ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT VIDEO
Video is an integral part of Service in this age, as we know every age has its characteristics. One of the significant mainstays of this Age is Video Recording, Presentation and Streaming in Ministry. One of the biggest differences between a photograph and a video is that you¶ve broken the eventdown into a single instant and yet for a video, you¶ve got the beginning, the end and everything in between. Video is unambiguous and it doesn¶t leave much up to the imagination, video is more of watching the reality of life, so the way we present any video work should be in no way different from the wayGod has his work moving on in His planet. One of the best way we can get the best video work ever is to take a close look at what nature presents. Lighting, positioning of elements and Sound in the natural world are very balanced depending on the situation but this is not often the case with videos, since we work at set-ups which call formore attention. All Video work begins with the way you use your camera, it does not matter howgood the editor is, and once footage is bad we have no alternative but to do it all over again. CAMERA OPERATIONS Every Camera operator should take note of the way they use the camera since all shots are used toexpress ideas and moods in video. The camera operator should look at the camera as a communication tool rather than as a device for reproducing a picture. SHOT COMPOSITION Before you get to the shoot, do consider your needs and while on the shoot you will need to beaware of everything that is going on so that you keep an eye on what may come into your frameand change the shoot unnecessarily. Framing for a video is infinitely more flexible and versatilethan any other medium, through slow planning movements you can imply a vast open canvasusing tight shots from close in you can make the viewer feel a part of the action ± a techniqueexploited in many martial arts and action movies. Before you start shooting you will have to be familiar with the various types of camera shots. LONG SHOT (LS) A long shot gives the viewer a frame of reference, the context and surroundings since it showsmore of the scene, these shots are relaxed leading the viewer's eye and mind to take in a generalview. Long shots are used to establish shots that let the viewer become more familiar with the environment and comfortable with the evolving shots that follow. We could have an Extreme Long shot too e.g. the aerial shots in series like CSI, Burn Notice and Some Episodes of 24. CLOSE-UP SHOT (CU) Close-Ups visually indicate familiarity and home in to point out details; we would expect to see a close-up shot in a talk show or Message during a moment of tension, importance or crisis in a
The camera operator should have the ability toanticipate likely action. E.
PERSPECTIVE In movie making perspective is far more than simply the point of view.e. Perspective can be looked at under these three modes. not merely view and since we are using the camera as a communication tool. for example a snake approaching the camera lens as if pointing to the viewer is so much effective in expressing fear than a side view. However to create ascene of dynamism and continuing action in video.
THE OBSERVATION MODE
The Observation mode is where the camera is a surrogate person (a person deputizing for otherin a specific role). A camera operator should combine his needs with his skills to capture usable footage notforgetting the needs of the editing process. It¶s you as you accompany the police on a drug bust. It links the person¶sperceptions with their position. Here the director keeps the camera relatively stationery and uses a medium close-upkeeping the camera at the subject¶s eye level. Wecould have an Extreme Close-up too. get steady camera shots and be aware of exposure consistency.You can refer to it as a B-roll CUT-IN (CI) This is a view of some part of the subject in details.dramatic presentation. a
. a camera operator must shoot in a way that reinforces the idea in the shot so as to make his message to the viewer as clear as possible.g. Perspective puts the viewer in a position to experience. the way it views the subject plays an extremely important visual communication role.g. E.g. CUTAWAY (CA) This is a shot other than the subject. rapidly and precisely focus. standard Message recording shots for church We could have a medium close-up too. Let¶s look more at what we need to know for the best camera shoots.
THE EXPOSITION MODE
The Exposition mode is where people present themselves to the camera like in a televisionnewscast. Now that we know the various types of camera shots. Worshippers in Church or Car Park. crying Mother in an Africa Magic Production MEDIUM SHOT (MS) This is where the subject is closer with more detail but the frame still has the whole subject which will fill the frame with this shot. away from the main action. the shoot will benefit from the videographer moving around freely. like a CU of hands shaking.
THE SUBJECTIVE MODE
The Subjective mode is where the camera is put in the position of a person simulating their vision under a variety of situations like the Point-of-view shot such as the over-the-shoulder shot.
