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No Holds Barred
Executive Editor
Muscle Media 2000, Inc.
Bill Phillips
A letter from the editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Associate Editor
T.C. Luoma
Susan Daniel Readers speak out. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Art Director Craig Korn News & Tidbits
Graphic Production Fred Lord
Chris Monck
The latest goings on. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Contributing Editors Anthony Almada,
Dr. José Antonio, Size isn’t everything, or is it?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
By Dan Duchaine
Dan Duchaine,
Blast from the Past
Keith Klein, Bruce Kneller,
Michael Mooney, Shawn Phillips,
Charles Poliquin, Bill Starr
Training intensity—learn & practice this vital skill. . .
By Bill Phillips
MM2K Champions
Celestial Editor
Dr. Michael Dullnig
Jim Amentler, Alex Ardenti,
Three Muscle Media 2000 readers who are winners. . . 160
Photographers Kevin Carasco, Irvin Gelb,
Brian Leatart, Mitsuru Okabe,
Rick Schaff, Art Zeller
Cover Photograph Jim Amentler
Contributing Illustrators
Newsstand Consultant
Karla Burds
Mike Gerardo
Advertising Mike Sitzman
Fax: 303-384-0088
409 Corporate Circle Dr.
Golden, CO 80401

1-800-615-8500 303-279-3077

Muscle Media 2000 (ISSN 1079-2465) (formerly Anabolic Reference

Update) is published 9 times annually by Muscle Media 2000, Inc., 400
Corporate Circle Dr., Ste. J, Golden, CO 80401. Application to mail at sec-
ond-class postage rates is pending at Golden, CO, and additional mailing
MEDIA 2000, PO BOX 277, GOLDEN, CO 80402-0277.
Subscription Rates: U.S. and its possessions, 12 issues $59.40 (U.S.
funds). Canadian Subscribers, 12 issues $86.40 (U.S. funds). Subscribers
outside the U.S. and Canada, 12 issues $101.40 (U.S. funds only). Colorado
residents add 7.3% sales tax. Payment must accompany all orders.
Foreign orders must be in U.S. dollars/international money order. Send QUESTIONS &
subscriptions to: Muscle Media 2000, Inc., PO Box 277, Golden, CO 80402-
0277. Allow 6-8 weeks for delivery of first issue.
We reserve the right to reject any advertising at our discretion with-
out explanation. All manuscripts, art, or other submissions must be
accompanied by a self-addressed, stamped envelope. We are not respon-
sible for unsolicited material. Writers and photographers should send for
Uncensored Q&A
specifications for submissions.
No liability is assumed by Muscle Media 2000, Inc., or the authors for
any information contained herein. This text does not provide medical
Bill Phillips gives you straightforward answers .. . . . . . . . 30
advice. Specific medical advice should be obtained from a licensed
Ask the Guru
health-care practitioner. Neither Muscle Media 2000, Inc., nor the authors
advocate, promote, or encourage the use of anabolic steroids or other ille-
gal drugs. The information contained in this publication is not intended to
Dan Duchaine answers questions on any and all topics.. 40
induce or persuade anyone to use or possess anabolic steroids or any
T.C. Talks
other illegal drugs. Any references made directly about the effects of ana-
bolic steroids or any other substances are for informational purposes only
and are an expression of the authors’ opinions. Muscle Media 2000 is a
T.C. Luoma answers readers’ questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
trademark of Muscle Media 2000, Inc. All material is copyright protected Medibolics
by Muscle Media 2000, Inc. Reproduction or reuse of any part of this pub-
lication is strictly forbidden without the written permission of the publisher.
Michael Mooney on the health benefits of steroid use. . . 50
Copyright © 1996 by Muscle Media 2000, Inc., Golden, CO USA 80402-0277.
Scientific lnquiries
All rights reserved. (Issue No. 50.)
Anthony Almada answers questions on supplements. . . . . 56
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MAY 1996
Hang On! Flavone X:

The next frontier in drug-free muscle building! . . . . . . . . . . . . .
By Dan Duchaine
Built Like A Brick House
Building the foundation to a strong body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
By Bill Starr
Time To Grow
Working with the body’s “clock” to maximize growth. . . . . . . .
By T.C. Luoma
Drugs Across The Pond
An in-depth interview on steroids in Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
By T.C. Luoma
Science Of Rest lntervals
New concepts on varying between-set rest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
By Charles Poliquin

10 Big Bodybuilding Lies

The truth is revealed! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
By T.C. Luoma & Bill Phillips
The Right Way
Training, nutrition, and supplementation for women. . .
By Bill Phillips
Why lGF-1 Doesn’t Work
(But I can fix it)—A complete look at the use of IGF-1. .
By Michael Mooney
The Arms Race, Part III
Training for major guns! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
By Charles Poliquin

Barry Sears:
25 years too soon—
Does the Zone diet work?.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
By Dan Duchaine
Hazardous Waist—
Causes of abdominal distention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
By Keith Klein
Scientific information on
nutrition, steroids & training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
By Dr. José Antonio,
Keith Klein, and

98 Bruce Kneller

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From b y T C L u o m a

the DThee aSports

r R eader,
Illustrated swimsuit issue
attracts more hype every year than all the
ture from your parents: “You’ll go blind!
You’ll grow hair on your palms!”

Editor other features in all the other magazines com-

bined. Why do you think that is? The women
are undeniably beautiful, but as far as sexual
stimulation, an average issue of Playboy or
Let’s face it, Americans have had some-
what weird ideas about sex from the very
beginning. Look at our movie industry: kiss a
breast and the movie gets an “R” rating; lop it
Penthouse has far more horsepower. Could it off with an ax and you get a “PG” rating.
be that SI carries with it an air of respectabil- Something’s very, very wrong here. The
ity? When women appear semi-naked in its movie Showgirls was mercilessly panned by
pages, it’s not sexual; it’s wholesome. It’s critics, professional and armchair alike. Yet it
Norman Rockwell in a lycra-spandex thong, was the talk of the town. Men watched it,
by God, and if the pictures give you a little bit eyes agog, muttering about decency and
of a woody, good goin’—you’re a man, an American values while one hand was playing
AMERICAN man. pocket pool. Dan Duchaine is the only person
It’s true that buying a Playboy or I know who had the balls to say he liked the
These are not Penthouse has a certain deviant stigma movie. Of course, he may be one of them-
the next six attached. You don’t want to stand in the there preverts.
Muscle Media checkout line with either unless they’re sand- Yes, I’m defending girlie pictures and sex
2000 covers! wiched between copies of Time and Car and in general. Why do I feel the need to, and
Believe me, Driver. Besides, that fresh-faced girl behind more importantly, why am I using Muscle
we know
the counter might think you’re some sort of Media 2000 as a forum for my beliefs? Well,
there’s a differ-
ence between prevert or somethin’ when she rings them up. lately, we’ve gotten some flak from a few
“spicing things But the SI swimsuit issue? That’s different. readers because the word “sex” appeared on
up” a bit and You can buy it without fear of recrimination, one of our covers. These same readers have
going over- and you can bring it home without getting the also pointed out that we’ve been running the
board! evil eye from your wife or, worse yet, a lec- occasional gratuitous sexy-girl-in-a-bikini

Babes! Babes! Babes!

SEX! $4.99 U.S. $5.99 CAN. $4.99 U.S. $5.99 CAN. $4.99 U.S. $5.99 CAN.

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shot. For a while there, it even got to the point Then, they began running swimsuit pictorials in
where we were plagued by doubt every time we put what seemed like every issue. Lo and behold, their
a picture of a woman in a layout. “Gosh, is she too sales jumped considerably. The content didn’t
sexy?” we asked ourselves. “Don’t we have any change too much, but when sex raised its head, “…just
pictures of Bev Francis from her powerlifting days sales were...well, erected.
or something?” (No offense to Ms. Francis; she The issue we struggle with is that we have tried because
looks nice now that her proportions are, shall I say, to make Muscle Media 2000 a very credible,
not so “man-like.”) straightforward, information-based publication,
they have
Somehow, this smacks of the worst kind of
irony. Think about it, here we are, in an industry
and if we run too many “T&A” photos, it seems
like it would take away from the serious nature of
an annual
that revolves around pictures of shaved, tanned many of the articles in the magazine. Then again, swimsuit
men in posing suits so tiny they’d cause a fit of sex- Sports Illustrated, which pioneered the swimsuit
ual apoplexy in the average gray-haired grand- issue phenomenon, is unquestionably a very credi- issue, does
mother, yet when we print pictures of women in ble sports magazine. I mean, just because they
equal states of dis-dress, we’re harpooned like have an annual swimsuit issue, does that mean that mean
salmon swimming through the river that runs by an their coverage of Olympic sports, the NFL, NBA,
Eskimo village. etc. is not as factual and hard hitting as ever? their
Despite the protests of this minority of readers, Likewise, if we run photos of girls in bikinis, does
sex sells. It’s a lesson the other bodybuilding mags that mean Dan Duchaine’s or Bill Phillips’ Q&A coverage…
have learned very well. It’s a formula Muscle & columns and all of our other features and columns
Fitness has used successfully for quite some time. aren’t as good as always? is not as
It’s the rare issue that doesn’t feature a cover with From time to time, we’ve been known to take a
the hottest vixen imaginable panting over some pro “jab” at the other muscle mags, but in this instance,
factual and
bodybuilder. MuscleMag has made Marla
Duncan’s butt as recognizable as Bill Clinton’s
I find myself defending them. Just because
Muscular Development runs numerous pictures of
hard hitting
face. Flex’s monthly nude or semi-nude pictorials beautiful, sexy, and fit ladies, does that mean their as ever?“
are wildly popular, but truth be told, it’s made me information on training and nutrition should be
wonder about some of the fans of these pictorials. taken less seriously? I don’t think so.
If I look at some of those photographs and blur my If putting pictures of beautiful, sexy ladies on the
eyes just a little bit, I could swear I’m looking at a cover of muscle magazines gets guys to pick them
picture of Roger Stewart or some equally long- up and read them, it probably, in the long run,
haired male bodybuilder. But, hey, whatever does helps introduce more folks to weight training,
it for you. Perhaps the best example of the “sex proper nutrition, and supplementation.
sells” adage is Muscular Development. A year or Even though Muscle Media 2000 is in competi-
two ago, they were “hangin’ in there,” trying the tion with publications like MuscleMag, Muscular
best they could to publish an informative maga- Development, Ironman, etc., we all have one thing
zine. Trouble was, their sales were only “so-so.” in common—we all believe weight training is a

MAY 1996

and more Babes! SEX!

SEX! $4.99 U.S. $5.99 CAN.
SEX! $4.99 U.S. $5.99 CAN. $4.99 U.S. $5.99 CAN.

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NO HOLDS fantastic form of exercise that can benefit virtually
everyone, and we believe proper nutrition and sup-
Although sex is a great selling tool, it shouldn’t
be the only thing you have going for you.
plementation can help us all become healthier and Information is the name of the game, and no matter
more satisfied with our physical appearance. how many “hot” photos you might find in future
As we mentioned in our last issue, it makes perfect issues of MM2K, we’ll still give you the “no holds
“…I urge sense that magazines which are all about building bet- barred” scoop on training, nutrition, supplements,
ter bodies have breathtaking and “stimulating” pic- steroids, and more!
the ’silent tures of awesome physiques—both male and female. So, all of you self-righteous Puritans out there
And even though some people believe the muscle who have been knocking the bodybuilding maga-
majority‘ of magazines’ swimsuit issues “sexually exploit” zines’ new “sexy” look, take a chill pill! If you
women, a relatively sound argument could be made don’t like the photos, just turn the page. Finally, I
bodybuilding that they “celebrate” the female form. And, I know urge the “silent majority” of bodybuilding mag
for a fact that ever since the muscle magazines have readers (who love all those “hot shots”) to judge
mag readers been publishing numerous photos of fit, feminine a book by more than its cover—that is, once
(who love females (who train with weights but don’t use you’ve “sneaked a peak” at all of those pictures
steroids), more and more women are getting of beautiful bodies, evaluate what’s left. Is the
all those involved in fitness/bodybuilding. And what on rest of the magazine filled with honest, cutting-
earth could possibly be wrong with that? edge information on how you can build a better
‘hot shots’) The way we feel at MM2K is that if some “sexy” body? Or, is it just filled with superficial “fluff”
photos can increase our magazine’s circulation or that leaves you “high and dry” and craving useful
to judge make our readers “pay attention,” it just means bodybuilding facts?
a book more people are going to have access to the best,
straightforward, accurate information on fitness
Think about it...

by more and physique development in the business today. Sincerely,

And greater newsstand sales equal more revenue
than its which we can use to hire more talented writers (the
best writers don’t work for peanuts!) and put out T.C. Luoma
cover…“ even more valuable bodybuilding information. Editor-In-Chief
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Titus Gets the

Last Word...

“New Look” Gets

Rave Reviews
R e a d e r s
’ F e e d b a c k

Less “Freaks”... MUSCLE Fortunately, it looks like you’ve turned a nega-

tive into something very positive for you. You’ve
More “Average MEDIA 2000 gotten more publicity/exposure and have become
a much more well-known, and even respected,
Joes.” EXTENDS OLIVE bodybuilder because of T.C.’s article. It’s unusual
BRANCH— how these things work themselves out.
TITUS I try not to “censor” anything my writers want
EATS IT to run in Muscle Media 2000. Guys like T.C. and
Duchaine and others often insist that their mater-
A few months ago, we ran an article about Craig
A Workout and Titus’ drug bust. He was not happy. He used other ial not be “touched up.” However, I’ll make sure
that after you run your rebuttal, if you choose to
magazines as a forum to express his anger, and in a
Posedown in recent MuscleMag International interview, Craig submit one, we’ll just leave it at that. There are a
Hawaii made some disparaging remarks about Bill Phillips. lot of other things our writers can focus on
The following is the letter that Bill sent to Craig in besides this type of silliness.
response to his MuscleMag interview: Because of how ferocious my schedule is, I
really don’t take phone calls—not even from
Dear Craig: friends. Faxing is much more efficient for me.
I enjoyed reading your interview in the latest However, if you’d like to call, or even if you’d like
issue of MuscleMag International. I understand to come talk to me “man-to-man” as you
your frustration and would like to give you the expressed in your MMI interview, I’d be delighted
opportunity to submit a rebuttal to the things T.C. to meet with you anytime. I’d even pay for your
alleged in his article(s). Even if you just want to travel to Colorado if you feel such a meeting is
write a letter, I’ll run it in the “Letters” column in necessary.
Muscle Media 2000. And, because I empathize with you on this situ-
ation and fully understand how frustrated you are,
I’ll accept your call, if I’m in the office, of course.
Bill Phillips
Bill Phillips

The following is Craig’s response:

Dear Bill,
I am glad you enjoyed my interview in the latest
“MuscleMag.” I thought it was really good if I say
so myself. I was honest in my opinion of your mag-
azine and stated only facts (statements that are
true). This seems to be something that Dan
Duchaine has a problem with (you know, the con-
vict that just got out of prison who works for your
mag). I guess what I want to tell you is that your
[sic] letting some really low life individuals
destroy the creditability [sic] of your publication.
By letting Dan Duchaine print that article about
the internet proves what I’ve been saying about
your trash mag. I’ts [sic] great because everyone
“Are you angry because is finally realizing that the only thing your mag is
you have the good for is maybe starting a fire, or maybe toilet
paper. I’m going to have to decline at this point in
body of a time on your invite to fly to Colorado to meet you.
When we meet you’ll be the first one to know it.
10 year Would you please tell Dan Duchaine to call me or
old girl?” leave a message where I can find him. Also wuold
[sic] you please answer these questions.
1. Are you angry because you have the body of
a 10 year old girl?
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2. Is your magazine a tool to destroy athletes [sic]

careers because you never made it? AVERAGE ANDY
3. Is it true you and Stoney Grimes are lovers, or do
your prefer Dan?
4. Why do you constantly put those pictures of your- GIMPY GENES
self in your mag, are you a fitness model? This is my first letter to you at
Would you please answer these questions as soon as
you can because I want to include your answers in a
MM2K: MM2K, and I hope you’ll see fit to
new column I’m writing. It will be coming out next
print it in your “Letters” section for all to see. You strike
me as a mag that sincerely appreciates reader input.
month. Let me tell you a little bit about myself. I am 38 and
have been working out since July of 1993 at a local
Gold’s. I tend to work out at different times on different
Media 2000
Craig Titus days, so I believe I have seen nearly all the members at
Oh well, we tried. It’s obvious Craig misinterpreted Bill’s
one point or another during my membership at this gym. features
Guess what? Of the hundreds of men and women who
letter somehow; either that or he’s just being plain silly. belong, I haven’t seen ten that resemble a magazine
Anyhow, this is the last time we’ll mention anything to do cover! Sure, they all use good form and good nutrition, more
with the Titus “incident.” Craig has milked all the public- as do the rest of us. Why then, do the majority of us look
ity humanly possible from this event, and we refuse to be a
party to it anymore. We wish him well in the future. One
so ordinary and plain and just unbuffed?
I believe it’s the “G” word and that means genetics!!
last thing, though: if Craig thinks Bill has the “body of a It seems to me that no magazine, including yours, wants
10-year-old girl,” what must he think of his average body-
building fan?
to tackle this idea in a significant way. Could it be that
millions of us out in America might come to realize that
most of us have genetic “garbage” rather than genetic
“goodies.” It should be common knowledge, too, but role models’
READERS BIG ON most are uninformed, that those vein-busting biceps
came about with steroids, stuff we ordinary folks simply
MM2K’S NEW can’t get. than any
BOLD LOOK Why not print articles about muscle fiber biopsies
that tell in advance the number of fibers in a given mus- other
Goodness gracious! The latest
MM2K: issue is really a quantum leap.
Pretty amazing. The graphics are great...very appealing.
cle so the person will know his genetic limitations in
advance? Why can’t your publication do a series of arti-
cles on genetics and thereby provide a realistic goal for bodybuilding
the many of us who struggle so hard without steroids?
Best regards, Why not pick an average Andy and follow-up his
David A. Jenkins progress to show us what he can accomplish? Must you magazine..”
President, Next Nutrition always use those Flawless Freds, Peter Perfects, and
Carlsbad, CA Glamorous Glens in your illustrations? Can’t you use
Average Andys, Regular Ralphs, and Ordinary Ottos in
your pictures?
I received the April issue of I’m just a guy in Jersey who’s crying for the truth to be
MM2K: MM2000 last night. I used to date
a woman who was a consultant to several BIG maga-
told in your industry. Why can’t MM2K lead the way in
this regard?
zines, and she taught me a lot about the finer points of
magazine production (and helped foster a critical eye for Anthony Nardiello
what I had previously overlooked). While a lot of the Roselle Park, NJ
other bodybuilding mags are visually pleasing, most of
We don’t mean to be a Patty Party-Pooper, but we called
them are still stuck in the ’80’s, graphically speaking.
in Danny Discussion and Darcy Debate to offer our point
With this current issue, you’re right up there with some
of view (we’re kinda gettin’ into this alliteration thing). We
of the wildest, hippest, most innovative mags. MM2000
feel that Muscle Media 2000 features more “realistic
is almost as cool as Ray Gun, Bikini, and Wired (but it’s
physique role models” than any other bodybuilding maga-
easier to read).
zine. We have fewer “freaky” steroid-built bodies than any
Congratulations on being bold, progressive, and col- other bodybuilding magazine. No other bodybuilding
orful, not only in text, but in design, too! magazine makes it more clear that steroids play an enor-
mous role in the development of today’s top physique stars.
Karl Gabrielson If you can find any evidence to support the contrary, we’ll
San Francisco, CA put your picture on the cover of the magazine!
As far as muscle biopsies, it’s just not realistic for average
weight trainers to get muscle fiber biopsies, so they’ll know
Thanks to all the readers who have responded so posi- in advance what their genetic potential is for gaining mus-
tively to our new look. We want to let you know that this cle size and strength. Besides, a lot of research shows that
is only the beginning. Muscle Media 2000 is developing a this number can actually increase through the right kind of
look that will be the envy of everyone in the graphics busi- training. We’ve seen some of the most pathetic-looking
ness. Don’t worry, though, giving you ways to increase folks, young and old, men and women, make such incred-
muscle while burning fat is still our number one priority— ible physique transformations after they start bodybuild-
that will never change. ing—without drugs—that it would amaze you. Some sup-
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plements do indeed work, as evidenced by scores of double-

blind, placebo-controlled, peer-reviewed research studies.
We’ve actually featured a number of these Average
Andys in Muscle Media 2000. However, you’ve got to
admit, a steady diet of pictures of regular, average people
wouldn’t inspire people to nearly the degree that some of
the Glamorous Glendas or Flawless Freds do. This is some-
thing the fashion mag business learned a long time ago;
after all, you don’t see Roseanne modeling Oleg Cassini
clothes or swimsuits.
“It really We’ll definitely keep your suggestions in mind and pass
them on to Butthead Bill (Uh-oh, we’re in trouble now!),
but we feel we already address the topics of steroids, genet-
does my heart ics, and muscle-building potential in Muscle Media 2000
more thoroughly than any other bodybuilding magazine
ever has!
and mind good
to know that IF YOU THINK HE’S
there are MEET THE
people around REST OF US.
I recently had the opportunity to
whose Waikoloa
spend a week in Hawaii at the
Hilton Resort with my friend and training
partner Carol Elwyn. Our last morning there, while train- Virtually
all successful
perspective ing the resort’s general manager, Dieter Segar, we also

Photo: Jim Amentler

had the good fortune to bump into Shawn Phillips and bodybuilders like
Laurie Donnelly. Talk about positive energy and good
Danny Hester
on the vibes! Between the four of us, we had that little gym
buzzing! After a quick workout and a spontaneous mock have good genetics.
pose down (Damn, Shawn looked good!), we continued
bodybuilding ourItantics over breakfast.
really does my heart and mind good to know that eat and work out. As a result, I’ve made great gains in
my physique.
scene is there are people around whose perspective on the
bodybuilding scene is similar to my own. Shawn’s an
excellent representative of both your magazine and a
One thing I am curious to know is how the
weightlifters in your magazine seem to be without any
body hair and are always tanned. It definitely looks bet-
similar to healthy lifestyle. Our sport needs people like him, who
are in a position to not only increase awareness but ter and shows off the muscles better. Is there a chemi-
who also intend to raise the collective consciousness cal that can be taken to get rid of body hair? Or is it all
my own.” ofit with
the masses. Let’s inspire! Let’s motivate! And let’s do
integrity! You guys there at MM2K are doing a
good thing by cutting out the BS so prevalent in this Name withheld by us, as not to embarrass
sport. Bodybuilding is coming into a new age, and it can
be a true sport through people like us and a publication Back during World War II, Hitler’s scientists began a
like yours. MM2K is for real! research project with far-reaching implications. Their goal
was to develop a race of hairless super-babies. By injecting
Keep it real, estrogen into a fetus at a particular time during gestation,
Deric Stocton hairless babies were born. Hitler envisioned an army of
Santa Cruz, CA hairless soldiers who could take a shower and dry off very
quickly and thus be able to get to the front lines much
more rapidly than enemy soldiers who were still blow-dry-
ing their hair and shaving their backs. Obviously, the war
SANDPAPER ended before his plan came to fruition. Today’s hairless
WORKS WELL, bodybuilders are the result of those early experiments.
Other bodybuilders, the product of normal births, are
TOO. cursed with body hair and thus do rather poorly in body-
I’ve been reading your magazine building competitions. Unbeknownst to most people,
MM2K: for the past year. As well, I’ve just
finished reading the 1996 Supplement Review. Both are
actor Ed Asner used to be a bodybuilder but was forced to
become an actor because of his extremely hairy back.
terrific publications for which I wish to thank you. I All right, all right, enough fun at your expense. Yes,
have been weightlifting for a few years, and the infor- there is a chemical that removes body hair—it’s called Nair.
mation in your magazine (and now in the Supplement Of course, shaving works fine, too. Oh, and thanks for the
Review) has helped me immensely to improve the way I compliments!
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H O T T a l k


Body- New Sex
builder Pill from
X’s Twin
Identity Twin Laboratories has just
Still a released a new product called
Mystery “Male Fuel.” The supplement
allegedly increases potency and
The entire bodybuilding helps protect a man’s “goods”
world is still trying to from common health-related
figure out the identity woes. The product contains things
of Bodybuilder X like yohimbe bark, L-arginine,
(“I Confess,” January ginkgo, Vitamin E, Vitamin B-6,
1996). For those of you
L-tyrosine, saw palmetto, and a
who didn’t read the inter-
number of other compounds.
view (What happened?
Male Fuel was developed by
Were you in a coma?), we
paid a pro bodybuilder Steve Blechman, Vice President of
$3,000 for a completely Product Development and
candid interview. His confessions were, well, a little unsavory. In other words, Marketing for Twin Laboratories.
this guy’s personality most resembles the stuff you’d scrape off your shoe after If the reputation of the designer of
you’ve come home from the Westminster Dog Show. Anyhow, we’ve been told that Male Fuel is any indication of
the pros are all scratching their heads trying to figure out who Bodybuilder X is. what kind of product this will be,
They’ve guessed that it might be Dorian, Achim, Paul, or Sonny—but it ain’t it should be a doosey—Blechman
none of them guys. The identity of Bodybuilder X is still a mystery (to the public, is widely recognized as a world-
not us!). And, the fun isn’t limited to within U.S. borders. The Australians are class dick! (Just kidding, Steve.)
buzzing over it, as are the English, as evidenced by the short article reprinted
Male Fuel is available at
above from a British bodybuilding magazine.
General Nutrition Centers and
We will, however, give you a hint: someone correctly guessed the identity of
health-food stores everywhere.
Bodybuilder X on Internet exchanges last December 27.
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H O T T a l k

W H A T ’ S H A P P E N I N G

That’s How Much Muscle I Want…

A couple issues back, we asked readers how much muscle they
would like to have—would they want to be super-huge and freaky,
How 22% like Paul DeMayo; lean and muscular, like a GQ model; or some-
where in between.
Much To date, we’ve received 1,645 answers to this question—definitely enough
Muscle to be “statistically relevant.”
After analyzing the results, here’s what we found—72% of the people who
Do You Paul DeMayo
responded said they would prefer to look like our “in-between” example—
Shawn Phillips; 22% said they wanted to get as big as a house, and 6% said
Want? they wanted to be “athletically muscular,” like a lean, defined GQ model.

kay, now it’s my turn to ask you a ques-
tion—I need your input on something
One of the main reasons given for wanting to look muscular but not
I’ve been trying to figure out for a
“freaky” was that many believe after a certain point, you surpass an
while. I know we all want to have more
muscle and less fat. I also know most of
you aren’t necessarily interested in com-
72% aesthetic, attractive look—one that’s pleasing to the self and others.
peting in bodybuilding contests, but you would-
n’t mind looking like you could enter a contest. One thing that was clear is that those who responded are trying very hard
Shawn Phillips
Now, I’m trying to figure something else out. If
you could have as much muscle as you wanted, to improve their bodies. They all remarked that they wanted more muscle than
how much would you want? Would you want to
be freaky big/huge like Paul DeMayo? Or lean,
they had!
but muscular, like a GQ model? Or, would you
rather be somewhere in between?
If you get a chance, drop me a note or send me
6% Most readers felt it was possible to build a physique like Shawn’s
a fax and tell me what your ideal physique would (who is 5’10” tall and weighs 208 lbs with 6%-7% bodyfat), whereas
look like, and in one or two sentences, tell me
why you want to look that way. I don’t need this they realized it probably would not be possible to build a physique like Paul’s
information for any particular reason; I’m just
(who is 5’8” tall, weighs 270 lbs, and probably has 3% bodyfat). Obviously,
You can fax your feedback to Bill Phillips at 303-
384-0088 or mail it to Bill Phillips, P.O. Box 277,
they’re right, and it’s good to see more people are shooting for a realistic goal.
Brad Minns
Golden, CO 80402.
One last observation—the younger guys (between 18 and 24) wanted to
look more like Paul, whereas the guys who were 24 and older either wanted
to look like Brad Minns or Shawn. Interesting…

Membership Does Sylvester Stallone and Shawn Phillips

Have Its
National fitness star Laurie Donnelly and Muscle Media
2000 contributing editor Shawn Phillips were recently seen
making the rounds at a very exclusive Hollywood insiders‘
“surprise party” for Oscar winner Whoopi Goldberg.
The exclusive surprise party was attended by big names
like Jean-Claude Van Damme, Clint Eastwood, Jeff Goldblum,
Richard Pryor, James Woods, Linda Evangelista, Ron Meyer, Tom
Selleck, and many more.
Phillips and Donnelly shared a table with bodybuilder/model
Fabio and his pal, ex-IFBB/WBF star, Tony Pearson. (It seems birds of a feather do flock together!)
When asked how he and Laurie got the special “invite,” Shawn was tight-lipped, but he
does design weight-training programs for a number of Hollywood’s “elite,” including a guy
they call “Sly.” Perhaps his inside contacts for this latest “gig” are the same that landed
Shawn and his brother Bill (Executive Editor of Muscle Media 2000) VIP passes to the recent
grand opening of Planet Hollywood in Beverly Hills. Or, perhaps it’s the “contact” that landed
Bill four front row seats at the Academy Awards!
When asked if the two might be “going Hollywood” to work more closely with their VIP
clientele, Shawn said, “Hell no! Bill and I are as out of place in Hollywood as Jed Clampett! We
fit in much better here, where we belong, in Golden, Colorado…”
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H O T T a l k


on the Move!
Bill Phillips, the founder and owner of Muscle Media 2000, and
his “Fitness Companies” (MM2K, NSA, EAS, Mile High
Publishing, Power Systems Technologies, etc.) are on the move!
For the past two years, Phillips and his lead Project Coordinator,
Brevan Adams, have been designing what they describe as the ulti-
mate “fitness wonderland.” They took their ideas to Colorado’s best
construction firm, the Neenan Company (which recently com-
pleted the Denver Broncos’ new headquarters).
After months of preparation, builders broke ground on the $4.4
million project in early October. Construction will be completed in
May of this year.
Phillips’ 80 employees presently occupy 3 separate office and
warehouse locations in the Golden, Colorado, area. The new
company headquarters will be located just a block from its
current leased operation at the foot of the breathtaking Rocky
Mountains—12 minutes from downtown Denver and just a short
drive from world-famous resorts like Vail and Aspen. (hooked up to satellite TV, of course), pool tables, and a wet bar. The
The 60,000 sq ft, state-of-the-art office/warehouse complex will only things missing are a hospital and a cemetery, but Bill contends,
have extraordinary amenities, including a 3,000 sq ft gym, fully “We’re working on that!”
equipped with the highest-quality weight-training and aerobic Phillips claims, “This building is completely out of the ordinary
equipment available; a cafe with a spa chef; a salon (Bill can’t stand because I want our companies to be completely out of the ordinary!”
leaving work to get his hair cut); tanning booths; showers; and a He emphasizes that, “It’s my goal to have people want to be at
massage room. And, if all that’s not enough, the building will also work—I want them to be extremely comfortable—I want them to
have a theater that will comfortably seat 50. The theater will have a feel like kings and queens. For Muscle Media 2000 and my other
146 sq ft screen, THX surround-sound, satellite, a laser disk player, companies to be the best they can be, we need quality personnel.
rope lighting—the works! And, there will also be a 1,500 sq ft And today, more than ever, employees are looking for much more
break/game room, complete with multiple television monitors than just a paycheck—they want to work in an environment that
makes them comfortable—one that’s
conducive to a good quality of life.”
Phillips’ companies also offer an
incredible health insurance plan, a
401K program, generous paid vacations
and holidays, and significant supple-
ment discounts to all employees!
Wouldn’t it be nice to work for such
a company? Well, maybe you can!
Phillips states, “We’re always looking for
new talent—writers, photographers,
customer-care representatives, sales reps,
research assistants, editors, etc.”
If you think you’ve got what it takes
to be a part of the Muscle Media 2000
team, send your resume to Rick
Anderson, c/o MM2K, P.O. Box 277,
Golden, CO 80402, or fax your
resume to 303-279-6465.
A scale model shows what the new MM2K HQ will look like just a couple of months from now!
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H O T T a l k

Packs It On
A story in a recent issue of Muscular Development (MD)
Mike Mentzer
described how bodybuilding legend Mike Mentzer packed on
30 pounds using a new Twin Lab supplement. The important
question they didn’t answer was, “Where did he pack those
30 pounds?”
At Muscle Media 2000’s recent “No Holds Barred” seminar
in Las Vegas, Mentzer gave a fantastic presentation on
high-intensity training, but Mike himself admitted his con-
dition was “less than optimal” and that he was going to
Photo: Alex Ardenti

start “getting back into it” in hopes of losing some weight,

not gaining it!
That’s alright Mike, we like you no matter how much you

Just a Lovers’ Quarrel?!?!?! Reports of

By now, “We hope that, his Death are
you’ve all heard
about Chris Chris Cormier
like many
domestic dis-
Who knows how rumors get started? In
Cormier’s putes, this bodybuilding, like all subcultures, rumors run
alleged assault proves to be rampant. Of course, the latest one came as sort
on his 110-lb nothing more of a shock to the friends and family of Boyer
girlfriend Ahmo than a storm in a Coe. Somehow, rumor decided that Boyer Coe’s
Hight. According teacup and that ticker had stopped, probably from years of
to a police Chris and Ahmo dietary extremes, outrageous amounts of exotic
report published get back drugs, and the accumulated toll of brutal work-
in another body- together again.” outs. And rumor singled out Dan Duchaine as
building maga- That seems its emissary. Dan got a phone call, from what
zine, Cormier like a “nice” had always been a reliable source in the past,
became comment, but reporting Boyer’s death. Dan comes into contact
“enraged,” it’s not. Police with a lot of people each day, so like a virus, the
after which he reports indicate rumor spread until everyone, probably Boyer
grabbed the this wasn’t your included, thought he was dead. Dan even
Photo: Irvin J. Gelb

diminutive ordinary “domes- announced Boyer’s death at the First Annual

fitness model, tic dispute” and Muscle Media 2000 “No Holds Barred” seminar
“slapped and that the 250-lb in Las Vegas, which sent Muscle Media Editor-
finally choked Cormier almost in-Chief, T.C. Luoma, scurrying off to the
her until she killed this young phones for verification. No one answered
could not breathe and actually lost lady! To categorize this near-murder Boyer’s phone, least of all Boyer. Makes sense;
consciousness.” The charge against as “a storm in a teacup” is the height dead guys don’t pick up the phone, do they?
Cormier is corporal spousal assault, of insensitivity. You’d think the whole Still, an unanswered phone call doesn’t equate
which is the most serious criminal continent would have taken pause to to a death certificate. Twenty minutes later, T.C.
charge that can be made in a domes- consider the ramifications of domes- was able to contact MM2K contributor Laura
tic/spousal situation outside of tic violence after the whole O.J. and Dayton who had just spoken to Boyer 20 min-
attempted murder. All of this is old Nicole Simpson saga came to light. utes earlier. Apparently, after a heated debate,
news to fans of pro bodybuilding, but But things haven’t changed and prob- Boyer convinced Laura that he wasn’t dead—
what makes the incident even more ably never will. Cormier needs help, perhaps a bit sleepy from watching several Urkel
serious is the magazine’s short- plenty of it. If he “loses it” again, he episodes back to back but not dead. Boyer lives,
sighted and insensitive attempt to could end up in prison for life. And but according to recent reports, Don Ross’ con-
gloss over the incident: nobody wants that! dition remains unchanged—he’s still dead.
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H O T T a l k

TIDBITS Muscle Publishers’
Highs and Lows
Ever wonder about bodybuilding magazine covers? Which ones sell and which
ones don’t? Well, probably not, but believe us, it’s a fascinating “science.” Of course,

The Champ’s it doesn’t take a Mensa-level IQ to figure out that sex sells, and the numbers cer-
tainly support that. In the publishing business, we pay an awful lot of attention to
New Boy! percentages, more specifically, the percentage of magazines bought off the news-
stand. For instance, if there are 10 copies of Muscle Media 2000 at your local Piggly
Wiggly grocery store and 6 get purchased, the sales percentage for that issue is 60%
(let’s see, divide the hypotenuse by the denominator, carry the 6, multiply by the
square root of pi, yeah, 60%). If you hit at least 50%, that’s the magic number; it’s
like rushing for a hundred yards in a football game or going 4 for 4 in a baseball
The cover plays a big part in the final sales numbers. If the cover sucks, your sales
suck. Conversely, if the cover is dynamite, sales are often dynamite. However, stick
some cleavage or rear end on the cover, and you’ve almost guaranteed yourself big
sales percentages (see this month’s “No Holds Barred” column).
The trouble is, these percentages are closely guarded secrets. Each magazine pro-
tects their “numbers” like a mother bear protecting her cubs. Still, it’s not that hard
to get indicators of how the various mags are doing. The good news is, all in all,
Lee and Robin Labrada are happy people are buying more bodybuilding mags than ever. However, each magazine has
to announce the birth of their second had its ups and downs.
child, Blade Cameron Labrada. A couple years ago, Muscular Development was sputtering along, rarely making a
dent in the bodybuilding publishing world. Then along came the May 1995 issue
Blade was born on January 18, 1996
which featured Kim Paul, a sexually provocative, bikini-clad “fitness model,” on the
at 7:31 a.m. in Houston, Texas. Blade cover. That issue was MD’s best-selling issue ever! Now, practically every other cover
weighed in at 8 lbs, 7 ounces, and features a fitness “bunny” on it. Hey, when you’ve touched on a winning formula,
why change it? Still, they have their “slow movers.” The December 1995 cover fea-
measured 20”. He joins his brother
tured Craig Titus, clad in only a palm leaf. Sales of that issue were very low, compar-
Hunter, 3, whose first question upon atively.
seeing the new baby was, “This is e- Ironman has hit on a similar winning formula. When they put Debee Halo on the
n-o-rmously exciting! Can I take him cover in a wet T-shirt back in April of ’95, the sales jumped. Flex and MuscleMag
have experienced the same kind of success when they went the girlie route. Flex’s
home and play Ninja Turtles with
biggest seller in ’95 featured Sharon Bruneau, Debbie Muggli, and Lenda Murray in
him?” hooker-style vinyl miniskirts. MuscleMag’s biggest seller was their swimsuit issue.
Conversely, Flex’s poorest selling cover of the year had Shawn Ray, Dennis Newman,
Proud papa Lee said, “Not before
and a kind of veiny and non-sexual shot of Michelle Andrea, whereas MuscleMag’s
he’s done with his workout...he still weakest cover featured Frank Sepe and the face of Monica Brant (her cleavage was
obscured by Sepe’s head).
has another set of overhead boob
Muscle & Fitness almost always features a lascivious babe on the cover, so the only
pulls to finish. Training for the 2020 big change occurs when they don’t put a woman on the cover. Their recent Tony
Mr. Olympia must start early!” Lee Little cover was their worst selling issue in recent memory.
Oh, and what has Muscle Media 2000 found? Well, we haven’t really experi-
continues, “All jesting aside, we’re
mented with the sex route. Our sales have been growing quite nicely, but we have
extremely happy and thank God for highs and lows, too. Our best cover in ’95 featured Joe Lazzaro and Laurie
Donnelly in a decidedly non-sexual pose. Our bomb of the year featured
this greatest of blessings.”
Mike O’Hearn.
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H O T T a l k


Good cover— We can’t figure out

Good sales why this one Bold but bad
didn’t move T&A wins again!


