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Things to learnt in this chapter: 1. State the function of the heart and identify the structure of the human heart. 2. Illustrate the path of the blood flow in the circulatory system in the transport of substances. 3. Compare and contrast the structures of arteries, veins and capillaries. 4. State the constituents of blood and their functions. 5. Match the blood group of the donor to that of the recipient. 6. Describe the functions and identify the location of the xylem and the phloem. 7. Discuss the role of transpiration and the factors that affect transpiration. 2.1 The transport system in human. HEART 1. The human heart is situated in the thorax, behind the chest bone and between the lungs. 2. The main function of the heart is to pump the blood throughout the whole body. This is to enable the necessary substances to carry to the various organs and the waste substances be carried to the excretory organs. 3. The heart is slightly conical in shape and its position is its apex slants towards the left. 4. The human heart is divided into four chambers, in the middle by a muscular wall called septum, and two valves (tricuspid and bicuspid valves) separating top and bottom positions. 5. The top right chamber is called right atrium and the bottom right chamber is called right ventricle. (So as the left side, left atrium and left ventricle). 6. The septum prevents the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood from mixing. 7. The presence of valves is to prevent blood flowing from ventricles to the atria. 8. The atria have thinner walls as they only pump blood from atria to the ventricles, which is very near. The ventricle walls are thicker because they have to pump the blood much harder so that the blood flow to the whole body 9. When compared to the right ventricle wall, the left ventricle wall is thicker because it has to pump the blood to the whole body whereas the right one only has to pump blood to the lungs which is a shorter distance away. 10. The valves: a. Tricuspid valve – between right atrium and right ventricle b. Bicuspid valve – between left atrium and left ventricle
F3Sc, Chapter 2: Blood Circulation and Transport
c. Semi-lunar valves ☺ between the left ventricle and the aortic arch, and between right ventricle and the pulmonary arch – function – to prevent the blood to flow back into the heart when ventricles relax. ☺ In the veins (see later notes) – to prevent back flow of the blood. Blood circulation 1. The body tissues use up oxygen and turn blood into deoxygenated blood. 2. The blood returns to the heart via two routes: a. the one from the upper body will enter the heart through superior or anterior vena cava b. the one from the lower body will enter the heart through inferior or posterior vena cava. 3. The blood from vena cava enters the heart into the right atrium. When it is filled up with blood, it contracts and forces the blood into the right ventricle, via the tricuspid valve. 4. The right ventricle then contracts when it is full, which happens immediately after the contraction of atrium. 5. When ventricle contracts, the pressure in it builds up and eventually forces the closure of tricuspid valve. The high pressure in the ventricle forces the blood out through semi-lunar valve into the pulmonary arch, later to the lungs. 6. Gaseous exchange occurs in the lungs and the blood returns to the heart via pulmonary veins, carrying the oxygenated blood. (Processes 3, 4, 5 & 6 collectively called pulmonary circulation) 7. The oxygenated blood enters the left atrium, to be pumped into the left ventricle via bicuspid valve when the left atrium contracts. 8. When the left ventricle contracts, the pressure in it builds up in the left ventricle causes the bicuspid valve to close and the blood is forced open the semi-lunar valve and rushed into the aortic arch. (Processes 8 and 9 are collectively known as systemic circulation) 9. When the ventricle relaxes , the pressures in both the ventricles become lower. The semi-lunar valves close, preventing the blood from the pulmonary artery and aorta from flowing back into the ventricles. Blood vessels 1. There are three types of blood vessels in human body, artery, capillary and vein. 2. Arteries: a. Most of our body’s oxygenated blood is carried through arteries except pulmonary artery. b. All of them have thick, muscular and elastic wall so that they can withstand high blood pressure when the heart pumps. c. The small lumen of these vessels makes the blood that flows through always maintain high pressure.