ROLL BLANK TAPE Before you start shooting. This is especially important when you're shooting B-roll like natural sound. shut up already! Keep in mind that when the camera is rolling it picks up all the ambient sound. Wait until you have the shot you want to roll tape. SHOOTING SKILLS You need to combine your shooting skills to capture usable footage for your movie bearing inmind the needs of the editing process. HOLD YOUR SHOTS
. a steady camera hand thus why it is best to work with a tripod for smooth tracking of irregular movement and awareness of exposure consistency. Some of the shooting skills include the ability to anticipate likely action. do not roll tape when you're changing from one shot to another or focusing.wellcomposed shot is one that presents accurate details providing appropriate visual balance. That way you'll save a huge amount of time later when you're capturing your video into a computer and you will not have to go through an hour-long tape with a lot of junk to find the 20 minutes of shots you want. This will avoid having any crinkles at the start of the tape appearing in the video you want to shoot. such as the noise of a busy street or a nature scene. where the sound is critical to the shot. writing up a list of shots you will need while thinking aboutwhat is going to look good visually. Try viewing your piece as a skeleton. try to think before you shoot and donot roll tape unless you're taking a shot. PLANING YOUR SHOOTS Always Talk over your shoot with other members of the production team and make sure you're clear onwhat shots you need to tell the story. for example. not just what you're focusing on. Audio is just as important for your final film as your video. I recommend that you go out and shoot some video first. either to yourself or with other members of your team. and no humming. As everyone nowadays has a Camera-Phone. and how your shots are going to come together sequentially. roll your tape for 30 seconds at the beginning of your tape with thelens cap on if not with color bars. and then readthrough these tips while reviewing your footage to drive home what you need to avoid. rapid and precise focusing especially for unexpected changes in action.
SHUT UP WHEN YOU SHOOT When you press the record button. Don't talk while the camera is rolling. SHOOT SELECTIVELY Be aware of what you're shooting when the tape is rolling. And you'll save money by using less tape. CHECK AUDIO
Be sure to plug a set of headphones into the camera and check your audio to make sure you're getting an audio feed. and you are shooting the flesh for all those bones. And you will not be able to separate the unwanted audio out in the editing process.
getting off the bicycle. wide angle shot. FILLING THE SCREEN
. Itcould be made up of the following shots: the person pulling up to the building. and hold the next static shot for an additional 15 seconds. In eachsequence.such as what's created with panning and zooming .to choose from in the edit room. y An extreme close up of her eyes as she looks at her hands while she's taking off her gloves. and walking into the building. but you can't take a 2-second clip and make it into a 15-second clip.doesn't display well on the Web. A telephoto shot using the zoom feature will accentuate movement by the subject and make the shot appear shaky. and hold it for 15 seconds. Remember that you will be determining what the viewer sees and how the story unfolds. a good ratio to shoot for (literally) is 50 percent close ups and extreme close ups. If you're constantly panning and zooming. y A close up shot of her straightening her hair and looking at the building.Hold your shots for at least 15 seconds. y An extreme close up shot of her taking off her gloves. When you are starting out to shoot a shot. You can't shoot enough details. Then make your move to zoom in or pan. Here's an example: Think of different scenes. before you pan. Each of those scenes is made up of sequences. as in a movie. y A close up shot of her pushing the front wheel of her bike into the bike stand. That wayyou'll be sure you have enough video of a scene to work with later when you do your editing. 25 percent medium shots. taking off her helmet. zoom or go onto another shot. Every little detail is important. the close-up and the zoom in between .the wide-angle. This will give you three useable shots . Video clips need to be compressed to play on the Web. SHOOT IN SEQUENCES
This is especially true when shooting B roll such as crowd scenes or nature shots. tucking gloves into the helmet.such as pans and zooms . and that means if there's lots of movement in your clip . y A close up shot of her chaining the bike to the stand. Instead start with a static. chaining the bicycle to the bicycle stand.
EXCESSIVE PANNING AND ZOOMING Don't constantly pan from side to side or zoom in and out with the camera . y A medium shot of her getting off the bicycle. to get a close-up it's better to keep your camera set to a more wide-angle view and move the camera closer to the subject of your shot. This is especially important for video you're using on a Web site because video with a lot of movement . so try to shoot discrete segments that you then can assemble into that story when you're editing. y A close up shot of her taking off her helmet and tucking her gloves into it. medium and close up. y A medium and wide shot of her walking into the building with the helmet tucked under her arm. taking off gloves. and shoot wide.hold your shots and look for the one moment that's really captivating. you need to follow the action. than to have the camera farther away and zoom in for the close-up. the one shot you'll really want to use will lose its impact with all the movement by the camera.it will appear choppy and slow. and 25 percent wide shots. Say you want to capture a person arriving at work in the morning on her bicycle that's one sequence. Similarly. rather than a staticshot of an interview with someone. Remember that you can always take a 15-second clip and make it a 2-second clip during editing. In fact. It might break down like this: a wide shot of her arriving. silently count 15 seconds to yourself to make sure you have held a shot long enough.