Cool cover! Little cover pulls

little sales Good wholesome Concept confused
muscle potential buyers


T&A: a simple NO COMMENT

formula for
big sales Swimsuit issue Not enough muscle
(or boobs) showing
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Muscle-Tech Claims Lack


Hold Off on Arginine

Aspartate for Now.
B y B i l l P h i l l i p s
Cycling Vanadyl Sulfate.

Why Bodybuilders Use


RU 486 for Muscle Growth?

Q I read about this new company
called “Muscle-Tech” in an article
in MuscleMag recently. How do
you rate this company’s products?
versity and presented to scientists at the
International Sports Nutrition Conference last
September and is now peer reviewed, that show the
Experimental and Applied Sciences’ (EAS) product
Phosphagain™produces an average gain in lean
mass of 5.35 lbs in just 28 days (which is a BIG

There’s not much information
Okay...if Muscle-Tech’s new supplements are
available on Muscle-Tech. But what
500% more effective than Phosphagain, then
I’ve seen so far lacks credibility.
Watch Out for Fake HMB! Take this claim which appeared in that recent
they’d produce an average gain of 26.75 lbs (5.35 x
500%) of lean mass in 28 days. That, my friends,
article for example, “...Muscle-Tech’s products are
ain’t the case! There’s no F-in’ way any supplement
over 500% more effective than any supplement
Optimal Supplement has been shown to produce gains like that.
currently available.” I’d sure like to see the sub-
The article constantly mentions Muscle-Tech’s
Dosages. stantiation for that! Five-hundred percent more
effective, huh? (Ridiculous claims like this make it
research, although it never mentions where this
research is being done, where it’ll be presented,
hard to believe any of the claims made about
who’s doing it, etc. I repeatedly attempted to con-
Muscle-Tech products.) If Muscle-Tech can prove
tact this Muscle-Tech company to ask for more
that claim, I’ll personally cut them a check for
information on their research but made no
progress. One of our MM2K researchers contacted
I have the results of a double-blind, placebo-con-
Greg Zulak (who wrote the Muscle-Tech article),
trolled study, which was done at a legitimate uni-
but Zulak couldn’t provide any information that
could back the “unbelievable” claims made in his
Nowadays, you see supplement companies
throwing around the word “research” all the time.
For many supplement companies, “research”
means flipping through muscle magazines and try-
ing to figure out what products are selling well and
then attempting to imitate these products—that’s
basically what most “research” in the bodybuilding
business consists of.
In the last issue of Muscle Media 2000, I said
EAS was going to conduct more research to find
out what the optimal doses of creatine monohy-
drate are for bodybuilders. What I meant by
“research” was that double-blind, placebo-con-
trolled university studies are going to be con-
“...if they can prove their ducted, and scientific, analytical methods such as
supplements are 500% muscle biopsies, body-composition tests, perfor-
mance evaluations, etc. will be made before and
more effective...than any after giving the subjects various doses of creatine
other supplements monohydrate. Then, the statistics will be compiled
by experts, and the data will be presented at a sci-
available, I’ll Federal entific conference. That’s research!
One of the products mentioned in that
Express them a check MuscleMag article, that I’ve been getting a lot of
for $10,000 immediately.” questions on, is something called acetyl-L-carnitine
(ALC). ALC hasn’t been proven to do anything pos-
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itive for bodybuilders—there’s some research that shows it

may help mitigate chronic stress-related reductions in
testosterone levels, but I looked everywhere and couldn’t
find any studies showing ALC has ever been shown to
stimulate testosterone, much less promote muscle size
and strength in healthy weight-training humans. When
Zulak describes ALC, he says, “ALC is the only product I
know of that has steroid-like effects—but without the
Q I recently read that using the amino
acid arginine can cause a significant
increase in IGF-1 levels. I’ve read a lot
about IGF-1, and it sounds like this is an important hor-
mone for muscle growth. Do you know how much argi-
nine I should take?
negative side effects. The great feature about ALC is that, “It’s
unlike steroids, it doesn’t cause you to lose muscle when
you stop taking it. There’s no depression, increase of
estrogen, zits...” Blah, blah, blah! Where’s the substantia-
tion for such claims?
Before you’d be able to legally make claims like these,
A What you read about arginine increas-
ing IGF-1 levels originated with a study
presented last year in the Journal of
Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. In that study, 45 sub-
jects who used 30 grams of arginine aspartate a day for
possible that
you’d have to do double-blind, placebo-controlled uni-
versity studies in weight-training athletes. You’d have to
14 days experienced a significant increase in blood arginine does
IGF-1 levels.
measure their testosterone levels, their body composition, Unfortunately, I don’t think this study really has all not increase
and all kinds of things. You’d have to compare ALC users that much application for bodybuilders—you see, the
to test subjects who consumed a placebo, and if you subjects in this recent arginine study were between the IGF-1 levels
wanted to say that ALC doesn’t cause you to lose muscle ages of 67 and 82. Typically, by that age, a number of our
when you stop taking it, you’d have to continue to study bodies’ key hormones will be well below what they are in young,
the test subjects after they quit using the compound. when we’re in our 20’s and 30’s. It’s extremely possible
What they are claiming is that the gains in muscle size that arginine does not increase IGF-1 levels in young, healthy
you get from taking ALC are permanent, and not only is healthy bodybuilders. But, hopefully, someone will study
there no proof that ALC produces any gains in size and the effects 30 grams of arginine aspartate have on body- body-
strength to begin with, making a claim that the gains are builders, and hopefully, they’ll measure not only IGF-1
permanent is really, really going out on a limb. I know of levels but body composition and strength as well—these
no compound in the world that produces permanent are the most important factors to me and most other sup-
gains in muscle size and strength... Steroids don’t even do plement users. For now, I’d say hold off on arginine—
this! Using supplements or drugs that may accelerate lean there are better supplements to spend your hard-earned
mass and strength gains is similar to weight training itself money on.
in that if you stop doing it, eventually you’ll lose what
you’ve gained. The body always tries to go back to “nor-
mal.” For example, would you expect to go out in the sun
for two weeks and get a nice tan and then stay tan for the
rest of your life? Of course not! It just doesn’t work like
In Zulak’s defense, he’s really not a supplement expert
and maybe he’s being fed information that he just
Q I’ve been using 70 mg of vanadyl sulfate a
day, and I’ve been getting really good
results. I just wonder, since I’m using
more than the “recommended dose,” should I be cycling
this stuff?
assumed was correct—he might not have the knowledge
to understand the difference between what’s real and
what’s not. When I first started writing ten years ago, I
made the same mistake myself a few times—I didn’t
know any better. But I now have a lot more experi-
ence and knowledge in the field of bodybuilding
A I’d say yes. A lot of
bodybuilders have
been using 70 to 100
mg of vanadyl sulfate a day, but I
don’t recommend this much. I’ve
supplements, and I also know the difference been getting great results with 45
between proof, evidence, and total bullshit! mg a day, and I think that’s all
most lifters need. But if you want
I’m certain you’ll start to see ads for Muscle-Tech
to use more, I’d definitely “cycle”
supplements showing up in MuscleMag, and if the
it. For example, you might use it
same claims show up in their ads that were made in
for six weeks, stay off it for four
this recent article, I hope they’ve got a great lawyer
weeks, then use it for six more
who can help them explain all of this to the Federal
weeks and so on.
Trade Commission.
And, finally, I want to reiterate my proposal to
Muscle-Tech—if they can prove their supplements
are 500% more effective (I assume they mean for
gaining lean mass) than any other supplements avail-
able, I’ll Federal Express them a check for $10,000
immediately. (Am I nice or what?!)
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Q I’ve heard a lot about top bodybuilders
using insulin to help them gain muscle,
and I’ve read some things about this in
the various magazines, but I can’t quite understand it.
Why use insulin? I thought high insulin levels made you
impact on pro bodybuilding—I have firsthand informa-
tion that a bodybuilder who came out of nowhere last
year and almost won the Olympia is a master with
insulin—he really knows what he’s doing!
Injectable insulin is something that has been used for
many years by diabetics—these are people who have a
fat. You have a knack for explaining things (sometimes disease which prevents their bodies from making enough
complicated things) in a way I can understand. What’s insulin (Type I diabetes), or they have a defect that causes
this whole insulin thing about? their cells not to recognize insulin (Type II diabetes).
Usually, Type I diabetics have to take insulin shots a
“There’s no
doubt that
insulin use is
A Here’s your insulin crash course: as you
most likely know, insulin is a protein
hormone that’s secreted by an organ
right in the middle of your gut called the pancreas. You
might think of insulin as a “nutrient storage” hormone.
few times each day to help their bodies transport glucose
out of their blood and into cells. Now, you might be
wondering if insulin is such a great bodybuilding drug,
how come all diabetics aren’t muscular and lean? Well,
remember what I said earlier—how insulin works
Simply put, what insulin does is escort protein (amino depends a lot on who’s using it. Bodybuilders who are
having a major acids) and carbohydrates (glucose or blood sugar) into already lean and have a lot of muscle can get even bigger
various cells of the body. and leaner with insulin use, but for people who aren’t
impact on pro For example, let’s say you just drank a glass of orange working out hard with weights, aren’t already quite mus-
juice. That orange juice is processed by your digestive sys- cular, and aren’t using other bodybuilding drugs, insulin
bodybuild- tem into the simplest form of carbohydrate (glucose), would probably have virtually no positive effects on body
and it’s shuttled into your bloodstream. Then, insulin composition.
ing...” comes along and takes that glucose into various cells Anyway, the bodybuilders I’ve been talking with use
where it’s used for energy or stored. anywhere from 20 to 40 international units (IU’s) of
Insulin also helps glucose and amino acids get into insulin a day. There are two main types of insulin—long-
muscle cells which facilitates anabolism. And, it acting and short-acting. Short-acting insulin stays
can help prevent the breakdown of muscle tissue in the body for about six hours after injection.
which makes it anti-catabolic. (Insulin shouldn’t be injected into a vein or intra-
But as you mentioned, insulin can be a “double- muscularly—it goes under the skin or “subcuta-
edged sword.” That is, it can also prevent the neously.”) This type of insulin usually kicks in
breakdown of bodyfat and increase bodyfat about an hour or two after you take it.
storage. All types of insulin should be stored in a cool
However, a lot of bodybuilders are using place like a refrigerator but not a freezer.
insulin, and they’re not getting fat— they’re There are different sources of insulin—stan-
getting bigger and more cut than ever. Why is dard and purified animal insulins as well as
this? Well, it seems insulin, when given to a human insulins are available. Standard and
lean, muscular bodybuilder, increases defini- purified insulins differ in their degree of
tion and muscle fullness. But insulin, when purification and content of non-insulin
given to obese persons, can make them even material. Standard and purified insulins also
fatter. come from different sources—they may be
Remember how I told you insulin was a from beef, pork, or a mixture of the two.
“nutrient storage” hormone? Well, it’s also a Human insulin is identical in structure to
nutrient storage hormone with bias. If you’re the insulin produced by the human pancreas,
placing extreme physical demands on your and it differs slightly from animal insulin.
body by doing intense weight training and you’re not One thing some bodybuilders have pointed out is if
taking in an excess amount of calories, the insulin in your they switch from animal to human insulin (or vice versa),
body wants to take nutrients to muscle cells preferentially they often notice a different reaction from the same
over fat cells. dosage—this is just one of several complicated hurdles
On the other hand, if you’re a sedentary person who that insulin-using bodybuilders have to deal with.
consumes an excess number of calories, day in and day Keep this in mind—your pancreas naturally releases
out, insulin will increase your bodyfat levels. insulin (if you’re not a Type I diabetic) after your blood
Now, a lot of top bodybuilders are using insulin, along sugar levels rise. Thus, it’s insulin’s job to keep things as
with growth hormone, steroids, clenbuterol, thyroid “steady” as possible. But when you take an insulin injec-
drugs, and/or IGF-1. In that environment, it appears tion, you’re causing your blood sugar levels to go down—
insulin’s even more effective, and it may cause growth this is called hypoglycemia.
hormone (GH) and IGF-1 to become potent muscle If bodybuilders take a shot of insulin first thing in the
builders and fat burners. (I’m not convinced IGF-1 or morning and then just eat complex carbohydrates, they
GH are all that great on their own.) probably won’t create a high enough blood sugar level by
There’s no doubt that insulin use is having a major the time their insulin shot “kicks in,” and they can go
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into a very deep hypoglycemic episode and experience

things like shortness of breath, shaking, and extreme
sweating. These symptoms can cause quite a panic!
Now, wiser insulin-using bodybuilders apparently get
good results by consuming 10 grams of glucose (simple
carbs) per IU of insulin about 20 to 30 minutes after
they take a shot. For example, if someone took 10 IU’s of
insulin first thing in the morning, he would consume
about 100 grams of simple carbs 20 to 30 minutes later.
If they don’t take an insulin shot first thing in the
morning and have a meal with only complex carbs, they
can get away with not eating any extra simple carbs. The
top bodybuilders I know typically take two or three shots
is a drug
a day, with at least six hours between injections. Some
bodybuilders take a combination of the long and short-
that really
acting forms of insulin, but if they do this, they have to
pay very close attention to their diets and eat exactly
belongs in
every three hours. They also need to make sure they have
a good-sized serving of protein and carbohydrates with
the hands of
every meal.
The longer-acting insulin stays in the system for about
a physician—
you start feeding your body with high amounts of carbo-
24 hours and peaks several times a day. Reportedly, it’s
much harder to predict and manage. However, assuming
hydrates again, your muscles “super compensate” and self-adminis-
suck in even more carbs than they would normally
that the competitive (serious) bodybuilder eats the way
he should, he can make sure he has a sufficient amount
hold—this is called “carbing up” by competitive body- tering it is
of carbs throughout the day, so the risk of hypoglycemia
The tricky thing about this is if you don’t consume
just so
is minimal. The advantage of the long-acting form of
enough carbs, you’ll be flat, and if you take in too many
insulin is that it stays in your body throughout the day, carbs, glucose will “spill over,” and you’ll start holding
and every time your blood glucose levels are increased, water under your skin—you’ll look bigger but still “flat.”
that extra insulin goes to work and pushes glucose (and The bodybuilders I’ve talked to say that carb loading
available amino acids) into muscle cells. while you’re using insulin produces incredibly dramatic
An example of how one top bodybuilder uses insulin results and makes it more likely that you will “peak” with
is as follows: 15 IU’s of the long-acting insulin plus 5 IU’s maximum muscle fullness and definition.
of the short-acting insulin first thing in the morning, A good thing about insulin is that it isn’t toxic to your
then 10 IU’s of the short-acting insulin 6 hours later and liver (like steroids), and it doesn’t cause abnormal bone or
another 10 IU’s of the short-acting insulin after another cartilage growth (like growth hormone). But, it really
6 hours. This is a total of 40 IU’s of insulin a day. (Using wouldn’t be accurate to call the use of injectable insulin
insulin before going to sleep is not a good idea! You can’t by bodybuilders “safe.”
tell if you’re having symptoms of hypoglycemia, so you In fact, there is a very ugly side to this issue. You see, if
could have some big problems!) Most bodybuilders are you misuse insulin, you can kill yourself—not 40 years
cycling (going on and off) insulin even though many do from now—today! If you take too much insulin and don’t
not go off steroids. For example, a bodybuilder might use consume enough carbohydrates, you can go into deep
insulin for eight weeks, then take eight weeks off. Their hypoglycemia and even a coma. (Remember Claus Von
thinking is that this might minimize long-term side Bulow and that whole deal with his wife? If not, don’t
effects of insulin use, which might include a disruption worry about it—it’s not worth explaining...) Many body-
in the body’s ability to produce certain neurotransmitters builders constantly monitor their blood sugar levels with
in response to low blood sugar levels. a tool called a glucometer. This may help lower the risks
Insulin use for precontest preparation is extremely somewhat, but insulin is a drug that really belongs in the
popular with the pros and top amateurs. It seems that hands of a physician—self-administering it is just so
when the body is glycogen depleted, using insulin while risky!
carbing up can produce such dramatic effects, you can I personally wouldn’t mess with insulin—I just don’t
literally stand in front of the mirror and watch your mus- like taking those kinds of chances with my body—to me,
cles swell. it’s not worth it. I’m not a pro bodybuilder, and to be suc-
One of the most complicated things for a competitive cessful at what I do, I don’t have to weigh 275 lbs and
bodybuilder is to carb up “just right.” You see, if you have 3% bodyfat. But those who elect to make a career
deplete your muscles of glycogen (your body’s stored out of competitive bodybuilding sometimes feel they
form of carbohydrate) by eating a low-carb diet (100 must do “whatever it takes.” I feel bad for them, but no
grams or less a day) for 3 to 5 days and working out really one is forcing them to do the things they’re doing—
hard, your muscles will be small and “flat.” But when they’re “risk takers”; there’s no doubt about it.
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I certainly wouldn’t recommend insulin injections to RU 486 is interesting—I’ll admit that. But if you’re
Q&A the typical Muscle Media 2000 reader who’s trying to going to take the drug route, I’m virtually positive RU
build a more muscular, better-looking physique. If you’re 486 won’t produce better results than even a low dose of
not heavily involved in competitive bodybuilding, I defi- anabolic steroids, and if you’re going to take the drug-free
nitely don’t think it’s worth the risk! However, since it’s route (which is what I do), I think you can get better
my job to tell you the truth about what’s going on—I “anti-catabolic” effects with something like HMB than
have to address questions like this one. you could with RU 486.
Now, how can “non-kamikaze” bodybuilders “mimic” To date, no studies have shown that RU 486 helps
the results pros are getting from using injectable insulin? weight trainers gain more size and strength. And I’ve
Well, that’s something some pretty smart “bodybuilding heard from quite a few bodybuilders who tried RU 486
“...a number scientists” are aggressively studying at this very moment. (mostly bodybuilders from Europe), and none of them
You see, taking insulin injections is not the only way to reported anything spectacular.
of “enhance” the anabolic and anti-catabolic effects of

are working
insulin. Vanadyl sulfate, an “insulin mimicker” that is
extremely popular with bodybuilders, is one possible
“drug-free” way to gain an advantage, but new research
has led to even more exciting discoveries in this area.
Within the next year, I think you’ll have access to a
legal, safe “insulin mimicker” which could significantly
enhance your body’s ability to shuttle carbohydrates and
Q The guy who runs my gym told me he’s
going to start carrying a form of HMB put
out by American Strength and Fitness or
something like that. Do you know if their HMB is any
on fake proteins from your bloodstream into muscle cells. The
versions of
HMB and plan
compound that may do this is called IPF™ (insulin poten-
tiating factor™), and it’s been “on the drawing board” for
a couple of years now. The guys behind this product are
the same folks who introduced bodybuilders to creatine
monohydrate (probably the most popular supplement in
A It’s a scam! I’ve learned that a number of
supplement companies are working on
fake versions of HMB and plan to
release them to the market any day now. One company
that’s calling their supplement “HMB” is actually
to release bodybuilding history!). They claim their new IPF com- putting in three ingredients: histidine, methionine, and
some B-vitamins. What a rip-off!
them to the pound will work very similar to insulin injections for
bodybuilders (but it’s not something diabetics should use Don’t be fooled—HMB stands for BETA-HYDROXY
market any instead of injectable insulin!). The product is being
designed to assist with muscle building, but it won’t be so The only legitimate supplier of this supplement is
Metabolic Technologies, Inc. (MTI) of Ames, Iowa. This
day now.” powerful that it can cause severe hypoglycemia and other
dangers associated with injectable insulin use. (Of course, company has licensed the HMB patents from the Iowa
MM2K will be the first mag to bring you the whole story State University Research Foundation (ISURF).
on IPF.) Not only does MTI own the patent rights, to my
One last note—if you’re thinking about using insulin, knowledge, they’re also the only ones who know how to
think twice—it’s really risky! make this stuff in bulk quantities. It took them years to
figure out how to produce HMB.

Q Do you think RU 486 is a good bodybuild-

ing drug?
Literally tens of thousands of
bodybuilders are looking for HMB,
and unfortunately, over the past few
months, it’s been in extremely
short supply. (Hopefully by the
time this magazine gets to the

A I originally wrote about RU 486 (specif-

ically, RU 38486) almost five years ago
in my Anabolic Reference Update. At that
time, I reported that bodybuilders in Europe had been
experimenting with it in hopes of accelerating muscle
newsstands, the supply situation
will be better.) Other supplement
companies are aware of the
demand for HMB, but they’re
pulling their hair out because they
gains. can’t find anybody to make it for
RU 486 is that controversial abortion pill you some- them. (It took MTI over four
times hear about on the news. As it turns out, in addition years to get their manufacturer up
to causing a hormonal environment that induces abor- and running.) So it’s not
tions in pregnant women, RU 486 also happens to be surprising to me,
very “anti-catabolic.” knowing how
A recent study showed that a 600-mg dose of RU 486 many scum- Technologies
(the same dose used to induce abortions) helped protect bags there are Incorporated
Manufactured Exclusively For:
muscle tissue from the catabolic effects of cortisol. in this busi- Metabolic Technologies, Inc.
Iowa State University
The downside is that RU 486 may also block androgen ness, to learn Research Park
Ames, Iowa 50010
muscle receptors which would prevent testosterone from that some compa-
working its magic on muscle cells. nies are going to be
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putting an HMB label on a product taking HMB twice a day; in fact, he thinks instead of tak-
that’s just totally and completely ing one gram (four capsules) three times daily, that taking
fake! These folks are absolute crimi- two capsules six times daily might be best. Thus, what I
nals; they’re as bad as those dirtbags just started doing is taking two capsules of HMB every
who sell counterfeit steroids. three hours while I’m awake. This way, the HMB levels in
There’s no shortage of people out my blood stay more consistent.
there who are willing to pour My problem with using a meal-replacement powder
Wesson oil in a vial, put a fake that contains 1.5 grams of HMB per serving is that you
label on it, sell it to you for $20 would lose the versatility you have with capsules.
per milliliter, and tell you it’s Capsules are extremely convenient—you can keep a small
Deca-Durabolin. What makes packet of them in your pocket, your briefcase, whatever.
you think there would be any It’s very easy to take two capsules six times a day.
shortage of people who’d take
some cheap amino acid, encapsu-
According to the doctors who have extensively studied
HMB, they say you can take it on an empty or full stom-
“This was
late it, put it in a bottle, and tell
you it’s HMB?
ach—it shouldn’t make any difference.
In the most recent HMB clinical study, the test sub-
the second
You’ve got to be
careful! At this time,
jects used HMB in capsules and got great results! This
was the second study to offer strong evidence that weight
study to
Nutritional uses of Calcium β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate
Monohydrate (HMB) are licensed to Metabolic
Technologies, Inc. under U.S. Patent #5,348,979.
the only brand of trainers who use HMB gain significantly more size and offer strong
HMB capsules on strength than nonusers! Also, test subjects who used
the market which I HMB in this recent study showed a strong trend for fat evidence
know to be legit is the loss! The test subjects took one gram of HMB three times
one put out by MTI. In the daily. So, we have strong evidence to suggest that that that weight
future, MTI does plan to allow other supplement com- dosage schedule is effective. But, it’s possible that chang-
panies to buy HMB from them and sell it under other ing the dosage pattern to two capsules six times daily, trainers who
brand names. For example, EAS hopes to buy HMB instead of four capsules three times daily, may produce
from MTI and sell it under the EAS brand name some- even better results! Perhaps this is something researchers use HMB gain
time in the future. But right now, all the details haven’t might look at sometime in the future.
been worked out. I’ll stay in contact with MTI and let significantly
you know who they’re selling HMB to—then I’ll tell you
which companies have the real stuff.
If I were you, I would make sure that before you buy
any type of HMB, you check the label to see if it lists
MTI as the source, and you should also watch for the
U.S. Patent Number 5,348,979. That’s a sign the stuff is
Q I was wondering if the recommended
dosage of supplements like creatine
monohydrate, HMB, CLA, and vanadyl
sulfate should be adjusted according to bodyweight. Do
you have any information on this?
more size and
strength than

Q I saw an ad for a total-nutrition product

in Ironman magazine that’s supposed to
have HMB in it. Is that real?
A It seems to make sense that a 125-lb
woman would not need to take the same
amount of HMB as a 220-lb guy.
Unfortunately, no studies have been done to answer this
particular question.
Logic would seem to dictate that if a 220-lb guy

A One company that makes a very popu-

lar meal replacement—a company I
can’t mention because of an unusual
legal matter (see last issue’s “Q&A”), has advertised a
new total-nutrition product containing HMB. At the
gets good results using 3 grams of HMB a day, a 125-
lb woman should get good results by using 2 grams
a day.
It also seems to make sense that if a 220-lb body-
builder gets good results using a mainte-
time I’m writing this column, MTI has not supplied nance dose of 10 grams a day of creatine
any HMB to this company, but I understand the two monohydrate, then a woman who
companies are in negotiations. I think this new form of weighs 125 lbs might only need 5 grams
“Product X” is supposed to have 1.5 grams of HMB per per day. I would think the same
serving. They are recommending you use two servings would be true for other supple-
a day (clinical studies have shown an effective dose is 3 ments.
grams a day). By the same token, guys who
Using this product twice a day may produce good weigh over 220 lbs (and there are
results, but Dan Duchaine tipped me off to something quite a few of them who read
recently. He pointed out that HMB has an extremely Muscle Media 2000) might need
short “half-life” in the blood—it’s in and out of your sys- to take more of these supple-
tem in just a few hours. Dan does not recommend only ments to get optimal results. For
Covers Home

example, I know some big bodybuilders (275 pounders) tell you how many sets they do, what weight they use, etc.
Q&A use a maintenance dose of 30 grams of creatine monohy- Basically, coverage of top bodybuilding contests is not
drate a day! something our industry is lacking, neither are fantastic
You can assume that the dosages we talk about most photos of well-built bodybuilding superstars and infor-
often in Muscle Media 2000 are basically for guys who mation on how they work out.
weigh between 150 and 220 pounds. If you’re in that Muscle Media 2000 is not going to get into that—ever!
range (which at least 80% of my readers are), you proba- It was not my intention when I started this magazine to
bly don’t need to make any adjustments. If you’re not in come out with a publication that was like the others—
that weight range, you might think about slightly I’ve always strived to make this magazine different—I’ve
decreasing or increasing your supplement intake in an been trying to make it useful, and I think we’ve accom-
attempt to “tailor” the dosage to fit your particular phys- plished that.
iological needs. Hopefully, future research will provide us The sales of Muscle Media 2000 are booming! And
“...most pro with more “exact” info. people certainly don’t read my magazine to find out who
won this or that bodybuilding contest nor do they buy
can’t exactly
tell you what
they do to get
Q Why doesn’t Muscle Media 2000 have
any bodybuilding contest coverage in it?
How come there aren’t any articles about
the bodybuilding champions?
MM2K to read how this or that pro claims to have built
his or her muscularity.
The guys and gals who read this magazine do so
because they want to find out the real deal. You read
MM2K to find out how you can build a better body—
this publication is kind of like a guide for “do-it-your-
selfers.” Muscle Media 2000 isn’t a magazine for people

‘the look’
they have. A The majority of my readers don’t want
that kind of information from MM2K.
A few months ago, we ran a photo essay
and simply put down a listing of the top ten finishers at
the Mr. Olympia contest, and you would’ve thought I’d
who “sit on the sidelines”—it’s a fitness and physique
development magazine for people who specifically want
to learn how it’s done and how they can do it!
Unfortunately, most pro bodybuilders can’t exactly tell
you what they do to get “the look” they have. They’re
They’re caught sent a personal letter to tens of thousands of Muscle caught between a rock and a hard place. Because virtually
Media 2000 readers telling them their mothers were les- all of them use steroids (and a bunch of other body-
between a rock bians! I got more nasty letters about that Mr. Olympia building drugs), many of which are illegal, they can’t
“photo essay” than you would believe! openly talk about the use of these compounds. They talk
and a hard You see, the guy or gal who picks up Muscle Media with me about the drugs they use, but such conversations
2000 expects something different from us. If they want have to be kept confidential for obvious reasons. It’s not
place.” contest coverage, they know to buy Flex. That magazine that I don’t like pro bodybuilders—it’s not that at all. I
will tell you everything you want to know about the have a number of good friends who are pros. It’s just that
major bodybuilding contests—who came in first, second, my readers want the whole truth.
third, tenth, etc. I think the other magazines are good at what they
Flex magazine is also filled with fantastic photos of pro do—like I said, Flex has great bodybuilding contest cov-
bodybuilders working out, and it has some articles that have erage and incredible photos; MuscleMag has great gossip
apparently been writ- and some really funny advertisements which I enjoy read-
ten by pro body- ing; Muscular Development is the “sexiest” bodybuilding
builders where they magazine, etc. Each magazine has its own “specialty.”

“Muscle Media 2000

has the most
accurate, honest,
information on
‘what to use.’”
Covers Home

Muscle Media 2000 unquestionably has the most accu- supplement program you’d recommend for a relatively fit
rate, honest, straightforward information on “what to (my girlfriend only needs to lose a few pounds of fat, and
use.” That is, we have the best information on new she wants to put on some muscle) 28-year-old woman. I
bodybuilding supplements and the most honest infor- think she has the potential to look like one of those fit- “...the main
mation on bodybuilding pharmaceuticals. ness models like Monica Brant or Laurie Donnelly.
We also have some pretty good training articles and reason people
some good information on nutrition, and I think, over-
all, Muscle Media 2000 has a pretty good sense of humor.
But, the main reason people read this magazine is
because they want to find out what to use and how to use
it. That’s what we’re good at, so it makes sense that we
A I’ve been getting more and more ques-
tions like this over the past few months.
It’s an obvious sign that more ladies are
taking an interest in “bodybuilding.” I’m certain the
reason more women than ever are interested in weight
read this
magazine is
because they
should focus on that the most. training is because the muscle magazines have stopped
running so many “freakish” pictures of female body- want to find

Q I’ve been trying to get my girlfriend to

work out with weights, use supplements,
and so on, but for a long time, she has
resisted—she told me she didn’t want to end up looking
like one of those “grotesque” female bodybuilders. But,
builders and have been featuring drug-free lifters like
Monica Brant, Mia Finnegan, Laurie Donnelly, etc.
Now, gals like your girlfriend can see that weight-train-
ing exercise and proper nutrition can help them build a
beautiful body.
If you’d like to help your girlfriend out, I’d suggest you
read an article I wrote in this issue of Muscle Media 2000
out what to
use and how
to use it.”
more recently, she’s taken an interest in training with called “The Right Way.” It’s on page 104.
weights. I finally convinced her that free-weight exer- This is a great article for guys who act as “personal
cise isn’t going to make her look like a freak. Anyway, I trainers” for the women in their lives. It will help answer
wanted to know what type of nutrition, exercise, and a lot of questions.

I’m dedicated to providing you with specific, prac-

Just A tical, “how-to” bodybuilding information, but unfor-
Few More tunately, I can’t do this for every single person who
Things... reads the magazine. Believe me...if I could, I would!
(Since I know the answers to 98% of the questions I
I’d like to say thanks to all the people who take the time receive off the top of my head, it
to write in with their questions, positive comments, and really frustrates me that I just don’t Bill Phillips
feedback. I really appreciate it! have the time.) The good news is I’ll
I want to let you know I do everything I can to provide be writing more and more articles
each and every one of you with the answers you’re look- for Muscle Media 2000 that address
ing for—I personally answered 847 letters last month! (I’ll the “frequently asked questions” of
bet I answer more letters each month than any publisher readers, and it won’t be long before
in this business ever has!) Muscle Media 2000 will be a
Unfortunately, I cannot provide a detailed response to monthly magazine!
every single question (I provide an answer to at least 90% One last thing—we now have
of the letters I get). our own “Home Page” on the
And, there are some subjects I just can’t give you a per- Internet. Muscle Media 2000 is the
sonal reply on—one of those subjects that is strictly “off first bodybuilding magazine to go
limits” is the use of bodybuilding drugs. For obvious legal “on line.” One of the things we’ll
reasons, I can’t give people “one-on-one” advice that per- feature regularly on our Internet site
tains to the use of steroids, insulin, IGF-1, etc. All the is a list of frequently asked ques-
information I have about those kinds of topics is tions (FAQ’s) along with my answers. I’ll be updating
addressed in Muscle Media 2000 or in my Anabolic these FAQ’s every single week, so in between issues of
Reference Guide (the most comprehensive book ever writ- Muscle Media 2000, you might want to check out the
ten on bodybuilding drugs. That book is advertised on FAQ’s section—I think you’ll find a lot of the ques-
page 91 of this issue). tions you have about bodybuilding will be answered
For those who have detailed questions about supple- there.
ment use (a topic I can address in a one-on-one letter), I If you’d like to check out our Muscle Media 2000 Home
request that before you send me your questions, you thor- Page, the URL (address) is
oughly read my new 1996 Supplement Review. That book
has the answers to almost every supplement question you Thanks again!
can think of. There is an announcement on page 19 that
tells you how to get that book FREE!
Covers Home

That D-Bol is Fake! A

Stacking Clenbuterol and
B y D a
D u c h a i n e

Amino Acids and Insulin


Guru I was steroid shop-

ping in Tijuana and
found some small
blue bottles of methandrostenolone made by
Ludwig Heun in West Germany. (At least, that’s
what the bottle said.) Is this stuff real?
company would find a source of it and usually
charge between 10% to 15% over wholesale cost.
When brand-name Dianabol and generic
methandrostenolone were removed from the
American market, several companies began making
counterfeit versions, but all of them had problems.
Some of the pills were so poorly made and so

A No. It’s counterfeit. I happen to

know the entire history of this
counterfeit because I designed the
bottle, label, and tablets.
Starting in 1985, I worked closely with a Tijuana
loosely held together that you could use them as
blackboard writing chalk. Others were good but
elusive, i.e., hard to find.
About the same time, an Indian crime family
based in England began repackaging the Indian
pharmaceutical manufacturing company called Pronabol 5 (methandrostenolone) tablets into
Laboratory Milano. For many years, Laboratory small white bottles and labeled them as if they were
Milano produced generic medications, primarily from Ludwig Heun GmbH KG, West Germany.
antibiotics, for Mexican drugstores. The laboratory This was a very nice product, and I remember
was named Milano because the owner, Juan going to various hotel rooms near the Los Angeles
Machlis, purchased all of the raw materials through airport to buy thousands of bottles from a bearded,
a procurement company based in Milano, Italy. turbaned old gentleman who looked like a diplo-
Whenever a drug was needed, the procurement mat. But as nice as the product was, I could never
depend on consistent shipments.
So I persuaded Laboratory Milano to manufac-
ture methandrostenolone to my specifications. I
designed a tiny light blue bottle with a white metal
cap. I supplied the Indian/English Ludwig Heun
bottle label so Milano could copy it. I picked this
label for two reasons: 1) on the black market, the
brand had established itself as a good, reliable
product, and 2) I wanted to avoid any ties or refer-
ences to Mexican manufacture simply because, at
the time, most steroid users distrusted any Mexican
steroid product. The unfounded assertion was that
“...if you see the Mexican drugs were not as potent as the
European versions. Besides, calling it “Duchain-
any abol” was out of the question.
European Methandrostenolone was the first steroid pro-
duced by Laboratory Milano, and we made sure
steroid being sold each tablet always contained at least six milligrams
of the steroid. The cost for the raw materials and
in a Mexican packaging was only $0.50 per unit, but we sold it
for $4.50. After that, we made counterfeit versions
pharmacy, it’s a (always with real steroids in them) of Lemmon
counterfeit with testosterone cypionate and Lemmon nandrolone
decanoate. This was a screw up on my part because
no active steroid testosterone cypionate and nandrolone decanoate
were never made by Lemmon. I unknowingly had
Photo: Jim Amentler
ingredients.” bought counterfeit steroids to duplicate!
Covers Home

Guru Whenever
I use clen-
buterol, it
works great for about two weeks. After
that, I can use ten tabs a day and my tem-
perature will hardly rise. What can I do
“I happen
to know the
about this?
history of

A Clenbuterol is a beta-2
agonist. It attaches to the
same receptor as your nat-
ural adrenaline and noradrenaline do. It
has a very high bonding capacity to the
adrenergic receptor. Whenever a drug fits
well onto a cell receptor, the receptor I designed
becomes resistant to that drug. For exam-
ple, the thermogenic effect of ephedrine the
The original source of our meth- seems to have a longer duration (though it’s not as
androstenolone was from Germany. potent) for two reasons: 1) ephedrine doesn’t have a bottle,
We also purchased oxandrolone high receptor affinity, and 2) ephedrine is not beta-2
from Searle in England. specific. label, and
This was ironic You might have heard about the newly discovered
because Labora- beta-3 receptors. The receptor is primarily a thermogenic tablets.”
tory Milano and I messenger, and over half the thermogenic effect from
duplicated the Searle ephedrine is from beta-3 stimulation. Although the ther-
Anavar exactly (the tablet mogenic message is not as intense as the beta-2 message,
mold cost us $10,000) and sold beta-3 receptors are very resistant to down-regulation.
it for half the cost of what Searle sold Clenbuterol, however, has very little beta-3 stimulation.
it for wholesale to pharmacies. Searle Until some new synthetic beta-3 agonist is commer-
became so frustrated over this (we sold the counterfeit cially available, the beta agonist of choice is still clen-
Anavar to American pharmacies) that the Anavar bottle buterol (although the stronger cimaterol is available as a
size was doubled to differentiate between ours and research chemical in the U.S.). The rapid receptor sensi-
theirs. tivity attenuation happens to all users, and the various
All the steroid tablets were smuggled in bulk across the dosage schemes (i.e., two days on, two days off ) just
border and dropped off at various motel rooms around aren’t successful.
San Diego. The bottles and labels were made in Tijuana This attenuation and the lowering of above-normal
and legally exported to America. Mexican women would body temperature are governed by two different mecha-
count tablets, load them into the bottles, and box them in nisms. I’ve written
packages of 100. about one of
I stopped working with Laboratory Milano in the fall them before: the
of 1986. From that point on, the company cranked up shunting of T4
production and flooded the American black market. Just thyroid away from
before the arrest of the major “players” (myself included), the active T3 form
Laboratory Milano produced some unusual products into the ineffective
which I had designed. One was a methandrostenolone reverse-T3. Most of
with a diuretic and liver antitoxin added. Others included the thyroid in the
very powerful injectable versions of oxandrolone and body is the inac-
oxymetholone. I can honestly say that these two exotic tive T4 type.
injectables are the most potent steroids I have ever used. The active thy-
Since the breakup and prosecution of the Laboratory roid that actually fits onto thy-
Milano conspiracy, the company has ceased all opera- roid receptors is a reduced T4, and reduced T4 occurs
tions. Nevertheless, some of the former employees still when one of the iodine atoms is cleaved off the molecule
have the ability to produce the various bottles, labels, and by a specific enzyme (deiodinase). Since we have no way
tablets of the various steroids. However, none of these of stopping the T4 from being transformed into ineffec-
current counterfeits have any steroid in them, the Ludwig tive reverse-T3 instead of the active T3, and there’s no
Heun version included. So if you see any European such thing as injectable deiodinase (which would prevent
steroid being sold in a Mexican pharmacy, it’s a counter- the reduction), the best approach is to supplement the
feit with no active steroid ingredients. missing T3 with Cytomel, a synthetic T3.
Covers Home

ASK The trouble is, it’s likely a daily amount of Cytomel Between the small intestine and the
GURU higher than 25 mcg would eventually stop the produc-
tion of natural thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and
liver, all proteins are reduced to individ-
ual amino acids. And each amino has
the up-regulation will take about 8 weeks. Then, when the ability to cause both insulin and glucagon secretion
you go off Cytomel, your body’s still lagging in produc- from the pancreas. Glucagon is insulin’s evil twin: it’s
“...large tion of TSH. So now you know why almost everybody considered a catabolic hormone. However, glucagon
who stops taking thyroid (with the exception of the drug secretion doesn’t happen in large amounts until blood
dosages of Triacana) gets fat. For eight weeks, the body doesn’t need glucose falls to about 50 mg per decaliter (one tenth of
as many calories. a liter). Unlike insulin, which circulates in the blood,
the Up to this point, the Cytomel trick was only a partial the small amount of glucagon secreted from amino
solution. The second and major decrease of body tem- acids stays mostly in the liver. Glucagon’s job in the liver
antihistamine perature is caused by the down-regulation of the beta-2 is to speed the release of glycogen. Glycogen is a com-
receptor. The receptor actually is still in the cell but not plex starch. The same type of glycogen stored
ketotifen in its usual place. The receptor must be at the outside of in the liver is also
(trade name the cell surface to be available to the beta agonist. There stored in skeletal mus-
is research showing that large dosages of the antihista- cle. Glucagon sends the
Zaditen by mine ketotifen (trade name Zaditen by Sandoz) will up- message to the liver
regulate the beta-2 receptors. This is similar to the to reconvert
Sandoz) American Periactin (cyproheptadine). This class of anti- glycogen
histamine will cause drowsiness, hunger, and irritability,
will but you may think the negative symptoms are a small
price to pay.
up-regulate Here are the particulars. Zaditen is only available in
France in 1-mg capsules, 60 capsules to a box. It sells for
the beta-2 65.10 francs (about $12.25). Because of its appetite- back to
stimulating and muscle-building properties, Zaditen is glucose,
receptors.” sold through some of the American AIDS buying clubs. which
The average price for it in America is $40 a box. The dose is then
needed for the up-regulation of the beta-2 receptors is released into
about 10 capsules (10 mg)—assuming you’ve been using 3 the bloodstream.
clenbuterol tablets (60 The reason why eat-
mcg) each day. Sigma ing protein along with
Chemicals, the company carbohydrates causes
that has all the bodybuild- more muscle glycogen
ing goodies we like but deposition is because
can’t buy (including ste- the additional insulin
roids), does sell ketotifen (although insulin secre-
(the fumarate version is tion caused by amino
water soluble) in raw acids is small compared
bulk form. Keep in mind to a glucose response) is
that even when used with clenbuterol, available in the blood-
which both reduces appetite and is more of a stream, and the glu-
stimulant than caffeine, Zaditen will still cause sleepi- cagon pushes glucose out of the liver into the blood-
ness and hunger. Those aren’t nice effects, especially if stream.
you’re dieting. It might be more efficient to use an isolated amino acid
Your final solution to sustain clenbuterol’s action is to with a carbohydrate meal to “push” blood glucose into
use both Cytomel (25 mcg) and Zaditen (10 mg) each muscle cells. Not all amino acids have the same ability to
day after using clenbuterol by itself for 2 weeks. You’ll generate insulin and glucagon. In looking over the scien-
need only 60 mcg of clenbuterol for a very pronounced tific research, you’ll find that the amino acid glycine elic-
thermogenic effect, hypothetically speaking, of course. its the highest secretion of both insulin and glucagon.
The branched-chain amino acids elicit very little glu-

Guru A few months back, I read

that I should eat protein
with each carb meal when
I carb up for my contest. Why is this? Is there a particu-
lar protein that would be better to use than others?
cagon secretion, although the BCAA’s (especially leucine)
are good for boosting insulin.
Now that we know about the nice glucagon pulse
caused by glycine, you might see some nutrition com-
pany make an alpha-ketoglutarate variant with glycine
(rather than ornithine).