b. forming sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate. oxygen combines with haemoglobin in the erythrocytes. forming oxyhaemoglobin. 2. “dub”. 3. Role of blood circulatory system 1. 7. All the veins have small semi-lunar valve to ensure the blood flows in one direction only. It is this moment that semi-lunar valves close and produce another sound. for each specific function of our body. Transportation: a. red blood cells. All capillaries are one cell thick. iv. Most of our body’s deoxygenated blood is carried through veins except pulmonary vein. Chapter 2: Blood Circulation and Transport 2 . d. The cells are flattened. e. When these blood cells reach our tissues. circulatory system provides the following functions to us: a. the oxyhaemoglobin break down into oxygen and haemoglobin. forming the tissue fluid. Artery Capillary Vein Lumen Wall Muscle layer Elasticity Blood flow Pressure Speed of blood flow Type of blood Valve Narrow Thick Thick High From the heart High Very fast Oxygenated No Very narrow One-cell thick None No Artery to vein Very low Very slow Both No Fairly wide Relatively thin Relatively thin Low To the heart Low Slow Deoxygenated Yes Heartbeats 1. When a person is at rest. Pulse rate is used to measure a person’s heartbeat. c. with carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveolus. The content of the tissue fluid is almost identical to the content of the blood except it has no plasma proteins. blood in the pulmonary artery and aorta try to rush back to the ventricles. forcing the tricuspid and bicuspid valves to close and produce a sound “lub”. 4. At the tissues the concentration of carbon dioxide is very high (??) ii. vein’s walls are not as thick and their lumen are not as small. Compared to arteries. the heartbeat increases. Items Crosssection 5. if vigorous activity is carried out. 3. The heartbeat can vary according to external or internal factors. Our body have to be in a balanced and specific condition so that they can function well.(60%) Diffuses into the plasma (through) RBC and combine with the bicarbonate ions there. b. For a human being. The gas diffuses into the blood and got carried to the lungs by two main ways: . Regulation of body system and conditions. Normally a person’s heartbeat is 70 times per minute. 4. When the ventricles relax. 4. ii. The capillaries joint the artery to the vein. Because of muscular and elastic nature. e. iii. Hormones secreted in an organ is transported to a specific target by the blood. i. these vessels can constrict and dilate easily. Protection against microorganisms. 2. The colour of oxygenated blood is bright red while the one with deoxygenated blood is purplish red. Transportation b. The plasma from the capillaries can pass through the capillary wall or pores into the spaces between the tissue cells. Heat from the warm part of the body to the colder part. In the lungs (alveolus). The circulatory system of our body carries substances from one part of our body to another. blood platelets and certain hormones. This allows the materials in the blood to be easily exchanged with the surrounding tissues. Oxygen from lungs to tissues: i. to be carried to the lungs and later dissociate. A pulse is detected when ventricle contracts. b. Regulation of body system and condition c. his heartbeat is low. Oxygen diffuses into the tissues leaving haemoglobin in the blood. 3. to supply tissues with oxygen and necessary substances as well as carry away their waste products. Nitrogenous wastes produced in the metabolic and physiological processes are carried to the excretory organs (kidney and skin) to be excreted. c.(20%) combines with haemoglobins to form carbominohaemoglobin. Veins a. Capillaries: a. c. . d. a. These molecules are carried to the lung where they dissociate and carbon dioxide is got rid of into the alveolus. On the other hand. Carbon dioxide from tissues to the lungs. because they do not have to withstand high blood pressure. F3Sc.d. 6. to be as thin as possible.
