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Key Reference “Dukes Physiology of Domestic Animals” ed Swenson and Reece, 11th edn 1993 Or “Textbook of Veterinary Physiology” Cunningham &Everell 1997 Costs and benefits of ruminant digestion a. Benefits Ruminants are ecologically successful due to pregastric fermentation 1. Allows utilization of fibrous diets not suitable for nonruminants 2. Permits break down of cellulose, releasing cell contents and making CHO in cellulose available for digestion 3. Allows higher biological value microbial protein to be made from low value plant protein, non protein nitrogen and recycled nitrogen products e.g. urea 4. Provides all Vitamin B complex (if sufficient Co for Vit B12) 5. Utilize feeds containing toxic compounds b. Costs 1. Large amount of time spent chewing food (4-7 hours) and cud (8 hours)/day 2. Need adequate, almost continuous food supply 3. Complicated mechanisms needed to keep rumen fermenting efficiently - saliva addition, mixing movements, eructation of gas, absorbtion of end products, regurgitation and rumination, 4. Intermediary metabolism must use end products- VFAs, (Dukes, p 390)
1. Development of the young ruminant
From birth to maturity substantial changes occur Adaptation from milk to fibrous food diet 1. Increase in forestomach size From 40% total stomach volume at birth to 90% as adult Within 8 weeks stomach reaches adult proportion Development is dependent on exposure to solid food 2. Epithelial development Occurs as rumen develops Exposure to VFAs stimulates papillary development Accelerated by highly digestible foods, e.g. grain 3. Microbial colonization Stomach is sterile at birth Bacteria quickly colonize- gradually develops into correct environment for strict anaerobes Protozoa flora may not occur until later 4. Commence fermentation 5. Acquire patterns of motility Eructation and regurgitation can occur at 3 weeks 6. Decrease in reticular groove reflex Reticular groove diverts milk from rumen to abomasum 7. Commence eating fibrous food- can start eating solid food at 2 weeks 8. Switch from glucose-dependence to utilize volatile fatty acids
Preruminant (1-21 days) Milk is main food. sodium salts in calves .Four main phases: a. contains esterase. closing off the rumen and reticulum and creating a tube which directs material from the oesophagus. but some solid food intake begins Sucking.rich in IgM etc. Imput via glossopharyngeal CN IX (also stimulated by solutions with Na + and Cu ++ ions) Control centre: Effectors: Medulla oblongata Vagus nerves to supply reticular wall myenteric plexus (?) Activation of reflex: copper salts in sheep. D.saliva is producted.necessary for BAT metabolism in hypothermia b. nonfunctional forestomach Abomasum does not secrete pepsinogen or acid Antitrypsin factor in colostrum prevents intestinal digestion Colostrum.begins milk lipid hydrolysis Reticular groove functions to divert milk from forestomach The oesophageal (reticular) groove reflex Function: To bypass the rumenoreticulum and deliver milk directly to the abomasum in the developing ruminant Action: The lips of the vertical spiral groove roll inward. Mg++ Absorbed intact through intestinal mucosa by phagocytosis Lactose is digested. also Ca++. quickly through the omasum towards the abomasum This is accompanied by inhibition of rumenoreticular and omasal contractions Afferent limb: Chemoeceptors in the posterior oral cavity and pharynx are stimulated by sucking or drinking. Newborn (0-24 hours) Small. also Vit A. E.