BODYOPUS, Dan Duchaine’s new book, is coming soon! ( is! Dan swears on the Holy Bible it won’t be
much longer!) Watch for details on how to get a copy of this fantastic new book in future issues of Muscle Media 2000.
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Gyno Surgery is Ugly!

Nubian is for Pussies!

T A L K S B y T C L u o m a
Buying Supplements
on a Budget.

Okay—So Maybe DHEA

Isn’t Illegal!
Q I did a couple of steroid cycles a
few years back. Although I eventu-
ally lost most of the muscle I had
gained, I was left with a fairly mild case of gyno.
Mild as it is, it still bugs me, and I rarely take my
suction method might be able to remove very
small amounts of this type of gyno, but if the
gyno is more severe or steroid-induced, then con-
ventional surgery is definitely the only way to go.
I recently had the “pleasure” of watching Dr.
shirt off in public if I can avoid it. Recently, I heard Bruce Nadler, the “bodybuilder’s plastic surgeon,”
about a new method where gyno is treated by suc- perform one of these surgeries. Although some sur-
tioning off the excess tissue. Does this method gical research groups have published papers docu-
Calming those work, or is the usual surgical method still my best menting just a little over 100 gyno operations, Dr.
bet? Nadler has performed over 500 on his own—by far
Jitters. A I’m familiar with the suction
method, and it might have its
place in treating very mild cases of
naturally occurring gynecomastia. However, I
doubt it would be of any use at all in steroid-
the world’s record. If anybody can treat this condi-
tion and, at the same time, take into consideration
the special needs of the bodybuilder, it’s Dr. Nadler.
Anyhow, here’s how the surgery goes (remember, I
watched one): after the patient is anaesthetized, Dr.
induced gyno. Let me explain. In naturally occur- Nadler makes a tiny incision—about an inch
What’s Iprivalone? ring gyno, the male breast tissue is almost identi- long—exactly where the edge of the nipple meets
cal to female breast tissue. In other words, it’s soft the skin. (That way, no scar will ever be visible.)
with very little fibrous material to complicate The skin is then retracted to reveal the top portion
things. Although I’ve never seen it performed, the of the tissue mass. Dr. Nadler then literally starts
snipping away at the fibrous and tough connective
tissue that is pervasive in steroid-induced gyno,
carefully freeing the mass of tissue as he goes along.
Although the case I witnessed was considered mild,
the patient had what I considered a phenomenal
amount of excess breast tissue (see the accompany-
ing photo). Nadler referred to this as the “iceberg
effect” where, like an iceberg, nine-tenths of the
mass was below the surface (so it’s not visible).
There’s absolutely no way this tissue could be
removed by suction, unless of course, you used an
atomic-powered vacuum cleaner that might also
suck out your liver in the process.
Nadler continued to expertly cut out the tissue
mass, which looked, for all the world, like a huge
piece of gristle. Simultaneously, he cauterized the
YUCK! blood vessels so undue bleeding wouldn’t occur.
Nadler explained that he’s actually seen some sur-
This is what a geons excise some pectoral muscle along with the
“mild” gyno mass, in effect treating the condition as if it
were some malignant tumor. Nadler also takes
case extra precautions to remove every bit of the gyno,
as many cases often develop a distal end that grows
of “gyno” looks like towards the shoulder where the insertion point of
after surgery. the pec is. If this isn’t removed, the gyno can grow
back rapidly. After about 25 minutes, Nadler had
snipped and teased the entire mass out in one
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piece—hard to believe that this huge section of

ugly tissue could have been coerced out of an
incision that was only an inch-long! The
process is then repeated on the other side if
necessary. (Unilateral gyno isn’t common, but
it happens.)
After the surgery, the patient has to wear a
compression vest for about a month to six
weeks. Soon after, the chest area heals perfectly,
and no one is ever the wiser. Believe me, if you
have a problem with gyno, Dr. Nadler’s the one
to see. You can reach him at 1-516-724-6005.

Q The bodybuilders at my gym

seem to be hooked on Nubain.
What exactly is this drug, and
more importantly, is it something I should be
“I’d use

A “Hooked on” is a good choice

of words. Although Nubain is
clinically regarded as having
low abuse potential, the Physician’s Desk
Reference (PDR) warns physicians against prescribing it
for six
for “emotionally unstable patients or for patients with a
history of narcotic abuse.” …hey, they’re talking about
Nubain is a good drug but only when it’s used as
intended. It’s a synthetic narcotic—in many ways similar
to morphine—used for the relief of severe or moderate
pain. The effects kick in about 15 minutes after one gets
Q Although bodybuilding means everything
to me, and I’d do anything to succeed, I
just don’t have the money to shell out
for many of the supplements currently available.
Considering that I’m on a limited budget, what can’t I do
Then, I’d
move on
to HMB
for six
a subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of Nubain, and without? I can only spare about 60 or 70 dollars a month
the pain-killing effects last about 3 to 6 hours. Why do
bodybuilders use it, you ask? Well, it kills the pain
for supplements. weeks,
induced by brutally intense workouts, and some mis-
guided bodybuilders think it has some sort of anti-cata-
bolic effect. Ironically, the drug’s main side effect is seda-
tion, and unless it’s used concurrently with some sort of
central nervous system stimulant, your first impulse may
A I fully understand your problem.
Supplements are expensive, especially
the good ones. And nothing is more
frustrating than buying a couple of weeks’ worth of an
effective supplement and then, just when it’s starting to
after which
I’d finish
the ‘cycle’
be to curl up with your grandma’s comforter rather than work, running out of money, so you can’t buy any more.
to work out. In fact, users are warned against operating I remember buying every new supplement that came on with CLA.”
machinery while under its effects. It also causes some res- the market but having to take less than the recommended
piratory depression, which, logic dictates, would nega- dosage to make them last longer because I didn’t have
tively affect your workouts. enough money to use them properly. And even if any of
Taken regularly, Nubain is addictive, both psychologi- the things I purchased were worthwhile, I never gave
cally and physiologically, and drug tolerance rapidly them a chance to work.
develops, necessitating bigger and more frequent doses. Anyhow, after a lot of serious thought, here’s what I
Rapid withdrawal results in the same sort of symptoms came up with. If I were you, I’d use three supplements,
usually attributed to crack addicts in detox programs. but I’d steal a trick from the steroid boys and cycle the
Sounds great, doesn’t it? In fact, one bodybuilder who has supplements. I’d use creatine monohydrate for six weeks.
publicly threatened to get me is allegedly a Nubain addict, Then, I’d move on to HMB for six weeks, after which I’d
which might well explain his behavior. finish the “cycle” with CLA. You could then start the
Of all the drugs bodybuilders use, this one seems the whole cycle over again. There are other good supple-
most frivolous and useless to me. Maybe it sounds a tad ments out there, but these are the ones I’d feel most com-
macho, but to me, workout-induced pain is a badge of fortable with if I had to limit myself. And, there might
honor. It makes bodybuilding a very unique activity, one even be some evidence to suggest that this sort of cycling
that requires some level of courage that distinguishes it is a good thing, anyway. Obviously, any supplement—
from Ping Pong or stamp collecting. any drug—won’t be quite as effective as it was in the
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beginning after taking it for a long time, so it might not
be a bad idea to cycle anyhow. That way, you’re maxi-
mizing your dollar power and your supplement power.
Theoretically, at least, you’d always be trying a “new” sup-
plement, and your body may continue to respond favor-
ably to it.
Obviously, if money weren’t an issue, I’d use all three
of them together, but in your case, this is a viable alter-
“One native that should help you put on muscle while not hav-
ing to declare bankruptcy.
old people
Q I’m a 30-year-old bodybuilder who’s
interested in using DHEA. I recently got
some through the mail, but the only trou-
ble is, I have no idea what dosage to take! I read your
article on fat burners a couple of months ago, and you
cited a study where men who had used 1,600 mg a day
found that experienced significant fat loss while retaining lean
body mass. Taking 1,600 mg sounds like a lot, and it sure
a modest would be expensive. Do smaller dosages have any
amount of
50 mg—
A I’ve searched the literature on this stuff,
and as far as I can tell, only 2 dosages
have been used in all of the studies I
found: 50 mg per day and 1,600 mg per day. Quite a
difference, isn’t it? What’s more, there doesn’t seem to be
had any rhyme or reason behind the dosages. When you’re
in your 20’s, your body makes tons of DHEA, between could possibly be anabolic in some respects. Whether it
positive 7 mg and 15 mg a day (in addition to the amounts acts like testosterone or some weaker cousin is unknown,
already in the body). After your 20’s, natural amounts or it could be that restoring DHEA levels to normal
effects...” start dropping off progressively, so by the time you’re an amounts or, in fact, higher-than-normal amounts
old geezer, your body is nearly devoid of all DHEA. through supplementation might allow your body to
Of course, even though natural levels of secretion are build muscle according to your physiological potential.
between 7 and 15 mg a day, that doesn’t mean simply In other words, high DHEA levels might, in some way,
taking that same amount would bring you to “normal” potentiate levels of GH, IGF-1, or testosterone.
levels. Too many things happen to the chemicals in a pill I’m gonna tell you right now, DHEA science is so
before they reach the bloodstream, and 100 grams of a young that the proper dosages for weight loss, increasing
substance might only equate to 10 mg in serum. Besides, muscle mass, or keeping the grim reaper away are more
I’m not sure anyone knows the half-life of DHEA, so the or less unknown. I can, however, come up with some
daily secretion of an additional 7 to 15 mg of DHEA semi-educated guesses. For simply “staying young,” I’d
might only replenish that portion of serum levels that recommend a dosage of between 50 and 100 mg a day.
have deactivated normally. For bodybuilding purposes, I’d cautiously recommend
One widely reported study involving old people found between 200 and 250 mg a day, and for obese people, I’d
that a modest amount of DHEA—50 mg—had positive recommend up to 500 mg a day—if you can afford it.
effects in reversing some of the markers of aging (increas- There’s no way I’m going to advise that anyone take
ing IGF-1 levels, for one), in addition to giving the peo- 1,600 mg or anywhere near that amount unless you’re
ple in the study an overall feeling of well-being. Other under a doctor’s supervision—just too little is known
studies, mostly involving obese men in their 20’s, used about the stuff to start eating it like candied peanuts.
1,600 mg of DHEA for periods up to 6 weeks. Most of Besides, smaller doses might be just as effective.
the men in these studies ended up losing considerable Incidentally, there’s been a lot of confusion over
amounts of bodyfat without actually losing any weight! DHEA’s legal status, with some declaring loudly that the
That means they must have put on a significant amount drug is a controlled Schedule III drug (similar to steroids)
of muscle. No studies have shown any ill effects of and others saying it’s as legal as mother’s milk. As of now,
DHEA supplementation. it seems DHEA is a legal over-the-counter drug, but
Now, old people and fat people aside, what can DHEA make no mistake about it, the DEA is looking at the drug
do for the average person or average bodybuilder, and very closely and gathering information on it just in case
what dosage is needed to create those effects? DHEA the FDA decides to take it off the shelves. Of course, that
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may never happen. The FDA initially wanted to make the effectiveness of ephedrine by about 50%, so logi-
DHEA a prescription-only drug, and that’s what hap- cally, you could take half the dosage of ephedrine and
pened about ten years ago. Trouble was, rules and regu- still experience good results.
lations required that the FDA have a public hearing Adding the L-tyrosine could also make the stack safer
where people opposing the new DHEA determination in general. When ingested, L-tyrosine is converted to
could voice their complaints. The FDA kept postponing noradrenaline, a stimulatory hormone that increases the
this hearing, and when the new supplement laws went blood pressure, but it’s first converted to dopamine,
into effect last year, the burden of proof fell on the FDA. which has a blood-pressure lowering effect. You can buy
In other words, they had to show if and why DHEA L-tyrosine at almost any health-food store.
could be harmful. This is a costly and time-consuming
process, so it may never happen.

Q I’ve had fairly good success using the

ephedrine/caffeine/aspirin stack, but I
don’t like how jumpy it makes me. I work
Q I recently ordered a product called
DHEA-Plus™ from Nutraceutics Corpor-
ation. Does this stuff really have any
DHEA in it?

on computer circuit boards for a living, and I can’t have
my hands shaking, even a little. Besides, all of the neg-
ative publicity about ephedrine has my fiancèe a little
worried. She wants me to get off the stuff. Is there any
way, short of going off the combo, to make it less stim-
A The product known as DHEA-Plus
doesn’t contain any DHEA—not a lick.
Nowhere in their literature does Nutra-
ceutics claim their product contains DHEA, but the
word DHEA is sprinkled liberally throughout their
ulating (and more safe)? brochures. I think what they’re trying to say is that their
product somehow enhances natural DHEA production,

A There are a couple of things you can do.

For one, you can deep-six the aspirin.
Many peo-
ple find that just 20 mg of
ephedrine and 200 mg of
but I’m not sure—I got a headache just reading the
brochures. However, in the process of putting one of
the previous issues of Muscle Media 2000 to bed,
bleary-eyed and all, we inadvertently used a pic-
ture of the DHEA-Plus product to illustrate an
caffeine before each meal article containing information about real DHEA.
work almost as well, and Understandably, people assumed the DHEA-Plus by about
dropping the aspirin reduces product was the real thing. We apologize
a little bit of the stimulatory if this caused anyone to buy the wrong 50%...”
effect. Another thing you product.
can do is add a gram of the Incidentally, the Nutraceutics Company
amino acid L-tyrosine to the stack. also called us, and I was surprised to hear
In animal studies, L-tyrosine increased that they were mildly miffed at our blun-
der. They didn’t want peo-
ple to think there was any
real DHEA in their prod-
uct. I commend them on
that stand, but ironi-
cally, their literature, either
intentionally or not, in
addition to the name of
the product, seems to sug-
gest that the product does contain
DHEA. And if indeed the product
does somehow stimulate natural
DHEA production, I’d urge them
to explain the process in their liter-
One more thing. You can buy
real DHEA (we had it tested—it’s
good) by calling So-Cal Supple-
ments. Their phone number is
1-800-667-6020 (ext. 101).
Covers Home

Q I’m going to Europe this spring. Are there
any compounds or drugs I should be on
the lookout for, I mean, aside from the
ing Iprivalone therapy, the patients had gained between
four and seven pounds of lean body mass, without the
benefit of resistance training or increased caloric intake.
Interestingly, a U.S. patent for Iprivalone as an “ana-
bolic weight-gain promoting chemical” was granted in
1976, but for reasons unknown to me, its widespread
“...a U.S. usual steroids I hear about?
manufacture and use was never pursued. It isn’t currently

available in the U.S., but on the other hand, it’s not a
patent for It just so happens that I recently heard
controlled substance, either. However, somewhere along
about a compound that’s sold in
Iprivalone Hungary and possibly Italy that may
the line, Hungarians decided Iprivalone would be a valu-
able drug in combating osteoporosis, and that’s what it’s
have profound anabolic effects with very little or no neg-
as an ative side effects. The drug is called Iprivalone, and it
used for today in Hungary (200 mg, 3 times a day).
If indeed Iprivalone is as anabolic as some of the stud-
belongs to a class of chemicals called isoflavones. (See
‘anabolic Dan Duchaine’s article, “Flavone X—The Next Frontier
ies show it is, how in the wide, wide world of drugs does
in Drug-Free Muscle Building” in this it work? Based on animal studies, the compound some-
weight- issue.) These chemicals are found in a how seems to increase nitrogen retention, but you prob-
number of plant species, and their ably could have guessed that on your own. Dan
gain effects are varied. Iprivalone, in animal Duchaine and one of his inscrutable assistants, Patrick
studies, has shown amazing nutrient- Arnold, initially worried that Iprivalone might have weak
promoting partitioning effects in a number of ani- estrogen-agonist properties, but subsequent research by
mal species (cattle, rabbits, poultry, and Arnold showed that the Iprivalone metabolite circulates
chemical’ guinea pigs, to name a few). Animals in the bloodstream bound to another chemical that ren-
receiving normal amounts of food put ders it estrogenically inert.
was on large amounts of muscle mass—up Although I have no idea what the safest and most
to 20% more in some cases—without effective dosage is, I’d probably double the female osteo-
granted in any detectable changes in hormone lev- porosis dose—2 times 200 mg, 3 times a day equals 400
els. In addition, they had more energy and more mg 3 times a day—and work up from there. Of course,
1976...” endurance. The question is, though, will it work in Hungary is a long way away for the rest of us, but if you
humans? Well, at least one study was reportedly done, stumble on some and decide to give it a try, let us know
using 20 chronically ill patients. Within weeks of start- what happens.
Covers Home

Finding a
B y M I C H A E L M O O N E Y
Designing a
Steroid Cycle

Testosterone and
the Immune System
Q I have multiple sclerosis, an
autoimmune disease, and have
discovered that using anabolic
steroids has totally changed my life. When I first
started using steroids, I could only bench press 40
the MS symptoms increase, so I know he’s wrong,
and they’re good for me. Because of your article
on steroids and the immune system, I think you
probably understand. The problem is my supply is
about to dry up, and my doctor won’t prescribe
lbs. Five years later, I now bench 270, squat 275 for steroids, so I’m forced to be a felon. Do you have
5 reps, and deadlift 525 lbs with wrist straps any tips on getting a doctor to help me? I can’t
because the MS limits my grip strength [WOW 525 identify myself, but thanks for publishing your
lbs!!!]. I use one Sustanon 250 and 200 mg of Deca work. Please keep spreading the word.
every 10 days. My doctor thinks I’m nuts, but when
I go off the steroids, I get weaker and weaker, and

A If your doctor won’t work with

you after you’ve done your best to
educate him, GET ANOTHER
DOCTOR!!!!!!!!!!!! This is what I tell the AIDS
patients I work with all the time. For your doctor
to not know enough about using anabolic steroids
is one thing, and that’s why you have to educate
him. Doctors don’t have time to learn everything
about every medicine, especially ones as complex
as anabolic steroids.
It’s also understandable that he may be afraid of
the legal implications of prescribing steroids for an
“off-label use,” and as this is a very touchy subject,
“...steroids I wouldn’t blame any doctor who was afraid for this
may reason, as he or she may have to be extra careful,
knowing he’s subject to the scrutiny of the DEA for
help some reason.
I do, however, know of doctors who prescribe
improve steroids to patients for off-label reasons. If your
doctor doesn’t have any reason to be afraid, he does
immune have a perfectly legal right to prescribe medicines
metabolism for off-label reasons. And some doctors are just
willing to go all the way to help a patient with a
as well as critical medical condition.
However, if your doctor doesn’t seem to care
decrease the enough to want to help you, or if he tries to act like
the “god” who knows all the answers about a criti-
progression of cal illness that modern medical science has no good
autoimmune answer for, hire a better, more compassionate doc-
tor. Here’s how to do that:
diseases.” Call the prospective new doctor, and tell him or
her you have whatever illness and you want to
“interview” the doctor to see if he’s open to investi-
gating your views on potential therapies. During
the interview, tell the doctor everything you’re con-
sidering about anabolic steroids or whatever, but
get all your information together, especially med-
Covers Home

ical journal articles, before you meet with him, so you can autoimmune—can give this list to his or her doctor. “...I’m sure my
prove you know what you’re talking about. If the doctor That way, the doctor may deem there’s good reason to
disagrees with what you say entirely, tell him you don’t consider anabolic steroids like Deca Durabolin, which friend Dan
want to pay for the meeting, as it isn’t yielding anything may decrease progression of the disease and help
for you. Be assertive about this; you shouldn’t have to pay improve the condition. Just send a self-addressed, Duchaine will
for his services if there’s no benefit to you. Then keep stamped envelope to me here at MM2K to request it.
shopping. If you have to interview ten doctors to find one commit to
who will work with you, you don’t want to have paid a fee
all ten times. You will find a good doctor who under-
stands that no one knows how to fix your disease, so every
doctor should be open to researching and experimenting.
Just keep looking! Don’t buy the status quo, “There’s no
good remedy for your
disease” bullshit.
Q I’m an HIV+ 40-year-old competitive
bodybuilder who weighs 205 lbs at 5’10’’
tall. I came back from an HIV-related ill-
ness where my weight plummeted to 145 lbs (skinny
me!), so I’m proud of the 9-month, 60-pound bounce-
being our
W h e r e t h e r e ’s a back I’ve made with proper nutrition and intelligent advisor’ and
(strong) will, there’s a training. People who see me are amazed and ask me if
way. I see it all the I’m using anabolic steroids, but I haven’t ever used
time. And there are them; I just have good genetics and a lot of determina-
plenty of compassion- tion. I am anxious to get back to the competition circuit
some of his
ate doctors out there, this spring (I came in second at the Northern California
too. Championships before I became HIV+ several years
‘secret Mr.
You should also ago—as I said, all natural). I’m writing to ask if maybe Olympia
know that I know a you can help me design an optimum steroid cycle, so I
doctor in Mexico who can maximize my lean muscle mass and actually win a steroid
is having great success contest sometime soon. Besides the fact that I believe
using growth hor- using steroids might help to stop the HIV from progress- tips’...”
mone (GH) with ing, because I’ve seen it do that for friends of mine, I
multiple sclerosis would like to achieve champion status and let everyone
patients. This seems know that an HIV diagnosis doesn’t mean you can’t live
to be, at least in part, because GH increases IGF-1, and life to the fullest.
IGF-1 is known to be involved in supporting the health
and growth of nerve tissue. MS is a degeneration of the
nervous system, so this makes sense. Check it out, and
ask whatever doctor you end up working with to consider
giving you the latitude to experiment with GH, perhaps
in combination with steroids like Deca Durabolin. The
GH may help reduce the nerve damage, and the steroids
may help improve immune metabolism as well as
decrease the progression of autoimmune diseases.
Good luck!

P.S. If you can’t find a doctor who’ll work with you in

your city, and you’re willing to go to Mexico, write me at:
MM2K, P.O. Box 277, Golden, CO 80402, and I’ll call
you with the name of the doctor down there who’s work-
ing with GH for MS patients.

Q I’ve been reading your articles for sev-

eral issues now, not so much because I
enjoy them (I do, though), but because I
have a particular condition which I believe may be
helped by steroids. The trouble is, I have to convince my
A Although the preceding letter was sent
to me but addressed to Dr. X, let me
quickly point out that I am not Dr. X.
Even though T.C. Luoma and Nelson Vergel, who
inherited Dr. X’s research projects, both tell me I sound
like and remind them of the late Michael Dullnig, a.k.a.
You can live life to the
fullest even after an HIV

doctor that it’s a valid course of action. Any chance you Dr. X (I talk 300 miles a minute and sputter unusual
have a list of references I can pass his way? approaches to nutrition and anabolic steroid chemistry
like a popcorn popper spits out midnight snacks), I am

A I’ve written a nice, tidy list of references not a doctor, much less the ersatz “Celestial Editor” of
with comments included. Anyone who MM2K (see the contents page in the front of the maga-
has an immune disease—especially zine), who is probably having a great time in Heaven
Covers Home

with Jimi Hendrix, Kurt Cobain, Janis Joplin, and other immunosuppressive. Have you stumbled on to any
M E D I BOLICS interesting deceased people.
As to your request, with your doctor’s approval, I
research lately that supports this conclusion?

would welcome the challenge of helping you figure out I’ve had too many
the best methods to maximize your lean body mass for readers who have
“...testosterone the best immune health and, secondarily, helping you get been using testos-
contest ready. Based on our meeting here in Los Angeles terone therapy for AIDS who read
is not last week, I feel that it’s entirely possible for you to rock my “Anabolic Steroids and the
the boat at one of the bodybuilding shows. It’s especially Immune System” article in the
necessarily impressive that you came in second in a contest that is November 1995 issue of MM2K and
universally filled with chemically enhanced competitors, so I wonder got all freaked out and wrote me let-
how well you’ll do when you’re on the same playing field ters saying something like “now that
bad for (but legally, for medical reasons!). And I’m sure my friend we know testosterone is immunosup-
Dan Duchaine will commit to being our “special senior pressive...” as if I said that like it’s
immunity, advisor” and contribute some of his “secret Mr. Olympia some kind of scientific dogma.
steroid tips” to our project. I will report what happens Please don’t misunderstand the article. In the article, I
but the with Doug as the year progresses, so keep reading... showed that testosterone has the potential for immuno-
scientific suppression and that other steroids may be more desir-

infers that
steroids, like
Q I am a Northern California physician who
is considering using anabolic steroids to
treat my AIDS patients. Recently, how-
ever, I read in one of your columns that testosterone is
able because of this. I also stated that some doctors are
getting good results with testosterone, and we need more
studies on this, so we can find out what’s really best. To
sum it up, testosterone is not necessarily universally bad
for immunity, but the scientific literature infers that other
steroids, like Deca, are better. So don’t freak out.

Deca, are Michael Mooney publishes a quarterly newsletter called Medibolics that focuses on medical and scientific research regarding therapeutic
applications of nutrients, anabolic hormones, nontoxic pharmaceuticals, and exercise. Medibolics’ featured and guest columnists include
better.” Nelson Vergel, the man who inherited Dr. Michael Dullnig’s research materials; Dr. Walter Jekot, the discoverer of anabolic steroid therapy
for AIDS; and Dr. Mauro DiPasquale, an expert on anabolic steroids and athletes. For a one-year subscription, send $15.00 to Medibolics,
P.O. Box #333, 836 N. La Cienega Blvd., West Hollywood, CA 90069. Fax (310) 659-1597.
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Avoid Fructose and
You May Feel Better!
B y A n t h o n y A l m a d a

HMB is Nothing
Like GHB ucts that have digestive enzymes “built in,”

Q When I use weight-gainer/“opti-

mizer” powders, I often get gas and
sometimes diarrhea. I’ve tried
using digestive enzymes or even mixing them with
water instead of milk, but nothing seems to help.
they still got gas. Why?
It may have to do with the fructose content
and the ratio of fructose to the other carbohy-
drates present in the drink. Up to 33% of the
population may be unable to completely absorb
fructose, and when you don’t absorb it, your
lower intestine becomes a natural gas refinery
What do you suggest?
that would make any public utility company
“Up to 33% of jealous. Unabsorbed fructose (or almost any

the population
may be unable to
A First of all, forget the weight-
gainer powders. I recommend
that you use Phosphagain™ or
Phosphagain II™ instead. It’s likely that typical
weight-gainer powders promote fat storage equal
other carbohydrate) is used by the billions of
bacteria in your gut as a fuel, and when you eat
this sugar, the bacteria produce hydrogen (mea-
surable in the breath), methane (measurable, if
desired, at the end opposite from the mouth),
completely to any amount of lean mass gains, and the lean loose stools, and even diarrhea. A recent study
mass these weight gainers do promote is no found that honey (1.5-3 Tbs), which is both
absorb greater than what you would get from taking a rich in fructose (30%-40%) and has more fruc-
carbohydrate (glucose polymer) supplement. tose by weight than other sugars, made the sub-
fructose, and when Experimental and Applied Sciences (EAS) has jects expel hydrogen gas in the breath…and
funded two well-controlled university studies loose stools from you know where. One subject
you don’t which support this. from each group (1.5 Tbs or 3 Tbs) experienced
Mega-calorie weight-gainer products are sup- the natural gas phenomena also. Who knows
absorb it, your posed to work like David Copperfield on stage how many would have responded this way if
in Las Vegas—like magic—but none of these proteins were mixed in?
lower intestine types of products have been shown in indepen- I mention the amount of fructose relative to
dent, controlled university other sugars (especially glucose) since glucose
becomes a tests to support the manufac- boosts the absorption of fructose but only
turer’s claims. (Yes, I said when the amount of glucose consumed is
natural NONE.) greater than the amount of fructose consumed.
If you examine a lot You won’t find this favorable ratio in a lot of
gas of the protein/carb weight-gainer/optimizer/muscle drink prod-
combo powders on ucts unless you add a couple of BIG scoops of
refinery...” the market and a lot of pure glucose. And very few products use pure
the “muscle drinks” found glucose in their formulations.
in the fridge in your gym, When EAS formulated Phosphagain and
you’ll find that fructose is Myoplex Plus™, we took all of this into consid-
one of the first ingredients. eration. There is no free fructose in these prod-
Some products use NutraSweet ucts, and we even substituted some pure glu-
(aspartame), Acesulfame-K, or cose for maltodextrin in Phosphagain II. I can’t
both instead of fructose. A lot of guarantee that no one will experience gas. (I
my gym pals used to mix their personally prefer using 6-12 ounces of fresh
powders with apple juice or orange or tangerine juice in my blender with
some other juice, but a few Phosphagain II and Myoplex Plus, and if I have
hours later, they developed 2 or more of these drinks a day, I get a little
antisocial intestinal symp- antisocial—I guess that’s why I don’t have a
toms which led to them girlfriend…) As for juices, try to avoid apple
being kicked out of the juice (especially the filtered, clear kind), and
house by their girlfriends. lean more towards grape, orange, or tangerine
Even after using the prod- juices. Apple juice, in addition to having a
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“...GHB and
higher fructose to glucose ratio, also contains a sugar
alcohol called sorbitol (used as a sweetener for many
chewing gum products), which is totally non-
absorbable and is a high-risk diarrhea/gas producer
when more than minimal amounts are consumed.
Q I just read an article that claimed HMB™
(hydroxy methylbutyrate) was similar to
GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) in how it
works. I’ve never heard about HMB inducing sleep, and
Bottom Line: I know it’s biased, but I recommend I’ve never experienced increased strength and mass
HMB, both
designed by
that you use Phosphagain/Phosphagain II if you’re when I used GHB. Are they really similar in how they appear to
trying to pack on lean (nonfat) mass. If you’re looking work?
for a great protein supplement to complement work in
Phosphagain (or one that’s good by itself ), try
Myoplex Plus. Both are formulated without fructose
(and taste good enough so you actually look forward
to your next serving). If you’re loyal to your favorite
brand, select a product that doesn’t contain added
A The last name of each molecule is
butyrate, and the H in each refers to a
hydroxy chemical group included in the
structure. However, they come from totally different
metabolic origins and, based on the research that has
fructose. If you mix any of your powders with any ments—GHB
been done to date, share nothing besides structural sim-
juices, try a no-fructose beverage or a juice with a
higher glucose to fructose ratio (like orange or grape).
The design of new drugs often utilizes a “tech-
in the
Try a small amount of juice
to begin with, say four nique” called Quantitative Structure Activity brain and
ounces, and slowly experi- Relationship (QSAR) analysis. Let’s say a drug com-
ment to find your toler- pany was attempting to design a better form of oxan- HMB likely
ance—you’ll know when drolone (formerly called Anavar, now called
you’ve reached it when Oxandrin). They would examine the molecular in skeletal
you scare away your girl- structure of this “liver safe” anabolic and then make
friend or training partners. slight “tweaks” to the structure of the parent mole- muscle.”
cule (oxandrolone) and hopefully, abracadabra, come
up with oxandrolyne, which is very similar to the first
generation. But for GHB and HMB, both designed
by nature, they appear to work in different compart-
ments—GHB in the brain and HMB likely in skele-
tal muscle.
Some researchers claim GHB works as an ana-
bolic/lipid-oxidizing agent, primarily through the
release of growth hormone. Bear in mind that no
studies have ever shown this to occur when GHB was
taken orally. Only one study, using 2.5 grams intra-
venously, indicated a GH-releasing effect. Because
GHB can be a whole-body anesthetic (and knock
you out for several hours with a sufficient dose), it
produces the onset of sleep. This is likely the mecha-
nism behind its GH-releasing effect, simply through
inducing a state of sleep. The GHB study I mentioned
above resulted in nap time for the subjects shortly
after they got the GHB injection. GHB is kind of
familiar to me, as I was heavily involved (behind the
scenes) in the scientific side of GHB
during the first several months it was
aggressively sold in the U.S. in 1989
and 1990.
Assuming that HMB and GHB
work similarly through “similar
chemistry” would also lead someone
to say that BHB (beta hydroxy
butyrate, a common metabolite with
both a hydroxy and butyrate finger-
print that accumulates in the blood
during ketogenic/low-carb diets)
should also have potent anabolic
effects and influence the release of
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“Despite HMB
and GHB
prints, GHB
does not
appear to
hormones from the brain. This is another unsup- the studies on HMB and in the studies we’ve done on
share the ported assumption. As I wrote in an article in Muscle Phosphagain, the placebo or control groups also
Media 2000 about IGF-1 as the Ultimate Anabolic “gained” lean mass, but when the mathematically
lean mass [February 1996], ketogenic/low-carb diets have been inclined researchers opened up their laptop comput-
shown to actually reduce IGF-1 concentrations in ers and started calculating the truly significant versus
and insignificant increases in lean mass, we find they told
the control groups to come back after they’ve grown
ergogenic It’s still unknown how HMB exerts its anabolic
and the HMB (or Phosphagain) groups to get bigger
and ergogenic (strength-increasing) effects in
effects seen humans. (What’s equally, if not more, intriguing is clothing. In other words, the gains experienced by
how it may decrease fat mass.) The available evidence the control group were insignificant. Although statis-
with HMB points to a possible “shielding” effect of muscle cells tics can be used to support many untrue and invalid
following resistance training. Resistance training, “facts” and data, they are also absolutely necessary
when you do scientific research—to tease out the real
supplements especially negative/eccentric contractions and/or
from the unreal. If the changes in lean mass (or any
unaccustomed work (as for a beginner weight trainer
other measure) are not statistically significant (as seen
in both or someone who has taken a couple months off ) can
in the placebo/control groups in these studies), then
cause fluid retention and contribute to activating
untrained muscle proteolysis and muscle soreness. Since HMB there are no changes at all. Let it rest.
concentrations in muscle itself are very small, it
and trained could work through altering signals between muscle Bottom Line: Despite HMB and GHB sharing
cells and the hormones communicating with muscle. chemical fingerprints, GHB does not appear to share
individuals.” Alternatively, since it’s a “downstream” metabolite of the lean mass and ergogenic effects seen with HMB
L-leucine and KIC (both shown to influence muscle- supplements in both untrained and trained individu-
protein turnover but never shown to influence lean als. (Since nobody has done a study with GHB look-
mass and strength), it could alter the disposal of its ing at its effects on lean mass and strength, no one
two biochemical parents in ways much more power- can really make a comparison.) Side note: one obser-
ful than they do themselves. My guess, with no data vation study reported that people lost weight after
to prove it, is that HMB influences a certain aspect long-term consumption of GHB once or twice
of muscle-protein breakdown called ubiquitin tag- nightly for a sleep disorder called narcolepsy. Similar
ging. I’m still staying up late at night wondering how chemistry does not usually mean similar action in the
and why HMB affects bodyfat. world of human biochemicals and metabolites. What
The excitement (and criticism) over HMB is con- would the world be like if estrogens (with similar
tinuing to mount like a tidal wave. One facet of the chemistry to testosterone) were muscle anabolic and
HMB story that has been picked apart concerns the ergogenic? If creatinine had creatine-like effects?
studies that have shown increases in lean mass. The However, similar chemistry in the world of synthetic
guys getting placebos also gained lean mass. agents/drugs often does mean similar action, giving
Remember, researchers, who are into statistics, only birth to the exciting, fast-paced, and potentially
look at certain kinds of statistics—significant ones. In lucrative life of the designer drug chemist…
Covers Home
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would be
every body-
builder’s dream
come true
(mine included) if
we could make
gains in muscle
size and strength
by using com-
pounds that were
legal, safe, and
Years ago, this might
have seemed impossible,
but recent discoveries in nutri-
tional and biochemical science
have forced even our beloved
“Steroid Guru” Dan Duchaine to
believe otherwise.
New scientific breakthroughs in
supplementation have led to phe-
nomenal new supplements like
creatine monohydrate (the most
awesome bodybuilding supple-
ment I’ve ever used) and HMB (a
new supplement that preliminary data from two
separate double-blind, placebo-controlled studies
show increases size and muscle strength) and
CLA (a new growth factor which is catching on
like wildfire). These new discoveries, that may
allow bodybuilders to get significantly better
results, faster, from their weight-training work-
outs, could be just the “tip of the iceberg.” That
is, it’s very likely that numerous other com-
pounds exist in nature that can be taken in the
form of “dietary supplements” to produce a pro-
found impact on the body’s ability to gain new
muscle tissue and/or burn fat.
Since we started Muscle Media 2000, we’ve
been on the forefront of this area of “bodybuild-
ing science,” and we’ll be the leaders and trend-
setters in this area for a long time to come.
In this exciting article, Dan Duchaine explains
how a new “supplement” (which is coming soon)
may take us even closer to our dream of making
“drug-like” gains, drug-free!
—Bill Phillips
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By Dan Duchaine

The Next Frontier in Drug-Free

Muscle Building!