etc. If blood with antigen A is mixed with blood with antibody anti-a. Make up approximately 55% of blood by volume c. Structure and function: Irregular shape – able to move into small spaces to kill microorganisms. Blood group Antigen Antibody A A Anti-b B B Anti-a AB A and B None O None Anti-a and anti-b 3. in 1 mm3 of human blood. 120 days. Structure: Biconcave disc. Erythrocytes a. 5. destroy the microorganisms. Protection against microorganisms. having frequent physical activities (jogging) d. A healthy and strong heart can be achieved by: a. Function: Kill (engulf microorganisms and releasing antibodies) g. maintaining a moderate body weight e. The heart is one of the few important organs in our body. food substances.2 The Human Blood 1. we can create another chart: 3 . 2. Blood Groups 1. Life span: 2 days to 6 months c. Contains haemoglobin. 5. b. production site. ** Suggestion: Make a chart to summarise the shape. the two will react and agglutination will occur which may result in blood clogging.b. ii. Structure: Irregular shape d. Each type of blood has its type of antibodies as well as its own antigen on its erythrocytes. 7. consuming balanced diets 2. Production: Bone marrows. amount of certain ions. Temperature rises Normal condition Normal condition Temperature rises Body makes changes Temperature drops Temperature regulation of a man. avoiding alcoholic drinks f. Importance of a healthy heart. A. thus preventing the microorganisms from entering the body. F3Sc. The blood carries white blood cells which can help us in body defense by: i. Chapter 2: Blood Circulation and Transport 6. The changed are then analysed by our central nervous system and necessary changes will be made to correct and accommodate the changes found. g. Contains no nucleus f. d. diameter 8 µm and width 2 µm. Life span: Less than one week. 4. c. By content. Other constituent: Dissolved materials. plasma proteins. Production: Bone marrows. 7 to 8 thousands of leucocytes and 250 000 platelets. No nucleus – provide the largest space for housing haemoglobin iii. 5. O. A healthy and strong heart helps to provide necessary materials and substances to our tissues and organs and eliminates their wastes. Biconcave – provide the largest surface area for the diffusion of gases. Production: Bone marrows and lymph nodes b. etc. avoiding smoking b. Cells: Consists of red blood cells (erythrocytes). Blood contains platelets which helps the wounds to clog. a. 2. Basically human blood consists of 2 components: Cells and plasma. 3. c. Eg: Temperature drops Body makes changes 3. When old. Colour: Pale-yellow liquid b. white blood cells (leucocytes) and platelets. So a person with blood group A can only donate his blood to a person either with blood group A or AB. c. it is 90% water. such as pH. Structure and functions: i. When old. 4. Contain no nucleus d. Platelets: a. Function: Helps in clotting of blood at wounds. antibodies. temperature. The blood circulation helps to detect any changes in the body condition. Therefore a weak heart will bring about various illness which may eventually ends in death. 4. it is destroyed by liver and spleen e. Leucocytes: a. B and AB. 1. Contains looped of rounded nucleus f. engulfing them before digesting them ii. producing antibodies which destroy the microorganisms. cutting down of mental and emotional stress g. Human blood can be classified into 4 main groups. e. excretory products. Function: Transport of respiratory gases. it is destroyed by liver and spleen e. b. b. hormones. Life span: app. there will be 5 million erythrocytes. The plasma: a. life span and functions of the various human blood constituents. reducing intake of fatty foods c. (the others are liver and the brain) 2. d. Normally. From the above chart. Function: Transportation.
Chapter 2: Blood Circulation and Transport 4 . to replace blood lost due to accidents c. The importance of blood donation 1. From the above chart we can conclude that AB blood group can receive blood from all the other donors. for children suffering from thalassaemia (bleeding disorder) e. hence they are termed as universal acceptors or universal recipient.B. Situation which need blood badly: a.Blood group Donate to Receive from A A and AB A and O B A and AB B and O AB AB A. 3. for mother suffering from childbirth complication f. 2. 7. To encourage blood donation. hence. to help control blood clot 5. for patients with anaemia and leukemia g. It doesn’t bring about any ill effects. major surgeries b. F3Sc. 4. Donate blood is noble and we should adopt a positive attitude towards blood donation. Since our body produces blood cells so it isn’t dangerous to donate blood.B. Donate blood can help people overcome difficulties such as in an operation.AB and O O 6. to make blood constituents like RBC. more campaigns and education have to be done so that the public will come forward to give their helping hands.AB and O O A. We also can conclude that blood group O can donate blood to all the other blood groups. universal donor. plasma and platelets d.
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