conditioned reflexes e.premolar and molar teeth grind. body weight etc Selection of food varies with species goats>sheep> cattle Prehension.eructation Less dependance on insulin.food grasped in lips.Inhibition of reflex: local anaesthetic in oral cavity. alkaline pH Microbial colonization Fermentation producing VFAs Rumen-reticulum papillae develop.appetite centre. also motility Gas production. e.controlled blood glucose for intemediary metabolism VFAs increased. shear food in lateral movement . parotid. wedged between incisors and dental pad and snapped off by head movement Mastication. so that water bypasses rumen if animal is dehydrated Transitional phase (3. shift to insulin-insensitive Preweaning to postweaning phases ( 8 weeks to adult) Milk supply decreases.8 weeks) Maximal milk intake and commence eating roughage Salivary glands esp. metabolic needs. Can be stimulated by ADH. drinking cold milk from bucket Reflex modulated by: other centres. tongue. reticular goove closure becomes more erratic Motility of forestomach reaches adult levels Pepsinogen replaces rennin in the abomasal secretions Food intake and salivation in ruminants Food intake depends on food quality. atropine injection improper stimulation.g.increase in size. secretion volume.g.
labial.fast.small amounts saliva Composition of parotid saliva. oesophagus.rough surface. inferior molar glands Very responsive to stimuli in mouth. regular Importance: grind up stems.stimulated by mastication.striated muscle oesophagus. forestomach Parasymp stimulation (ACH) increases secretion Control of secretion: salivary centres in hindbrain Others. HCO3-.recycled to microbes .slower.g.buccal mechanoreceptors Saliva. during rumination.submaxillary.very high daily output.important to neutralize VFAs Phosphate.produce half of saliva output Also. higher K+.77% from urea.Teeth surfaces wear irregularly. irregular chewing.1). buccal.e.palantine.isotonic. increased by stimuli Parotid. leaves to increase area for microbe attack Deglutition.recylced to microbes Nitrogen. and grow continuously During eating. HPO4= High pH (8.sequential contractions coordinated by medulla Salivation. 100L cattle per day Glands produce basal secretion. pharyngeal. sublingual. 10 L sheep.
5-7 secs long. caudally moving rumen contraction 3.biphasic. mixing or "A" cycle Basal. Caudoventral ruminal blind sac contracts . Primary. Monophasic contraction of dorsal ruminal sac slower. 75 secs during rest cycle lasts 20-30 seconds Primary contractions.spread caudally and are driven by the reticulum b. cattle. Secondary contraction or eructation or "B" cycle Spread cranially in rumen 1.5-12 secs long In cattle see a relaxation notch in contraction First reticular phase: Mixing contraction Second reticular phase: Evacuation contraction This contraction raises level of fluid in reticulum so it flows into rumen 2. continuous contractions Function: to continously agitate ingesta. Rumen and reticulum motility in adult ruminants a. Biphasic contraction of reticulum Sheep. microbes. delay ingesta for more thorough digestion and breakdown 1. Ventral ruminal sac contraction either.dorsal sac only . saliva.2.dorsal and ventral sacs Ratio of reticulum to rumen contractions: 1:1 or 1:2 Contraction frequency: every 35-45 secs during eating.uniphasic.
vagovagal reflexes Inputs: sensory receptors- a.occur at 1-2/minute Both cycles increase in rate after feeding Rumination and eructation are superimposed on these events During rumination.are moved to rumen and join the fibrous raft Raft is rotated anticlockwise (from left). mixed with saliva etc Raft is site of most fermentation. intestine.abomasum. esp medial walls of reticulum. gut hormones and neurotransmitters * Extrinsic activity. rum-retic fold drops to aid this Heavy particles fall into reticulum (hence foreign body penetration) Ingesta float (contain air). Cranial moving contraction of caudodorsal then middorsal sac 3. Tension receptors Location: in muscle layers of all parts of forestomach.2. cranial pillar .triphasic "extrareticular" contraction occurs Ingesta movement page 401 Dukes Rumenoreticular activity moves digesta caudally out of reticulum. Ventral sac contraction Observe rumen contractions in left lumbar fossa.it is kneaded by contractions of dorsal sac Digesta particles are moved into reticular groove and into omasum when pressue is high enough and orifice is open Control of Motility Dukes p 402 * Intrinsic activity. rum-retic fold.intramural plexus of ruminant forestomach A local myenteric plexus in the reticular and ruminal walls Controlled by extrinsic nerves.