T he following information may be some of the most important writing I’ve

ever done. Its applications will profoundly influence a man’s body from
puberty until death. By manipulating naturally occurring estrogen in the
male metabolism, an individual will allow greater height gains during adoles-
cence, raise testosterone production to 30% over normal, and postpone the
read it again. Photocopy it, and pass
it on to your friends. It’s that impor-

Estrogen In
declining testosterone secretion that occurs from middle age onward. This can
all be done without drugs or doctor’s visits. Once a steroid user masters this Men
information, the choice of ideal steroids along Estrogen is the so-called “female” hor-
with a new method of tapering off will mone, and it’s essential for a woman’s sex-
be blindingly clear, so the body’s ual development. Men do produce estrogen,
but obviously, not as much, even if some do
own testosterone secretion will
look damn fine in a dress. Half of the
rapidly resume. Don’t skip small amount of estrogen in the
this article. And after male body is produced
you’ve read it, in the testicles.
The other half
is produced in
other parts of
the body,
mostly in
Covers Home

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis (HPGA)


LH Leydig T
Cells Inhibin
(up to 30%) and fat (up to 15%). The percentage of
fat from estrogen climbs from middle age onward. The Hypothalamus-
Virtually all estrogen in men is made from testosterone
converted with enzymes generically named “aromatases.” Pituitary-Gonadal
(And no, they don’t have a bewitching aroma.) Even the
estrogen in the testicles is formed from testosterone in the Axis (HPGA)
Leydig cells that is converted in the nearby Sertoli (sperm-pro- To illustrate how testosterone is produced in the
ducing) cells. Other tissues also have aromatase: the most impor- male body, let’s work from the bottom (well, techni-
tant is the hypothalamus area in the brain. cally, the middle) to the top. The gonads have two
Most men don’t worry about estrogen in their bodies simply major types of cells. The Leydig cells produce
because of ignorance of the estrogenic hormonal state. However, up to testosterone, and the Sertoli cells produce
50% of all adolescent boys experience transitory swelling of the breast sperm, estrogen (by converting testosterone),
area (studs with buds) from the sudden spurt of testosterone (and sub- and the androgen-binding proteins (also called
sequent conversion). Being a boy with fun bags and flashing them in “globules”) that latch onto testosterone and
the high-school gym locker room is not a macho nor fun thing to have keep it in a neutral state in the blood.
happen. Later in life, some men might recognize that something is The production of these substances is con-
amiss, when in old age the chest area becomes female-like (oh no, not trolled by two hormones further upstream—
again). And elevated estrogen in old age will cause an increase of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulat-
androgen steroid receptors in the prostate, causing hypertrophy and ing hormone (FSH). Both hormones are produced
urine leakage, which is why some old men never wear light-colored by the pituitary gland, the pea-sized dynamo at
pants. the base of the brain that spews forth a variety of
Steroid-using athletes will recite a litany of estrogenic evils: regulatory hormones. The pituitary gland also
gynecomastia (swelling of the male breast tissue), water retention, needs some kind of stimulus that will modulate
fat accumulation, and an inclination to buy high-heeled cowboy both the LH and FSH levels. This action is
boots and French thong underwear. In this case, avoiding or min- achieved by yet another hormone: gonadotropin-
imizing estrogen buildup from an abundance of exogenous releasing hormone (GnRH, also called LHRH).
steroids which convert (with aromatase) to estrogen is thought to This GnRH is produced by neurons (nerve cells) in
be mostly a (damn embarrassing) cosmetic side effect issue— the part of the brain called the hypothalamus, which
unless you like being one of those chix with stix. But now we’re is situated just above the pituitary. So the real com-
at the key concept of this article: estrogen in the male body reg- mand center, the final area that controls testosterone
ulates natural testosterone production. It’s always there in your production, is the hypothalamus.
body, even if you’ve never thrown a hissy fit. If a man can inter- There must also be some hormone that causes the
fere with the aromatase by impairing the enzyme, natural hypothalamus to sense the amount of testosterone in
testosterone is elevated, and you can ditch the ice cube on the the body. This mechanism not only maintains natural
nipple trick when you take your shirt off. testosterone production, it also down-regulates the
Covers Home

production of GnRH, LH, and FSH This one fact, that estrogen levels influence natural
(and ultimately natural testosterone) testosterone, has very broad practical applications. If I
when anabolic steroids are intro- could have minimized estrogen during puberty, I would
duced into the body. When a steroid user complains that his be a vastly different-looking person, not to mention that
gonads are the size of grapes and that his testosterone level has I could have avoided all the “Nice jugs, bro” comments
a minus sign on the blood test, the reason is that the stimulat- I got in junior high.
ing hormones (LH and FSH) aren’t being secreted by the pitu-
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), one of the female
What This Means
Let’s begin with puberty. During the teen years, girls
hormones secreted during pregnancy, mimics the actions of reach their full heights faster than boys but usually end up
LH and FSH and can be used to jump start the gonads’ Ley- being shorter in stature. The culprit is estrogen since this
dig cells into producing testosterone. The use of HCG is only is the hormone that closes the epiphyses [the “growth
a short-term solution, as this hormone does nothing to plates” of bones] of the long bones, ceasing height growth.
increase the secretion of natural LH and FSH nor GnRH. As Boys reach their full heights much later simply because the
a matter of fact, the better the response of the Leydig cells amount of systemic estrogen is vastly lessened, and it takes
to HCG, the more the hypothalamus will down-regulate more years to accumulate the estrogen for total bone clo-
GnRH, LH, and FSH because of the increased estrogen. For sure. Remember, the cause of estrogen in males, unlike
years, virtually all steroid-using athletes realized that extra females, is the aromatase enzyme. So if aromatase is inhib-
testosterone (and its derivatives) “shut down” the natural ited, less estrogen will be in the metabolism, and long bone
testosterone production in the body. closure will be delayed. On another front, estrogen blockage
Some individuals in the steroid field recognized that in adolescent women (by a combination of enzyme-blocking
GnRH from the hypothalamus was the instigator of the and anti-estrogens) would also cause greater height, but this
testosterone regulation. Many of us just assumed it was more-moral-than-medical discussion is not the subject at
the actual testosterone that was sensed in the brain. But I hand.
recently learned something (from my brilliant chemist Keep in mind that even though the initial high testosterone
friend Patrick Arnold) that felt like a bomb going off in levels of puberty eventually lessen, the conversion of testos-
my head: the hypothalamus does not “sense” testos- terone into estrogen from aromatase is always happening. The
terone in modulating GnRH secretion! It senses estro- amount and activity of the various aromatases will determine
gen, and this estrogen is produced in the hypothalamus where the natural testosterone level is. By interfering with the
with aromatase! Are you beginning to see the overall aromatases in the body with exogenous compounds, natural
picture? Estrogen levels in the body control GnRH, testosterone (as measured in the blood) can be increased by up
LH, FSH, and finally testosterone. When testosterone to 30%! And since this testosterone boost is done within the
levels climb, more estrogen is produced from the body and doesn’t upset the circadian rhythms (which are tied to
enzyme conversion. The higher estrogen will make cortisol levels), the usual androgen receptor down-regulation
the hypothalamus attenuate GnRH. Eventually, when won’t occur. And the testicles won’t shrink—just the opposite in
testosterone levels decline, estrogen will also; hence, fact! You get the full course: meat and potatoes. So now that I’ve
all the stimulating hormones will rise in response. tantalized you with the possibility of increasing your size and
This whole process is strength naturally with no side effects, I know what you’re think-
called a feedback ing: “How are you gonna deliver the goods, so I can do it?”
loop of the
HPGA. The Options
Teslac (testolactone) is a prescription oral medication made by Bris-
tol-Meyers. This is considered to be an anabolic steroid (and hence a
Schedule III DEA classification) even though testolactone is
derived from fermented progesterone and has no direct ana-
bolic action at the androgen receptor. The minimum
dosage (for women) is 250 mg a day. This makes
it pricey as the 50-mg tablets retail at about $5
each. Teslac’s action is to block the aro-
matase at the androgen receptor.
The research has reported that
use of Teslac causes a
testosterone eleva-
tion. So now
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you know why this is, as, obviously, the reduction of estrogen “fools” the hypo- shrinkage, is a very real problem that’s been
thalamus into secreting more GnRH. Between the cost and the hard-to-get pre- frustrating to rectify. Use of HCG will briefly
scription, Teslac is not a practical solution. elevate testosterone, but it does nothing to
Cytadren (aminoglutethimide) is a prescription oral medication made combat the accompanying estrogen. In scien-
by Ciba. This drug broadly blocks the various enzymes (including aro- tific literature, some individuals were shown to
matase) that convert cholesterol to pregnenolone, which is needed for be unresponsive to HCG, but they did resume
synthesis of aldosterone, cortisol, and estrogen. This is the anti-cortisol testosterone secretion with the oral fertility drug
indicated for Cushing’s Syndrome, but it’s been troublesome in the Clomid (clomiphene). The reason is obvious: Clo-
performance-enhancement area. In its favor, Cytadren is not con- mid has the dual function of mimicking LH and act-
trolled by the DEA, so elaborate paperwork is not needed for a pre- ing as an anti-estrogen.
scription from a doctor. But, good luck in finding a doctor who will If a steroid user wishes to completely avoid the
uncap his pen and write a ’script for this seemingly frivolous use gonadal shrinkage and lowered testosterone, the only
of a prescription drug. Cytadren is still viable because the drug solution is to pick anabolic steroids that will not con-
isn’t terribly expensive. It costs about $50 for a bottle of one vert to estrogen. Accompany this with use of Flavone X
hundred 250-mg tablets. And the anti-aromatase effects happen and the new breed of steroid user will maintain full
at a very low dosage, 250 mg, which is much less than the rec- gonadal function during and after steroid use. For those
ommended 2-gram daily dosage for cortisol reduction. So who insist on using the “big gun” anabolics for maximal
Cytadren is cost-effective. But why use a prescription drug effect, a combination of Flavone X and Nolvadex will
when there’s something just as effective which may soon be vastly reduce withdrawal symptoms when steroid use has
available over the counter in health-food stores? ceased. One of the permanent side effects of chronic steroid
Flavone X (because of a nondisclosure contract, I can’t use is end-organ failure. The testicles have remained inactive
tell you the exact name of this naturally occurring com- and shrunken for so long that even after ceasing steroid use,
pound) may be the answer. Flavones are trace com- normal testosterone function is never reestablished, and
pounds in plants. Many of them have drug-like activity. gonadal size isn’t either. Minimizing estrogen will completely
Some act like antibiotics or antioxidants. One particu- eliminate this problem.
lar isoflavone is patented as an anabolic drug! Flavone I’ve mentioned before that I thought there was no ideal way of
X, in amounts of 3 grams a day, will inhibit aro- tapering off steroids in any logical manner. I even conjectured that
matases, and most men will experience an increase the whole concept of tapering was suspect. It’s now apparent that if
of at least 20% over normal testosterone levels. the steroid user is using numerous types of anabolics, the estrogen-
You’ll see this flavone on the market within a converting ones should be stopped first (and rapidly). In this manner,
year, introduced by two companies. I have a feel- systemic estrogen is lowered, and testicular function is restored, so
ing, although I haven’t done the analysis, that when the final nonaromatizing steroids (most are orals) are tapered,
this flavone, or one of its variants, is the active natural testosterone goes back to near normal.
ingredient in the various herbal libido-boosters I should point out that all estrogen in the male body cannot be con-
like Endo-Pro and Tribestan. (Oh swell, now trolled with anti-aromatases. Many environmental estrogenic-like com-
we’re gonna see Twin Lab’s Dick Fuel.) pounds (mostly from pesticides) make it into the body from water and
Remember, many times scientists simply food and can only be eliminated with estrogen antagonists (like
report an effect and rarely speculate as to why Nolvadex), which block the estrogen receptor. This just-as-
the effect happens. Teslac is a perfect example of important issue will be addressed at another time.
this. I estimate that only a handful of researchers have Flavone X, HMB, and CLA: all in all, 1996 is becom-
figured out how Teslac causes testosterone elevation. ing an extraordinary year in legal performance
Other Applications
The control of natural testosterone from the hypothalamic sensing
of estrogen will, in the future, influence the choice of anabolic steroids
that athletes use. Simply put, the greater the ability of the steroid to
convert to estrogen, the greater the down-regulation of natural
testosterone. Unfortunately, the most potent anabolic
steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, oxymesterone)
also have a high ability to convert to estrogen.
That’s no great loss to the athlete who is
continually on the drugs, but for the
occasional steroid user, the lack
of testosterone during
(and after) steroid
use, along with
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LiKE a
—Developing a This concept was very fundamental
to the old-time greats in bodybuild-
Solid Strength ing. Many also became world-caliber
Olympic weightlifters as a result of
their strength work. All took pride in
Foundation being brutally strong in one or more
strength feats—their muscles were
functional, not just facades. If they
looked powerful, they wanted to be able

to back it up in the gym. Greats like
hile it may seem a bit strange to the John Grimek, Bill Pearl, Val Vasilef,
modern bodybuilder, old-time body- Vern Weaver, Sergio Oliva, Joe Abbenda,
builders competed in Olympic weight- and Bob Gajda were very competitive
lifting meets—they had to. The AAU in the Olympic lifts. Grimek was an
(Amateur Athletic Union) controlled Olympian, and Sergio had a good shot
bodybuilding, and they awarded com- at the ’68 team, but he decided to put his
petitive bodybuilders five athletic full efforts into bodybuilding. Vern
By Bill Starr, points for participating in some outside Weaver power cleaned and jerked 370
sport. Since the bodybuilders, in the lbs during one afternoon competition
Strength and course of their training, did many of the and walked away with the physique title
exercises the Olympic lifters did any- that night.
Conditioning way, it was only logical that they com- When the Weiders took control of
pete in the Olympic meets held in con- bodybuilding, the athletic points were
Coach at junction with the bodybuilding shows. dropped. It was probably a good idea,
It also served the purpose of letting the though, because it stopped the ridicu-
Johns Hopkins judges, who were also the lifting judges, lous dog and pony show the physique
see them on stage nine different times. men had to go through. Unfortunately,
University And lifting heavy weights in competi- something was lost in the process. Over
tion allowed competitors to show some time, many stopped doing heavy pulls
muscles that couldn’t be highlighted as or squats, substituting machines or
well during a simple posing routine. exercises done with lighter weights.
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JorGe BeNtaCourt

Photo: Irvin J. Gelb

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LiKE a About the same time, specialized
machines nudged the barbells
mass, none of his body parts are going to get any larger.
The bodybuilder who really seeks improvement has
BRicK to the back room, and steroids
became as available as Gatorade.
no choice but to spend some time during the year trying
to elevate the poundages and amount of work done on
hOUse The steroids allowed young body-
builders to get huge without doing
several of the strength lifts. Otherwise, he’ll fall into a
rut and become stagnant. The change to a program with
much hard work, and the machines were much more fun the emphasis on pure strength offers a nice respite from
to use than barbells. But like a house built on sand, the the usual routine. The change will also inspire more
final product was not actually sturdy, and eventually, it gains since it generates renewed enthusiasm.
collapsed. After doing two or three months of strength training,
In fact, building an impressive physique is much like the bodybuilder is much better prepared for a more con-
building a house. The very first step is to establish a ventional program. He generally has a great deal more
solid foundation. Once that’s accomplished, the rest of power and stamina to apply to his program. For exam-
the structure—the bricks—can be made firm. Con- ple, if a person’s best squat was 315 x 5 before he started
versely, a weak foundation will always result in a shaky on the strength cycle and then he moved up to 365 x 5,
house, which simply means that any aspiring body- he’s going to be able to knock out a great many more
builder must do some strength training. Getting 40%- reps with 225 than he could before. He is also going to
50% stronger in the major muscle groups will not only be able to train much longer and with more intensity.
greatly enhance overall size, it will also build the basis Although many top bodybuilders still include strength
for later work directed at definition and the smaller mus- work in their routines at some time during the training
cle groups. year, many young bodybuilders don’t. The primary rea-
When I suggest to a young bodybuilder that he should son the younger bodybuilders don’t include a strength
do some heavy squats or heavy pulls to get bigger arms, phase in their yearly schedule is probably because it’s
he invariably looks at me as if I’m totally nuts. But it’s hard work. They prefer to stay in the comfortable range,
a fact. The best way to increase upper-arm size is to using lots of machines whenever possible, doing lots of
pound out several sets of heavy squats over a period of reps with light weights and convincing themselves they
time. Why? Because the squats will enable the body- don’t need to squat or pull heavy. After all, they aren’t
builder to pack on overall bodyweight much easier, and powerlifters, right? Well, maybe they should lift like
not all the additional weight will go to the legs; it will go powerlifters for at least a couple of months a year.
to all the other exercised body parts as well. Another reason is probably because many young
The opposite is also true. If you spend countless hours bodybuilders prefer to focus on the vanity muscles like
doing upper-arm exercises while neglecting the larger the arms and chest and neglect all-important muscles of
groups, the arms might become more toned and vascu- the back, hips, and legs. Most do two or three times more
lar, but they definitely won’t become larger—there just work on their upper bodies than the rest of their muscle
isn’t enough mass involved in arm work, no matter how groups combined, which explains why a visit to any gym
intense the workout, to influence gains in overall body- in this country will reveal an accumulation of pitifully
weight. And, as mentioned earlier, an often-overlooked proportioned physiques—legs that would embarrass a
basic truism is that if a person doesn’t add lean body chicken and backs flatter than road kill. It’s no mystery

WaDe BRowN
an impressive
physique is
much like
building a
house. The
very first step
is to establish
a solid
Photo: Alex Ardenti
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SaMPLe STRenGth TrAIniNG CYcLE for BeGINnErs

Monday: Heavy Day
Squats: 5 x 5 to limit
Deadlifts or bent-over rows: 5 x 5 to limit
Bench press: 5 x 5 to limit
Incline dumbbell press: 2 x 20
Chins: 4 sets of as many as you can do

Wednesday: Light Day

Squats: 5 x 5, using 60 pounds less than you used on Monday
or Lunges: 4 x 8 (4 reps per leg)
Overhead presses: seated or standing: 5 x 5
or Dips: 4 sets of as many as you can do.
Once you’re able to do 20, start adding weight and drop the reps to 8.
Stiff-legged deadlifts: 4 x 8
or good mornings: 4 x 8
or back hyperextensions: 4 x 20
E-Z curls: 2 x 20
Triceps pushdowns on the lat machine: 2 x 20

Friday: Medium Day

Squats: 3 x 5 followed by 2 heavier sets of 3. The top-end 3 should be with 10 pounds more than you used on Monday.
Then, the following Monday, you should do 5 reps with the weight you used for your final triple on Friday.
Shrugs or clean-grip high-pulls: 5 x 5
Incline bench press: 5 x 5
Straight-arm pullovers: 2 x 20
Dumbbell curls: 2 x 20
Calf raises: 3 x 30
Ab work could be done before or after a workout. Warm up thoroughly, then stretch during and after the session.
Pay special attention to the hamstrings—they have a tendency to tighten with heavy work.

why those baggy training pants are so popular. As soon larger muscles. Once they’ve been worked, little more
as I see someone strutting around in a pair, I know for can be accomplished by doing more exercises, so any
sure that I’m not going to see the wearer of said clown auxiliary work should be limited to the smaller groups
pants in the squat rack. And they all seem to share that for a few sets of higher reps.
identical humpbacked posture, which tells me they The best program for a strength cycle utilizes a three-
haven’t pulled anything heavier than another attachment day-a-week routine. This allows more rest time which
for the lat machine off the floor since joining the gym! translates to easier growth. The heavy, light, and
It’s been my experience that once a person really puts medium concept should be employed so the body can
his full effort into a pure strength routine, he enjoys it. recover better. Most discover that the three-day-a-week
Nothing is more addictive to the male animal than gain- schedule works nicely for a change, especially during
ing strength. It’s basic to his ego. I’ve also found that those hectic times of the year. The energy conserved
whenever a person tries some heavy training for the first from dropping a training day from the conventional
time, much to his delight, he discovers that he has a nat- every-other-day workout also allows the bodybuilder to
ural talent for at least one of the lifts. I worked with sev- gain strength.
eral tall, lean bodybuilders one summer, and they all had Each workout will find the bodybuilder doing one
difficulty squatting and benching. But when I taught core exercise for each of the three major muscle groups:
them how to deadlift, they were amazed. They were out- shoulder girdle (shoulders and chest), back, and legs.
lifting everyone in the gym within three weeks. Sud- The established set and rep rule for gaining strength is
denly, they no longer thought of themselves as weak, four to six sets of four to six reps. For the sake of sim-
and their success in the deadlift inspired them to work plicity, I use five sets of five reps. After the core exer-
much harder on the other two movements. Once they cises have been completed, additional time can be spent
packed on 20 pounds, everything improved remarkably. working smaller groups such as the biceps, triceps, and
Their motivation came from their unexpected accom- calves, but these routines should be scaled down. Two
plishments in the deadlift. sets of 20 reps is sufficient because these muscles have
Often, when I suggest to people that they could bene- already been stimulated with the heavy movements.
fit from a strength cycle, they reply that they just don’t Variety can be built into the program quite easily
have that much time to train. Actually, strength training because there are many excellent exercises to choose
takes less time because it’s condensed training. The from. For the legs, nothing beats full squats, but the
intensity is higher, and the weights are heavier, but the lunge and leg press can be used for your light days.
time spent in the gym is shorter. The emphasis is on the When selecting exercises for the back, be sure to include
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BUilt exercises for the upper, middle, tines on the flat bench that require lots of sets with heavy
LiKE a and lower portions of the back.
This will ensure proportionate
weights. Then they proceed to do the same thing on the
incline. They never make any gains because they’re over-
BRicK development. The all-important working their shoulder girdles. But they could do heavy

hOUse lower back can be strengthened

with good mornings, back hyper-
extensions, and stiff-legged dead-
benches and follow them up with a couple of high-rep
sets on the incline because the higher reps don’t fatigue
the attachments, only the muscle bellies.
lifts. The middle back can be worked effectively with Most overtraining occurs in the shoulder girdle and
conventional deadlifts and bent-over rows. The traps can upper arms. Seldom do I see anyone overworking their
be attacked nicely with shrugs and high-pulls. backs or legs—the movements that work these muscles
As for the shoulder girdle, movements such as flat are difficult. However, biceps and triceps exercises are
benches, incline benches, dips, overhead presses, and fun. It is, however, a mistake to do too much curling
push presses work great. after doing heavy deadlifts or shrugs. Why? Because the
Whenever a person goes about setting up a strength muscles involved in the act of curling have already been
program, he invariably includes far too many exercises. overloaded with the pulling movements. To do more will
They may all be great exercises, but not all of them can not encourage growth. Less is more on the auxiliary
be used because it would simply entail far too much work.
work. It’s fine to alternate exercises on successive Many people really hate the idea of doing less sets for
weeks, such as doing stiff-legged deadlifts one week, their biceps, but over the long haul, their upper arms are
then back hyperextensions the next, or overhead presses going to grow. Some of the weight being added during
one week and dips the next. However, if too many core the strength cycle is going to “settle” on the arms. The
exercises are stacked in one workout, the purpose of the heavy pulling exercises like the shrugs, bent-over rows,
routine will be defeated. and deadlifts attack the prime movers of the upper arms,
You need to keep in mind that once the muscles, ten- the brachialis and brachioradialis in a much more
dons, and ligaments of any muscle group have been dynamic fashion than curls. When the prime movers get
worked thoroughly, it’s not at all beneficial to work them considerably stronger, this allows the bodybuilder to use
in a strength fashion again. In fact, it’s detrimental to much heavier weights on all his upper-arm movements
development. I see numerous young trainees doing rou- once he rotates back to his regular routine. He’ll also be
able to do several more work sets on his biceps and tri-
ceps because of the new strength.
JoE Rest is another critical variable in the weight-gaining
process. On non-training days, try to avoid vigorous
LaZzaRo activities. This is remarkably easy for most people any-
way. Some ab work and a stretching routine are useful,
but nothing strenuous. Try to get to bed a bit earlier than
usual during the strength cycle, and if possible, slip in a
nap during the day.
Finally, the three-day-a-week program is based on
consistency. When a day is missed, even a light day, the
rhythm is broken, and progress will be halted.
Take some time to select the core exercises you want
to concentrate on for the next two or three months. Then,
during the first week of the cycle, test yourself on these
movements. It really doesn’t matter how much you can
lift on each of the primary exercises since the test is just
to help you establish realistic goals and plan your pro-
gram better. On exercises such as the squat and deadlift,
you can expect to add ten pounds each week during the
cycle, but on shoulder girdle movements such as the
bench press and incline, five pounds a week is consider-
Photo: Jim Amentler

able. So if you test out on the bench with 225 x 5, you

can expect to move this up to 265 x 5 or 275 x 3 but not
much higher. In other words, don’t expect to be able to
do 300 for reps: it just isn’t going to happen in the first
Try to improve all the core lifts. Aim for a personal
“...if too many core exercises are record every workout. Trust me, it can be done. Some
lifts will be easier to improve than others, but that’s just
stacked in one workout, the the way it is. Many people discover that they’ve never
really improved on a large muscle lift simply because
purpose of the routine they’ve never worked it in a strength fashion before. Eat,
rest, form a picture of yourself getting stronger, and
will be defeated.” enjoy the strength cycle. ▲
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Shawn Phillips

Timing Is
By T.C. Luoma

“To everything there is a season and

\a time to every purpose under the
(Ecclesiastes 3:1)
Photos: David Haskell
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surplus branched chains don’t go to waste—they end

T icktock, ticktock, ticktock...hear that?

up acting as carriers of nitrogen to the muscles and

It’s the sound of a clock ticking off sec-
in this way may serve to form nonessential amino
onds. Whether or not there’s actually a clock
acids needed for additional protein synthesis.
nearby is irrelevant. Time slips away whether we notice
Furthermore, these surplus branched chains
it or not, and despite the protests of some philosophers,
might inhibit glutamine from leeching out of
time is not simply an invention of man. Every living thing
the muscle cells, and this high level of intra-
has its own internal clock, humans included. Barring the
cellular glutamine might then stimulate
interruption of a man-made alarm clock, we sleep until our
even more muscle protein synthesis.
internal clocks tell us to rise. Barring illness or injury, our life
All of this muscle protein synthesis is
spans are programmed. Many cells divide a preordained number

mediated by insulin, and insulin is ini-
of times. Some, like red blood cells, live almost exactly 120
tially secreted in response to the influx
days. Glands release hormones in a pulsatile fashion throughout
of amino acids (and/or glucose) taken
the day for very specific amounts of time. Every function is care-
in with the last meal. The branched
fully orchestrated, and under normal circumstances, the body func-
chains, along with the amino acid argi-
tions—if you’ll excuse the expression—like a Swiss watch.

Time To Gr
nine, are the most effective in elicit-
The trouble is, bodybuilders aren’t content to let their “watches”
ing this response. Conversely, the
function as nature intended. They tinker here, and they tinker there in
released insulin enhances the trans-
an effort to speed up the watch or even slow it down. But, when we
port of branched chains, along with
try to add muscle to our frames, the carefully orchestrated calendar of
glutamine, into the cell. Branched
the body shatters and splinters, and unless you know what “watch”
chains are, in effect, the customers
springs to tighten, knobs to twirl, or screws to turn, your efforts to add
that call the cab, insulin, to carry
muscle disappear in a quick minute.
them to their destination, the mus-
cle cells.
It’s All in the Timing Sounds good so far, right? If
Muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein degradation exist in a only the body were able to keep up
delicate balance. If you can swing the pendulum of muscle protein syn- that positive balance of amino-acid
thesis to the plus side, you add more muscle and win. If, however, mus- influx! Unfortunately, this anabolic
cle protein degradation ends up ahead of muscle protein synthesis, your state is only temporary. Three or
amount of muscle tissue stays the same or, worse yet, decreases, and four hours after your last protein
you lose. meal, your body enters what is
To a large extent, whether you win or lose depends on levels of hor- known as the post-absorptive
mones like cortisol and growth hormone. These chemicals determine state—insulin levels decline; the net
which way your protein ball bounces. However, all factors can be influx of amino acids into muscle is
influenced by what and when you eat. That’s what this article is about. reversed; and glycogen reserves are
drawn upon to make sure blood
sugar levels remain constant. As this
What Happens to Muscle at Night post-absorptive state continues, the
Let’s assume that you don’t workout—you’re just a regular Joe. body slips into a catabolic state, and
You eat your last meal at about 6 p.m., watch Seinfeld, and then hit the skeletal muscle, instead of taking
the sack. By the time you, our test subject, have gone to bed, in amino acids, starts to output them,
you’re still experiencing an influx of amino acids into your body the largest portion coming from the
from the digestion of your last meal, and this results in a surge of release of glutamine. In fact, muscle pro-
liver and muscle protein synthesis (just enough to make up for tein represents the largest reserve from
the amount that’s degraded naturally throughout the day).

which amino acids are drawn during this

Most of this increase in blood amino acids consists of mid-sleep fasting state.
branched-chain amino acids and not lone amino acids as you It seems cruel for our physiology to spend
might believe. In fact, branched-chain amino acids account

half the night building up muscle and the

for about 70% of the amino acids released from the liver other half tearing it down, but that’s a fact of
into the bloodstream. This is because the liver doesn’t life. It’s definitely true that many amino acids
contain nearly the amount of enzymes necessary to are recycled by the body, but without the insulin
process branched-chain amino acids. Consequently, response elicited by a meal, very few are going to
the job of processing them is left to skeletal muscle. find their way back into the muscles.

Branched chains are responsible for between Remember, the preceding scenario involves the
50% and 90% of the muscle amino-acid uptake average guy who doesn’t work out. When you’re a
in the 3 hours following a protein meal. As grunting-by-day, iron-thrusting bodybuilder, the prospects
more and more branched chains enter the for swinging the protein synthesis pendulum to the posi-

muscle, they finally reach a point of satu- tive side during sleep are even more grim.
ration in the muscle tissue, and a sur- Muscle growth occurs because of net protein synthesis, i.e.,
plus of them floats around the blood- the difference between protein synthesis and degradation. For

stream like Haitian boat refugees

m the average nonathlete, net protein synthesis, under optimal con-
in the ocean. Even so, these ditions, is zero: he’s not causing himself any muscular damage

w A Time
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through work, and consequently, the amino acids that flow don’t have the same type of training routines as
into his muscle cells, provided he’s eaten properly, will bodybuilders, they certainly push themselves to
just replace those that were degraded or lost through nor- the limit and, in the course of training, damage a
mal, everyday living. In the bodybuilder, however, muscle lot of muscle cells. They also have higher-than-

degradation through the mechanical damage induced by lift- average protein needs.

ing weights is a normal occurrence. In one study, myofibrillar The aforementioned study involved 10 ath-
(muscle cell) disruption was seen in as many as 80% of the letes, all between 20 and 26 years of age. I don’t

fibers examined with electron microscopy. think the exact specifics of the study are impor-

A We all know (or suspect) that an additional amount of protein is tant to this article; suffice it to say that they were
T needed to repair all of this muscle cell degradation. However, more separated into two groups, and one group trained
important than the amount of protein (although that’s certainly impor- with low intensity while the other group pretty
tant) is the timing of the protein intake. Protein ingestion must coincide much busted their asses. What they found was a
with maximal stimulation of muscle protein synthesis, like after insulin significantly altered hormonal profile. The
secretion. In other words, after an insulin response is elicited, there must higher-intensity group showed lower levels of
be protein present so that it can be ferried to the muscle cells, so growth GH, higher levels of cortisol, and to make matters
can occur. worse, a reduced anabolic response to the small
Okay, let’s recap what’s going on: we’ve established that sleep is in amount of GH that was released (see Figure 1).
one regard a mixed blessing; the first half is usually anabolic, but the (Curiously, testosterone levels were unaffected.)
second half is catabolic. This is compounded in the case of bodybuilders The researchers concluded that the reduced ratio
because they’ve caused themselves a lot of cellular damage that needs of GH to cortisol secretion during early sleep
extra protein to repair itself. Clearly, we need to do something to pro- “hints at [italics mine] reduced anabolic function
long the anabolic phase of sleep, along with providing the body with during sleep after intense exhausting exercise.”
adequate protein to repair itself. Unfortunately, there are other factors Hints at, my ass. That’s exactly what it showed.
involved. What’s more, the excess of cortisol experi-
enced by the test subjects (and bodybuilders, I’ll
bet) raises blood sugar and decreases sensitivity
The Hormonal Equation to insulin. This will lead to reduced utilization of
Under normal circumstances, sleep is characterized by specific pat- amino acids for the formation of protein (except
terns of hormonal secretion. Shortly after falling asleep, the pituitary in the liver, where amino acids will be processed
release of GH (growth hormone) increases dramatically. Conversely, as usual). The liver will kick out amino acids into
levels of cortisol, the bad ol’ catabolic hormone, decrease at the same the bloodstream, but because insulin sensitivity is
time GH levels go up. The GH response to growth-hormone-releasing reduced by cortisol, the amino acids won’t be
hormone (GnRH) is increased by sleep while the cortisol response to transported into muscle cells; thus, protein syn-
cortisol-releasing hormones is suppressed by sleep. This is in stark con- thesis will be further reduced.
trast to daytime conditions when GH and cortisol levels rise together in To recap things once more, intense exercise cre-
response to external stressors—each, in effect, checking each other. ates an almost no-win situation in the body. With
All of this seems to change when heavy workouts are thrown into the added protein needs and hormone levels that have
picture. Many studies have shown that exercise has no effect on night- gone haywire, drastic measures are needed to
time GH and cortisol release, but most of these studies are flawed. Most make sleep as regenerative as nature intended.
used a mix of trained and untrained athletes, female versus male, dif- Of course, what you do when you’re awake is
ferent training protocols, and varying exercise intensity. None used crucial, too.
bodybuilders, but one recent study used triathletes.1 Although triathletes
Oh, And Let’s Not Forget
Figure 1
Recovery Time, Either
Nighttime Production of GH and
Past studies have shown that muscle protein
Cortisol After Intense Exercise synthesis is elevated in humans by 50% four
hours after a bout of heavy resistance training. A
full 24 hours later, the percentage can rise to
Levels 109%. These numbers were arrived at by using
experienced lifters and weightlifting protocols
And that were realistic (4 sets of single-arm biceps
Cortisol curls, concentration curls, and preacher curls at
80% of 1-rep maximums for a total of 12 sets;
each set was done to muscular failure with a 3 or
GH 4-minute rest period in between).2
Cortisol Subsequent research, using the same weight-
training protocol, found that muscle protein syn-
thesis returned to 14% of normal 36 hours after
training, which, in the eyes of a scientist, is an
0 1 2 3 4
insignificant difference.2 In other words, 14% of
Hours Of Sleep
normal is as good or nearly as good as normal.
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Now, this elevated muscle protein synthesis doesn’t necessarily mean cle protein you need for growth and repair.
that growth took place for more than 30 hours—the damage done to the This compounds itself if your last meal was at
muscle fibers has to be taken into consideration. Although synthesis 6 p.m.
was well above normal, a good portion was directed at repair and not
just growth. Otherwise, every workout would probably result in an 2. Strenuous workouts compound the prob-
addition of a quarter-inch of muscle. lem. Damaged muscles need more protein and
The researchers thought this information was important because log- more insulin to “carry” that protein to the
ically, a strength athlete would get the most bang for his buck if he muscle cells.
waited until the muscle protein synthesis, stimulated by the previous
workout, had returned to the pre-training rate. If what they found stands 3. Strenuous workouts also cause a decrease
up to the tests of time, muscle groups shouldn’t in GH levels and increase in cortisol levels,
be worked again until at least 36 hours making it even harder to build muscle.
after the previous workout.
By now, you may be asking 4. Muscle protein synthesis is elevated for a
yourself what this information relatively long time after a workout, prov-
on muscle recovery rates has ing that additional protein is imperative.
to do with sleep and hor-
mone levels. All of this has A Solution?
to do with timing. Here are
the problems faced by the It all comes down to timing. By look-
bodybuilder: ing at the “problems,” a pattern starts to
emerge. We need more protein after a
1. Going to sleep means workout because muscle protein syn-
not eating, and not eating thesis accelerates dramatically, begin-
means that the body “runs ning right after a workout and for
out” of protein and insulin roughly 24 to 30 hours after a workout
about halfway through (when it appears to start to go back to “nor-
the night, so you, in mal”). Therefore, it’s crucial to keep protein
levels high during this time—eat some pro-
effect, stop synthe-
tein every two or three hours—particularly
sizing the mus-
during this recovery phase. If you’re a
bodybuilder who works out on a two-
day-on, one-day-off or even a one-
day-on, one-day-off schedule, your
protein intake should be strict
and regimented.
The sleep of a body-
builder is plagued by
opposing hormones
and the eventual
depletion of protein
“...studies have and insulin. Eating a
shown that meal at 6 p.m. and
not eating again until breakfast is a mistake.
muscle protein Therefore, the last thing you should do at night,
synthesis is before you say your prayers, is slug down a pro-
tein drink. This will help keep (notice I didn’t
elevated in say “fix”) protein levels high for at least the first
humans by 50% half of nighttime sleep. If your drink has a mix-
ture of simple and complex carbs in it, all the
four hours after better. (It would probably be ideal if you got up
a bout of heavy in the middle of the night for another protein
meal, but this has to fall into the category of
resistance fanaticism or plain pushing it too far.) Adding a
little flax oil or borage oil would be a good idea,
training. A full too, to slow the absorption of the nutrients into
24 hours later, the bloodstream and ensure an even more regu-
lated flow of amino acids into the bloodstream.
the percentage Eating some protein before bedtime can stim-
can rise to ulate hypothalamic growth-hormone releasing
factors—perhaps mediated by insulin release—
109%.” leading to increased GH release. This practice
will also help keep cortisol levels down.
w A Time
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Although you may be worried that this practice will 20 to 30 grams of carbohydrates, and a tea-
add bodyfat, there’s little chance of that, as long as you spoon of borage or flax oil. (This step is partic-
don’t use your protein drink to wash down a couple of ularly important.)
chocolate donuts.
Another possible safety measure would be to take any of 3. Have another similar protein drink upon

the anti-catabolic supplements that are now available that rising.

may put a chink in cortisol’s muscle-munching plans.

