REGENERATION OF DECAYING URBAN PLACE THROUGH ADAPTIVE DESIGN INFILL

Case Study: Kampung Kriya, Cultural Tourism and Creative Sectors In ll at Jalan Jenderal Sudirman Bandung, Indonesia by Hafiz Amirrol 

BACKGROUND

The thesis is concerned with the process of urban transformations that are happening in Bandung today. These transformations have been contributing to the state of conditions of what the city is now – physically and non-physically. This thesis is interested on the issues of inner city urban decay that is a by-product of these transformations.

phenomena

urban transformations  
context

object of study

physically 
problems

Jl. Jenderal Sudirman Bandung 

urban decay 

The case study is along the active and vibrant stretch of Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, in which rows of old buildings and interesting activities exist both along the street and behind it. However, these interesting urban artefacts suffer from serious urban decay, which is the result of many unresolved and unattended issues.

These issues include planning policies, sterile and non flexible zoning regulations, underutilization of functions and use, disproportionate allocation of services and financial resources, lack of awareness in conserving urban heritage, poor facility programming and so on.  

THESIS STATEMENT

The primary objective in conducting this research is to understand the physical and social repertoire of the city and its urban and architectural design components. From these understandings, the thesis will look at potential intervention approaches that will regenerate the place in improving its quality and values.

WHY REGENERATE?

The state of urban and architectural decay of the site has always been a classic case in most urban centers of Asian cities. Many urban places in Bandung have experienced unprecedented development, urban growth and radical changes in recent years. In the process, much of the traditional urban areas have been either damaged, destroyed or badly mutilated.

Used to be one of the most important district in Bandung, with its potential and rich urban tissue, Jl. Jenderal Sudirman and its surrounding areas are being left to suffer decay and lack of attention. The place, strong in its character and historical background offer great opportunities if being regenerated into becoming a more livable place to live, work and play.

WHAT URBAN REGENERATION CAN OFFER?

The main purpose of urban regeneration is to eliminate blighted areas – turning them into areas that have better built environment quality and values. A more pleasurable living environment is the objective of urban regeneration, responding to a more holistic criteria of what pleasurable living should be.

It will also offer improvement to these aspects: 1. Flexible and adaptive plans for the place 2. Land and building values 3. Update and improve infrastructure 4. Provide incentives for future development 5. Focus and encourage public resources to stimulate and leverage larger private investments to the area

EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL URBAN REGENERATION INITIATIVES

SLATER STREET, LIVERPOOL 

DISTRICT SIX, CAPETOWN 

DISTRICT SIX, CAPETOWN 

ASIAN HERITAGE ROW, KL 

ASIAN HERITAGE ROW, KL 

CHEONGGYECHEON, SEOUL 

CHEONGGYECHEON, SEOUL 

CHEONGGYECHEON, SEOUL 

CHEONGGYECHEON, SEOUL 

LEARNING FROM THOSE, WHAT ARE THE RESPONDS FOR THE SITE?

The research will start by identifying the relationship between physical and social structures in selected clusters of the site. The selected clusters are those that are experiencing urban transformation that leads to decay, and are constantly acting and reacting to its surrounding conditions, be it social, economic or culturally at the architectural, urban or direct scales.

The selected clusters must also show evidence of some degree of blight, demonstrated by conditions such as poorly constructed buildings, faulty planning, lack of open spaces, deteriorated properties, an incompatible mix of uses and improper utilization of land.

Responding to the current condition of the site, the thesis utilizes the site’s strong characteristics in creating operational definition for specific interventions.

Five design issues will be discussed to help generate possible design infill proposals that are adaptive and inventive: 1. Streets, Public Spaces and Buildings 2. Heritage and Urban Conservation 3. Spatial Characteristics and Qualities 4. Design Intervention Approaches 5. Programming and Adaptive Design Infill

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

1. Streets, Public Spaces and Buildings
Goal To improve existing streets and construct missing street links to improve connectivity, improve and enhance public open spaces as an integral part of the area and ensure buildings are of good qualities to enhance livability. Objectives 1.  Enhance streetscapes by installing street lighting, street furniture, planters and other amenities, and control building designs to support the effort. 2.  Reconstruct existing roadways and sidewalks where needed and in a manner meeting the objectives of this thesis. 3.  Construct new streets, nodes and buildings (where needed) to provide connectivity and encourage private investment. 4.  Address and improve pedestrian safety in the renewal area. 5.  Create pedestrian spaces that are attractive areas for residents and employees that will stimulate economic activity, and enhance livability.