monitor tension in wall b.dense rumen mat.stretch receptors Dual function.and reticular groove lips.gastric centres (paired) in medulla oblongata Coordinates cyclical activity with regurgitation and eructation Efferents: vagus nerves Stimuli which affect motility see page 404 Dukes Extrinsic activity inhibited by abomasal distension Stimulate activity by coarse food particles and gas e. reticulum walls Afferents: vagus nerves Integrated. of epithelium of forestomach esp rumen pillars. Epithelial/mucosal receptors Location: epithelial receptors in b.2.compensates and functions normally -2 vagus N.leads to increased motility Vagotomy -1 vagus N. coarse food. general anaesthesia also abolishes reflexes Omaso-abomasal activity (page 405 Dukes) The ROO is a bottleneck limiting digesta movement from ruminoreticulum Thereby limits food intake by animal Motility of omasum.slow.abolishes extrinsic reticular contractions. chemoreceptors in rumen.g. cardia and ROO. mechanoreceptors-excited by moving light touch .1. tension receptors are triggered. progressive contractions .increases resistance to movement of pillars.m.
at night.g. xylazine Control centre: rumination centre.information on volume and texture block receptor function with alpha-adrenergic drugs e. during rest Time spent ruminating depends on food texture and food volume in rumen Stimuli to ruminate: a) tactile stimulation of rumen and reticulum epithelium b) stimulate craniocaudal pillar receptors.single and repeated 60 secs each -continue up to 8hr/day.sheep. Norad. unlike monogastric animals Extrinsic N (splanchnic and vagus) regulate the migrating myoelectrical activity Rumination Rumination.powerful contraction Abomasum is intermittently emptied Abomasum secretes digestive juices pH < 1. esp. Ad.probably ventral hypothalamic area Very potent drive to ruminate.independent of reticular contraction Motility of abomasumFundus. esp on coarse feed Pseudorumination: follow cycle but do not bring up bolus Steps: a) Regurgitation .act of remasticating rumen ingesta Rumination cycles.4.shallow contraction Antrum.15-30 seconds after biphasic reticular contraction cattle. folds cover 85% of fundic mucosa Distension of duodenum slows abomasal emptying Intestinal motility Ruminants show continuous motor activity.
cycle is remastication Dependent on texture and quantitity of digesta Chewing occurs on one side of mouth in each rumination Chewing stimulates salivation and 1o and 2 o rum-retic movements c)Reinsalivation Serous rumination saliva= secondary saliva Source: parotid gland on side of chewing (not mandibular gland) parotid continously secretes saliva at basal level . more regular chewing than primary mastication 40-50 secs/60 secs of rumin.b) Remastication and reinsalivation c) Redeglutition a) Regurgitation Activity: Fast movement of digesta from ruminoreticulum. through cardia.accompanied by head movement Material refluxes into oesophagus-Rapid antiperistalsis by striated oesophageal muscle 0. 5 X faster than peristalsis Tongue squeezes fluid out of bolus and reswallowed b) Remastication Slower. up oesophagus to mouth Commences with long lasting extra contraction of reticulum (1-4 secs) Followed by usual biphasic contraction (overall= triphasic contraction) Floods open cardia with material from reticulum Then brief inspiratory effort with tongue and soft palate blocking mouth and noseglottis closes as cud traverses pharynx.2 m/sec.