Lastly, the first thing you should do upon waking is eat pro- 4. Make sure you get at least 30 grams of pro-
A tein. Remember, under normal circumstances, your last meal was tein every 2 or 3 waking hours, especially dur-
Ti quite some time ago, and your body is probably digesting your ing the 0 to 30 hours after a workout (or per-
excess muscle tissue to sustain itself. petually if you work out every day or every
Again, here’s what I recommend: other day).

1. Take an anti-catabolic supplement at night (per- Perhaps the main message here is to copy the
haps CLA, HMB, or maybe even mela- body’s machine-like consistency. By feeding
tonin). the body at the most crucial times,
like clockwork, you can increase
2. Wash it down with a pro-
your chances of building
tein drink along with
some simple and com- muscle over the long
plex carbs immedi- run. And as the days
ately before going turn into months,
to bed—30 to 45 growth will fol-
grams of protein, low, right on

“By feeding the

body at the most
crucial times, like
clockwork, you can
increase your
chances of building
muscle over the
long run.”

References Cited
1 Kern, Werner, et al, “Hormonal Secretion During
Nighttime Sleep Indicating Stress of Daytime Exercise,”
Journal of Applied Physiology 79.5 (1995) :1461-1468.

2 J. MacDougall, Duncan, et al,

“The Time Course for Elevated Muscle
Protein Synthesis Following Heavy
Resistance Exercise,” Canadian Journal of
Applied Physiology 20.4 (1995) : 480-486.
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Anabolic Steroids in Europe
An Interview by T.C. Luoma
s a whole, Americans are rather provincial—we seriously, even investing considerable amounts of
A think we’re the best at everything, know every-
thing, and set the pace for the rest of the world while
money into bona-fide weight-training research. And,
since drugs are much more readily available in many
other countries, bless their hearts, are, well, kind of European countries, their knowledge of drugs sur-
primitive. This is particularly true of bodybuilding. passes ours, too.
Most of us assume the rest of the world still lifts con- To find out more about the European scene—particu-
crete-filled paint buckets and car axles. And the Euro- larly the drug scene—we made a few calls, checked a
peans? Well, they’ve evolved past the paint-bucket few contacts, and found Lazlo Hortobagyi, a former
stage, but not by much. I mean, aside from a few body- competitive bodybuilder from Budapest, Hungary. After
builders with funny names who had to come to the U.S. the fall of the Berlin Wall, Hortobagyi moved to Inns-
to get really big, who have they got with any notoriety? bruck, Austria, where he works as a personal trainer. It
Well, let me tell you, nothing could be further from was there that we contacted him. What ensued was a
the truth. Several European countries take training fascinating and eye-opening interview.
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buy his very convenient supply of regards to steroid use. Is my assumption

Parabolan. Another guy may claim he is correct?
Mr. America’s Italian cousin and says,
Yes, and this holds true regard-
The following is Part II of a two-
part interview:
‘‘He took a bottle of Anavar [oxan-
drolone] a day and 800 mg of Deca a
LH ing training, too. Without a
doubt, the Northern Europeans—the
week when he was at his best,” and
Finns, Swedes, Germans, Austrians,
BOOM, he gets rid of 10,000 tabs of
Muscle Media 2000: and Norwegians—probably train the
oxandrolone and 2,000 vials of Deca.
Without regard to cost, what’s the most- most scientifically. Sports science is
asked-for steroid on the black market? highly developed in these countries,
Are veterinary steroids popular and unlike the North Americans, they
Lazlo Hortobagyi: I
MM in Europe? like to study top-level bodybuilders and
pass on the information. For example,
would say Parabolan is probably the the Muscle Meets Magnet book, which
The only veterinary steroid
most-asked-for injectable steroid. News
of it being remade in France by a new LH that has been used on a signif-
icant basis is the French equivalent to
answers many questions on the muscle-
recruitment effect of a variety of exer-
company has been the source of many cises, was written by Swedish exercise
wet dreams for European bodybuilders. Canadian Equipoise. However, the
dosage per cc is very weak; therefore, physiologist P.A. Tesch.
The most-sought oral steroid is the The Americans, however, seem to get
bootleg form of the East-German Turin- it’s seldom used except by bodybuilders
in rural areas. their act together better with nutrition
abol. It has a very strong cult following and supplementation. In fact, European
with German-speaking bodybuilders, top pro bodybuilders will stock up on
particularly the ones who are closet From what you’ve told me, it
powerlifters. This drug is unequaled for
strength gains, espe-
MM seems as if the Europeans are
much more advanced
American supplements when compet-
ing in the U.S. But of course, there are
exceptions to the rule. Creatine was
cially when stacked than Americans in used by British track and field athletes
with the Italian oxan-
drolone. At dosages
as low as 10 mg a
day of Turinabol,
users report over-
coming plateaus in
strength and hyper-
trophy development.
The normal dosage is
about 0.5 mg per kg
of bodyweight, but that dosage is often
doubled and even quadrupled.

Do the Europeans use much clen-

MM buterol?

Not as much as they used to.

LH During the clenbuterol craze,
most of the clenbuterol used came from
veterinary sources. Vet clenbuterol is
about a tenth of the price of human
Earlier, you said rumors influ-
MM ence steroid use. What did
you mean by that?

Rumors influence the

LH makeup of steroid cycles to
a terrible degree, particularly when
steroid pushers want to unload large
quantities of a given steroid. You
will hear statements like, “My
cousin sells the ‘gear’ to ‘Mr. O,’
and he says that he takes two
Parabolans a day, and this and
that...” Then, everybody rushes to
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as well as Norwegian speed skaters curling—in very strict culinity. To be big is

years before American bodybuilders fashion— the bench- looked down upon in
started using it. press poundages they those countries. The way
That brings up a point. If one wants were using for their they train is the antithesis
to get ahead in the drug scene, he touch-and-go sets. I of what a guy like your
should talk to cyclists, track athletes, or thought their eyeballs Shawn Phillips would
tennis players. These guys are more on were going to fall out of advocate. They train with
the cutting edge of ergogens than any their sockets. After completing endless sets of low effort and
bodybuilders. his set of curls, he looked at spend more time chitchatting,
them and said in a low Teutonic grabbing their crotches, and
If European bodybuilders, partic- voice, “Geh raus Spargeltarzans” [Get staring down female members than
MM ularly Italian and Spanish ones,
have such easy access to such efficient
lost, asparagus Tarzans]. Needless to
say, they did not show up again at our
applying effort. Their diet is also terri-
ble. You cannot make bodybuilding
drugs, why aren’t they bigger? gym. They are now probably very avid gains on a breakfast of sweetened
Ping-Pong players... bread, butter, marmalade, and espresso
First and foremost, genetics are the coffee.
I guess you could say the
LH same about Mexican body-
builders. There are a lot of steroids
key to bodybuilding success. Countries
where people tend to have naturally
Austrian and German bodybuilders
who train in Italy scare the shit out of
the clientele at the gym. The Germanic
there, but looking at the average Mexi- high levels of muscle mass, like Hol- bodybuilders have a lot more intensity
can trainee, you would think Darwin’s land and Germany, produce large body- in their bodybuilding efforts and will
evolutionary theory was in reverse builders à la DeMey and Albrecht. out load and ridicule the wimpy
gear—they are smaller, not larger, than Even though Italians and Spaniards poundages of their Italian counterparts.
most American or European trainees. are very macho in their attitudes, they They still have the Deutschland über
Variations of cultures and laziness in don’t associate muscle mass with mas- alles! attitude.
training have a lot to do with why they
What kind of cycling patterns do the Europeans typically use? You gave us an
are not bigger. Steroid availability does
not necessarily equate to bodybuilding MM example of what I presumed to be a contest cycle in Part I, but what about off-
season cycles?
success. If steroids were the most
important key to bodybuilding success,
then France, Spain, Greece, and Italy Steroids are taken for a very long time in Europe. Here is an actual Aus-
would produce the best bodybuilders.
In the countries mentioned above, using
LH trian national title winner’s off-season cycle [Lazlo then pulled out the
following lists from his briefcase]. The bodybuilder was 89 kg [196 lbs] at the start
minimal ingenuity, one can buy truck- of this cycle.
loads of high-quality anabolics like Pri-
mobolan and Stromba. Week Nerobol* Plenastril Sustanon 250 Dynabolon
Again, steroids alone are obviously per day per day per week per week
no guarantee of success. Two French
bodybuilders came here [Austria] for a 1 120 mg 150 mg 3 amps 3 amps
ski vacation. The ski conditions were 2 110 mg 150 mg 3 amps 3 amps
not very good, so they decided to come 3 100 mg 150 mg 3 amps 3 amps
and train at our gym. They were strut-
ting around like peacocks and started 4 90 mg 125 mg 3 amps 3 amps
discussing dosages with everybody— 5 90 mg 125 mg 3 amps 3 amps
even some customs officers—and 6 90 mg 125 mg 3 amps 3 amps
everyone was snickering at these, how
do you say it in American? Dweebs? 7 90 mg 100 mg 3 amps 3 amps
One guy was on 8 Parabolans a week 8 90 mg 100 mg 3 amps 3 amps
and 60 mg of Dianabol, yet he looked 9 80 mg 75 mg 3 amps 3 amps
like a muscular swimmer. The other
guy was using over 200 mg a day of 10 70 mg 75 mg 2 amps 3 amps
various anabolics, plus 4 IU of GH 11 60 mg 75 mg 1 amp 3 amps
[growth hormone] a day, and he again 12 50 mg 50 mg 1 amp 2 amps
had a physique that most people can
achieve naturally on a three-day-a- 13 40 mg 50 mg 1 amp 2 amps
week program. Once I saw them train, I 14 30 mg 50 mg — 1 amp
understood everything. They were so 15 25 mg 25 mg — 1 amp
very, very weak for guys using so many
drugs. One of our local boys came in, 16 20 mg 25 mg — 1 amp
and the gym was very busy, and he 17 15 mg 25 mg — 1 amp
wanted the Olympic bar the dweebs 18 10 mg — — 1 amp
were using for bench press. He walked
over to the bench-press unit and started *[European Dianabol]
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The bodybuilder would then follow with a six to eight-week course of HCG and
Clomid to boost his testosterone back up and would follow the sample pre-contest
cycle below. The 89-kg [196-lb] bodybuilder now, in fact, is a 97-kg [213-lb]
bodybuilder: he would compete at week number 12 of his cycle and would take
the next 8 weeks to come down:

Week Oxandrolone Masteron Primobolan Stromba

per day per week per week per week
1 90 mg 100 mg 300 mg 350 mg
2 90 mg 100 mg 300 mg 350 mg
3 90 mg 200 mg 300 mg 350 mg
4 90 mg 200 mg 300 mg 350 mg
5 85 mg 200 mg 300 mg 350 mg
6 80 mg 300 mg 300 mg 300 mg
7 80 mg 300 mg 300 mg 300 mg Wow. Those steroid dosages are
8 80 mg 300 mg 300 mg 300 mg MM pretty high, aren’t they?
9 80 mg 300 mg 200 mg 300 mg
They are fairly typical, yet
75 mg
70 mg
400 mg
400 mg
200 mg
200 mg
250 mg
250 mg
I have seen much higher

12 60 mg 500 mg 200 mg 250 mg

13 55 mg 400 mg 100 mg 200 mg Really?
14 50 mg 300 mg 100 mg 150 mg MM For instance...
15 45 mg 200 mg 100 mg 100 mg
Well, a 20-year-old Junior
40 mg
35 mg
100 mg

50 mg
50 mg
LH World Bodybuilding Champi-
onships finalist was using the follow-
18 30 mg — — — ing: injectables—a weekly dosage of
19 25 mg — — — 1,000 mg of testosterone heptylate,
1,000 mg of Dynabolon, and 532 mg of
20 20 mg — — — Parabolan; and orals—8 tablets of 50-
mg oral Primobolan on a daily basis. If
Following this 20-week steroid cycle, he would do a 6-8 week course of HCG you calculate it, he was using 1,143 mg
and Clomid to try to restore his endocrine system. Then a three-month steroid-free of various anabolics a day!!! He weighs
period would be observed. 95 kg [209 lbs] at a height of 160 cm
By week 15, Deprenyl, piracetam, and Hydergine would be added. Supplemen- [5’21⁄2”].
tal acetyl-l-carnitine, orotic acid, and AKG would be used to prevent muscle One of the bouncers here at the local
disco uses 30 vials of 50 mg of
Orciprenaline—a beta-agonist—is also used to maintain the lean body mass
stanozolol a week, 2,000 mg of enan-
after the cycle. Albuterol is also used for the same purpose. A dose before a work-
thate, 1,000 mg of propionate, and
out has been shown to increase
strength between two and four per- 1,000 mg of suspension, and of course,
cent only one hour after adminis- one Plenastril per meal [he eats 6 times
tering it. a day]. He is 180 cm [6’] tall and
weighs 134 kg [295 lbs] at probably
10% bodyfat. It works out to be 1,085
mg a day!

Tell me more about the use

MM of Deprenyl, piracetam, and
Hydergine. These are all parts of the life-
extension drug family, aren’t they?

Deprenyl, also known as sele-

LH giline hydrochloride, is a
monoamine oxidase [MAO] inhibitor
normally used as a minor adjunctive
treatment to the administration of
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L-Dopa for the treatment of Parkin-

son’s disease. The MAO activity per-
mits the increase of active dopamine
levels. It is used by athletes for its pos-
itive effects on the central nervous sys-
Bodybuilders using this dopamine
agonist alone report a boost of libido
during or after steroid cycles and
increased muscle mass and a decrease
in bodyfat. These ergogenic effects
come from the fact that selegiline
boosts the body’s output of the
gonadotropins. Other positive effects of
Deprenyl are improved memory and
cognition, but bodybuilders probably What does Hydergine do? treat a variety of ailments ranging from
don’t care about that.
One problem with it is this drug is
MM alcoholism to dementia to dyslexia.
Piracetam potentiates the effect of
converted to methamphetamine and Hydergine, psychotropics, and amphet-
Hydergine was originally
amphetamine in humans through nor-
mal metabolic pathways. An athlete
using this product may therefore test
LH developed in Switzerland for
the treatment of high blood pressure; it
amines—hence, its popularity in com-
petitive strongmen circles.
Even though it was first used by box-
positive for methamphetamine/amphet- worked poorly for this purpose. How- ers and martial artists to boost learning
amine use. ever, it is known to have various other of their sport skills, bodybuilders,
beneficial effects such as increasing the strength athletes, and track athletes use
What’s the typical dosage for supply of blood and oxygen to the it nowadays for its central-nervous-sys-
MM Deprenyl? brain, increasing brain-cell metabolism,
accelerating the dismantling of lypo-
tem-boosting properties. It was used as
early as 1986 by athletes of the former
fusin—an aging pigment—in the brain, East Germany. It was administered in
Athletes under the age of 60 and improving intelligence.
LH report ergogenic effects on a
dose as low as a 1.5-mg tablet every 3
Athletes use Hydergine to boost
learning and concentration and to
that country to weightlifters and boxers
for its enhanced noradrenaline releasing
properties. After 11 weeks of treatment,
to 4 days. Higher dosages will give you increase growth-hormone output. I have one can experience better growth-hor-
the libido of 20 adult rabbits. seen athletes drop significant amounts mone release and increased levels of
of bodyfat while using nine dopamine in the brain. Apparently, in
milligrams a day of this the aftermath of all the positive drug
substance. Although not tests in the Seoul Olympics, Bulgarian
documented in scientific weightlifters and their Romanian col-
circles, bodybuilders report leagues jumped on the bandwagon.
that it also potentiates the They also use it to access more of the
use of pre-workout stimu- high-threshold fast-twitch fibers and to
lants such as ephedrine. improve concentration. One should
expect ergogenic effects only two to
What about pirace- three weeks after beginning treatment.
MM tam? I sometimes
use this before I write to
Incidentally, I know of a 30-year-old
sprinter who took piracetam on a con-
improve my concentration. sistent basis of 6 tabs a day and man-
aged to improve his PB [personal best]
in the 60-meter run by a full tenth of a
Yes, piracetam is
LH used by life exten-
sionists to boost memory
Second generation piracetam-like
drugs, such as oxiracetam and anirace-
and cognitive function. It tam, give the same results at half the
was one of the first noo- dosage.
tropics developed. It was
formulated in the ’60’s by
In what dosages is piracetam
the Belgian pharmaceutical
company UCB. It is a close
MM being used?
relative of the amino acid
pyroglutamate. In medical Athletes use a dosage pattern
circles, it has been used to LH similar to creatine. In other
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words, they use large amounts, five to

six 800-mg tabs for a week or so and
then cut back to 2-3 tabs a day. When
stacked with Hydergine, absorption
increases fivefold, so a much lower
dosage can be used. Piracetam is not yet
on the banned substances list.
German and Austrian bodybuilders
normally take one 400-mg tab, along
with a 2-mg Hydergine tab, 3 times
At higher dosages, the desired effect
is reversed, and the sought-after
enhanced memory and concentration
capability turns into partial amnesia
and confusion. Therefore, be aware
that piracetam is potentiated by
choline, Hydergine, DMAE, and cen-

What about powerlifters and

MM Olympic-style lifters? Do you
know anything about their patterns of drug

First of all, they use more

LH growth hormone than body-
builders. Because they have more
money than bodybuilders, they can
afford more products. They use growth
hormone for its ability to regenerate the
connective tissue.
They tend to use a lot of testos- trend is to use a glucose/amino-acid
terones: propionate, Sustanon, and of drip [IV] right after the workout to feed
course, suspension. Undoubtedly, Ple- the cells. Normal appetite comes back
nastril from Switzerland [oxymeth- within an hour or two after the drip.
olone, known as Anadrol in the U.S.] is The favorite stimulants of the strong-
the oral of choice. A minimum of three men are Nivalin and nicergoline from
tabs a day is taken, with the average Bulgaria and Sydnocarb from Estonia
dose being five tabs a day. Turinabol is and Russia.
the preferred oral if available.
Strongmen love androgens because
I think we’ve covered every topic
it’s a well-known fact that the nervous
system has receptors for androgens. MM under the sun. I’d like to thank
you for being so candid with us. I realize this
They excite the nervous system and
allow the athlete to use high loads. This interview might affect your relationship
explains why the German injectable with the various bodybuilding organizations
form of Halotestin is so popular. It’s in Europe, so I’d like to thank you on behalf
less toxic than its oral counterpart and of all of our readers.
has very strong central-nervous-system
excitation properties. However, the per-
You’re quite welcome.
sonalities of guys on it make Ted
Bundy look like Mother Theresa. It is
basically bottled ’roid rage.
Close to competitions, they will use For more information on the
plenty of Halotestin and oxandrolone steroids Lazlo Hortobagyi men-
along with testosterone suspension. tioned in this interview, check
Strongmen also use a lot of stimulants
to get up for workouts. The drawback is
your Anabolic Reference Guide. If
they depress the appetite. No appetite, you don’t have an Anabolic Refer-
no eating; no eating, no gains. So the ence Guide yet, see page xx. ▲
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The Best Ways To
Take It Easy For

By Charles Poliquin
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experienced bodybuilder

AN will notice significant

gains in muscle mass by
regularly taking creatine monohydrate
and drinking a post-workout shake that
is loaded with carbs and protein.
Vanadyl sulfate and a Vitamin C supple-
ment may also make a difference, as will
studying everything Dan Duchaine has
ever written. Beginners, however, need
to first concentrate on finding a good
basic workout. They should emphasize
heavy “basic” movements like the squat
and pay special attention to sets, reps,
and speed of movement. Another train-
ing variable that must be considered, but
one that’s often neglected, is the amount
of rest to take between sets.
Why is the science of rest intervals
neglected? Because rest, by its very
nature, is a boring topic. How can there
be a science behind doing nothing?
Well, you’ll be surprised at the amount
of academic time spent studying how the
body reacts to doing nothing between
sets. And while it may not be as exciting
as looking at the erotic pictures in Mus-
cular Development, it will help you
grow in all the right places.
Rest lntervals: The Basics
The most important principle to keep
in mind about rest intervals and how
they affect bodybuilding is that there’s Grant Henderson
Photo: Alex Ardenti
an inverse relationship between reps and
rest: the more reps you perform, the
lighter weights you must use and the less Figure 1
rest you need. The relationship between Chart Data © 1995 Poliquin
reps and rest is illustrated in Figure 1 at
the right.
How much rest is enough? Most
Rest lnterval
American exercise physiologists 20 Repetitions 18
recommend a 1:5 work/rest ratio
to train the ATP-CP (adenosine
triphosphate/creatine phosphate)
Continuum 15
The fewer the number of
system, which is the energy system
involved in high-intensity muscu-
15 reps performed, the 
longer the rest period.
lar contractions. A 1:5 ratio means 12
that whatever time it took you to
complete a set, it would take you 5
times as long to adequately recover 10 9
from that set. However, not everyone
Rep Count
is in agreement with the Americans.
Canadian exercise physiologist Gio-
5 Rest in
net believes that a 1:5 ratio doesn’t pro-
vide sufficient recovery for the ATP-CP
5 3 Minutes
system and recommends a ratio of 1:12-
18. Charlie Francis, who coached 173-lb
Ben Johnson to a 420-lb bench press and
1 3 1
many world sprint records, is also a 0
strong believer in long rest intervals. He Neural Drive Size-Training Endurance Training
suggests a 1:20-30 ratio! Range
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The Relationship Between the Various Loading conditioned bodybuilder.

Parameters in Strength & Mass Development Therefore, rest intervals
must be shortened only for
Table Data © 1995 Poliquin the advanced trainee as
Time lactate buildup will inter-
Under Rest fere with proper exercise

Reps Tempo*  Sets  Tension lnterval  performance.
In fact, to prevent
1–3 4/1/1 6 6–18 240–300 excessively high lactate
buildup, I frequently alter-
4–7 3/0/2 5 20–35 180–240 nate u p p e r a n d l o w e r
body exercises in the
3–5 5/0/5 3 30–50 150–210 workouts I prescribe.
Muscle Mass And
8–10 4/0/2 4 48–60 90–180 Strength Levels
The larger and stronger
11+ 3/0/1 3 44+ 90–120 the trainee, the longer the
*Eccentric/Pause/Concentric Seconds Total rest interval should be.
Component Times In Seconds. Per Set Seconds There appears to be a
direct linear relationship
Table 1 between the length of the
rest interval and the body-
I’m in full agreement with Francis—the nervous-system
weight of the trainee. Thus, Gary Strydom would need a
cell takes five to six times longer to recover than the muscle
longer rest period than Francis Benfatto, who is lighter.
cell. This means that even though energy stores may be
nearly replenished by a 1:5-6 ratio, your nervous system Aerobic Fitness
hasn’t recovered enough to effectively activate the fast- The more aerobically fit an athlete is, the shorter the rest
twitch fibers responsible for muscle growth. And if the ner- interval should be—that’s the theory. The problem is that the
vous system can’t activate the fast-twitch fibers, what’s the aerobically fit individual is normally weaker and usually has
point of performing another set? the physique of a pre-pubescent tropical fish breeder. It’s also
been my experience that these individuals (dare we call them
Although counting repetitions is a convenient way to deter-
athletes?) tend to rush between heavy sets to maintain a high
mine work performed, it’s more precise to consider how long
heart rate. Apparently, they have a hard time grasping the con-
it takes to complete a set. The amount of time it takes to com-
cept of resting for a long time between heavy sets to bring
plete a set is referred to as “time under tension.” As
about neural adaptation. Unfortunately, a high heart
with reps, the longer a muscle is stressed, the
rate by itself doesn’t lead to maximal strength
less rest time needed. This is illustrated
and mass gains—if it did, Covert Bailey
above in Table 1. would probably be Mr. America!
Because variety is an essential
training principle, I believe it’s also Putting Theory
important to vary (i.e., periodize) into Practice
your re st intervals. Despite A weightlifter or strength ath-
the established cause-and-effect lete must emphasize complete
relationship of varying rest inter- recovery, but a bodybuilder has
vals, failure to vary rest intervals two choices when selecting the
limits adaptation to the training rest interval—nearly complete
stimulus. This concept has yet to recovery or incomplete recovery.
be validated by science, but it’s To see the benefits of each, let’s
been my experience that it posi- examine three types of training
tively favors the rate and magni- methods for an individual who can
tude of strength and size gains— barbell curl 100 lbs 10 times in a
especially with elite athletes. 4/0/2 tempo (every rep would take 6
In addition to reps and sets, there are seconds: 4 to lower the weight, no pause,
several other factors to consider when 2 to lift the weight).
determining rest intervals. The three I’d like to Method 1: Adequate Rest
address are training experience, muscle mass and and Constant Weight
strength levels, and aerobic fitness. In this method, a constant weight is used, and you’re
Training Experience given at least three minutes to recover, which allows
Tolerance to short rest intervals with loads in the almost all the energy stores to resynthesize by the end of
60%-80% range (6-20 reps) is a function of years of every set. Assuming your first set is a maximum effort,
accumulated training. The lactate buildup resulting you’ll tend to fatigue two percent—one rep per set after
from this type of training is tolerated only by the well- three minutes. Thus, a typical workout looks like this:
Photo: Jim Amentler Paula Piwarunas
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decreased two percent at a time? (MedX

machines can do this with double
rest intervals
weight stacks, but using these machines
have also been alone would seriously limit your exer-
associated cise choices.) In most gyms, if you’re
with greater lucky, you can decrease weight by five
testosterone percent. As a compromise, I recommend
levels…” decreasing the weight by 5% every 2
sets, which would result in the following
performance: 100 x 10, 100 x 9, 95 x 10,
Mike O’Hearn
and 95 x 9. This would change the aver-
age load to 97.5 pounds and the time
under tension to 228 seconds.
Method 3: Inadequate Rest
and Decreasing Weight
In this method, only 60 seconds’ rest
is allowed so that energy stores are not
completely resynthesized by the end of
each set; in this system, you tend to
fatigue at about 10% per set (4-5 reps).
A typical workout looks like this:
Set 1: 100 lbs x 10, rest 1 minute
Set 2: 90 lbs x 10, rest 1 minute
Set 3: 80 lbs x 10, rest 1 minute
Set 4: 70 lbs x 10, rest 1 minute
This produces the following data:
average weight lifted: 85 lbs
total reps performed: 40
time under tension: 240 seconds
(40 reps x 6 seconds).
This option is often used by body-
Photo: Paula Crane builders for the “pump” sensation that
comes with it, and it’s associated with
high levels of growth hormone and lac-
tic acid. It also increases the storage of
Set 1: 100 lbs x 10, rest 3 minutes adjusted precisely from set to set to
account for fatigue. A typical workout glycogen and phosphagens and the
Set 2: 100 lbs x 9, rest 3 minutes
looks like this: associated enzymes for the metabolism
Set 3: 100 lbs x 8, rest 3 minutes of these nutrients.
Set 4: 100 lbs x 7, rest 3 minutes Set 1: 100 lbs x 10, rest 3 minutes
Set 2: 98 lbs x 10, rest 3 minutes As with the first two methods, this
This produces the following data: system creates hypertrophy but not for
average weight lifted: 100 lbs Set 3: 96 lbs x 10, rest 3 minutes
the same reasons. While Methods 1 and
total reps performed: 34 Set 4: 94 lbs x 10, rest 3 minutes
2 are great for creating hypertrophy by
time under tension: 204 seconds This produces the following data: favoring growth of the contractile pro-
(34 reps x 6 seconds) average weight lifted: 97 lbs teins, Method 3 promotes hypertrophy
Because the rest is more complete, total reps performed: 40
through energy substrate storage. It fol-
this method enables you to use heavy time under tension: 240 seconds
lows that for maximum muscle mass,
weights on every set and therefore (40 reps x 6 seconds).
all three methods should be used.
make more tensile demands of the con- As with Method 1, the longer rest
tractile fibers. This higher tension leads As you can see from the three exam-
intervals increase the average amount
to myofibrillar growth. These longer of weight that can be used, but the ples presented, the bodybuilder should
rest intervals have also been associated decreasing weight increases the time use both types of systems for muscle
with greater testosterone levels in expe- under tension. Because hypertrophy is mass training—nearly complete recov-
rienced athletes performing large mus- related to time under tension with opti- ery and incomplete recovery. The bot-
cle group exercises. mal loading, this would be the optimal tom line is that for optimal progress to
Method 2: Adequate Rest system to force myofibrillar growth. occur in bodybuilding, you need to
and Decreasing Weight On paper, this method looks great, but vary the rest intervals—once you’ve
In this method, the rest interval is the how many gyms do you know of that achieved that, then you can pull out
same as Method 1, but the weight is have training implements which can be those Dan Duchaine articles!
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S p e c i a l A d v e r t i s e m e n t

by Bill Phillips

R i g h t toW a y
Lose Fat . .and Build a Lean, Toned, Sexy Body!
f guys are generally confused about how to build muscle, lose fat, and build a

I better body, most women are “confused times ten!” But there’s no reason to be
perplexed—there’s a right way for a woman to get in awesome shape—
a way that works… It’s called bodybuilding!
Muscle Media 2000 is a “bodybuild- involved in weight training. I’m certain petitive bodybuilders is Flex—virtually
ing” magazine. It’s a publication written the reason women are taking more inter- all of the other magazines primarily use
for those individuals who are extremely est in “bodybuilding” is because the pictures of drug-free female “body-
dedicated to building the best body they major muscle magazines have been run- builders.” (I mean, come on, what’s this
can! It’s a magazine about weight train- ning more and more photos of gals who whole women’s fitness thing? It’s drug-
ing, nutrition, supplementation, and have used “bodybuilder-like” exercise free women’s bodybuilding!)
other “tricks” that can help you build and nutrition programs to build some of I’m very glad things are starting to
muscle and lose fat. the most beautiful physiques in the change because I’m absolutely, posi-
The majority of our readers are men world! It just goes to show that a woman tively convinced any woman who wants
because the majority of those who can build a gorgeous, lean, and toned to get in shape—who wants to lose fat
“bodybuild” are guys. But over the past (but feminine) body by using weight- and build muscle tone—should be pat-
few months, I’ve noticed we’ve been training exercise. It looks like we might terning her fitness program after body-
getting more and more questions and finally be starting to break through that builders.
feedback from women, and we’ve been awful stigma about women and weight There is absolutely, positively no bet-
getting a lot of questions from guys training that emerged along with the use ter form of exercise in the world than
who’ve been looking to share their pas- of steroids by female bodybuilders. The weight training. Of course, any exercise
sion for bodybuilding with the women truth is, if women don’t use steroids, it’s (walking, using a HealthRider, pedaling
in their lives (wives, girlfriends, sisters, virtually impossible for them to build on a stationary bike, etc.) is better than
friends, etc.). “freakish” muscularity! nothing, but only weight training allows
I think this is great—I’m glad more About the only magazine that still you to “sculpt” your body. Unfortu-
women than ever before are getting runs photos of drugged-up female com- nately, women are usually led to believe
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Starvation Diets Monica Brant

and Hours of

Photo: Irvin J. Gelb

Are Out—

Is In!

that aerobics are the best overall exercise for vinced that training with
them, but that simply isn’t true. (The women weights won’t turn her into
who do read Muscle Media 2000 and know some freakish-looking mus-
a thing or two about weight training cle monster (which just does
would definitely confirm this!) not happen without the use of
By the time most women are into their steroids), the next step is decid-
20’s (unless they have great genetics), ing exactly what type of weight-
they start to develop a “pear-like” shape; training program to follow.
that is, their hips get wider than their Unfortunately, this is an area
shoulders. Now, let’s say a woman goes where women also get bad advice—
on a “typical” diet where she does hours of they’re often told if they want to build
aerobic exercise and starves herself—the muscle “tone,” they should just use
best possible end result would be that she light weights and take it easy. That’s
would come out looking like a smaller pear! completely wrong! Effective weight
But, with weight training, women can firm and training, for a man or a woman, has to be
tone their bodies—they can build wider shoul- intense—it has to “overload” the muscle
ders, strong arms, and firm legs. fibers being trained. After the proper
And remember, when you train with weights “stimulus” is given, muscles will rebuild
properly, your body gains muscle, and your bigger and better than they were before (if
metabolic rate goes up, so you can eat more you feed the muscles properly and provide
without gaining fat! Studies also confirm that adequate time for recuperation).
weight training strengthens the heart, Not only is it true that “bodybuilding” is the
increases bone mass (which lowers a best way for women to build a firmer, more
woman’s risk of osteoporosis), lowers cho- toned body, I’m convinced it’s the best way to
lesterol (which decreases the chance of lose fat, too! Building muscle (through weight
heart disease), and improves your mood! training) addresses the “core” of the problem—
No kidding! Weight training does all of energy expenditure. When your body burns
this stuff and more! more calories than you eat, you lose fat—it’s
Once a woman becomes con- that simple.
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R i g h t toW a y
Lose Fat

National fitness champions

Tatiana Anderson (left)
and Laurie Donnelly (right),
and Venus Swimwear
models Ami Cusack and
LeAnne Tweedan use
to help them stay lean
and toned!

The Importance of Nutrition can literally force a woman’s body to

Proper weight-training exercise is burn fat and, at the same time, build
critical, but nutrition and supplementa- incredible muscle tone!
tion are just as important. Literally tens I’ve been working extensively over
of thousands of women believe that in the past two years with women from all
order to build a better body, they have to walks of life, and I’ve come up with a designed especially for women. You
starve themselves, so they use these system that works incredibly well! It’s see, one of the problems I encountered
cheap “slimming” shakes (which have a not a “miracle cure,” but it may be the when I designed nutrition and exercise
terrible nutritional profile), and they try next best thing! It’s a simple and easy- programs for women is that virtually all
to go as long as they can without eating. to-follow exercise, nutrition, and sup- of the meal-replacement powders on the
This is a big mistake! You see, when plementation program designed espe- bodybuilding market were designed for
you severely restrict calorie intake, your cially for women who want to lose fat men—why on earth would a gal who
body becomes convinced it’s starving, and gain muscle tone. It’s called the weighs 120 lbs need to use the same
and it “fights back” by lowering your Neo-Lean™ program. meal-replacement powder as a guy who
metabolic rate, so you burn fewer calo- This program, designed just for weighs 225? It doesn’t make any sense!
ries. The body also sacrifices huge women, teaches you how to feed your Gals just don’t need 35-45 grams of
amounts of muscle tissue if it’s not body, not starve it, to get results! As a protein in each meal—any excess pro-
being fed properly. This is one reason matter of fact, on this program, you can tein which is consumed that the body
women who do aerobic exercise and eat up to six times a day and still lose doesn’t need will be converted to fat!
starve themselves get such awful fat! And, the exercise program is simple It’s also a fact that a female who has
results—they’re crippling their meta- and easy—it takes as little as 19 minutes roughly half the lean mass of a male
bolic rate, and much of the weight they 3 times a week, and it can produce bodybuilder doesn’t need nearly as
lose is muscle, not fat! incredible results! many calories!
Fortunately, there is a better way— The cornerstone of the Neo-Lean pro- Here’s another problem… The “meal
there’s a precise combination of free- gram is a new meal-replacement powder replacements” that are designed for
weight exercise and proper nutrition that called Neo-Lean, which was also mainstream women (the “slimming
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Before—181 lbs After—129 lbs

Learn the Basics Shelly lost
First 52 pounds
It doesn’t matter what “fat burners”
or diet pills a woman uses, if she’s
not doing the right type of exercise
and not feeding her body properly,
of fat
she’s not going to get optimal
results. It’s especially important for
women to learn that food is good for
using the
you—starving yourself is not! You
have to feed your body with the
proper nutrition in order for it to
respond the way you want it to.
You’ve got to work with your body,
not against it.
Program and
Once a woman is doing the right
type of exercise and feeding her
body the right way, then she may
want to try using other effective sup-
plements to build even greater mus-
cle tone—things like creatine mono-
hydrate and HMB are two supple-
ments I think could really help
her body!
women build muscle tone, but these
products should only be used after
she has mastered the fundamentals with the Neo-Lean formula. And I think obics for years and years; she tried all
of proper exercise and nutrition. And it’s perfect! Each serving contains 25 kinds of stupid diets and appetite-sup-
that’s what the Neo-Lean program is grams of super-high-quality protein, 25 pressing pills, and so on. But her lack of
all about! If women follow this exer- grams of carbohydrate, and only 1 gram results left her extremely frustrated.
cise program, use Neo-Lean prop- of fat, along with 50% of all the vita- When we started field-testing the
erly, and follow the nutrition system mins and minerals considered essential Neo-Lean program, I asked her to get
I’ve developed, they will get under the U.S. RDA. It’s also lower in involved. I think she figured, “What the
results—results that could border on calories and sodium than the popular heck… I’ve tried everything else… I’ll
miraculous! meal-replacement powders (such as Rx try this too…” Well, as it turned out, she
If someone wants to add a thermo- Fuel, Metaform, MyoPlex Plus, the started seeing awesome results the first
genic fat burner or other supple- “leading brand,” etc.), and it contains week she was on the program, and now,
ments on top of that, that’s up to unique micronutrients that some experts she looks like a new woman! I’m very
her—I think any woman could get believe support a woman’s ability to proud of her! Now, wherever she goes,
great results if all she did was the lose fat and build muscle tone. And, it’s she tells everybody how great the Neo-
Neo-Lean program! delicious, easy to mix, easy to digest, Lean program is and how women
and very economical! should be training with weights and
For the last year, I’ve been testing this feeding their bodies to get results,
product on all kinds of women. Last instead of doing aerobic exercise and
shakes” you can get at the grocery store, summer, we did a field test with 32 starving themselves! (Of course, Shelly’s
you know the ones) contain only a small “average” women who needed to lose results were extraordinary—as individu-
portion of low-quality protein and around 15 to 20 lbs—women who had als differ, so will results.)
insignificant levels of key micronutri- never done any weight training before in We also tested the Neo-Lean program
ents that I believe support a woman’s their lives—the results were incredible! on some women who were already in
ability to lose fat and build muscle tone. One of the women who experienced pretty darn good shape—like National
In an effort to solve this problem, I mind-boggling results with the Neo- Fitness Champion Tatiana Anderson
worked with the researchers at Experi- Lean program happened to be my sister and Ms. Fitness America, Laurie Don-
mental and Applied Sciences (EAS) and Shelly. She lost 52 lbs in just a few nelly. They both love the program and
explained all of this to them. Then we months and completely transformed her especially enjoy the new Neo-Lean
met with a multi-million-dollar food- body! She went from “flabby” to being “superfood” because it’s just right for
science group in Southern California lean and toned! them—it’s a smaller portion than the
and went to work designing the ultimate Even though my brother (Shawn) and other meal-replacement powders; it’s
meal-replacement powder for women. I have been into bodybuilding since we high in nutrition, low in calories, deli-
After months of going back and forth on were in our early teens, Shelly never got cious, and convenient—it has virtually
different formulas and experimenting into it. She was convinced that “body- everything they need!
with dozens of prototypes, we came up building” was not for her. She tried aer- Now, a number of top fitness com-
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R i g h t toW a y
Lose Fat
The Neo-Lean
Program was
designed to help
lose fat and build
muscle tone!

petitors are using Neo-Lean, including

professional fitness champion Monica
The Neo-Lean program is also being
used by some of the top swimwear
models in the world—the President of
Venus Swimwear (the best swimwear To my knowledge, the
line in the business), Daryle Scott, rec- Neo-Lean program is
ommends the Neo-Lean program to his really the first complete
top models! These women have to have “bodybuilding” system developed just
lean and firm bodies, or they’re out of for women, and it’s already a tremen- Neo-Lean Exercise
work! dous success! I would recommend the Guide, the Neo-Lean Fast-Food
The Neo-Lean program fits in per- Neo-Lean program to any of the gals Cheater’s Guide, and an introductory
fectly with today’s fast-paced lifestyles. who read Muscle Media 2000. And I supply (18 servings) of the delicious
It’s just so simple and easy to follow. strongly encourage guys out there who Neo-Lean superfood! This whole pack-
The workouts can take less than 20 min- have wives, girlfriends, sisters, etc. who age is only $39.95 (plus $6.50 shipping
utes a day! And it can be done at home would like to get in shape, to tell them and handling). And just like any other
or at a gym. I’ve even written a Fast- about the Neo-Lean program. You product I promote, each first-time pur-
Food Cheater’s Guide which shows might even order the Neo-Lean Intro- chase of Neo-Lean comes with a 100%
women how to eat fast-food meals (if ductory Program for them—it could lifetime money-back guarantee!
they have to) and still build a lean, really change their lives! (This program
healthy body. was designed to work for “beginners” Remember This
And, since no one wants to eat “per- and experienced fitness buffs!) Even if you don’t order the Neo-Lean
fectly” all the time, I designed the Neo- The Neo-Lean program will be avail- program, ladies, keep in mind what I’ve
Lean program so you can go off the sys- able in health-food stores, like GNC, told you in this article—don’t starve
tem completely, once a week, and eat everywhere within a few months, but if yourself in an effort to build a better
anything and everything you want. you’d like to check it out now, you can body—it doesn’t work! And, if you
Pizza, chocolate, cookies—all the fun order it direct by calling 1-800-615-8500 want to build a firm, lean, shapely
stuff! On that “play day,” there is no (ask for Dept. #2544). The Neo-Lean body, start training with weights—it’s
exercise, no Neo-Lean meal replace- Introductory Program comes complete absolutely, positively the best way to
ments—virtually no rules! with the Neo-Lean Nutrition Guide, the build an awesome body!
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By Dan Duchaine

T hey used to
call him
Rubberdick because
he used to wear a
rubber dick in the
gym. Okay, maybe it
wasn’t rubber, but it
was some miracle
polymer. All I know
is that the thing
wasn’t real. But I’m
getting ahead of
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“So where do the men hide them?”