2. Heritage and Urban Conservation
Goal To upgrade the stock of existing structures in the renewal area which contribute to its area character, but are run down or do not meet current code requirements. Objectives 1.  Improve the appearance of existing buildings in order to enhance the overall aesthetics of the renewal area. 2.  Help in improving the safety of older buildings in regard to seismic stability, fire safety, building code compliance and accessibility to persons with disabilities. 3.  Redevelop buildings and areas that are inconsistent with the goals and objectives of this thesis in manners that benefit the entire economic development effort and property owners.

3. Spatial Characteristics and Qualities
Goal Create strong and unique spatial characteristics through provisions and improvements of physical structures, programming, facilities and functions of the renewal area. Objectives 1.  Regenerate site’s character by injecting new programs that will contribute to the site’s spatial character building. 2.  Help create economic vitality by creating activities and encouraging uses that bring a significant number of potential shoppers and investors. 3.  Provide wide range of business and cultural tourism opportunities by infilling the site with potential programs, coupled with quality designs and planning. 4.  Create appropriate branding for the area.

4. Design Intervention Approaches
Goal Formulate appropriate and sustainable design intervention approaches that will offer adaptive and reflexive design schemes for the renewal area, as well as to promote private development, redevelopment, and rehabilitation within the urban renewal area to help create jobs, tax revenues, and self sustaining, vital, and vibrant commercial districts. Objectives 1.  Enhance the environment for development and investment through improvements to streets, streetscapes, and public buildings and spaces. 2.  Maintain the collective memory of the site and its users by sensitively respond to any interventions with only site specific approaches. 3.  Consolidating the segregated urban fabric and its surrounding infrastructures and amenities. 4.  Provide designs to its most detail to ensure workability and functions.

5. Programming and Adaptive Design In ll
Goal Formulate and propose suitable facility programming and adaptive design infill in ways that will help increase employment, incomes, and the economic vitality of the renewal area. Objectives 1.  Help improve the condition and appearance of buildings in the renewal area, and encouraging infill and reuse in the area for efficiency in development cost. 2.  Create new planning and designs that have the ability to adapt and change according to users’ needs and demands. 3.  Assist in creation and retention of businesses with special emphasis on tourism, recreation, home-industry, arts and culture and housing. 4.  Help create economic vitality through design by creating activities and encouraging uses that bring a significant number of potential shoppers and investors to the area.

SUPPORTING GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

6. Housing
Goal Provide new and improved housing units in livable mixed-income neighborhoods. Support housing development that is geared to support the area’s employment generation goals. Objectives 1.  Provide a wide range of housing opportunities to accommodate households at all income levels, including low income, moderate-income, and market-rate rental and owner-occupied housing, which support prospective residential markets in, adjacent to, and near the renewal area. 2.  Provide design options and schemes to help maintain, and assist in the rehabilitation of the stock of existing housing in the renewal area. 3.  Assist in the development of quality housing for the neighborhood.

7. Parking
Goal Provide sufficient, convenient and attractive parking facilities close to shopping, entertainment, housing and business destinations. Objectives 1.  Construct centralized and controlled parking facilities to support all activities in and around the renewal area.

8. Utility Improvements
Goal Improve and repair utilities to allow efficient development of the area. Objectives 1.  Construct/ reconstruct utilities as necessary to encourage and permit public and private development initiatives.

9. Encourage Private Developments
Goal Encourage private development, redevelopment, and rehabilitation within the urban renewal area to help create jobs, tax revenues, and self-sustaining, vital, and vibrant commercial districts. Objectives 1.  Help create economic vitality through design by creating activities and encouraging uses that bring a significant number of potential shoppers and investors to the area. 2.  Enhance the environment for development and investment through improvements to streets, streetscapes, parks, and public buildings and spaces. 3.  Encourage property owners in rehabilitating buildings to allow more intensive and dynamic commercial activities to be accommodated.