usually a flat graphic. It's better to have that room below the person's face. For example. There should be just a little room above a person's head in a shot. MAINTAINING A STABLE HORIZON The horizon is the part of a scene. When a person is on camera walking or running. pushing plants out of the frame of your shot all done to improve the setting. the eye often finds a picture uninteresting when the main elements are located directly on the horizontal center. Unless it¶s done for effect like if you are creating a Point-of-View shot of a child that is stepping off a wild amusement-park ride. That's just dead space. don't have a shot where there's excessive empty space above a person's head. in which the important information must be contained. eye-room. For example. VISUAL BALANCE Whenever a camera operator is shooting a talent looking to one side. space you then could use when you're editing the video to add a title with the person's name. The rule of thirds is not applicable to every circumstance because rules are frequently broken in art but it does serve as a starting point for good shot composition. or asking the subject of your shoot to change positions so you properly frame the shot. avoid a shot of a person with a plant or pole in back of them. FRAMING AND COMPOSING YOUR SHOTS Be aware of composition in your shots and how you frame your shots. moving things on a desk. Be careful of zooming in too tightly on the subject such as graphics where losing a small portion of detail will distort the image since what you see in the camera¶s monitor is not what you will get when the picture is transmitted to a home receiver. do not communicate energy and they appear amateurish. nose-room or some similar term. Like in a portrait the eyes of the subject generally fall on a line one third from the top. we provide room called leading space to show what the performer is moving into.Any camera operator should have it in mind not overfill the screen when shooting yet not forgetting that too-distant shots. lacking detail. And if you're having technical problems. HEADROOM AND NOSEROOM
Leave the proper amount of nose room and headroom in front of and above the person you're shooting. THE RULE OF THIRDS One of the most important aspects of an aesthetically balanced shot is that important details usually appear on the lines that trisect the frame thus the rule of thirds. Always make sure that you are close enough to the subject to produce accurate details that can be perceived by the viewer. It will look like the plant or pole is growing out of the back of the person's head. proper composition requires what is often called looking space. when setting up the tripod use care not to skew the horizon.
. When shooting interviews pay attention to your surroundings and don't be reticent or shy about rearranging furniture. a tilted horizon makes the picture look awkward and amateurish so. That is why we frame the TV picture with the eyes about a third of the way up from the top. When two people are in the frame such as in the over-the shoulder shot their heads are typically on vertically trisecting line. don't be afraid to take charge and stop the interview until you can properly set up the shot. I think you can get to know what I am talking about when you watch a football broadcast on your television set. particularly with interviews.
This conveys a visual message like in the subjective mode where a tilt would be used to mimic our eyes¶ method of assessing for example stature. add space in the direction in which the person is looking. The excessive use of zoom is the mark of an amateur camera operator and quite distracting to the viewer. 2. It is a powerful tool for directing attention where the camera operator refocuses the lens on the second subject pulling the initial subject out of focus. Motion can present a number of problems like when people or the camera move. your focus mayhave to be changed so its advisable to check your entire field of focus while setting up a shot and anticipating whether you will have to change focus on air when the subject moves or by blocking (which essentially means putting your performers through their on stage motions so that camera angles. Each moving camera shot conveys a different aspect of visual communication it is crucial that all on air motion should not convey a mixed signal to the viewer.
This is an up or down movement of the camera and serves purely utilitarian function like when aperson stands up we must do a tilt to keep their face in the frame. we will always have motion of either the talent or the camera its self. It conveys thevisual idea that the person is moving towards and confronting the person holding the weapon.
THE MIX OF MOTION AND COMPOSTION Whenever we shoot a video. a method for compensating for motion. don't chop them off at the knees but try getting their entire body in the shot. And if you're shooting a person standing. Motion is a mixed blessing that creates problems that must be dealt with in advance of shooting. Light weight camera are poor choices for shooting with but an extra weight gives stability which helps to deliver a steady picture CAMERA MOVEMENTS
This is a magnification of an image and does not visually translate to moving toward the talent. shadows and any other problems can be worked out in advance. Nevertheless even in the presence of motion. this brings us to two primary points to be considered when discussing the new motion available to the producer: 1.