“Is there a big tub of cold water out

back that they all dunk themselves in?”

I took Jessica, my book assistant, to which would make it five inches, but “Ah...yes, absolutely.” (Hey, never
her first bodybuilding contest. that’s probably stretching it a bit.” knock free advertising.)
“Where do they hide their equip- “Did your balls shrink when you “Will you show me yours some-
ment?” she asked. were on steroids?” time?”
“Uh, they pump up offstage in a little “Yeah, but they grew back in prison. “I’ll make a deal with you: you shave
room,” I answered. I’ve been off steroids for over six years your legs, then I’ll whip it out.”
“No, their penes.” now.” (Jessica absolutely refuses to shave her
“What’s a penes?” “Did you miss them?” legs.)
“It’s the plural of penis. You pay me “I do miss being strong like I was...” “Screw off.”
to proofread what you write, so I need “No, no, no, not the steroids. Your “Jess, you’re not supposed to end a
to know these things. Where are they? balls. Did it bother you that you were a sentence with a preposition.”
We just saw the teenage class, and all eunuch? I mean, didn’t any of your girl- “Gotcha.”
those boys had big bulges. So where do friends complain when they used to “Did you read John’s piece in
the men hide them?” grab for something that wasn’t there?” Muscular Development about women
“I’m not gonna ask why you needed “Can we change the subject?” and steroids?”
to use the word ‘penes.’ And they don’t “Face it. You were in denial. Hey, the “Yeah, what a jerk.”
hide the equipment. Most steroid users women are on. Is it my imagination, or “Why’s that?”
have small b...gonads. But they grow do some of them have penes, too?” “The first time I met John, I went to
back. Eventually.” “Jess, you know that steroid use in his house to pick up his manuscript to
“That still doesn’t explain why most women causes clitori enlargement.” edit. He’s got his Hot Skins shorty-
of the men up there have no... penises. “Clitorides is the plural. You usually shorts on. He’s got that meat and no
That’s the other plural. Is there a big tub use an ‘i’ when a word ends with ‘us,’ potatoes look: looks like he has a
of cold water out back that they all dunk platypus/platypi, but this is an excep- decent-sized penis but no balls. He’s
themselves in?” tion. And you use a soft ‘a’ if it ends in got acne on his back; his hair is totally
“Well, now that you mention it, they an ‘um.’ For example, all the men up gone. Who wears a hat in his own
all look kinda underhung compared to there have shrunken scrota. Didn’t you house? John’s a good-looking guy,
the teenagers. Maybe the boys have learn anything in English class?” but he was Mr. Puffy-Face that
more five-alpha reductase in their dicks “If I was perfect, then you’d be out of day—I’m not stupid. So when he
during adolescence. I think it’s the DHT a job correcting my stuff.” starts telling the world how women
that controls how big the penis is in the “‘Were’ perfect. How big does a cli- shouldn’t use male hormones and that
flaccid state. There was this under- toris get?” a large clitoris is gross, how would he
ground designer steroid that supposedly “It was so big that...” feel if his girlfriend kicked him out of
made your limp dick hang bigger. I used “Seriously.” bed and said, ‘That ’roid look is
some of it, and it worked. It was the “Biggest I’ve seen is about half the gross’?”
same size when it got hard, though, but length of my little finger.” “You know, Jessica, the ironic thing
it definitely fluffed it up during off-ver- “Lemme see your finger. You have is that I heard he likes Deca Durabolin
tical. Buttsie rubs that vet steroid really long fingers. Is it true that a and HCG. Both of which are not
Checque Drops onto his dick every day, man’s fingers are an indication of how male hormones. Nandrolone (Deca
and he swears it’s grown two inches, big his penis is?” Durabolin) is made in the placenta dur-
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“Do these bodybuilders really think women

care about big arms?”

ing pregnancy. And HCG is from preg- She had to dry hump my thigh when I ran from the back of the gym to the front
nant women’s urine. flexed it to get off. I used to get this door. I was standing at the front desk,
“Personally, I’ve never had a prob- wicked cramp flexing my leg so hard, and Mister Rubberdick started fishing
lem with a large clitoris on a lover. so I’d have her change legs. I told you for his car keys that are hung on the key
Maybe I got used to it. There are bene- about her, the carrot girl.” rack at the front desk. And from all the
fits... it’s easier to find—easier to give “Contract, not flex. The same girl running, his extension had detached
them an orgasm. And I think John has who got a carrot stuck up her ass?” itself from his own penis, and it had
overblown the gynecological problems. “The same. It could’ve been worse. traveled down to the back of his leg.”
The way he makes it out, he almost rec- It could’ve been an eggplant. “Look at the posedown. The teenage
ommends a scuba suit and a snorkel for “BaaaaaaaaHaaaaaaaaHaaaaaaaaaa!” guy really is the only guy up there with
some sex acts. I never felt like I was “What’s so funny?” anything in his trunks. Do these body-
drowning. I mean, aesthetically, I’d “See that little guy over there in the builders really think women care about
rather deal with something smaller, but lycra. Wait, wait, he’s about to turn big arms?”
I’m not gonna be jumping out of bed, around...” “Did you see the thing in USA Today
running away from it. And frankly, not “Holy shit. That’s a big schlong! It about the kid who got sold to the crack
every female bodybuilder gets a big almost reaches his kneecap! It’s just too house? His mom owed the crack dealer
one, even when using steroids. big.” $1,000, so she sold her son to the crack
Sometimes just the opposite. I’ve been “I thought women liked big d... dealer. The kid lived at the crack house
with a tiny-little female bodybuilder penes.” and had to sell drugs, and get this: he
who never took a steroid in her life and “There’s nothing on me that that had to perform sex on women in the
only weighed 115 pounds, hardly any would fit into. The thing is so big, I’d house. The kid’s only 11. The crack
muscle on her, and she had the biggest have to throw it over my shoulder and dealer told the kid that if he didn’t per-
clitoris I’ve ever seen. Face it, the burp it like a baby.” form sex on the girls, he would with-
whole big clit thing is more a male cul- “Make believe it’s a harmonica. But hold food. Eventually, the police res-
tural problem. get this: it isn’t real. It’s a rubber dick. cued him.”
“If John doesn’t like the size of a The guy used to go to Gold’s in Venice. “Is the kid all right?”
woman’s genitalia, he should find He used to change into his Spandex “Shit yes, the kid had gained ten
another sex partner more to his liking. tights in the bathroom, not in the locker pounds.”
Because there are plenty of men, myself room. Then he’d walk around the gym
included, who don’t have a problem with this plastic pecker on. On one Pompous Asshole
with it. We don’t live in Africa, where hand, I didn’t want to stare, but on the or Genius Know-It-All?
one society allows cutting the thing off other, it was unavoidable. He walked Subjective, Objective... What’s
and stitching the vagina shut. Besides, around like it was on a leash. You the Difference?
much of the enlargement goes away wanna get up close? The damn thing
after steroid use. And the girls could has veins on it. I swear.” BODYOPUS, Dan Duchaine’s new
use Proscar and avoid the problem. I “How did you find out it was fake?” book, is coming soon! (Seriously…it is! I
knew only one girl who had a physical “His car alarm went off, and the front swear!) Watch for details on how to get a
problem being large. It was so sensitive desk announced the license plate num- copy of this fantastic new book in future
that regular intercourse was painful. ber over the PA. So Mister Rubberdick issues of Muscle Media 2000.
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he biggest, most well-kept secret in bodybuilding is, drum roll, please, OK, consider that the studies with
IGF-1 doesn’t work! Why is it a secret? Well, everybody feels like a prize AIDS patients used five mg of IGF-1
ass after having spent so much money on it and finding out it works as well (made for real humans, not the “cell-
as Ovaltine for putting on muscle. The general bodybuilding public, though, still culture” IGF-1 many bodybuilders are
thinks it works. Rumor has it that top bodybuilders have been experimenting with getting) twice a day, with growth hor-
it for the last four years, and the rest of the world’s only just starting to catch up. mone, which is a total of ten mg a day
Make no mistake, IGF-1 has been around for a long time. In fact, I first had up- of IGF-1.1
close experience with it in 1989, and others may have started experimenting with Then, of course, you’ve got to con-
it back then, too. Back in 1989, one of the “lab-rat” bodybuilders I was keeping sider that IGF-1 should work better in a
track of used 30 mg (in one month) of IGF-1 that he received from a chemist “cocktail” with growth hormone (GH),2
friend of mine from Chiron, and absolutely nothing happened to his muscles. which is how the studies with AIDS
(Some of the IGF-1 at Chiron’s plant wasn’t “good enough,” so my chemist patients were done, using both GH and
friend pulled it off the assembly line and “threw it away.” This would have been IGF-1 together.1,3 (My chemist friend
about $300,000 worth of IGF-1 back in 1989 when the industrial cost of IGF-1 told me about the need for a ‘‘cocktail’’
was $10 a microgram!) in 1989, too.) Well, after 12 weeks, the
Look at the bottles of IGF-1 from some of the top chemical companies. There AIDS patients in the first study experi-
are 500 mcg in the 50-cc bottle. The bodybuilders who are using 2 cc’s or 20 mcg enced no net increase in lean tissue,
a day are using 1/50th as much as my lab-rat friend used, yet they think some- NONE, at 500 times the 20 mcg many
thing’s going to happen to their muscles that didn’t happen to his. bodybuilders are using—Z-E-R-O, zip.
(Note: 10 mg = .01 grams; 20 mcg =
.00002 grams. Count all the zeros.)
This is equivalent to me telling you
about some hypothetical super-pro
bodybuilder (remember we’re just
hypothesizing!) who uses 2,000 mg of
testosterone a week and then telling
you that you can use 4 mg a week and
still grow. (You can almost inhale four
milligrams of testosterone just by walk-
ing into Gold’s Gym, Venice!)
So this year, I’ve had 6 guys, average
weight about 250 lbs, come up to me at
the gym and ask the “What do you
think of IGF-1, and how should I use
it?” question. So I say, “I’m sorry you
spent two grand ’cause it won’t work,
but call me in two months, and give me
a report anyway.”
When they report back to me, they
always say, “I don’t know if it worked.
I guess it didn’t.” (Just think of all the
steak, rice, flax oil, whey, etc. you
could buy with $2,000.)
Some of the real hardcore users fig-
ure it out quickly (as everyone will
eventually), so of course, I predict that
the IGF-1 fad will die within the year,
as everyone gets the true picture.
Now don’t go blaming T.C. because
he was the first to report on the rampant
IGF-1 traffic that started last year. His
article was actually a “scoop” and very
on-target at the time. We were all curi-
ous about the commotion that was
going on, what with all kinds of body-

But I Can Fix It By Michael Mooney

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The Problem pounds, but it’s far too radical and com-

So what’s the problem here? Well, plicated for them to pursue for com-
doctors and bodybuilders, the problem mercial medical uses—and I think they
is that the IGF-1 binding protein know it.)
(IGFBP-3) that controls IGF-1’s activ- I know some of you are thinking,
ity and potency4,5 is very mysterious, “What about the studies that do show
and it’s very powerful. The best scien- IGF-1 doing something, like the one
tists at major-league scientific corpora- with the little old ladies?6 What about
tions don’t know how to work with that?” Well, if you check into it, you’ll
IGFBP’s, so they can’t make IGF-1 find a pretty consistent pattern of IGF-1
work the way they want it to. If they working for the first few weeks, and
builders talking about “friends who knew, they’d make their company a bil- then gains cease. This is what happened
were growing like crazy using this new, lion dollars and probably get a fat raise in the AIDS study1—some muscle gain
fantastic dream anabolic.” Even I put or a stock option worth a new house. (and some side effects) in the first, oh,
aside what I had learned years ago Anyway, Genentech’s research direc- maybe six weeks or so, but by the
when my Chiron friend was around, tor told me that they had “abandoned twelfth week, no net gain because the
thinking maybe bodybuilders finally all work on IGF-1 for body “down-regu-
had more information about how to anabolism” for the lates” the anabolic
make IGF-1 work. By the time the story
broke, though, I had put the pieces
time being. As I said,
they just don’t know
“...the body effects after a while
and stops the IGF-
together again and saw the same old
problem—the one that still hasn’t been
what to do to make
the IGFBP-3 work. (I
‘down-regulates’ 1 from working.
So what can we
fully solved by the big-league medical
scientists, the one that I’ll reveal in this
think there may be a
way to make it work
the anabolic do? I mean, if
IGF-1 is so power-
article. using multiple com- effects ful at affecting
anabolic activity,
after a isn’t there a way to
harness it? This is
while and the bodybuilders’
dream anabolic, you
stops the know, no andro-
genic side effects,
IGF-1 from super powerful, blah,
blah, blah... Isn’t
working.” it? So can’t we
make it work some-
how? (Note: I
should tell you that
IGF-1 may, in fact, not be the “Holy
Grail” of bodybuilding. The lead inves-
tigator of one of the AIDS studies told
me that IGF-1 in potentially effective
doses does have some very unaccept-
able “toxic” side effects. And coinci-
dentally, these side effects are basically
some of the same ones I outlined in my
article on growth hormone in the last
issue of MM2K [April 1996]. So the
GH side effects are probably produced
largely by the increased IGF-1 “over-
production” that high-dose GH can
Well, there is a way to make IGF-1
work, and I’m going to tell you how,
even though you’re not going to like
everything I have to say. But this
method will save you money, and it
will make you grow; yes, better than a
great steroid cycle alone.
And if you’re an AIDS doctor and
you’ve got patients who are extremely
Covers Home

wasted and anabolic steroids alone

aren’t helping them put on enough lean
muscle tissue, then this kind of addition
is something you might want to con-
sider, too. (I’m saying this even though
I think it’s way too far out for most of
the AIDS medical community.)

The Real Deal

Weeks ago, I opened my front door,
and there in a tank top stood one of the
handsomest, best built, shiny, clean,
all-American, blond, 30-year-old men
I’ve ever seen. If I didn’t know the
truth, there would be no way I could tell
he was an AIDS patient if I saw him on
the street. God, Los Angeles is just
boiling over with buffed, healthy AIDS
patients (on steroids), isn’t it? Well,
“Sean,” who was a personal friend of
the late Dr. Michael Dullnig, had gotten
in touch with me through friends and (unless he’s off steroids
had requested a personal meeting completely). His cycles
because he just had to ask me questions last from 10 to about 30
about the anabolics he was using and weeks, with mini-cycles
the “secret information” he was privy within the longer cycles.
to. Sometimes the cycles are
Well, Sean is about 218 pounds at rather lightweight (in the
5’9”. He’s very solid at about seven 100 mg/week range). He
percent bodyfat, and he’s totally free actually has a very intelligent
from AIDS-related infections. Sean is grasp of the basics of anabolic
currently using my favorite therapeutic steroid applications, and he con-
anabolic steroid, Deca Durabolin (a.k.a. fesses he has read everything Dan
nandrolone decanoate [400 mg/week]) Duchaine and I have ever written,
with some Anavar (a.k.a. oxandrolone so he flatters me a little, too. He’s
[30 mg/day]) that a friend brought back worked as an actor (television)
from Europe. and is actually a big celebrity in
Sean cycles and uses a variety of several other countries, so it’s
steroids, mostly from Europe, but he obvious he knows how to dazzle
maintains a basic Deca prescription people.
from his doctor in Los Angeles, so he After he showed me copies of
can keep a foundation of Deca going some of his blood tests, I congrat-
ulated him on his fantastic health
and am still a little (pleasantly)
“...there is a mystified at why he just had to
way to make meet with me. Then he springs it—the bodybuilder secret”? I mean, I don’t
big deal. His progress had plateaued talk about it myself very much because
IGF-1 work, and with anabolic steroids alone, so he had I sort of have a ‘‘feeling’’ that it should
also been using growth hormone during stay in the pros’ “territory,” and I kind
I’m going to the last month, along with some insulin. of think amateurs and gym body-
What do I think of this, he asks, and is builders shouldn’t have easy access to
tell you how, he using the drugs correctly? it. It can be very dangerous if some
Well, he put on about 12 pounds dur- yahoo gets goofy with it, so no one
even though ing the month he added the GH/insulin really wants to pass this secret around.
you’re not combo (GH/I), so I knew he was really Well, Sean really knocks me out
on to something. when he tells me his doctor told him
going to like I know this is the kind of extra “syn- about it!!!
ergism” that can come from the GH/I Now I’ve heard that this particular
everything I stack, especially when it’s added to Los Angeles doctor was “cutting edge”
anabolic steroids (AS), so I’m fasci- and a renegade, but AIDS doctors gen-
have to say.” nated: how did he learn about this “pro erally just don’t know about this wild
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IGF-1 appears to
have a
effect on
stuff. I mean, the head of endocrinology
the anabolic
research at Serono didn’t even know ‘potency’ of
anything about using insulin with GH
when I talked to him, so I was totally IGF-1...”
blown away.
Well, Sean’s doctor gave him a pro-
gram that was basically idiot proof in
that it has virtually no potential for him
to overdose on insulin. Yet I know the
dose is sufficient to noticeably improve
the potential anabolic activity of the
GH, and if I were asked to create this
kind of stack, it’s exactly what I would
devise based on seeing people use it
over the years.

GH And Insulin-
Maximal IGF-1
Before I go any further, we should go
into my favorite part of this story, the
chemistry, which consists of the why-
or Anadrol, but Sean’s being prudent keep carrying the increased IGF-1 that
fors and the guzintas. First, the growth
about the potential effect on his health was stimulated by GH (and steroids)?
hormone/insulin stack works to maxi-
because of his AIDS. At any rate, the
mize protein metabolism all by itself,7
but it universally works better with ana- net effect is a heightened production of Insulin
bolic steroids, and the fact is, pro body- the body’s endogenous GH-induced
IGF-1 production when GH is used “Preserves” IGF-1
builders know that a carefully planned As it turns out, insulin appears to
moderately to highly androgenic steroid with certain steroids. (The heck with
“real” IGF-1, right?) have a tremendous effect on improving
cycle is potentiated by and will potenti- the anabolic “potency” of IGF-1, in that
ate GH/I, and they’ll see a super-pow- Now, can this GH/AS stimulated
IGF-1 actually do its work in the body? it inhibits the breakdown of proteins5,10
erful muscle-growing effect that is (anti-catabolic) and decreases the activ-
more than the “sum total of the parts.” Or is it going to be dumped by the
ity of certain proteolytic enzymes,
Anecdotal evidence over the years breakdown of IGFBP-3? IGFBP-3 con-
including the proteolytic enzymes that
supports the idea that GH may work trols IGF-1’s circulation in the body, so
destroy IGFBP-3.11 (IGFBP-3, you
better in a more “androgenic” environ- the IGF-1 “dies” quickly in the body remember, is needed to keep IGF-1 cir-
ment. I suspect that this may be in part and doesn’t produce a maximal anabolic culating and active in the body.)
because the androgens, like testos- effect. Note: IGFBP-3 functions to keep This is the important reason why the
terone (perhaps more than the anabolics the IGF-1 doing its work in the body,9 body turns down its own insulin (and
like Deca8), have a co-stimulatory so this is important. When IGFBP-3 GH) production when IGF-1 produc-
effect on IGF-1 production, which GH breaks down, it stops ‘‘carrying’’ IGF-1 tion reaches a certain point.12,13 (Note:
stimulates, although all anabolic steroids so that it can do its anabolic job. GH is involved in increasing the pro-
in general probably do this to some Without IGFBP-3 carrying it, IGF-1 duction of IGFBP-3.) This is the feed-
extent. Remember, the AS stack that basically disappears from circulation in back mechanism the body uses to shut
Sean’s been using isn’t heavily andro- minutes.5 Poof, no more IGF-1 induced down the activity and production of
genic (Deca is in what I call the anabolic activity. This same considera- IGFBP-3, which affects a “down-regu-
“medium” androgenic range, while tion applies to getting the most anabolic lation” of the life span and the growth-
Anavar is very low), yet it’s still work- activity from GH-induced IGF-1 pro- promoting activity of IGF-1. (It seems
ing very well for him. I do think it duction when GH is used with anabolic that IGF-1 must be a very powerful and
would work a lot better with heavier steroids or when GH is used all by itself. dangerous growth factor for the body to
androgens like testosterone cypionate Exactly how can one get IGFBP-3 to put such tight “controls” on it—seem-
Covers Home

ingly much tighter than any “controls” cometer and graphing the daily blood
placed on the activity of anabolic sugar movement to determine the pre-
References Cited:
steroids. Does this mean that steroids cise dosages and even “staggering” the 1 P. Lee, “HIV Infection: GH and IGF-1 Effects on
Wasting,” Baylor College, 1993.
are actually less “dangerous” and rela- administration of the GH and the
tively less potent?) insulin to attempt to synchronize their 2 S.R. Kupfer, et al, “Enhancement of the Anabolic
If we put in exogenous insulin, we pharmacokinetics. A few of the pro Effects of Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth
Factor-1 By Use of Both Agents Simultaneously,” J.
short-circuit the “down-regulation” of bodybuilders are trying to do it this Clin. Invest. 91.2 (1993) : 391-396.
IGFBP-3 and override the body’s feed- way, but this is way too much work 3 S.A. Lieberman, et al, “Anabolic Effects of
back mechanism, so we can keep the and can be very touchy and create lots Recombinant Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in
IGFBP-3 and the IGF-1 it carries of new problems. Sean’s doctor’s Cachectic Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency
working in the body. Additionally, method is much better because it’s Syndrome,” JCEM 78.2 (1994) : 404-410.
insulin, which is necessary during cer- basically idiot proof. 4 Zapf, “Insulin-Like Growth Factors/Somatomedins:
tain steps in manufacturing IGF-1, and Structure, Secretion, Biological Actions, and
Physiological Role,” Hormone Res. 24 (1994): 121-
GH keep IGF-1 production happening No Problema 130.
in the body. Now, of course, the biggest problem 5 Froesch, et al, “Metabolic and Therapeutic Effects
With the life span of IGFBP-3 sup- with the GH/I/AS stack is the cost. of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1,” Hormone Res. 2
ported by the action of insulin so the (Unless you’re an AIDS patient with (1994) : 66-71.
IGFBP-3 keeps working, we see it insurance!) The cost of GH to potenti- 6 J.L. Thompson, et al, “The Effects of Recombinant
“saving” the IGF-1 for circulation for a ate this stack is $2,000 to $4,000 a Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Growth
longer period of time. This gives us month, depending on how well you’re Hormone on Body Composition in Elderly Women,”
more net IGF-1 activity. Voilà! JCEM 80.6 (1995) : 1845-1852.
connected. Only someone who has a
Maximal IGF-1 activity, indirectly huge bodybuilding contract (that nar- 7 R.F. Wolf, et al, “Growth Hormone and Insulin
enhanced by the “anti-proteolytic” rows it down to about five guys), owns
Combine to Improve Whole-Body and Skeletal-
Muscle Protein Kinetics,” Surgery 112.2 (1992) :
action of insulin on the proteolytic a profitable gym or business, o-r-r-r-r 284-292.
enzymes that destroy IGFBP-3. has a rich sugar daddy paying his bills 8 C.J. Hobbs, et al, “Testosterone Administration
Insulin itself is mildly anabolic in (Oops, did I let a big noisy cat out of Increases Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels in
safe doses, but put together with GH (a the bag, kind of like Dan Duchaine Normal Men,” JCEM 77.3 (1993) : 776-779.
mildly anabolic hormone) and strong does once in a while?!?!?!?) can afford 9 H.P. Guler, et al, “Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1
androgenic steroids, the GH/I/AS stack this. and 2 in Healthy Men: Estimations of Half-Lives and
can radically improve muscle growth. So you’ve gotten through the part of Production Rates,” Acta. Endocrinol. 121 (1989) :
Well, what impressed me even more 753-758.
the story I said you wouldn’t like: the
about Sean’s doctor’s advice was that most powerful way to get IGF-1 to
10 R.A. Gelfand, et al, “Effect of Physiologic
the amount of insulin selected for Sean work is by using GH, insulin, and ana-
Hyperinsulinemia on Skeletal Muscle Protein
Synthesis and Breakdown in Man,” J. Clin. Invest.
to use with GH was no more than 10 bolic steroids to cause your body to 80 (1987) : 1-6.
units of the regular releasing insulin radically improve its own IGF-1 activ- 11 A. Bereket, et al, “Insulin-Like Growth Factor
called Humulin R taken at the same ity. Binding Protein-3 Proteolysis in Children with
time as the GH injection (4 IU) always There is one other way to do this Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: A Possible
with a carb meal, sometimes twice a that’s almost as good (but a lot less
Role for Insulin in the Regulation of IGFBP-3
Protease Activity,” JCEM 80.8 (1995): 2282-2288.
day, after working out and/or occasion- expensive), but I’ll wait and put that
ally before bedtime. (Although bed- 12 G.P. Ceda, et al, “The Growth Hormone (GH)
in another article sometime in the Releasing Hormone (GHRH)-GH-Somatomedin
time is not a good time if one is afraid future. Axis: Evidence of Rapid Inhibition of GHRH-
of gaining fat—even while using GH.) Elicited GH Release by Insulin-Like Growth Factors
At this rather low dosage of insulin 1 and 2,” Endocrinology 120 (1987) : 1658-1662.
Michael Mooney publishes a quar-
combined with GH, endocrinologists 13 P.D. Zenobi, et al, “Effects of Insulin-Like
terly newsletter called Medibolics
agree that there should be no signifi- Growth Factor-1 on Glucose Tolerance, Insulin
that focuses on medical and scien- Levels, and Insulin Secretion,” J. Clin. Invest. 89
cant danger that the insulin would cre- (1992) : 1908-1913.
ate a big drop in blood sugar, espe- tific research regarding therapeutic
cially when they consider that the GH applications of nutrients, anabolic 14 D.R. Clemmons, “Use of Growth Hormone and

itself is mildly hyperglycemic and will hormones, nontoxic pharmaceuti- Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in Catabolism that is
Induced by Negative Energy Balance,” Hormone
raise blood sugar a bit to counter- cals, and exercise. Medibolics’ fea- Res. 40.1-3 (1993) : 62-67.
balance any insulin-induced hypo- tured and guest columnists include
glycemia,14 so there’s a happy medium Nelson Vergel, the man who inher- This article represents the opinions of Mr. Michael
that’s achieved when the two are used ited Dr. Michael Dullnig’s research Mooney and not of Muscle Media 2000 nor its editors.
No liability is assumed by Muscle Media 2000, Inc. nor
together. materials; Dr. Walter Jekot, the the authors for any information contained in this article.
(And while I know bodybuilders discoverer of anabolic steroid This text does not provide medical advice. Specific med-
ical advice should be obtained from a licensed health-
who use low-dose insulin for its therapy for AIDS; and Dr. Mauro care practitioner. Muscle Media 2000 does not advocate,
“vanadyl-like pump,” it’s only mildly DiPasquale, an expert on anabolic promote, nor encourage the use of anabolic steroids,
steroids and athletes. For a 1-year growth hormone, insulin, nor IGF-1. Use of these drugs
anabolic at low dosages, and higher can have dangerous side effects. The use of insulin by
dosages can cause lots of problems, so subscription, send $15.00 to Medi- non-diabetics can lead to coma or even death. Any refer-
it’s hardly worth it to use it alone.) bolics, P.O. Box #333, 836 N. La ences made directly about the effects of these substances
are for informational purposes only and are an expres-
There are other ways to be more pre- Cienega Blvd., West Hollywood, CA sion of the author’s opinions.
cise and aggressive by using a glu- 90069. Fax (310) 659-1597.
Covers Home


By Charles Poliquin

his is it: a 12-week program that will make
your arms grow. It’s not uncommon for
individuals to gain anywhere from
three-fourths of an inch to one inch on their
biceps with this routine. If you’ve been
following the previous articles in this
series, then you know what makes this
routine work. For those who prefer to
skip the theories and jump right into the
reps and loads to put a permanent pump
on their arms, let me at least give you a
few applicable academic buzzwords to
dazzle your friends with as they watch
your biceps busting at the seams: repeated-
effort training, slow tempo, maximal-
weights method, and isometric stops.
What did you say? No Weider Principles?
Yes, I know. We are indebted to Joe for
many good things outside of bodybuilding
principles, such as sliced bread and stiff-
legged squats. All kidding aside, credit for
the theories in this program must go to
many of the world’s most astute athletic
scholars whom I’ve had the pleasure to work
with and learn from.
Now, hit the iron.
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Program 1: Accumulation 1

Exercise Week Sets Reps Tempo Rest Interval

(in seconds)
A1. Seated Zottman
Dumbbell Curls 1 10 10 4/0/2 90
2 10 10 4/0/2 90
3 10 10 4/0/2 90
Photos: Maurice Porlien
A2. Parallel Bar Dips 1 10 10 3/1/1 90
Andrè Bilodeau
2 10 10 3/1/1 90
3 10 10 3/1/1 90

The ten sets of ten method comes from German-speaking countries and is a
favorite of mine to induce long-term muscle mass and strength gains. It was
explained to me at length by Rolf Feser, coach of Olympic Weightlifting
Gold Medalist Rolf Milser. If you think this type of program is the
antithesis to Mike Mentzer’s Heavy Duty philosophy, then yes—you
have a firm grasp of the obvious. But the thing is, it works!
In this method, you select an intensity zone to recruit a specific
motor unit pool. By repeating the exercise for ten sets, the
selected motor unit pool gets, well...trashed...and adapts
by increasing in size. Expect some definite soreness—
in fact, when you first try this routine, forget about
combing your hair or brushing your teeth for at
least five days.
The starting weight for both of these exercises
Aaron Baker should be a weight you could lift for 20 reps.
What you’ll find is that the first five sets are
easy, and you’ll probably laugh at me. During sets six,
seven, and eight, you’ll curse me, and on sets nine and
ten, you’ll bless me and my descendants for the next
eight generations. Because of short-term neural
adaptations, these last two sets will actually be eas-
ier! Try it. Amaze your friends. If at the end of set
ten you feel you can do more, then you were def-
initely mucking around.

Seated Zottman Dumbbell Curls

Zottman curls thoroughly stress all the elbow
flexors. It may take a few workouts to become
comfortable with the movement. To begin,
grasp two dumbbells, and sit at the edge of a flat
bench. Have your palms facing forward and
fully extend your arms downward. To prevent
recruitment of the forearm flexors, curl the dumb-
bells with your palms up and your wrists extended
down. Once you reach the top, rotate your hands so your
palms face down, so in effect, you’re doing a reverse curl. Keeping
your wrists in a neutral position, slowly lower the dumbbells. Throughout the
entire exercise, keep your elbows glued to your sides.

Parallel (or V-Shaped) Bar Dips

During the eccentric portion of this exercise, lower your body until your biceps make contact
with your forearms—your triceps must get fully stretched. If you can’t do this, go back to col-
lecting stamps, or perform the decline close-grip bench press until your arm strength is sufficient.
If you have access to the better V-shaped dipping bar, use as narrow a grip as possible.
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Program 2: Intensification 1

Exercise Week Sets Reps Tempo Rest Interval

(in seconds)
A1. Incline Hammer Curls 1 4-5 6-8 5/0/1 120
2 4-5 5-7 5/0/1 120
3 3-4 4-6 5/0/1 120

A2. Incline Dumbbell Triceps Extensions 1 4-5 6-8 3/2/1 120

2 4-5 5-7 3/2/1 120
3 3-4 4-6 3/2/1 120

B1. Scott 45° Close-Grip EZ-Bar Curls 1 4-5 6-8 5/0/1 120
2 4-5 5-7 5/0/1 120
3 3-4 4-6 5/0/1 120

B2. Seated EZ-Bar French Presses 1 4-5 6-8 5/0/1 120

2 4-5 5-7 5/0/1 120
3 3-4 4-6 5/0/1 120

In this workout, you perform the first exercise (A1), rest two min-
utes, perform the second exercise (A2), then rest two more minutes.
Repeat this sequence for the recommended number of sets, then
perform the second and third exercises in the same manner. In this
way, you’ll get five minutes of rest between sets for each muscle
group, which is essential to derive the full benefits from training
with heavy weights. This is because the nervous system takes
four to five times longer to recover than the energy system.
Also, alternating muscle groups ensures balanced muscular
development and prevents excessive lactate buildup that
would force you to use lighter weights.

Incline Hammer Curls

This is a great exercise for the brachialis and the long
head of the biceps. Your palms should face each other,
and your elbows must remain perpendicular to the
ground throughout the entire movement.

Incline Dumbbell Triceps

Grasp 2 dumbbells and sit on a 45° incline
bench. Raise your arms over your head, and using
a semi-supinated grip, lower the dumbbells until
you get a full stretch on the triceps. Increase intra-
muscular tension by not using momentum to assist you.

Seated EZ-Bar French Presses

Sit on a flat bench with an EZ-bar racked on your clavicles. Press the weight
overhead until your elbows are just short of reaching the lock-out position—
this is where you’ll begin the exercise. Start by lowering the bar behind your
head until your forearms make contact with your biceps—at this point, you
should feel a good stretch on the long head of the triceps. Then press the weight
to the start.
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Program 3: Accumulation 2

Exercise Week Sets Reps Tempo Rest Interval

(in seconds)
A1. Lying EZ-Bar Triceps Extensions 7 3 8-12 3/0/2 0
8 3 8-12 3/0/2 0
9 2 8-12 3/0/2 0

A2. Low-Pulley Rope French Presses 7 3 8-12 3/0/2 0

8 3 8-12 3/0/2 0
9 2 8-12 3/0/2 0

A3. Triceps Pressdowns, Palms Down 7 3 8-12 3/0/2 180

8 3 8-12 3/0/2 180
9 2 8-12 3/0/2 180

B1. Incline Dumbbell Curls, Elbows Out 7 3 8-12 3/0/2 0

8 3 8-12 3/0/2 0
9 2 8-12 3/0/2 0

B2. Standing Close-Grip Barbell Curls 7 3 8-12 3/0/2 0

8 3 8-12 3/0/2 0
9 2 8-12 3/0/2 0

B3. Seated Low-Pulley Concentration Curls 7 3 8-12 3/0/2 180

8 3 8-12 3/0/2 180
9 2 8-12 3/0/2 180

This workout uses the “tri-set method” in that three exercises are per-
formed in sequence without rest until one set of each exercise is com-
pleted. I advocate at least three minutes rest between each tri-set to pre-
vent excessive lactate buildup that will force you to use lighter weights.
Also, it’s important to work the triceps first because the pump you’ll
experience from the biceps work will limit your range of motion during
the triceps series.

Lying EZ-Bar Triceps Extensions

During this exercise, you need to lower the bar to the top of your fore-
head on every rep. For this reason, I never advocate this exercise for
figure skaters—it messes up their bangs!

Low-Pulley Rope French Presses

For this exercise, you apply resistance with a rope attached to a low
pulley, and for the best results, point your elbows at the ceiling.

Triceps Pressdowns, Palms Down

Use a six to eight-inch grip. Throughout the movement, keep
your elbows glued to your sides and your upper arms perpendicu-
lar to the floor. During the eccentric portion, your triceps should
be stretched completely, and during the concentric portion, you
should extend your arms just short of lock out. Also, keep your
wrists in a neutral position to prevent tendonitis.

