2Q) POSITIONING OF IBM: IBM's corporate positioning is among the most business technology (BT) BM's corporate positioning is strongly BT-focused; its

hardware product positioning is all about a traditional IT value system ² technology innovation targeted at IT stakeholders. POINT OF DIFFERANCE OF IBM: The bargaining power to the buyers: As IBM operates business in B2B market, most organizations always buy in large amounts per one time. Therefore customers have the power to negotiate with the company. This power for IBM customers is moderately high because of the competitors present in the market. Customization of the softwares: The softwares provided by the IBM are highly customized as per the business requirements of each and every client that can be easily be integrated with the existing business models of the company and thus are highly differentiated.

3Q) Product development process followed:

The process of product development includes:
1. Idea Generation is often called the "fuzzy front end" of the NPD process
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Ideas for new products can be obtained from basic research using a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats), Market and consumer trends, company's R&D department, competitors, focus groups, employees, salespeople, corporate spies, trade shows, or Ethnographic discovery methods (searching for user patterns and habits) may also be used to get an insight into new product lines or product features.

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Lots of ideas are being generated about the new product. Out of these ideas many ideas are being implemented. The ideas use to generate in many forms and their generating places are also various. Many reasons are responsible for generation of an idea.

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Idea Generation or Brainstorming of new product, service, or store concepts idea generation techniques can begin when you have done your

Idea Screening o The object is to eliminate unsound concepts prior to devoting resources to them. Concept Development and Testing o Develop the marketing and engineering details   Investigate intellectual property issues and search patent data bases Who is the target market and who is the decision maker in the purchasing process?      What product features must the product incorporate? What benefits will the product provide? How will consumers react to the product? How will the product be produced most cost effectively? Prove feasibility through virtual computer aided rendering. o The screeners should ask several questions:   Will the customer in the target market benefit from the product? What is the size and growth forecasts of the market segment/target market?  What is the current or expected competitive pressure for the product idea?  What are the industry sales and market trends the product idea is based on?   Is it technically feasible to manufacture the product? Will the product be profitable when manufactured and delivered to the customer at the target price? 3. 2. and rapid prototyping  o What will it cost to produce it? Testing the Concept by asking a sample of prospective customers what they think of the idea. Usually via Choice Modelling.OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS to support your ideas in the Idea Screening Phase (shown in the next development step). .

what-if planning 7.4. . Technical Implementation o o o o o o o o o o o o New program initiation Finalize Quality management system Resource estimation Requirement publication Publish technical communications such as data sheets Engineering operations planning Department scheduling Supplier collaboration Logistics plan Resource plan publication Program review and monitoring Contingencies . Beta Testing and Market Testing o o o o o Produce a physical prototype or mock-up Test the product (and its packaging) in typical usage situations Conduct focus group customer interviews or introduce at trade show Make adjustments where necessary Produce an initial run of the product and sell it in a test market area to determine customer acceptance 6. Business Analysis o o Estimate likely selling price based upon competition and customer feedback Estimate sales volume based upon size of market and such tools as the FourtWoodlock equation o Estimate profitability and break-even point 5. Commercialization (often considered post-NPD) o o o o Launch the product Produce and place advertisements and other promotions Fill the distribution pipeline with product Critical path analysis is most useful at this stage.

quality and finance etc. and profit These steps may be iterated as needed. As this process is persuasive throughout IBM all the staff at all levels are trained in its principals and processes using a variety of methods. development. revenue. Some steps may be eliminated. Each software company has its own integrated product development organizational structure that includes brand marketing. IBM is preserved a company that integrates requirements and quality management more effectively with business goals. and need) Product Costs (fixed & variable) Forecast of unit volumes. So that helping the customers decreased rework. 4Q) Customer perspective of the product : IBM customers preserve IBM as an organization that recognises the need for greater efficiency and collaboration in the software delivery process and implement them to facilitate and support its customers in their journey.8. value. \\ . support. New Product Pricing o o o o o o Impact of new product on the entire product portfolio Value Analysis (internal & external) Competition and alternative competitive technologies Differing value segments (price. improved decision making and provided a faster time to market.

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