secretion increased by parasymp ACH stimulus. depending on consistency of cud Brief pause . 7% Nitrogen. Hydrogen.0. plus phosphate.not audible at mouth Stimulus: gas pressure on cardia. mandibular gland.buccal gland. rum-retic distension .initiated by stimuluation of mechanoreceptors near teeth. particle size) will increase both types of saliva Saliva supplies 70% water in rumen reticulum.5 secs then next cud is regurgitated Eructation High volume of gases which collect in pocket above mat in dorsal sac Gas.5.mucous saliva sublingual.seromucous Increasing dry matter % (esp. bicarbonate Role of saliva: -source of fluid. <1% Oxygen. wet dry ingesta -copious alkaline buffer for VFAs -recycling urea as source of nonprotein nitrogen for microbe protein synthesis -recycling phosphate for microbial nucleic acid and phospholipid synthesis -provide an antifoaming agent for rumen d)Redeglutition Occurs after 20-70 chews. 25% Methane.2 L/min (cow) produced by microbes from salivary bicarbonate and acids Expel rumen-retic gases: 65% CO2. also in oesophagus and rum-retic Compare to primary saliva.provides liquid to suspend particles. Hydrogen disulphide 1-3 eructation/minute.
lack of pressure on cardia Oesophageal obstruction with food.recycled by lungs Strong flavours from digestion. milk Impairment of eructation: frothy bloat.reach lungs.simple bloat . blood.Contractions: secondary contractions arise in ventral blind sac (see above) Nasopharyngeal sphincter is closed A lot of gas is inspired.
Osmolality near 300mOsm 4. ventral rumen sacs. Microbe removal appropriate to proliferation rates 7. VFA movement etc Rumen epithelium Rumen papillae.feels doughy on palpation fibrous food material. Liquid fraction of raft. Stable temperature. Negative oxidation/reduction potential (-250 to . new food is added to raft 3. Remove undigestible wastes.samples are removed from here 5. Soupy material in reticulum.increase surface area for absorbtion .site of fluid. near 37C 3. removed Therefore precise maintenance of homeostasis is required *Stratification of contents of rumen and reticulum Fermenting material is selectively retained.mixing of saliva.feel in sublumbar fossa 2. VFAs produced by fermentation. residue is passed on to abomasum 1.gas.contains fine particles < 2mm in saliva.usually 10-15% dry matter content 2. cranial.Rumen Environment (page 327 Cunningham) To function effectively as a fermentation chamber the rumen requires: 1. Top layer. mix ingesta 6. Boundary layer against rum-retic wall. Suitable pH(copious alkaline saliva) 8. light as it contains air has high density of microbes.occupies most of dorsal sac. fermentation products 4. Substrate for fermentation.must be buffered.mainly CH4 and CO2. fluid etc. Fibrous raft.450 mV) (by O2 removal) 5.
receives continuous food flow from forestomach .has many folds/leaves which increase suface area Ingesta enters the omasum from the reticulum during reticular contraction Omasal orifice dilates during second phase of reticular contraction. Fermentation site 2. e. short papilla Omasum Omasum.Respond to changes in diet VFAs increase papillary growth.water. then closes briefly. Absorbtion site 3. forcing ingesta into leaves In sheep and goats reticular contractions are followed by omasal contrn Not coordinated with primary cycle in cattle Vagal innervation Damage: by adhesions or vagus damage. Regulates ingesta movement into abomasum Receives small ingesta particles.g. on highly digestible diets.inanition Functions: 1. electrolytes and VFAs VFAs exchanged for chloride (rather than bicarbonate as in rumen) Bicarbonate removed before abomasum.low VFAs. prevents neutralisation of HCl Abomasum p 409 Dukes Functions like non-ruminant stomach Secretes pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid-contents pH~3 Differs.transport failure.<1mm Large absorbtive function.high VFAs Low digestible diet.
changing conditions *Interdependence among microbes *Steady state between microbe proliferation andloss from forestomach *Can only ferment plant where they gain access through cut ends Anaerobes. right sided displacement Microbiology page 391 Dukes *Diverse population.a) specialized requirements b) adapt to wide variety *Classifications Major types.e.hydrolysis and anaerobic oxidation i.tolerate O2.1010/ml fluid * Variable population depending on diet.Regulates ingesta movement to duodenum Disease: ostertagia parasites.g NADPH) Substrates. Yeast like organism and fungal zoospores (significance unknown) *Mixture of bacteria: protozoa approx 1:1 by volume. Ciliated protozoa Minor types.3. hydrogen removed rather than oxygen added Therefore hydrogen acceptors needed to reoxidize coenzymes (e.a) facultative. protozoa much larger *Conditions: most bacteria and protozoa prefer pH 6.most common Main fermentation pathways.8 .remove it rapidly b) obligatory (strict). Bacteria 2.active at pH 5.many unique to rumen.1.2 or greater amylolytic bacteria .