Incline Dumbbell Curls, Elbows Out

This is a favorite of Vince Comerford. Grasp 2 dumbbells, and sit on a
45° incline bench. Curl the dumbbells simultaneously and make sure you Seated Low-Pulley
can see the inside of the biceps and triceps throughout the movement. In Concentration Curls
other words, the forearms will stay in the same plane as the lateral deltoids. This is a favorite of Samir Bannout. Sit on the
floor facing a low pulley hooked to a straight
Standing Close-Grip Barbell Curls bar with a revolving handle. Rest your elbows
Use a narrow grip, hands six to eight inches apart, and perform it while on the top of your knees. Curl the bar until your
leaning against a post to prevent swinging. forearms come in contact with your biceps.
Covers Home

Program 4: Intensification 2

Exercise Week Sets Reps Tempo Rest Interval

(in seconds)
A1. Standing EZ-Bar Reverse Curls 10 6 2,2,4,4,6,6 4/2/1 120
11 6 2,2,4,4,6,6 4/2/1 120
12 4 2,4,6,6 4/2/1 120

A2. Close-Grip Bench Presses 10 6 2,2,4,4,6,6 3/4/1 120

11 6 2,2,4,4,6,6 3/4/1 120
12 4 2,4,6,6 3/4/1 120

B1. Single-Arm,
Offset-Grip Dumbbell Curls 10 3-4 5-6 4/0/4 120
11 2-3 5-6 4/0/4 120
12 1-2 3-4 4/0/4 120

B2. Single-Arm, Overhead Dumbbell

Extensions 10 3-4 5-6 4/0/4 120
11 2-3 5-6 4/0/4 120
12 1-2 3-4 4/0/4 120

You must perform at least five warm-up sets of one to three reps before
doing the first double on each set/rep prescription. For example, if you
can double with 135 lbs on the EZ-bar reverse curl and 315 lbs on the
close-grip bench press, your warm-ups should look like this:

EZ-Bar Reverse Curls:

40 x 3, 65 x 3, 85 x 3, 105 x 2, 120 x 1

Close-Grip Bench Presses:

135 x 3, 185 x 3, 225 x 3, 265 x 2, 295 x 1

Standing EZ-Bar Reverse Curls

The 2-second pause is performed at 30° of elbow flexion; that is, the
bar is stopped for 2 seconds before completing the concentric range. This
technique increases the involvement of the brachialis. Also, don’t swing
the bar or flare the elbows outwards to complete the range of motion—if
you must do this to perform the exercise, the weight is too heavy.

Close-Grip Bench Presses Single-Arm, Overhead

The bar is brought to the lower portion of the sternum, and the elbows Dumbbell Extensions
extend just short of lock out during the pressing movement. The four-sec- This exercise is also known as the one-arm
ond pause at the bottom position negates the plyometric actions (myotatic French press, and it can be performed seated or
reflex) and increases intramuscular tension. standing. Your elbows should be pointed at the
ceiling, and you must lower the dumbbells
Single-Arm, Offset-Grip Dumbbell Curls behind your head to achieve a maximum
For this exercise, sit on a Scott bench and hold the dumbbells with an stretch.
offset grip—that is, an asymmetrical grip where the thumb side of your
hand rests against the inside plate. This will increase the involvement of Granted, this 12-week workout may seem more
the short head of the biceps. Start the exercise with a semi-supinated grip complicated than anything you’ve ever attempted,
(hammer grip), and curl the weight to about 40°. Then turn your palms but if simple, elementary-school workouts haven’t
up and complete the movement. worked for you, try this program on for size.
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DR. Barry Sears is the current “Diet Messiah.” Usually, sports nutrition isn’t
the most newsworthy topic, but Dr. Sears has been getting around and
annoying virtually all of the nutritionists in the United States.
You’re probably familiar with the four-part interview with Dr. Sears
published in Muscle Media 2000. But Dr. Sears also has a best-selling
book (The Zone). Playboy (of all magazines) even devoted a whole page
to him. Various triathlete and bicycling magazines have discussed his
philosophies. And he’s a hot topic on the Internet, along with having a
private, cultish e-mail club. As much as Dr. Sears has revved up his
publicity machine, you should know that most athletes haven’t read his
book, and won’t, simply because most athletes are locked into a
high-carbohydrate, low-fat, and low-protein diet and won’t consider the
concept of higher-than-traditionally accepted dietary fat. But ponder
this: the current scientific embracement of a high-carbohydrate, low-fat,
low-protein diet is based on research that was published 25 years ago! In
the early ’70’s, the high-carb advocates were greeted with just as much
skepticism as Sears is encountering today.

25 Years
TOO SOON By Dan Duchaine

SEARS VERSUS simple fuel is one of the chief reasons

this magazine exists.
a slightly higher degree of nutritional
sophistication than most athletes (or lay
THE WORLD I predict Barry Sears’ popularity people) have. Luckily for me, I’ve been
The hook for Sears’ nutritional basis could be short-lived because people boning up on the same biochemical
is that specific foods act like drugs in don’t want to follow his diet. When areas because they’re common to my
the body. This has a certain moral Sears recites his “don’t eat” list that Isometric and BODYOPUS diet plans.
appeal, as many individuals recognize includes potatoes, rice, pasta, and Yet even with all my studying, I still
metabolic deficits and would like to bread, he becomes nutrition’s party had to read Sears’ book three times to
change them in a drug-like manner, but pooper. But he is the harbinger of the follow his reasoning.
at the same time, it postures a natural next advance in sports nutrition, namely The whole point of the present dis-
nutritional “morality.” It’s Sears’ belief an embracing of dietary fats and con- cussion isn’t to slam the Zone Diet.
that virtually all disease is controlled by trolling insulin secretion. Sears’ eating You’ll see that the Zone Diet may not
hormone-like substances called eicos- regimen is based on today’s cutting- be the ideal diet for the weightlifting
anoids, and if you follow his very rigid edge research. A problem in analyzing athlete but may have many benefits for
eating regimen, most drugs (and, for and critiquing The Zone is that Sears sedentary or weekend athletes. It’s a
that matter, supplements) won’t be has presented his particular agenda in shame that the Zone’s fatal flaw is that
needed. This isn’t completely earth- very precise scientific language. So it’s (in a practical sense) “unfollow-
shattering news for bodybuilders. much so, many individuals (including able.” But many aspects of the Zone
Whether you consider your meals “food his interviewers) become “blinded by can be applied to other eating plans.
as a drug” or “edible computer chips,” science.” To be able to deconstruct the And along the way, I might clear up
the concept of food being more than Zone eating plan, it’s necessary to have many of the leaps of faith and logic that
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called a “block.” A block is seven tled into the bloodstream. Although
grams of protein, nine grams of carbo- about 25% of the U.S. population has
hydrate, and about three grams of fat. very low insulin secretion in response
Each meal throughout the day is sup- to just about any carb (sugar or not),
Dr. Sears uses to fit his plan into the posed to consist of equal blocks. The many others will oversecrete insulin
available science. Sears’ diet plan is purpose of the equal block concept is to with higher glycemic foods. Most nutri-
damn close to my Isometric Diet, only both balance insulin with glucagon and tional researchers don’t really care (at
differing in the fine tuning of the food slow carb absorption with fats. this point) about hyperinsulinism, but
choices. And in all honesty, if an indi- its avoidance is Sears’ raison d’être. I
vidual snacks off the Isometric menu,
the end result is right at the 40-30-30
BYE-BYE RICE feel that the 50-glycemic-rating thresh-
old is, in a practical sense, overly
(carbs, protein, fat) calorie ratio that’s AND POTATOES restrictive. The recommended carb
the basis of the Zone. And we all tend to Sears isn’t at all choosy about protein choices rapidly become unappealing
snack on carbs, don’t we? quality. For him, any protein source over time. In my Isometric Diet, I tend
I should define what the Zone is. It’s will do. However, he is damn persnick- to agree with Dr. Ann de Wees Allen’s
an athletic term (but not in the body- ety with carb and fat choices. He uses finding that a glycemic point of up to 70
builder’s vocabulary). To quote Dr. the glycemic index to pick his carb rec- is acceptable. The bigger the variety of
Sears: ommendations. I believe he’s using the carb choices, the longer an individual
“In the Zone, the mind is relaxed yet newer glycemic index which scores will actually follow the eating plan.
alert and exquisitely focused. Mean- white bread at 100. The older one
while, the body is fluid, strong, and scores glucose at 100. In checking
Sears’ allowed/disallowed foods, he has
apparently indefatigable. It’s almost
euphoric.” drawn the line at a glycemic score of BUT…FAT!
Poetic, yes, but does it mean any- 50. All carb sources above 50 (and For fats (and remember, Zonites get
thing? these are the tasty ones like breads, rice, 30% of their calories from it), there are
and potatoes) are to be avoided. Most of three categories: the good, the bad, and
you know that the glycemic index pre- the neutral. Fats are the primary source
THE PITCH dicts how rapidly a carb source is shut- of eicosanoids (both good and bad
Dr. Sears believes that by carefully ones). Generally, the Zone Diet uses
combining the macronutrients (pro- mostly monounsaturated fats (like
teins, fats, and carbohydrates) in the olive oil) as they have no influence on
correct ratios, you can influence the eicosanoid production. Saturated fats
body’s production of the major hor- “…THE PARTS OF are to be mostly avoided, as such fats
mones (insulin, glucagon, growth hor- have a negative impact on insulin
mone, and cortisol) and eicosanoids (of THE FISH THAT sensitivity. The polyunsaturated fats
which the prostaglandins are the most
recognizable). He divides his nutrition HOLD THE HIGHEST (PUFA’s) are in two opposing camps:
high linoleic acid sources and fish oils
regimen into two broad categories. He AMOUNTS OF OIL are the “good guys.” And the sources
has an overall macronutrient ratio of of linolenic acid (flax and soy oil and
40% carbohydrates, 30% protein, and ARE THE
walnuts) and arachidonic acid (egg
30% fat. Once that ratio is established, LEAST APPEALING yolks and organ meats) are the “bad
he then dictates the exact type of carbo-
guys,” as they are precursors to bad eicos-
hydrate and fat choices to avoid. (THE DARK anoids. Minimizing bad eicosanoids
BELLY MEAT might be important for endurance ath-
IT ALL STARTS AND THE SKIN).” letes to improve oxygen transport. But
WITH PROTEIN for bodybuilders, the conundrum is that
the so-called bad arachidonic acid is
The cornerstone of the Zone is figur-
ing out an individual’s protein require- needed for male testosterone produc-
ment. This is done through a rough esti- tion.
mation of lean body mass with height/ If you follow all of Sears’ recommen-
waist measurements. There is also an dations, you enter the Zone, whereby
activity adjustment. Once the recom- your athletic performance will improve,
mended protein amount is established, and you’ll avoid most fatal diseases.
the rest (the carb and fat portions) are The implication is that by eating in the
calculated. Sears has created a new Zone, you won’t need most prescription
nutritional term, unique to his diet, drugs.
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“It also occurred to me that since
eicosanoids are involved in virtually “HOW MANY
everything the body does, controlling
them represents a new paradigm for INDIVIDUALS
health and illness. It seemed to make WOULD FOREGO
sense that many of our disease states—
heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, and 25% OF THEIR
cancer, to name just a few—might be
the result of imbalances among the
eicosanoid hormones.” FOR A
From the get-go, Sears makes two
leaps of faith. Eicosanoid balance influ-
encing metabolism in a major way is an JUST TO CHEAT
interesting premise, but we have no
indication if such a premise is true. And DEATH
you’d find more disease specialists BY LESS
pooh-poohing his theory than agreeing
about it. The other great leap is the THAN A YEAR?”
assumption that macronutrient manipu-
lation remarkably influences eicosanoid
amount and quality. To give you an
example, over the last decade or so, the hyper-calorie situation, low-fat diets
prevailing opinion is that the consump- result in less bodyfat deposited. And for
tion of saturated fat correlates to heart active athletes, the Zone ratios do
disease. And current advice is to change. A discrepancy in Sears’ book is
scrupulously avoid such dietary fat. But that he actually has two separate eating
a recent study indicated that an overall recommendations: a low-calorie one for
lifetime abstinence of saturated fats the sedentary or occasionally active
only extended life expectancy by sev- individual and another one for active
eral months. Unfortunately, the bottom athletes. Let me illustrate by plugging in
line on Sears’ assumptions is that we my lean body mass and giving you some
have no statistical science to back his ratios and calories.
claims. And ultimately, acceptance of
Sears’ hypothesis is more faith than sci-
ence. He presents a long list of disal- NUMBERS BY
lowed foods to avoid over the next few THE BOOK
decades which I categorize as “nutri- By using the charts and guidelines in
tional gambling” on the premise of a the book, my lean body mass (LBM) is
longer and healthier life. How many about 150 pounds. I won’t even raise the
individuals would forego 25% of their issue that such calculations probably
favorite foods for a half century just to aren’t terribly precise, and I’d get a bet-
cheat death by less than a year? But ter reading with my skin-fold calipers
then again, Sears might be right, and his and a Skyndex speed rule. Giving
monastic eating might extend life span myself the benefit of the doubt, I’ll call
significantly. All I can tell you for cer- myself “active.” Thus, my protein
tain is that we just don’t know. requirements would be one gram per
But on many other issues, Dr. Sears is pound of LBM. So I need 150 grams of
completely correct. Dietary fat isn’t the protein a day. Remember, Sears uses
great nutritional Satan most nutritionists “blocks” (each block equals 7 grams of
proclaim. And the consumption of high protein, so my daily block requirement
amounts of carbohydrates does have would be 22 blocks). Sears’ eating plan
drawbacks, although his case against dictates that I eat equal blocks of carbs
such high-carb diets is over blown. In a (a carb block is nine grams) and fat (a
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WHERE IS protein is metabolized to urea and
excreted from the kidneys, but this
SEARS WRONG? process isn’t damaging to the body
I believe Sears has written his book unless your kidneys are already dam-
fat block is three grams) with my protein for a mostly semi-sedentary readership, aged or you’re a diabetic or a post-
blocks. So my target calorie level would and many of the nutritional issues do menopausal woman. And his assertion
be 600 calories of protein, 800 calories have gray areas in application. But to that high protein causes ketosis isn’t
of carbs, and 600 calories of fat. Total: convince the (probably) skeptical (once again) really true. Ketones CAN
2,000 calories. This isn’t my mainte- reader, Sears has made many aspects be used as fuel in the body, and such
nance calorie level, but it’s only about black-and-white. He certainly does a ketosis doesn’t happen from high
10% less, so this eating plan isn’t at all diatribe on high-carb diets in general dietary protein but rather from blood-
bad for a diet with regards to calorie and high-glycemic carbs in particular. glucose levels of below 50 mg/dl,
level and macronutrient ratios. Besides, “Eating fat does not make you fat. It’s regardless of what the protein level is.
I could stand to lose some weight. your body’s response to excess carbohy-
However, if I were a very active ath-
lete who didn’t need to lose weight, this
drates in your diet that makes you fat.”
Ha! ANY overconsumption of any
calorie level wouldn’t cut it. But buried macronutrient will make you fat. The IN THE ZONE
deep in the book is one phrase for such truth is, if you ate 1,000 calories extra As I mentioned before, the basic
scenarios: eat double fat blocks for each each day, the most fat deposited would Zone recommendations of 40% carbs,
single protein and carb block. When result from dietary fat, then carbs, and 30% protein, and 30% carbs are a good
this advice is followed, the ratios the least amount of fat would come setup for weight loss, even for body-
change. For active athletes, it becomes: from protein. His statement holds true builders. But I’d like to point out a few
46% fat, 30% carbs, and 24% protein. only at low and maintenance calorie minor recommendations in the Zone
This would add another 600 fat calories levels. Actually, using dietary fat as a food choices which might be better if
a day, bringing the daily total to 2,600. calorie source on a low-calorie diet not adhered to all that closely.
Here is where the flaws appear. For an results in greater bodyfat loss than Sears has pointed out (and rightly so)
active bodybuilder, 2,600 calories and using carb calories. that the quality of dietary fats you con-
46% fat borders on being undercarbed He’s substantially wrong about over- sume influences eicosanoid production.
for glycogen storage. And if an individ- consumption of protein. Yes, excess These at-site hormones influence many
ual needs even more calories, the metabolic processes, both beneficial
(unvoiced) solution is to eat more fat (and necessary) and detrimental. Virtu-
blocks. Such advice might work for an ally all nutritionists can agree that satu-
endurance athlete, but going over 50% rated fat is best avoided, if not for
dietary fat for a bodybuilder would put health reasons, for the negative impact
him into a “twilight” zone of having “…OVERCONSUMPTION such fats have on insulin sensitivity
very low blood sugar but having none and performance. And monounsatu-
of the benefits of the higher fat keto-
rated fats are the darlings of the dietary
genic diets (as BODYOPUS is). Many MACRONUTRIENT fats, as they’re neutral in terms of
other Zonites have become alarmed at eicosanoid production. The debate
these fat percentages, and in response, WILL MAKE begins in the area of PUFA’s. In The
the Zone Technical Support number (1- YOU FAT.” Zone, fish-oil fats are the champs, fol-
800-346-2703) now offers a free FAQ lowed by one of the essential fatty
(frequently asked questions) booklet, acids, linoleic. The other EFA, linolenic
informing us that the extra fat block acid, is to be avoided. Sears believes
isn’t a “real” fat block but a combina- the various transformations (GLA and
tion protein/fat block. Yes, it gets con- DGLA) from linoleic acid are the most
fusing. beneficial for good eicosanoid produc-
So overall, the Zone Diet is quite tion. Both EFA’s need one particular
good for weight loss, and the double fat enzyme for further fatty-acid metabo-
blocks work for endurance athletes. But lism—delta 6 desaturase. Sears feels
the Zone Diet isn’t very workable as a that too much linolenic acid (found in
maintenance diet for weightlifters. flax oil and walnuts) will compete with
They need more carbs (and perhaps the limited amount of delta 6 desat-
more protein, too, but that’s another urase, not allowing the linoleic acid to
debate). And in a weight-gain eating be activated into the beneficial series 1
plan, extra fat has a 97% conversion prostaglandins. He feels that by con-
rate to bodyfat. suming fish oils (EPA and DHA), the
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consumption of linolenic acid is both

unnecessary and detrimental.
I happen to disagree with Sears on
this point. In a practical sense, many
individuals don’t (or won’t) eat oily
fish, especially when the parts of the
fish that hold the highest amounts of oil
are the least appealing (the dark belly
meat and the skin). And his tuna recom-
mendation conveniently doesn’t men-
tion that it pertains exclusively to dark
tuna meat. And although there’s com-
petition for the delta 6 desaturase
enzyme, the actual amounts of flax oil
(or walnuts) needed for such an inhibi- “…THE
tion would be unusually high. And
Sears conveniently forgets to inform the ZONE, OR
reader that if such enzyme inhibitions
happened with linolenic acid, there ONE OF
would be a similar competition with ITS VARIANTS,
another enzyme, delta 5 desaturase (a
bad enzyme in the Zone), which would MAY
be very beneficial by blocking the con- DO WONDERS.”
version of DGLA (dihomogammali-
nolenic acid) to arachidonic acid, which
is the precursor to the bad series 2
prostaglandins. But remember, male
bodybuilders need arachidonic acid for
testosterone production. worked spectacularly well for many
bodybuilders, as the top ones all have
SHOULD YOU arrived in excellent condition eating
copious amounts of carbohydrates
CONVERT? along the way. But remember, these top
If you’re concerned with long-range bodybuilders may very well be part of
health, I firmly believe Sears’ recom- that elite 25% that have insulin-proof
mendations will be validated…in about metabolisms. If you’re one of the other
25 years. But being athletes, we’re 75% who are not happy with your con-
immediately concerned with instant dition, and rice, pasta, and potatoes
gratification performance benefits: get- have not been manna-from-heaven,
ting bigger, stronger, and leaner. Obvi- then the Zone, or one of its variants,
ously, the high-carb concept has may do wonders.
Sears Says: Duchaine Says:
The source of protein isn’t that important. Quality protein is important—examples
include ion-exchange whey, egg or milk
proteins, and animal-meat proteins.

Foods with a glycemic index Foods having a GI over 70 are to be

above 50 are a no-no. avoided.

Linolenic acid and arachidonic acid The body needs linolenic acid and
are to be avoided. arachidonic acid to make testosterone.

Avoid rice, potatoes, and a long list of It’s not necessary to avoid these foods—
other foods. the evidence of a longer life span just isn’t

A 150-lb man needs about 2,000 calories Two thousand calories a day is too low for
a day. a bodybuilder, unless he wants to lose

Eating fat does not make you fat. Overconsumption of any macronutrient will
make you fat.
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By Bill Phillips

David Dearth Photo: Jim Amentler

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here are a multitude of roadblocks three days a week. Hardcore is all regulated by “feedback loops,” so they
which stand between bodybuilders about intensity, and intensity is an elu- stay the same. The body also attempts
and muscle growth. Among them sive quality. to maintain this homeostatic environ-
are a lack of proper nutrition, insuffi- ment by limiting the level of skeletal
cient recovery, and poor training inten-
sity. The latter is usually the last area
Why is intensity so important? To
muscle in the body. This homeostatic
nature is not easily overcome; thus,
an athlete considers to be his or her convincing the body that it needs more
shortcoming; however, a lack of inten- understand this principle, let’s examine muscle isn’t as easy as most training
sity is a major reason why weight- the theory behind muscle growth. theories would have you believe. The
training athletes experience little or no Training with weights is meant to put a fact is, giving the body the signal it
progress. This is not welcome news to great enough demand on muscles that needs to increase muscle growth isn’t
the average lifter, but it’s simply the they have no choice but to become pleasant. This type of weight training is
truth; nine out of ten people who take larger and stronger in order to survive. brutal and painful, but there’s no doubt
up weightlifting don’t have what it Effective weight training involves it’s rewarding.
takes to push their bodies to the point overloading and progressive resis-
where they will respond and adapt with
muscle growth. This is not to say that
tance. Overload indicates that unless
the muscle is forced to do more
than it’s used to, it won’t receive a
any individual can’t benefit from a
weight-training program. In fact,
weight training is a fantastic form of
stimulus to grow. Progressive resis-
tance involves handling a greater level OF PhYSIOLOGY
For weight training to create muscle
exercise to improve overall health. of intensity each workout. This is often
accomplished by adding weight or growth, it must be fierce and earnest.
Training regularly with weights is also The intensity of the weight-training
a very enjoyable activity and can build additional repetitions to an exercise.
These are the two aspects that make up session must be so great that the skele-
self-esteem. I don’t want to discourage tal muscle tissue is damaged to the
anyone from partaking in this salutary training intensity.
point where actual microscopic tears
activity. Still, I think you need to

…Chances Are,
You Haven’t Discovered Your Potential
decide whether you are truly “hard- When an athlete trains with the same result. Skeletal muscle tissue is made
core” or just a “recreational” weight- weight and rep scheme over and over of microscopic, elongated, cylindrical
lifter. The majority of athletes who again, this doesn’t subject the muscles cells called muscle fibers or myofibers.
attempt to build a massive, muscular to any stress that they’re not accus- These fibers lie parallel to each other.
physique claim they’re hardcore body- tomed to. Even though the exercises In each myofiber, there are a number of
builders. Numerous other weightlifters may result in a great pump, these work- structures that control the function of
call themselves hardcore either because outs aren’t the type that induce growth that cell. Some of the more important
they work out five days a week or and should be regarded as maintenance structures are called myofibrils, which
because they perform the “advanced” training at best. Consider the body’s play a key role in contracting the cell.
workouts featured in the popular mus- homeostatic nature. The body very Myofibrils are made up of two kinds of
cle mags. The truth is, hardcore has much wants to stay the same. It main- even smaller structures called myofila-
nothing to do with how often you work tains a consistent temperature, meta- ments. There are thin myofilaments
out, how many sets you do, or if you bolic rate, and pH level. Virtually all (actin) and thick myofilaments (myo-
can do Paul Dillett’s back workout hormone and enzymatic activities are sin). It’s the interaction of actin and
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World-class marathon runners can have

up to 70% slow twitch; whereas a
world-class sprinter, i.e., Ben Johnson,
could have up to 80% fast-twitch fibers.
(Consider the strength potential of fast-
twitch fibers—Ben Johnson was known
myosin that allows a muscle to contract. glycogen and are geared to produce to do full squats with 600 lbs for reps
These two contractile proteins slide ATP by anaerobic (without oxygen) and bench over 400 lbs for reps.) The
together as the muscle contracts, and metabolism. They fatigue quickly but amount of these fibers a person has is
they separate as the muscle relaxes. provide very fast and forceful contrac- determined genetically and can be
When a muscle increases in size, it’s tions when they’re called on. These revealed by a muscle biopsy. Although
actually caused by an increase in the fibers are only given a signal to fire the two fast-twitch fibers can transform
diameter of actin and myosin, owing to if a maximum muscle contraction is between a and b, slow-twitch fibers
the production of more myofibrils and required. Type IIb fibers react to stress can’t become fast-twitch and vice versa.
nutrients (glycogen and triglycerides) (weight training) by developing larger When the brain sends a signal for a
and energy-supplying molecules (ATP actin and myosin myofilaments. If you muscle to contract, it enacts just enough
and creatine phosphate). The larger the want bigger muscles, you’re going to fibers to get the job done. When a mus-
actin and myosin fibers, the more force- have to stimulate these fibers to their cle fiber is fired up, it contracts 100%.
ful the contractions. There’s been some fullest. This is known as the all-or-none princi-
discussion that an increase in muscle A second kind of muscle is Type I. ple. There’s no contraction less than
size is partially due to longitudinal These slow-twitch fibers contain large 100%. The variance comes from the
splitting of muscle fibers, followed by amounts of myoglobin, a reddish pig- number of muscle fibers that get called
hypertrophy, but scientists still aren’t ment similar to hemoglobin in the on to work. If you’re curling a light
exactly sure about this. Muscular blood. Thus, Type I fibers are a reddish weight, your brain will only signal
hypertrophy, influenced by human color. These fibers are very resistant to enough fibers to complete the job. If
growth hormone and testosterone, fatigue and contract slowly. They work you’re curling a very heavy weight, all
occurs naturally in children. aerobically (with oxygen) and perform available muscle fibers will be called on
when a weak contraction is needed. to lift the weight. Type IIb are the last
Photo: Irvin J. Gelb ones to be called in; thus, it takes a max-
Generally, Type I fibers are used for
endurance exercise, and they respond to imum weight to bring them into action.
exercise by becoming more metaboli- If the weight being lifted is moderately
cally efficient, not larger. uscle to
wh o ca n go be yo nd th at point and push that m
“The lifter growth.”
ha sn’t be en be fore is the one who’ll stimulate
where it Photo: Irvin J. Gelb
a third class of muscle fibers known as
Type IIa which are often called inter-
mediate fibers. Type IIa are fast twitch
but contain high amounts of myoglobin,
so they’re red. They don’t produce
Porter Cottrell
strong contractions and have minimal
A mature person, unlike a naturally capacity for hypertrophy. They’re
growing child, must apply a stimulus found in small amounts in the body and
for muscular hypertrophy to occur. By adapt by becoming more metabolically
mature, I mean past the age of 18 when efficient.
the body usually reaches its natural It’s important to have at least some
growth potential. grasp of muscle physiology in order to
There are different types of muscle comprehend the importance of inten- Chris Cormier
fibers that react differently to exercise. sity. By examining the information
Knowing which ones do what can aid in above, we can already see why weight heavy, Type IIb fibers will be stimu-
designing an effective weight-training training that is performed with moder- lated, but they’ll take turns contracting.
program. Skeletal muscle fibers con- ate to low intensity doesn’t result in This is due to an action called asynchro-
tract with different velocities depending maximum muscle growth. The main nous motor unit summation (AMS). If a
on the availability of ATP. Faster con- reason for this is that the muscle fibers maximum weight is being lifted, all the
tracting fibers have greater ability to which are capable of becoming larger muscle fibers will fire simultaneously.
split ATP. These fibers are commonly aren’t even being worked in some In this instance, muscle fatigue sets in
known as Type IIb. These muscle fibers lifters’ programs. quickly, usually in less than five reps. In
are the “big boys.” The Type IIb fibers Usually, skeletal muscle is made up AMS, the muscle usually gives out in
are fast twitch and have a low concen- of about half slow-twitch and half fast- less than ten reps.
tration of myoglobin which makes them twitch fibers. Occasionally, someone By using these basic facts of physiol-
white. They contain large amounts of will have an abundance of one type. ogy, we can understand more about the
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José Luis Renteria
Not only must the weight be heavy fibers but aren’t coming close to over-
enough to stimulate these Type IIb loading them or forcing them to grow.
fibers, the weight must also be heavy There is no magical number of repe-
enough to activate all of them. Remem- titions that maximally stimulates Type
ber AMS as discussed previously? If IIb fibers. Generally, 10 repetitions or
the weight is fairly heavy but not maxi- less is best, but there are extenuating
mum, these Type IIb fibers will take circumstances which may see an
turns contracting. This isn’t overload. intense set go up to 12 or even 15 rep-
This is simply physiology in action as etitions. The legs can be worked with
the muscles are performing an occasional heavy set of 20 repeti-
and this
’s capable of,
tions because they’re so large. More
Photo: Irvin J. Gelb
dy p as t w hat it often than not, the Type IIb fibers will
to push the bo aining intensit
y. ”
“The mind has re al weig ht- tr either suffer fatigue by the eighth repe-
creates their designated tasks and aren’t being
tition, or on occasion, only three repe-
impor- titions will fatigue the fibers. The key
tance of weight-training intensity. Since overloaded. A true muscle overload is not so much the number of repeti-
the goal of the hardcore bodybuilder is will not occur while AMS is taking tions or sets, rather it’s the fierceness
to gain power and mass, attacking the place. There is a type of muscle fiber and enthusiasm with which the repeti-
Type IIb fibers is indicated. We know overload that can occur towards the last tions are performed.
these fibers are used when heavy few reps if AMS is occurring and the Overload occurs when all Type IIb
weights are lifted quickly. The heavier lifter trains until failure, yet this type of fibers are simultaneously stimulated
the weight, the more fibers involved. overload only affects a small number of over and over again with each repetition
Now think for a moment what the key muscle fibers. True overload is seen until they’re all ready to quit. Then,
aspect of intensity—overload—truly when the muscle is hit with heavy, fast, somehow, some way, the lifter pushes
means. Overload means you must lift a intense weight-resistant exercise. those fibers beyond muscle fatigue to
weight that’s heavy enough to first It’s very unlikely that lifters who the point at which these muscles
stimulate Type IIb fibers. If you’re not train in a haphazard, unenthusiastic have never been before. It’s imperative
lifting a maximum weight or are using a style are even stimulating the type of to comprehend this. Overload doesn’t
lot of machine-type exercises, there’s a muscle fibers which have the potential occur simultaneously with muscle
chance that Type IIb fibers aren’t even to grow. These weightlifters are, at best, fatigue. Muscle fatigue is the failure of
being significantly activated. slightly stimulating the Type IIb the muscle to perform because it runs
out of its fuel, ATP.
Most lifters pick up a weight, count
eight or ten repetitions, and set the
Ron Harris Photo: Jim Amentler
weight down. This is not effective
weight training. Counting reps and fol-
lowing a certain set pattern can be a bad
habit which may lead to stagnant train-
ing. Perhaps on occasion you’ve
trained past the certain eight or ten
reps and pushed your muscles to the
point at which you could not lift
the weight another time. That’s
training to failure, and it’s not
synonymous with intensity.
Overload usually occurs after
perceived muscle failure. The
lifter who can go beyond that
point and push that muscle
to where it hasn’t been before
is the one who’ll stimulate
growth. The body will have no
choice but to adapt to survive.
As indicated earlier, the body
doesn’t want to do this. The
body wants to stay the same. The
mind has to push the body past
what it’s capable of, and this creates
real weight-training intensity. What
the popular muscle mags and training
courses don’t want you to know is that
your chances of ever achieving this
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pain. Nerve receptors don’t downgrade

their perception of pain. I believe this
dispels the theory that these workouts
are only painful for a little while. The
fact is, they hurt the first time you do
them; they hurt the hundredth time you
level aren’t good. The top muscle mags increase in intensity, but to truly reach do them! They’re supposed to. After
like to portray bodybuilding as a sport your potential and develop your skills to getting in the proper mind set for
for everyone. That’s pretty much propa- the fullest, you must continue to practice intense weight training, it’s time to
ganda: the truth is that most lifters don’t these methods for months and months. practice some skills.
have the discipline, drive, nor the skill The first thing you need to do is The premier exercise for developing
to train this intensely. Thus, most ath- accept the fact that your lack of weight- the skills to train intensely is the squat.
letes find themselves making no gains training intensity has limited your Squatting is by far the best overall
in size or strength, and they continually progress and will continue to do so body exercise you could possibly per-
search for that elusive aspect that’s unless you can master this skill. Sec- form; it’s also difficult and excruciat-
holding up their progress. When you ond, you must be ready to experience ing. Your first assignment for increas-
think about it, it’s much easier to search pain. Intense weight training involves Ronnie Coleman
for some magic pill, powder, or injec- pain; it’s that simple. Although some
tion than it is to accept that you haven’t athletes claim you get used to the pain,
been training intensely enough to stim- physiologically, that just isn’t possible.
ulate muscle growth. The body does adapt to many sensory
stimuli; that is, if you’re listening to
Forget everything you thought you
especially loud music, your sense of
hearing will adapt, and over a period of
minutes, the music won’t seem as loud.
knew about intensity, and get ready to Your vision adapts; when you walk out
learn what it really means. Intense into bright sunlight, it seems especially
weight training isn’t something you just blinding, but in a matter of seconds, the
walk into the gym and automatically light doesn’t seem as bright. Quite liter-
know how to do. It’s a skill and thus ally, all sensations go through some Photo: Irvin J. Gelb
requires practice, discipline, and enthu- the
just walk into
level of adaptation with the exclusion
siasm. There are a number of methods of one— some thin g you
t training isn ’t l…”
which you can use to develop the skills
“Intense weigh lly know ho w to do. It’s a skil
to train intensely. By practicing these atica
skills, you’ll immediately notice an gym and autom ing your overall training
intensity is to take your perceived 10-
Alq Gurley rep maximum in the squat and do it 20
times. That’s right, 20 times. For
example, if during your normal work-
out you were accustomed to complet-
ing a tough set of squats with 275 lbs
for 10 reps, your assignment is to do
275 lbs for 20 reps. Believe me, if
you’ve completed 10 reps at this
weight before, you have the ability to
complete 20. Whether you can realize
that ability or not really determines if
you can train with the type of intensity
it takes to grow.
To perform this intense set of squats,
you should first thoroughly warm up by
doing such exercises as the stationary
bike, stretching, and at least 2 sets of 10
to 15 repetitions with a light weight.
Once your heart rate is over 110 beats
per minute, you’re breathing heavily,
your muscles are warm, and your ten-
dons are loosened up, it’s time to step
under the weight. Load the bar with
your perceived ten-rep maximum, and
Photo: Irvin J. Gelb
get ready to inflict some pain. There’s
nothing complicated about it; just take
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Photo: Irvin J. Gelb Craig Licker
the bar off the rack, squat to a position One of the signs that you’re
where the top of your thighs are par- already training to the overload or
allel to the floor, and drive it back maximum level of intensity
up. Take it one rep at a time, includes extreme oxygen
thoroughly breathing in and debt after each set; that is,
out between repetitions as if you breathe especially
each were a one-rep maxi- heavily even after doing
mum. sets of only five or eight
Once you get to the repetitions. Other signs
tenth rep, you’ll natu- that you have hit
rally want to give up this level are fatigue-
because that’s what induced delirium and
you’ve conditioned a feeling of illness
yourself to do in all your after the set. Another
previous workouts. Once sign is that your nat-
you start your eleventh ural reaction might
repetition, you can have have been to put the
confidence that you’re weight down after 8 reps,
leaving most weightlifters and your muscles com-
behind. You’re taking a step pletely failed at 11 reps, but
in the direction you’ve wanted somehow, you managed to
to go since you began your perform the exercise for 14 reps.
weightlifting efforts. You’re condi- That’s just an example, but the
tioning yourself to train intensely idea is, you have gone beyond when
and develop your skills, so “Get you would put the weight down to a
tough! Get mean! And di
you can become a real scover true intensity as
bodybuilder. Perform the that twentieth rep and dr you bend down for
twelfth, thirteenth, four-
ive it ba ck up wi th a scream.”
teenth, and fifteenth rep one at a time,
and breathe out at least five times at the for at least three or four minutes. It’s not point when the muscles
top of each rep. uncommon to pass out, vomit, be unable have tried to give out, and your mind
If you make it to the sixteenth repeti- to walk, and/or have ringing in your wouldn’t let them quit. Another sign of
tion, you can be sure you’re on your ears. This will all subside in a matter of overload is that the muscles have gone
way to a new level of weightlifting. By minutes, at which point you’ll probably beyond burning to what can be
this point, your breathing is uncontrol- notice many people in the gym staring at described as pain. Also, you SHOULD
lably heavy; you’ll likely have tunnel you like you’re crazy. That’s what you NOT have the desire to perform
vision and may not even be able to hear want them to think; you’re crazy enough another set after completing your over-
if your training partner is encouraging to push yourself to the point where your load exercise. By no stretch of the
you to continue. By the time you go muscles will grow! imagination should you be able to per-
down and drive out that seventeenth This one intense set of squats is your form or want to perform the set again.
repetition, you realize that the first 16 only set of that exercise for this stage of Finally, the long-term indication that
reps were merely a prelude to overload. your skill development. It would be you have been training to overload is
The seventeenth, eighteenth, and nine- impossible to execute another set that that those muscles start developing at a
teenth repetitions may take up to ten was anywhere near that level of inten- noticeable and fulfilling rate.
seconds each as you clear your lungs sity, and since you’re attempting to For the next 6 weeks, your intensity
completely five to ten times before you break the habit and conditioning of per- assignment is to perform just 1 set of
can prepare yourself to bend down forming sets of less than 100% over- this 20-rep squat exercise once every 5
again and drive up the weight. By the load, don’t do any more sets of the days in place of your usual squat sets.
time you’re ready to do the twentieth squat at this point. By doing this intense (You can also do this routine with leg
repetition, you’ll probably be relying 20 repetitions of the squat, you’ll have a presses.) Each time you perform the
solely on the power of your mind as exercise, add additional weight. This
very clear idea of what we mean by
every muscle in your body has reached fulfills the progressive requirement of
overload and intensity.
fatigue several reps ago. How strong is intensity. Even if it’s only five pounds,
your mind? Get tough! Get mean! And Of the few athletes who do train in it still increases the intensity level by a
discover true intensity as you bend this manner, the majority of them take small percentage. If you don’t have
down for that twentieth rep and drive it advantage of stimulants like ephedrine, what it takes to perform this intensely,
back up with a scream. As you struggle caffeine, Ultimate Orange, etc. After accept the fact that you’re destined to
to put the squat bar back on the rack, this workout, be sure to have a protein be a recreational weightlifter. The
your sense of victory may be overshad- and carbohydrate drink. Your body will recreational weightlifter still incurs
owed by fatigue and mental exhaustion. be overwhelmed by the demand on its many advantages that bodybuilding
At this point, it’s prudent to lie down glucose and glycogen reserves once you offers; however, massive muscle devel-
on a bench and engage in deep breathing take your training to this level. opment is not one of them.
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N u t r i - F a c t s