This involves the physical motion of the camera towards or away from the subject.
. a skill perfected through practice.) Blocking should be done with care to avoid objects being juxtaposed into the shot. camera operators can still use motion to theiradvantage like pulling the focus.But don't have the shot too low where you crop the top of the person's head. It can be used such as in a news footage where we establish an overall perspective and then zoom in on the detail. A zoom says let¶s take a closer look at a detail in this picture. y One approach is the rule of thirds: y One third of the frame should be above the person's eyes y One third of the frame should be the person's face and shoulder area y One third of the frame should be the person's lower torso And if the person is looking to the side. in frontof their nose.
light is recognizable from the effect it has on the scene. the elevation. One of the direct ways to impart a visual style in your movies is through the use of different lighting styles like predominately spooky. it is for this reason that a camera operator should maintain a proper white balance during shooting.
You need to maintain an even exposure level between shots which is difficult to achieve if you are working in different environments like indoors and outdoors. steady and side lighting.
DIRECTION OF LIGHT
There are generally three sets of light direction: Above or below. in front or behind and left or right. Prior to your first day of shooting you need to gather all your talents and crew together and do a run through a few scenes.
The camera will need a mobile platform for this. A great camera operator is at all times aware of the light and when lighting a set there is need for us to take note of:
QUALITY OF LIGHT
Diffused or soft.
Changes in white balance signal to the viewer a change in circumstances in line with the variations in lighting and hence creating the principle of motivating light. focus and framing shots. poor exposure consistency is often a cause of poor colour which may spoil continuity due to colour variations. height of lamps. When shooting a video you are expected to maintain continuity in all your videowork especially in areas of color. moving parallel and keeping the same distance. exposure. strength and direction of light offer information about the season. this does not mean thatchanges from one scene to another should move the action on but follow the logic of the storyand above all not distract the viewer. Itimitates a person¶s eyes following action: for example a camera operator would have to do a pan for a runner running across a field to keep him in frame not forgetting about the nose room. However for now we look at continuity in camera work and not screen play. There are a couple of more camera movements and all these can be combined I want you to imagine for a while how manycamera shots and movements you would have if nature presented an earth quake in your village. this is known as blocking the scene. light and contrast. and strength of light should be noted.This is a steady. this is important when an interview shoot is to be continued at another date hence position of lights.
ABOVE or BELOW LIGHTING
LIGHTING MY VIDEO
The strength of a movie¶s narrative line depends on its continuity. imply mood or feeling and even create a visual style.
LIGHTING AND CONSTRAST
Whenever shooting different angles of the same scene you need to maintain the lighting style and the contrast. Through the use of different lighting techniques you can endow your video with a scene of time and place. even. the camera follows the path of the subject. Let¶s take a close look at the three sets of light. time of day and direction of travel. It may manifest its self in weak blurred-edged or non-existence of shadows. rolling shot in which the distance between the talent and camera changes. Lighting is one of those situations in filming where you have to come up with creative ideas of how to solve your problem this is something that you have to practice on.
In betweenhorizontal light from just above or below head height can signify domestic lighting and safety ofthe home. For example.000K to 8. nevertheless ambient light can be a good friend or an enemy on any give location especially if it conflicts with what we want to achieve.
Color temperature is a standard method of describing colors for use in a range of situations and with different equipment. Colour temperatures are normally expressed in units called kelvins (K). In practical terms this usually means selecting lights. intensity or direction for the desired effect. In contrast a subject lit from behind appears in silhouette
Now let¶s look at whatterminologies we are most likely to encounter in lighting of course we need to know what iswhat for any given light setup. In this case we may choose to block out the ambient light completely and replace it with artificial light. For video operations the relevant temperatures range from around 2.
. ambient light may be the wrong color temperature. Note that the term degrees kelvin is often used but is not technically correct since colour temperature means the temperature of an ideal black body radiator at which the colour of the light source and the black body are identical.Light from above emulates the light of the sun and so tends to look the most natural while the light from below with its unnatural connotation is used to indicate the unknown.
INFRONT or BEHIND LIGHTING
A subject lit from the front appears the most least threatening and most comforting because it displays the greatest clarity and details. gels and filters which are most appropriate to the prevailing light or to create a particular colour effect.000K which are the common lighting conditions. before any additional lighting is added and isusually referred to as natural light upon which most shots rely largely. For example.
This refers to light already present in a scene. a camera operator will select a "5600K filter" to use outside in the middle of a sunny day.