maltose. hydrogen using methanogenic bacteria. Cellulose and cellubiose utilizers cellulose. fructanase) to hydrolyse beta-1 linkages in pectin. hemicellulase.lactic acid producing lactobacilli proliferate Bacteria *Functional classifications due to diversity of species a) primary. Hemicellulose utilizers polysaccharides of pentose. hemicellulose alpha-1 linkages in starch and amylose are much easier to digest 1. cellulose.g. pectin lyase.esp from high cereal diet break starch into dextrin. cellulose and starch b) secondary. lactate using propionate bacteria.glucose polymer of disaccharide cellubiose many bacteria contain cellulase cellulose is structurally important in plant cell wall 2.More acidic pH. e.produce methane *Bacteria contain the necessary enzymes (cellulase. glucose starch is stored in plant cell for energy composed of polysaccharide chains of glucose or fructose some cellulose utilizers also active on starch 4. Sugar utilizers . Amylolitic . uronic acid bacteria which handle cellulose handle hemicellulose.use end products of bacterial reactions.degrade diet constituents esp. but not vice verca hemicellulose is present as matrix of plant cell wall 3. hexose.starch utilizers amylopectin and amylase .
Methane producers CH4 produced from CO2 and H2. tri glycerides to fattyacids. mostly ciliated and vary with diet a) Holotrichia. di.absorbed prevent acid build up in rumen high concentrations on cereal diet 6.breakdown mono.utilize glycerol for energy c.mono. glycerol b. Vitamin synthesizers Vit K.20-40% of rumen gases 9.hydrogenate unsaturated fatty acids (and affect ruminant fat composition) 10. di. Isotrichia . Proteolytic protein broken down to NH3 or methane may use amino acids for energy instead of glucose 7. tri saccharides. Lipolytic a. fast moving 1.found in very young plants amylolitic utilizers also act on sugar 5. Vit B etc produced Protozoa Diverse. oxalic and formic acid broken down to VFAs. ciliated.fumaric.large. NH3 producers 8. Acid utilizers metabolic acids produced.
prevent overproliferation of bacteria during high starch intake 3.diet or microbial *Extensive recycling occurs between protozoa and bacterial products *Protozoa are very sensitive to changes in diet.2 weeks lambs. pectins Store products as amylopectin 2. CO2.off fodder. fuctose. cilia at anterior. CH4 b) Spirotrichia smaller. 4 weeks calves Doesnt require contact with adults. slower moving Active on starch. may provide some starch and PUFAs to host However not essential. lactose Cant use starch or carbohydrate produce VFAs. young animal can survive without protozoa Establishment of microflora 1. and digest bacterial and holotrichial protozoa starch Can breakdown protein. provide host with higher quality protein than bacterial source 4. conditions *Mostly found in fibrous raft Useful functions of protozoa: 1. reservoir of microbial protein if food supply falls 2.maltose. glucose. Bacteria. Dasytrichia Similar. but more active on disaccharides. levans.Found with high levels soluble carbohydrate in pasture Utilize sucrose. faeces .occurs rapidly.
