in the
body of the text; when you do this, Word displays the reference text in a popup.

To edit the text, double-click the reference mark, or just move the cursor to the reference
text using your mouse or arrow keys.

To delete a reference, select the reference mark and press Delete on your keyboard. This
removes both the reference mark and the associated text. Word automatically renumbers
the remaining references in your document.

Set Footnote Options

By default, footnotes are located at the bottom of the page containing their reference
marks, and endnotes are located at the end of the document. You can change the
placement of footnotes and endnotes, as well as define numbering options, using the
Options button in the Footnote and Endnote dialog:

1. Open the Insert menu and select Footnote.

The Footnote and Endnote dialog opens.


1. Click the Options button.

The Note Options dialog opens.

1. Click the All Footnotes tab to define options or footnotes, or the All Endnotes
tab to define options for endnotes.
2. To change the location of the notes, select an option from the Place at drop-down
menu. Footnotes can appear either at the bottom of the current page or directly
beneath the current text; endnotes can appear either at the end of the document or
the end of the current section.
3. Choose a numbering format and enter a starting number, if you don’t want the
notes to begin at 1.
4. Choose when note numbering should restart, if ever, within the document. For
instance, you may want to renumber footnotes beginning with 1 at the start of
each section in your document, if each section represents a new chapter or a new
article in a publication.
5. Click OK to apply the options.
Format Footnotes

You format reference text just as you would the other text in your document. If you want
to view and format all the notes in your document at once, switch to normal view ,
then open the View menu and select Footnotes. Word displays the note pane at the
bottom of the document window.

In the note pane, use your mouse to select the notes you want to format, and then apply
the formatting using the buttons on the Formatting toolbar.

Word automatically inserts a separator line between footnote and endnote text and the
body of the document. You can change the formatting of the separator by selecting it
from the drop-down menu at the top of the notes pane.

Selecting Footnote continuation separator and Endnote continuation separator from


the same menu inserts a line between the main text of the document and notes that
continue to the next page.

A Footnote continuation notice (or Endnote continuation notice) is a notice telling


readers that notes continue on another page. To insert a continuation notice, select it from
the menu and then type the text for the notice in the note pane.

Bookmarks
Bookmarks in Microsoft Word function the same way they do on a web page—as links to
marked places in the document. Use bookmarks as a means of organizing and navigating
longer documents. Simply click the link for a bookmark to jump to the linked-to location.

To insert a bookmark:

1. Position your insertion point where you want to insert the bookmark.
Alternatively, you can select text or an object that you want to bookmark.
2. Open the Insert menu and select Bookmark.

1. Enter a name for the bookmark. The name must begin with a letter and cannot
include any spaces, though you can use underscores (_).
2. Click the Add button.

To delete a bookmark:

1. Open the Insert menu and select Bookmark.


2. In the Bookmark dialog box, highlight the bookmark and click the Delete button.

Use Bookmarks

To display the bookmarks in your document:

1. Open the Tools menu and select Options.

The Options dialog opens.

1. Click the View tab.


2. Under Show, select Bookmarks.

1. Click OK.

Bookmarks are displayed as I-beams in the document. Bookmarked text appears in


brackets.

To navigate to a bookmark in your document:

1. Open the Insert menu and select Bookmark.


2. In the Bookmark dialog, highlight the bookmark you want to go to and click Go
To.

Tip:

You can also navigate to a bookmark using the Find dialog: Press Ctrl + g (or simply
F5) on your keyboard to open the dialog to the Go To tab. Select Bookmark from the
list. Then select the name of the bookmark from the drop-down menu and click Go To.

Organize Bookmarks
Word displays a list of the bookmarks in your document in the Bookmark dialog. When
a document includes a number of bookmarks, you can sort them by name or location,
making it easier to find a specific bookmark when navigating:

1. Open the Insert menu and select Bookmark.


2. In the Bookmark dialog, choose Sort by Name or Location.

Sorting the list by name arranges the bookmarks in alphabetical order. Sorting by location
arranges the bookmarks in the order in which they appear in the document.

ack Changes

Word’s track changes feature lets you track the changes you make to a document, and
later accept or reject these changes as necessary. The most common use for this feature is
among multiple document reviewers, who make changes to the document that are tracked
by Word and then either accepted or rejected by the author.

To turn on the track changes feature, click the Track Changes button on the
Reviewing toolbar, or open the Tools menu, select Track Changes, and then Highlight
Changes. In the Highlight Changes dialog, select Track changes while editing.

In the Highlight Changes dialog, select Highlight changes on screen to see the changes
that have been made to the document. Word displays these changes using a different
color for each reviewer. As you move your mouse over each change, Word displays a
pop up telling you the type of change made (for example, inserted or deleted) and the
reviewer who made the change.

To accept or reject changes:

1. Review each change using the Next Change or Previous Change button
on the Reviewing toolbar.
2. When Word stops at a change, accept it by clicking the Accept Change
button, or reject it by clicking the Reject Change button.
To accept or reject all changes at once, use the Accept or Reject Changes dialog:

1. Open the Tools menu and select Track Changes, and then Accept or Reject
Changes.

2. In the Accept or Reject Changes dialog, click Accept All or Reject All.

The Document Map

The Document Map displays the headings in your document in a pane in the left side of
the document window. You can easily jump from one location to another in your
document simply by clicking one of the headings in the map.
To show or hide the Document Map, click the Document Map button on the Standard
toolbar.