THEORIES AND PREVIOUS RESEARCHES TO SUPPORT THE ARGUMENTS

SIREGAR, S. (1990) Bandung – The Architecture of a City in Development: Urban Analysis of a Regional Capital as a Contribution to the Present Debate on Indonesian Urbanity and Architectural Identity, PhD Dissertation, Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

1.  Underlying basis on Bandung, its city architecture, urban morphology and planning guidelines. 2.  Diachronic and synchronic reading – leading to a total understanding of urban problems, issues, history, concepts and development guidelines of Bandung.

MIRZA, S. (2010) Strategic Urban Planning and Design Tools for Inner City Regeneration: Towards a Strategic Approach of Sustainable Urban Form Future – the Case of Bandung City, Netherlands: International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISOCARP).

1.  Adaptation of successful urban regeneration process of European cities into the context of Bandung. 2.  Urban regeneration concepts, strategies and steps to achieve development vision.

ROSSI, A. (1984) The Architecture of the City, Cambridge: MIT Press.

1.  Problems of description relating to classification and typology, structure of the city, individuality of urban artefacts and the locus, urban dynamics and the problem of politics of choice. 2.  Understanding on cities’ history, collective memories and locus – elements that are important to establish conditions and qualities of spaces.

KOOLHAAS, R. (1978) Delirious New York – A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan, London: Thames and Hudson.

1.  Understanding of similar characteristics concerning urban economics, development controls and regulations, as well as its hope to reinventing the city life into a new dimension of experience. 2.  Provide framework for an inductive mode research, involving the extraction of general principles (theories) from observation of specific phenomena and conditions (facts).

LIM, W. (1998) Asian New Urbanism, Singapore: Select Publishing.

1.  Theoretical background on Asian and South East Asian urbanism. 2.  Historical references on new urbanism approaches, its challenges, success, failures and future development in the context of South East Asian countries such as Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. 3.  Overview on post-colonial urbanism and spaces.

RESEARCH AND DESIGN METHODOLOGY

The basic methodologies used in this thesis are as follows: 1.  Field research (source for primary data) 2.  Survey research (source for primary data) 3.  Literature studies (source for secondary data) 4.  Develop strategic operations (design methods) 5.  Develop spatial and strategic interventions (design approaches)

Strategic Operations
Strategic operations, devising site specific design methods in approaching and responding to the site’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats: 1.  Identify variables that make up and influence the urban condition. 2.  Investigate the relationship between the urban condition and the city’s fabric. 3.  Choose a moment within the urban condition and formulate an understanding of the relationship between physical and social structures. 4.  Develop strategies for creating interactive relationships between physical and social structures. 5.  Define the perimeter and analyze the structure of this urban territory. 6.  Investigate different ways of transforming it into a potential territory of action for an urban hub. 7.  Prepare preliminary proposals for a direct hub at the architectural scale and an urban hub at the urban scale.

Spatial and Strategic Interventions
Specific spatial and strategic interventions to facilitate infill programs as urban regeneration catalysts to the site: 1.  Explore the potential of the designed direct hub as an urban component and explore its relationship to rule-based urban systems. 2.  Reassess the territory of action as a potential design intervention. 3.  Identify and make use of relevant agents and initiatives. 4.  Define and design the direct role of the intervention by producing design simulations and other strategic representations of the idea. 5.  Define the relationship between the proposal for the intervention and the city's infrastructure, fabric and rule-based systems. 6.  Speculate on the interrelationship between the intervention, the urban condition and the overall newly proposed environment. 7.  Finalize the strategy for the design, model and represent its spatial configuration.

CRITICAL ASSESSMENT AND SELFREFLECTION

1.  Initial analysis concluded that the area of study is experiencing a state of decay, and if allowed to continue without any planning and design intervention, the area will soon develop syndromes toward a failed urban place. 2.  The existing character, urban artefacts, social, cultural and economic activities are potentials that need to be addressed in any future planning and design intervention, and shall utilize these potentials as design strategies and components. 3.  To encourage sustainable urban regeneration program, the site need to be approached in an incremental way - strategic development phases are important to implement efficient urban regeneration plans. 4.  The rich urban tissue structure of the site require small and minimal interventions, applied at many strategic spots instead of one big intervention that would create forces that are too strong and shocking. 5.  Engineered-bricolage method is more preferable, as it will utilizes elements around the site that are already strongly associated with the community.

KEYWORDS

END OF PART 1
25 March 2011

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