6-biphosphate via phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate 3. Embden-Meyerhof pathwayanaerobic oxidation of fructose-1. butyrate and formate which is coverted to methane or pyruvate.produces propionate In the process of forming methane.2.protozoa poor survival outside hosts Changes in diet.to acetate. many coenzymes are reoxidized 4. most insoluble 1. Final reactions to VFAs phosphoenolpyruvate.produces butyrate or via oxaloacetate and succinate . Hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides to monosaccharides. 6 weeks onwards Does require contact with adults.prime energy source for microbes and host Up to 75% of plants are CHO. propionate.2 weeks for adaptation by microflora Carbohydrate Metabolism Dukes p 393 Carbohydrates.via beta-hydroxybutyrate. Protozoa. pectin) to fructose 1. and conversion via glucose (starch and cellulose) fructose (fructosans) or xylose (hemicellulose.6-biphosphate 2.produces propionate or via lactate and acrylate. Synthesis of microbial compounds Carbon from cellulose goes into all host products CHO simple sugar==VFA and lactic acid .slower.
lower pH which changes VFAs from ionised to free acid form(VFAs.weak acids e.butyric>propionic>acetic 2.into capillaries.Very efficient process * VFAs. then passed by intracellular bridges to other layers. exchanged for bicarbonate. When pH is lower. water and electrolytes are absorbed into surface stratum corneum (keratinized cells).starch===VFA only Fibrous CHO Decreased particle size== increased fermentation Increased plant age==increased lignin.(like columnar epithelium in small intestine) VFA absorbtion Increased absorbtion: 1. pK=4. If chain length is longer (Bu>Pr>Ac) Acetic acid is major VFA absorbed Mechanism of absorbtion: 1.undissociated form .half exchanged for bicarbonate . Facilitated diffusion.local changes in pH at cell surface and high CO2 levels increase absorbtion .bacterial waste products Must be removed or will inhibit fermentation * VFAs represent 60-80% of energy needs of animal * VFA absorbed directly from forestomach epithelium. Half by passive diffusion (in undissociated state) 2. cellulose inhibitors===decreased fermentation VFAs * Dissociation of VFAs depends on pH * VFAs.g.6) Absorbtion with changing pH:.pH acidic.
absorbed at 10% of VFA rate . Butyrate.strong acid (pK= 4.This accounts for about 50% of rumen VFA buffering. CO2.from rumen. H2. remainder is by salivary bicarbonate VFA metabolism: 1. propionate Propionate. 30% converted to lactate in ep.hydrogen sink If inhibited then propionate.a. in mammary gland for immediate energy Stored as glycogen.a. sterols 2. stored as glycogen Pyruvate. butyrate. protein.rumen pH falls Lactic acid . succinate act as H2 sink Therefore when methanogenesis is inhibited propionate production increases 3. converted to oxaloacetate for Kreb's cycle or can be converted to glucose. so amylolytic bacteria produce both D (-) and L (+) forms of lactic acid Lactic acid..so pH is buffered in rumen . used to make f. cells Propionate is removed by liver. Propionate .formed from pathway involving succinate H2 concentration is low in rumen as it is used by methanogens.Other major VFA produced Most absorbed by rumen.metabolized to acetate.6) .Major VFA produced Rumen has high capacity for acetate absorbtion Used by most tissues for metabolism.ketone bodies.some modified to beta-hydroxybutyrate (ketone body) in rumen epithelial cellsthe rest is metabolised in liver to BHB (ruminants. which associate with VFA . produces carbonic acid. dissociates to bicarbonate and H+ ions. monogastrics.produced by amylolytic bacteria degrading starch At low rumen pH propionate bacteria are inactive.ketone bodies from partial oxidation of longchain f.lactic acid. and used in phospholipids. fat.epithelial cells contain carbonic anhydrase.) Others. to form acetyl Co-A in citric acid cycle.1 VFA absorbed: 1 bicarbonate generated.Acetate.
require NH3 Cellulolytic and methanogenic bacteria .2-6.2-6. amylopectin) and simple sugars (sucrose etc) degraded by primary amylolytic bacteria Faster fermentation. division. 70 acetate: 15 propionate:10 butyrate Increase on high roughage diet Starch alpha-1 linked starches (amylose.80-100 mg% Glucose--rapidly degraded in rumen.pH optimum 6. unlike monogastric==VFAs Changing patterns of glucose use in developing ruminant Cellulose beta-1 linked compounds (cellulose. fructosan.50 mg%.8 Produce CO2.8) Predominate on high concentrate diet.6 Require NH3 and amino acids for protein synthesis.very slow glucose response curve other species. VFAs. shorter division times. hemicellulose. CH4.5.5. pectin) are degraded by primary cellulolytic bacteria Carry out fermentation to VFAs but dont produce methane (performed by secondary methanogenic bacteria) Cellulolytic bacteria.slow metabolism.L isomer is metabolized to pyruvate in liver more rapidly thanD isomer Accumulation causes metabolic acidosis Blood sugar levels in ruminants ruminant.6. lower pH optimum.40.lead to rapid overproduction of VFAs and lactic acid Produce 55 acetate: 25 propionate: 15 butryate . dont form methane Secondary methanogenic bacteria and propionate bacteria are required to make methane and propionate (pH optimum 6. can increase rapidly.
variation in breakdown Protozoa. urea etc.g. nitrates. protozoa and fungi Half of dietary protein is degraded in rumen. conversion of non-protein nitrogen compounds.a. formalized protein. Advantages of microbial protein synthesis-all essential a.inhibit microbial methane production Lipid metabolism page 395 Dukes . late pregnancy) various treatments to inhibit rumen proteolysis e. Fermentable CHO is required to supply carbon and energy to make a.bacterial enzymes Derived from deamination of a. e. Diet.broken down to NH3 by bacteria or rumen epithelium Urea moves across rumen wall from blood via urease activity in wall Ammonia fixation. often not very digestible.a.g nitrites. NH3 and branched chain.a.g.hydrolysed by bacteria. nitrates in protein.nitrogen. which is a low level in diet. .by glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase.mainly hydrolyse bacterial protein Also breakdown amino acids to VFAs. low biological value (low in essential amino acids) Protein fermentation.Digestion of nutrients Nitrogen metabolism Two nitrogen sources in rumen 1.ionophore which improves cation transport across membranes. are synthesised -microbial protein is more digestible to host than plant protein however breakdown and resynthesis consumes energy To increase protein during times of high demand (e.recycling of N2 in ruminants 2. Saliva. heat treatment Monensin.VFAsUrea. amides.
Lipids are small constituent of the ruminant diet Plants are low in lipids. (methionine.a.saturated and branched chain f. remainder are phospholipids Most fatty acids are unsaturated. cysteine. are absorbed from rumen (compare to monogastric) Vitamin metabolism Vitamin B complex are byproducts of rumen fermentation Sufficient Co is necessary for B12 production Sulfur-containing a.reduced to more toxic nitrite (e.produce saturated fatty acids Extensive lipid metabolism occurs in rumen.from high CHO diet .g. toxification (Dukes p 423) a) Microbial attack on toxic compounds can protect ruminants from food toxins Adaptation of bacteria can further improve this capacity b) Compounds can also be made more toxic in rumen Nitrate.a. The lipids are converted to stearic acid VFA and longer chain f. young oats) Nitrite causes Hb ferrous.= methaemoglobin.a.needed for wool keratin) require source of sulfur Rumen changes to compounds.occur as structural components of leaves and in seeds <50% of lipids are free fatty acids.oxidizes to ferric.detoxification. anoxia Lactic acid. cystine.
to deliver polyunsaturated f. intestine.a. increasing utilization Formalin treatment ("protection") can decrease fermentation of proteins Lipids can also be protected. to gut Antibiotics 8% of energy content of food is lost as methane Antibiotics used to suppress methanogenic bacteria Monensin is used for this. p 410) Plants with low digestibility proteins (e. increases propionate production Probiotics Addition of selected microbes to boost one area of fermentation .g maize) are poorly fermented so they remain intact until abomasum. e.Modifications to rumen function Protected nutrients (Dukes.g.
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