What Causes
in Bodybuilders?
By Keith Klein
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N u t r i - F a c t s

hen I first became a practicing
nutritionist at the Institute of
Specialized Medicine in Houston,
I came across an interesting problem
that continues to baffle nutritionists to
this very day. While working with over-
weight subjects, I noted that many of
them possess very large protruding
stomachs. In the beginning, I assumed
it was due to an excess accumulation of
fat around their midsections, and if
they dieted and exercised properly, it
would go away. As time passed, I
became increasingly frustrated because
no matter how much weight they lost
and regardless of how hard they exer-
cised, their midsections never seemed
to change. Keep in mind that some of
these clients had very skinny arms and
virtually no fat on their legs, yet their
midsections looked like gigantic bal-
loons inflated beneath their skin.
During that period, I used a tape
measure and the scale to monitor the
progress of these patients. That was
about 13 years ago, and as times
changed, I quit weighing clients, and
instead of using a tape measure, I
began using skin calipers. Then some-
thing strange happened. The skin-fold
“The strange thing was,
method I used required that the mea- when they dieted down to
surements be taken from three sites
around the abdominal section. I began make weight, the
to realize that many patients with large
protruding stomachs didn’t really have
protrusion remained, even
as much fat around their midsections as
it appeared. When I placed the calipers
though they had lost
on their stomachs and the sides of their significant
waists, the measurements equaled that
of much thinner people, yet their stom- amounts of bodyfat!”
achs hung so far out, it made them
appear more obese than they actually to push really hard just to make an fold measurements, one correlation
indention in their abdominal cavity. between the obese subjects and the
The strange thing was, when they powerlifters began to emerge: they
Several years later, when I began dieted down to make weight, the pro- both ate large quantities of food late
working with bodybuilders and power- trusion remained, even though they at night. Usually this food was high in
lifters, this same problem surfaced. A had lost significant amounts of body- fat, and it was typically eaten right
powerlifter would come into my office, fat! It wasn’t just the powerlifters who before bedtime. The pattern seemed to
looking very muscular everywhere had this problem. I began to see more be the same in almost every instance.
except his midsection. I was shocked and more bodybuilders exhibiting this On one hand, the client either skipped
to see midsections of athletic people strange trait. meals and ingested a very large
resembling the midsections of the amount of food at dinner, or the per-
With each client I see, the first thing
obese. It wasn’t unusual to see a pow- son would ingest very large amounts of
I do is record their current eating pat-
erlifter sporting a six pack of abdomi- tern. This allows me to analyze their high-fat foods at every meal.
nals with a 38-40 inch waist. When I problem areas and gain an understand- What is commonly referred to as a
took caliper readings around their mid- ing of where they are with their current potbelly is actually abdominal disten-
sections, the numbers would be very knowledge of nutrition. The second tion. Abdominal distention is brought
low, yet their bellies stuck straight out. thing I do is record their bodyfat. After on by overloading your intestinal sys-
Furthermore, when I pushed on the several years of collecting data on each tem with large volumes of food, then
abdominal wall of these clients, their person’s eating habits and taking skin- sitting or lying down, thereby allowing
stomachs were as hard as rocks. I had
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N u t r i - F a c t s

Overeating, steroid and GH use,

and certain exercises
contribute to the “bodybuilder’s
potbelly syndrome.”

the stomach muscles to relax. This pled with three or four high-calorie nal fat deposits increase, so does the
process, when repeated often, will lead meals during the day, can lead to internal space needed to house the
to a permanent protrusion that is abdominal distention. The degree to extra fat. Upon autopsy of obese sub-
almost impossible to reduce. (Notice I which a person experiences this disten- jects, researchers often note an abnor-
said “almost.” I’ll explain that later). tion depends on several factors other mally large amount of fat accumulation
Just think about the truck driver who than diet. around all organs. As the fat cells
drives for long hours, then finally pulls In the case of weightlifters, there located on the external portion of a
into a greasy spoon. He crams down a seems to be another element that plays person’s body become filled, the body
large fatty meal like chicken-fried a role in the girth of their midsections: will begin storing fat internally as well.
steak, mashed potatoes with gravy, heavy squatting. To make matters This explains why very obese people
butter-covered veggies, and follows it worse, heavy squatting following a appear to possess an abnormally large
all with a piece of apple pie. And then heavy meal seems to play an equal role amount of lean body mass when mea-
off he goes, into the wild blue yonder, in how big the potbelly becomes. sured for body composition. On the one
driving for several hours, while his Imagine a weightlifter eating a high- hand, they do have more muscle; after
belly relaxes on his lap. fat lunch or dinner, then a short while all, how else would they be able to
Many powerlifters or bodybuilders later, loading up the squat bar. The carry all the excess weight? Their bod-
have the same problem simply because internal force and pressure created by ies respond to the extra weight by
they habitually overeat in an attempt the heavy meal in the intestinal tract, increasing muscle mass. Just look at an
to gain weight. The diet histories of coupled with the force and pressure of obese person’s calves: they’re usually
bodybuilders, although different from the squat, shoves the abdominal cavity huge! While some of the increased lean
the truck drivers’, might look some- outward, causing the distention. It’s body mass is muscle, most of it’s inter-
thing like this: breakfast—eight egg not just squats that contribute to this nal fat, which is impossible to measure
whites, two whole eggs, toast, and oat- condition; any heavy exercise, pre- with calipers.
meal; mid-morning—a sandwich and a ceded by a large meal, can cause dis- Another aspect that contributes to
weight-gainer drink made with milk tention, particularly when the breath is the abdominal distention is steroids. A
and fruit; lunch (in many cases eaten held. frequent observation made by body-
out)—a chicken sandwich, milk, and The third component responsible for builders that have quit using the
loaded baked potato; mid-afternoon— abdominal distention is visceral fat. “juice” is how much smaller their
a repeat of the mid-morning meal; din- This type of fat accumulates around the waists became. A steroid user will gen-
ner—a steak (four nights out of organs, in this case, around the erally notice a drop in waist girth about
seven), baked potato, milk, and veg- intestines, which causes the internal six months after cessation of the
etables. space to increase in size. As the inter- steroids. Why? Steroids exert their
These heavy late-night meals, cou-
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N u t r i - F a c t s

effect in two different ways. First,

steroids are somewhat indiscriminate.
They don’t just make your biceps big-
ger; organs respond like muscles, too.
Steroids exert a similar growth-promot-
ing effect on your heart, stomach,
intestines, etc. And how much, what
kind, and how long a person uses them
will determine the extent of the dis-
tention they may end up with. When a
bodybuilder quits using the juice, he
notices that his muscles lose their full-
ness; his strength goes down; and the
pump he once experienced simply while
blow-drying his hair fades. Just as the
external muscles diminish in size upon
cessation of the steroids, so will the
internal organs. Second, there’s been
some suggestion that steroids may also
contribute to a greater amount of vis-
ceral fat accumulation around the
organs. To my knowledge, no study has
ever been done to prove this, yet it
does make sense.

Pay attention to your posture. In
most cases, the potbelly is actually a
lazy stomach. The person has often
habitually allowed the stomach wall to
relax and never bothered to hold it in
and stand up right. Many people who
have protruding stomachs also have
weak lower back muscles and are sub-
ject to more back injuries and problems
There’s no question,
due to their poor posture. As the stom- a defined,
ach wall pulls forward, the lower back
gets pulled inward as well. To compen- "flat" midsection
sate, the person usually tends to roll
his or her shoulders forward. This poor looks best!
posture leads to more strain on the when squatting, doing leg presses, and nal cavity, you may always have a wider
lower back. doing bent-over rows. Focus on doing girth than everyone else. You may be
Adjusting your dietary habits can some abdominal work as well as hyper- able to lose some size in your midsec-
also help eliminate abdominal disten- extensions for your lower back. By tion, but don’t set unrealistic expecta-
tion. Try eating six evenly balanced, training your abdominals, your posture tions and think you’ll get a completely
smaller meals spread out through the should improve. And of course, pay flat stomach. Perhaps the most impor-
day. And keep each meal low in fat. closer attention to standing up straight. tant thing you can do is prevent it
Second, avoid eating large quantities of You will need to reestablish your mind/ from happening in the first place. In
food late at night. If your last meal abdominal connection. other words, avoid the mega-calorie
tends to be high in fat and calories, Of course, if you stop using steroids, approach to gaining weight, and follow
adjust it by lowering the fat and your waist will immediately begin the guidelines I’ve listed to prevent it
restricting the carbohydrates. decreasing in girth. But if you’re intent from occurring.
Don’t eat a meal and go directly to on using them, avoid using the heavy
the gym. Give your food time to digest; androgens. They tend to cause more *Note: If you would like to have Mr.
wait at least one hour before working bloating and side effects. Stick more to Keith Klein personally design a dietary
out. Pay attention to your breathing, the anabolic end of the spectrum. program for you, call 713-621-9339 for
and remember to breathe during each Once you have a distended abdomi- more information.
exercise. This is particularly important
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B o d y - T e c h

TECH S c iRelevant
-Te c h
Research for Hey, What’s That an obscure brand imported from Thailand
Bodybuilders called Miramonte Tongel. I picked the
By Dr. José Antonio Fly Doing in My obscure brand just to see if there
Tuna? were any differences between an
American brand and an over-
Several months ago, I was scanning seas brand. I sent
through one of the many newsletters I
receive and came across a horrifying

Bite Size statement made by a person who

worked for a prominent tuna fish
company. The trouble is, I haven’t
Nutrition News
been able to find that back issue
among all my stacks and piles of
the tuna to an
newsletters, so I decided I’d give you lab called Silliker
By Keith Klein a rough quote pulled from my mem- Labs in Dallas,
ory: “Yes, I know our tuna fish has bugs Texas.
and rodent hairs within some cans, but
when we sterilize the cans, things like
that become inert.” I couldn’t believe
Chemical my eyes. What on earth was this guy
saying? Rodent hairs in my tuna fish?
Better Bodies
Hey, I didn’t order that, and who cares if
they’re inert!
I was so baffled and concerned by this
Through Science statement that I immediately went out
By Bruce Kneller and bought three different brands of tuna
fish and shipped them off to the lab for
And the winner is...
testing. The lab test I requested is called an
“extraneous matter test,” and it tests for Star-Kist Tuna No insects,
everything from glass particles to bugs and no rodent hairs
can even tell you what parts of the bug the Bumble Bee Tuna No insects,
food contained. Hell, this test will even tell no rodent hairs
you if there are mandibles, legs, wings, or Miramonte Tongel BINGO—
even antennae within the food. If there insect fragments but
were even one lousy rodent hair in my tuna could not identify the
fish, that’s it, I was going to give it up. type of bug or bugs, as
(Which really wouldn’t be hard since dur- the case may be.
ing my early bodybuilding years I scarfed This just goes to show ya that when it
down two cans of tuna a day for seven comes to consumer goods, ya gotta buy
years. Yuck!) American!
All three brands were water-packed tuna —K.K.
and included Star-Kist, Bumble Bee, and
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B o d y - T e c h

M u s c l e Ad a pta t i o n s i n O l d e r Ma l e s
The structure and function of the elbow flexors (biceps brachii strength increases. Not surprisingly, there was a
and brachialis muscles) were examined in five elderly males (68 preferential hypertrophy of the fast-twitch or Type
years old) before and after 12 weeks of resistance training. Muscle II fibers. This confirms observations from other
volume increased 14%. Muscle cross-sectional area increased studies which have shown a preferential hypertro-
23%. Type I and II fiber areas increased phy of fast-twitch muscle fibers
24% and 37%, respectively. Peak torque Pax B eale in the biceps, triceps, and
increased 48%. Furthermore, the amount of quadriceps of strength/power
work a subject could perform via a 25-repe- athletes. But I thought the inter-
tition test at 240°/sec increased by 29% esting aspect of this study was
after training. The amount of nonmuscle the use of magnetic resonance
and connective tissue was 12% and did not imaging (MRI) in the determina-
change with training. These data indicate tion of muscle volume and max-
that in elderly males, 12 weeks of resistance imal muscle cross-sectional
training produces significant increases in area. Looking at muscle slices
muscle and muscle fiber cross-sectional area, from origin to insertion, they
muscle volume, and muscle strength. found that the greatest increase
(W.J. Roman, J. Fleckenstein, J. Stray- in muscle cross-sectional area
Gundersen, S.E. Alway, R. Peshock, and occurred at the point of maxi-
W.J. Gonyea, “Adaptations in the Elbow mal girth of the elbow flexors.
Flexors of Elderly Males After Heavy In other words, there were cer-
Resistance Training,” J. Appl. Physiol. 74.2 tain regions (such as near the
[1993] : 750-754.) myotendinous attachment)
Comments: which did not increase in size.

Photo: Jim Amentler

It’s pretty well established at Even within a muscle, there is
this point that older people can an adaptive response that is
weight train without injury and specific to a region.
incur significant muscle mass and —J.A.

a C-III [schedule III] drug, and Nolvadex

NEW is getting expensive and harder to find. CL A A N D CA N CE R
ANTI- Is the conundrum back? Maybe. Maybe P R E VE N TI O N
not! It appears there’s another drug that
AROMATASE is a potent anti-aromatase.
Although the bodybuilding world is very
much interested in the potential muscle-
Retaining water and growing breasts
are crummy potential side effects of Cytadren (aminoglutethimide, 250-mg building effects of conjugated linoleic acid
many steroids that aromatize into estro- tablets, Ciba) is the drug I’m talking (CLA), this interesting compound may
gens. And it seems that all the really about. Why does that drug sound famil- have other, equally impressive, health bene-
good hardcore steroids fall into this cat- iar to you? Some bodybuilders experi- fits. CLA, a naturally occurring fatty acid
egory (e.g., oxymetholone, testos- mented with Cytadren because it’s a cor- found in beef, turkey, and dairy products,
terone, etc.). What a conundrum this tisol blocker. Cortisol is the body’s pri- has been found to be an extremely potent
presents to the would-be steroid user. mary catabolic hormone, and blocking anti-carcinogen. Since obtaining an
What male bodybuilder wants a set of 48 its action or production may mean amount of CLA large enough to have any
DD’s to go along with his 19-inch arms? increased muscle mass. Cortisol is also health-promoting effect through the diet is
Well then, what do steroid users do? the body’s primary anti-inflammatory. difficult, the authors of this paper recom-
Blocking its action or production usu- mend enriching food with CLA through
For years, users have stuck to estro-
ally means VERY sore joints after a either agricultural methods or food-pro-
gen receptor site blocking via Nolvadex
workout (just ask anyone who has used cessing technologies.
or blocking the aromatization process
Cytadren). The authors cite several studies in which
altogether with Teslac. But Teslac is now
However, the dosage needed to sup- CLA has proven to be a potent weapon
press cortisol is four against cancer. One study involved giving
to five times higher rats a potent carcinogenic agent (DMBA)
t h a n t he do s age which induced mammary tumors in the
required to prevent rodents. Each group of rats received doses
of CLA ranging from 0.5% to 1% to 1.5%
aromatization. I’ll by weight of total food calories. The total
let you draw your number of mammary tumors was reduced
own conclusions. by 32%, 56%, and 60%, respectively.
—B.K. Other similar experiments showed equally
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B o d y - T e c h

impressive results. Another study referred just plain difficult to change the
to by the authors describes giving CLA to eating habits of an entire popula-
rodents before one of two carcinogens was tion. Two, these recommendations
administered. Rats protected by CLA are vague: how much of what
reduced total mammary yield by 39% and foods constitute a proper cancer-
34% from that of controls.
fighting amount?
Based on these and other studies, the
Although the authors recom-
authors, through extrapolation, concluded
mend some sort of food modifica-
that a daily dosage of 3.5 grams of CLA
tion to ensure high levels of CLA,
(based on a 70-kg [154-lb] bodyweight)
it sure seems like taking a CLA
may afford human beings with a significant
pill is the way to go. Taking three
measure of cancer protection: “If the cancer
or four grams of CLA a day in pill
protective efficacy of CLA can be further
form would certainly be much
characterized and its mechanism of action
easier than eating five or six por-
delineated in the near future, there is a good
tions of fresh raw fruits and veg-
possibility that foods high in CLA, or pos-
etables a day, and the dosage
sibly CLA-enhanced foods, may play a role
would obviously be much more
in cancer chemoprevention.”
precise. Of course, you may ask
(C. Ip, M. Singh, D.J. Lisk, and J.A. yourself if the results of CLA on
Scimeca, “Potential of Food Modification rat mammary tumors are relevant
in Cancer Prevention,” Cancer Research to humans. (Other studies have
suppl. 54 [1994] : 1957s-1959s.) shown CLA to be effective in
Comments: fighting different types of cancer,
Although this paper isn’t new, too, including skin cancers and
all of the excitement about CLA in cancers of the forestomach.) It
general caused me to go back to stands to reason that CLA might
my files. The authors propose have the same effect on humans,
modifying the current food supply either through its extremely
to contain even higher amounts of treatment produced significant gains in
potent antioxidant properties or
CLA in order to possibly reduce heart, kidney, spleen, thymus, and small
by some other yet-to-be discov-
cancer rates in the population. intestine weight. In contrast, GH had no
ered mechanism.
Although several governmental effect on the weights of these tissues; how-
Given the high rate of cancer in ever, it did increase gastrocnemius (calf )
and private health institutions our population, CLA, if indeed as
have advocated an increased muscle weight. IGF-1 had no effect on gas-
effective as it seems to be, could trocnemius muscle weight. Treatment with
consumption of fruits, grains, and be a godsend. And, if you’re a
vegetables, along with a decreased IGF-1 or GH alone produced similar
bodybuilder, it could protect you reductions in fat, while combining both
consumption of animal fats, these from the inordinately large amounts
strategies are not without their had an additive effect on fat loss. IGF-1
of free radicals generated by plus GH produced the highest levels of
inherent problems. For one, it’s intense workouts and increased total and free serum IGF-1. Serum GH lev-
dietary requirements. Plus, if the els decreased after IGF-1 and/or GH treat-
other studies are right, it might ment. Furthermore, IGF-1 with GH
even make you grow! reversed the GH-induced increase in serum
—J.A. insulin.
(H.C. Lo, P.S. Hinton, C.A. Peterson,
I G F-1: M o r e A n a bo l i c and D.M. Ney, “Simultaneous Treatment
of IGF-1 and GH Additively Increases
i n Vi s c e ra vs. Anabolism in Parenterally Fed Rats,” Am. J.
M u s c l e? Physiol. 269 [1995] [Endocrinol. Metab. 32]
: E368-E376.)
This study compared the effects of IGF-
1 (800 ug/day, co-infused with total par- Comments:
enteral nutrition [TPN] ), growth hormone Simultaneous treatment with
(GH) (800 ug/day, injected subcutaneously IGF-1 and GH is more anabolic
2 times per day plus TPN), or simultaneous than treatment with either hor-
treatment of both GH and IGF-1 (800 + mone alone. In this study, positive
800 ug/day plus TPN) in rats subjected to effects were seen in measures of
surgical stress. The length of post-surgical weight gain, nitrogen balance,
treatment was six days. Post-surgery, the and body composition.
combination of GH and IGF-1 produced Surprisingly, GH produced a
significantly greater bodyweight increases hypertrophic response in the
than either IGF-1 or GH alone. IGF-1 gastrocnemius while IGF-1 had no
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Russian stuff allegedly comes in through,

Keith’s Tip of course, Southern California and the
Brighton Beach area of New York. So how
If you’ve been trying to lean down a little bit faster for a contest, photo good is Russki juice? That all depends on
shoot, or Chippendale’s audition, here’s a great little secret. If you seem to be what your definition of “good” is. I’ll cite
doing everything right but can’t drop that last little bit of fat around your mid- two interesting examples and then let you
section, try omitting the starch from your last meal each day. For example, if decide for yourself.
you eat six balanced meals a day, each meal should contain a low-fat source of I’ve been asked about a steroid called
protein and a low-fat complex carbohydrate. So, if your evening meal consists Nerobolil Depot. This injectable comes in
of eight egg whites and a medium bowl of oatmeal, try dropping the oatmeal a one-milliliter clear glass ampoule, three
and replacing it with vegetables. Do this for to a box. Each ampoule is supposed to con-
two weeks. tain 50 mg of nandrolone decanoate per
This works best if you taper off the milliliter. A box of 3 will run you between
carbohydrates over the course of two $20-$60, depending on who you are, where
or three weeks instead of doing it you are, and how many you buy. The
all at once. If your body still hasn’t injectable oil is very yellow in color. At this
reached the look you’re after, then point, some of you are thinking “…useless
drop the carbs from the fifth meal of steroid, only 50 mg/ml, same as the Mexijet
the day as well. If your dinner con- preloaded crap…” Well, remember, in this
sists of six to eight ounces of lean dry market, some people will take what-
meat, a large baked potato, and ever they can get, and many of the women
some steamed vegetables, drop the who use steroids might find a 50 mg/ml
baked potato, and replace it with a dose of a nandrolone pretty good. But I
dinner salad topped with fat-free digress.
dressing. I don’t think this Nerobolil Depot con-
This generally works well for tains any nandrolone decanoate. I strongly
most people, but don’t think cut- suspect it contains some ester of testos-
ting carbs drastically is the fastest terone, as many people who have been
way to get lean. Too many people cut using it have complained of profound
carbohydrates too harshly, which results in carbohydrate sensitivity. And after water retention and acne. So is this a
eating very few carbohydrates for an extended period of time, individuals usu- counterfeit steroid? Well, there is “some-
ally notice a great deal of water retention and an increase in bodyfat when they thing” in it that’s probably a steroid, but it’s
start eating carbs again. Approach your goal slowly, omit the carbs at one meal, probably not nandrolone. Maybe we need
a new designation for misrepresented
and measure the response. Wait a couple weeks, then if needed, omit the high-
steroids. Quasi-counterfeit???
starch carbs from the fifth meal as well.
There’s also another Indian-made,
Russian mislabeled steroid. This one’s an
oral called Metanabol. It comes in an
effect. Also, IGF-1 seems to cause orange-colored foil-strip pack. The tablets
significant visceral growth. FROM are very white in color. I believe the real,
Perhaps if this study were carried RUSSIA… original Metanabol is from Poland, and
out for a longer time, one would that version contains five milligrams of
see both visceral and muscular WITH LOVE!!! methandrostenolone (a.k.a. “D-Bol”) per
A rather large influx of Russian steroids tablet. The Russian mislabeled version of
growth using either IGF-1 or GH.
has found its way into the United States Metanabol looks virtually identical to the
Interestingly, if you look closely at
since the dismantling of the former real Polish stuff. Both seem to
some of the elite bodybuilders
Soviet Union. I don’t speak nor read cost in the neighborhood of $60-
today, you’ll notice that some
Cyrillic very well (OK, not at all), $100 for 100 tablets. Does the
have a protruding abdominal wall.
so it’s been difficult for me to Russian stuff contain five mil-
This is apparently not due to fat, ligrams of methandrostenolone,
“authenticate” a lot of what’s been
since they’re extremely lean. I too? I don’t think so. Rumor has
imported. Thus, I decided to do a
would surmise that it’s related to it that the Russian version con-
bit of investigating to further my
the organ (spleen, kidney, small tains 5 mg of 17-α-methyltestos-
intestine) hypertrophy that may terone. Sure, it’s a steroid, and
A significant amount of Russian
result from prolonged GH (and many people will take what they
steroids are not really Russian at
possibly IGF-1) use. Although can get, but…it’s not D-Bol by
all. They’re made in bulk in India
gains in visceral mass represent a any means.
and then shipped to Russian
gain in lean tissue, I personally How do you tell the Polish
Republics or other former Eastern
would not care to increase the Bloc countries (e.g., Hungary, from the Russian? Well, you
weight of these organs. Romania, Bulgaria) for repackaging. really can’t unless you have a box of
—J.A. Then they get shipped to America. From each side by side. The orange printing on
what I’ve heard via the Internet, most of the the Polish box is a bit deeper in color than
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on the Russian stuff. Plus, the Russian perspective), you usually have to make 17- S u ppl e m e n t s a n d
stuff is always missing a package insert. α-methyltestosterone first. So why not A n a bo l i c H o r m o n e s
You’ll get big and bloated on the Polish just stop at that point and package it as is?
The effects of dietary supplements after
stuff. On the Russian stuff, you’ll see mod- Well, that’s exactly what’s being done.
weight-training exercise were examined in
est size gains, water retention, plus the Companies like to have stuff made in India
nine experienced weightlifters. The subjects
bitchy attitude associated with methyl- as the laws there are fairly lax, and labor
received either water or an isocaloric carbo-
testosterones. is woefully cheap and in ready supply.
hydrate (1.5 grams per kilogram of body-
One might inquire as to why somebody India isn’t known as the sanitary capi- weight), protein (1.38 g/kg), or carbohy-
would go to the trouble of putting in an tal of the world either. This isn’t a prob- drate and protein (1.06 g/kg carbs and 0.41
ester of testosterone instead of nan- lem with an oral steroid, but it may be a g/kg protein) supplement immediately after
drolone decanoate or 17-α-methyltestos- potential problem with an injectable. exercise and again 2 hours later. The exer-
terone instead of methandrostenolone? Look at it this way, if the country where cise protocol consisted of the leg press, leg
Why not just put the real thing in or put something is made doesn’t even sell it in extension, leg curl, bench press, dumbbell
nothing of any value in these “drugs”? their own pharmacies, that ought to be a flyes, dumbbell rows, lat pulldowns, and
Why is this all done in India? The answer hint and a half, and Metanabol and military press (2 sets of 8-10 reps [at about
is one of pure economics. Nerobolil Depot are not available in 75% of 1RM] with a 90-second rest inter-
If I “make” steroids and don’t put any- Indian pharmacies. Perestroika, com- val). Exercise produced a rise in blood lac-
thing real in them, you won’t be a repeat rade! Welcome to America. tate, glucose, testosterone, and growth hor-
customer. If I put something in my stuff, FYI: At the prices the dealers are getting mone (GH). The carbohydrate and carbo-
even if it’s not what I’m putting on the for these Russian goodies, I’d avoid them hydrate/protein supplements resulted in
label, you’ll probably see some effect, and even if they were real. One hundred higher insulin concentrations than protein
you’ll buy again. Testosterone esters are Metanabol is maybe a 10-day supply, and alone and control. The response of GH was
MUCH cheaper and easier to make than 150 mg of nandrolone won’t last a male greatest after the carbohydrate/protein
nandrolone decanoate. In order to make bodybuilder 3 days. treatment. Supplements had no effect on
methandrostenolone (from the chemist’s —B.K. ☞

A l c o h o l a n d P o s t- M e a l Fa t Sto ra g e
Five healthy male volunteers were studied Bill Comments:
(average age, 35; average weight, 157 lbs). P hi l l i ps Alcohol contains more kcals per
Using whole-body indirect calorimetry, these gram than either carbohydrate or
investigators determined energy expenditure protein foods but not as many as fat
and macronutrient balance after meals were (fat contains nine, alcohol contains
consumed (with and without alcohol). Each seven, and carbs and protein contain
subject was studied on three different occa- four). Scientists have speculated as
sions with each subject serving as his own to the possible benefits of alcohol
control. The three meal treatments, adminis- consumption concerning heart dis-
tered in random order, were control (C), alco- ease. However, commonsense would
hol substitution (AS), and alcohol addition tell you that too much of anything is
(AD). The fat to carbohydrate to protein to not good. But does alcohol consump-
ethanol composition of the test meals tion invariably lead to increased fat
expressed as a percentage of total energy were deposition? Well, the answer to that
as follows: Meal C—40:46:14:0; Meal AS— is a qualified no. Apparently, alcohol
40:23:14:23; and Meal AD—34:36:12:18. calories are only fattening when
Meal AS had 50% of the carbohydrate energy consumed in excess of daily caloric
replaced with alcohol, while both meal AS requirements. (Wow, what a revela-
and AD had the same absolute amount of tion.) However, the manner in which
alcohol. These subjects were examined up to alcohol may make you fatter is due to
20.5 hours post meal. AD and AS both caused its suppression of carbohydrate and
fat retention. They found that alcohol has a thermogenic effect fat oxidation. Obviously, if these macronutrients are
similar to carbohydrate. However, alcohol was found to suppress not oxidized, they will be stored as glycogen (for
the oxidation of carbohydrates and fat. Apparently, alcohol dom- excess carbs) or as fat (for excess carbs and fat).
inates oxidative pathways because there is no mechanism to store Interestingly, the thermogenic effect of alcohol is
excess alcohol and also because of the need for oxidative detoxifi- similar to carbohydrates. The bottom line is don’t
cation. These scientists concluded that alcohol has a fat-sparing feel too guilty about drinkin’ a Bud, but at the same
effect similar to carbohydrate. Alcohol appears to cause weight time, don’t down a six-pack each night and expect
gain only when consumed in excess of normal energy needs. to gain quality muscle mass. Also, keep in mind that
(B.J. Sonko, et al, “Effect of Alcohol on Postmeal Fat Storage,” alcoholic beverages tend to be nutrient sparse.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59 [1994] : 619-625.) Remember, everything in moderation.
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IGF-1. Furthermore, peak IGF-1

levels are not attained until 16-28 Chromium
hours after GH-stimulated
release. The decrease in testos-
I’ve never been too big on the sup-
terone after the carbohydrate/pro- plement chromium picolinate. I know a
tein, carbohydrate, and protein lot of bodybuilders use the stuff, but
treatments is puzzling. It wasn’t I’ve never seen any benefit from taking
due to decreased luteinizing hor- it. The ads tout it can reduce bodyfat,
mone (LH) levels since LH levels decrease appetite, increase strength,
didn’t change. There appeared to increase muscle, and blah, blah, blah.
be a diminution of testosterone Although I don’t think it’s all the mar-
levels as long as insulin levels keting campaigns have cracked it up to
remained above baseline. be, I don’t think it should be scrutinized
However, testosterone levels and taken off the market by the FDA.
were lowest during the protein The advertising companies should be
treatment, despite the fact that shot, but the supplement is safe as far
insulin levels were lower after as I’m concerned.
the protein treatment vs. the car- In this month’s issue of the Journal of
bohydrate and carbohydrate/pro- Optimal Nutrition (JON), the publica-
tein treatments. In fact, another tion gave out its annual “Bad Science”
study suggests that insulin sup- award to a group of researchers that
pression may produce a decrease recently published an abstract in the
in testosterone levels (J. Clin. FASEB Journal titled “The Dietary
Endo. Metab. 80.2 [1995] : 654- Supplement Chromium Picolinate
658). So what does all this mean? Induces Chromosome Damage in
Well, you definitely need to eat Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells.” Among
after a workout in order to other problems with the abstract, the
replace muscle glycogen and JON cited that:
insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) but
provide the protein necessary for 1. The abstract left out the amount of
caused a significant decrease in serum
repair of injured myofibers as chromium administered to the ham-
testosterone. These authors suggest that
well as protein needed for muscle sters. (As it turns out, according to the
carbohydrate or carbohydrate/protein sup-
anabolism. Should you worry JON, the concentration of chromium
plements may favorably affect the anabolic
about the decrease in testos- used in the study is almost 5,000 times
environment of skeletal muscle after exer-
terone after a meal? No. higher than one would obtain from a
cise by increasing serum GH and insulin
Generally, training has no impact 200 ug per day dosage).
on resting testosterone levels. 2. The report didn’t show the results
(R.M. Chandler, H.K. Byrne, J.G.
of chromosomal damage. (How can a
Patterson, and J.L. Ivy, “Dietary Supplements —J.A.
study say that chromium caused chro-
Affect the Anabolic Hormones After Weight-
mosome damage without providing the
Training Exercise,” J. Appl. Physiol. 76.2
[1994] : 839-845.) G H a n d I G F-1 i n 3. The study was based on in vitro
Interestingly, the carbohydrate
N o r m a l l y Fe d (test-tube) findings, not in vivo (in the
and carbohydrate/protein supple- Humans body).
The JON went on to pick apart the
ments which produced the high- Normally fed humans (age 26, given
around 33 kcal/kg/day, of which approxi- study, piece by piece, explaining how
est rise in insulin also caused the poorly the study was conducted. I’m in
greatest rise in GH, yet not IGF-1, mately 1.4g/kg/day was protein) were given
recombinant human growth hormone total agreement with the JON when
six hours after exercise. Insulin they say the study plays into the hands
and GH are important anabolic (rGH) (0.025 mg/kg/day) and recombi-
nant human insulin-like growth factor 1 of the FDA, which can then use the
hormones that stimulate protein study before Congress and ask that a
synthesis. Additionally, GH and, to (rIGF-1) (100 ug/kg twice a day) for 5
days. These subjects were compared with ban be placed on chromium due to its
a lesser extent, insulin have been “DNA damaging potential.”
shown to stimulate hepatic IGF-1 those who received IGF-1 or GH alone.
Leucine oxidation decreased significantly Although I don’t think chromium
release. The lack of an increase picolinate is as worthwhile as the ads
in IGF-1 is probably due to the while leucine turnover increased. Whole-
body protein synthesis also increased signif- tout, I don’t think it causes chromoso-
fact that the weightlifters were mal damage, either. And I sure as hell
icantly in the subjects given IGF-1 and
examined over a short period of don’t want the FDA using such a
GH. However, there were no differences
time. There is approximately a flawed study for ammunition to remove
between the combined IGF-1/GH group in
three to six-hour lag between GH chromium from the marketplace.
comparison to GH alone or IGF-1 alone.
administration and the release of —K.K.

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These data suggest that in the fed state, the net result is that a large protein is
combination of IGF-1 and GH is not more COLOSTRUM hydrolyzed into small oligopeptides (usu-
anabolic than using either compound IS NO ally no larger than six amino acids long),
alone. di- and tripeptides, and free-form amino
(N. Mauras, “Combined Recombinant
ORAL IGF-1 acids. IGF-1, insulin, HGH, and most of the
Recently, I got into a “heated debate” other bioactive drug-like proteins are
Human Growth Hormone and Recombinant
with somebody (somebody who should several hundred peptides long. There is
Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1:
know better) regarding IGF-1 and no way they can survive in the gut of an
Lack of Synergy on Whole Body Protein
colostrum. Let me update you on this. adult. The key word here is “adult.” As
Anabolism in Normally Fed Subjects,” J.
Colostrum contains small amounts of previously stated, newborns don’t have a
Clin. Endo. Metabol. 80.9 [1995] : 2633-
IGF-1. And as many of you know, you can fully developed gastrointestinal tract.
buy colostrum over the counter in your They’re lacking these digestive enzymes
Comments: local health-food store. So the train of
Combining GH and IGF-1 has or have very limited quantities of them
thought is if you buy the colostrum and until they’re a few months old. So, yes,
previously been shown to amelio- chug down gallons of it, you’ll infuse your
rate the catabolic state seen in the newborn could theoretically absorb
body with IGF-1 and get huge. IGF-1, HGH, insulin, and whatever else if
calorically deprived humans. This, Ahhh…sorry, incorrect thought process.
of course, may be one of the orally ingested. How many newborn
The idea sounds great on paper, but it babies do you see pumping iron at the
potential therapeutic roles of doesn’t work. Your digestive tract will
these hormones. However, ath- gym?
destroy any trace of IGF-1 you ingest, The good “doctor,” after hearing my
letes (especially bodybuilders) are denaturing and cleaving it into fractured
a different story. They’re hardly explanation, still wasn’t satisfied. “How
peptides and free-form amino acids. The come I can take Cytomel orally? When I
calorically deprived and are same is true for insulin and HGH. Any
oftentimes overfed. This study take Cytomel, it works just fine…” Hey,
peptide (protein) based drug that you knucklehead?!? Cytomel (liothyronine) is
suggests that combining both hor- ingest orally will be digested and ren-
mones does not have a synergis- NOT a protein!!! Bottom line here: don’t
dered inert by your digestive system be lulled into a pseudo-anabolic trance
tic effect on whole-body protein 99.9% of the time. with promises of great size gains from
Well, some moron with colostrum. $ave your greenbacks for
a Ph.D. (in sociology, no something that really works, like HMB™,
less) had the audacity to vanadyl sulfate, CLA, creatine monohy-
tell me I’m wrong. Hey, I drate, or a high-quality whey protein.
work for Dan Duchaine. —B.K.
I’m never wrong. I can’t
afford to be. There are too
many other people who Now What
would kill for my position.
Well, this “doctor” (who
Am I
will remain nameless) Going to Eat?
enlightened me to the fact Bodybuilders eat tons of chicken
that newborn babies who every year. Just for grins, I sat down and
breast-feed end up absorb- calculated how much chicken I eat per
ing the antibodies and year. Considering that I eat 8 ounces of
IGF-1 in mothers’ milk. chicken breast at least twice a day, 365
Antibodies are really big days a year, I end up eating 365 pounds
proteins, and yes, the of chicken a year! Since the average
neonates absorb the anti- chicken weighs about 5 pounds, I’m eat-
anabolism. Keep in mind that this
bodies and possibly the IGF-1 intact after ing about 73 chickens a year! I’ve been
study was very short. Would the
eating such. So this “doctor” reasons, if doing that for the last 15 years. Good
same be true if these hormones
neonates can absorb all this stuff, so can God, I’ve eaten almost 1,100 chickens.
were administered for weeks or
the average bodybuilder. This is not Yikes!
months? Also, the authors point
true!!! Babies are not just “little adults.” Unfortunately, a report from the
out that prolonged elevations of
The physiology of the neonate is pro- National Cancer Institute mentioned
circulating IGF-1 concentrations
foundly different from that of an adult. The that overcooked chicken is a possible
seen in acromegalic conditions
neonate does not have a fully developed human carcinogen. They state that
may have a potentially detrimen-
gastrointestinal system. In adults, large when cooking chicken, be careful not to
tal effect on cartilage and soft tis-
peptides are subject to degradation in the allow the meat to get too charred or
sue leading to decreased joint
stomach by the enzyme pepsin. When the overbrowned. This results in the forma-
spaces and osteoarthritis. Bottom
peptides pass from the stomach into the tion of a carcinogen called PhIP. The
line? We need more studies to
duodenum, they get nailed by the pancre- study focused on the amount of PhIP
determine what this stuff does. So
atic enzymes trypsin and chylotrypsin as found in chicken breasts that were pan
take it at your own risk!
well as intestinal carboxypeptidase. The fried, broiled in an oven, stewed, and
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whole roasted. The greatest concentra-

tions of PhIP were found in barbecued
chicken, followed by broiled and then
fried. As it turns out, the longer you
cook the chicken breast, the more car-
cinogens accumulate within the meat.
Okay, now I’m going to start eating raw
chickens. I’ll just grab them by their
scrawny necks and rip into them. Call
me Count Chicula. Alright, maybe that’s
not the best solution.
To avoid increasing PhIP levels within
chicken, don’t overcook the meat. When
cooked properly, it should be moist and
juicy, not pink. If chicken is pink, it’s
undercooked, and that could lead to sal-
monella poisoning. Boy, isn’t anything
easy anymore?

E l e c t r i c a l St i m u l a t i o n a n d M u s c l e H yp e r t r o ph y
Sedentary, untrained subjects were trained twice per week for that the way muscle fibers are recruited differs
nine weeks using either electrical stimulation or voluntary effort. between voluntary contractions and electrically
Voluntary training involved three to five sets of ten full-range evoked contractions. Voluntary muscle contrac-
isovelocity contractions with three-minute rest tions involve an
intervals between sets. All training and testing asynchronous
was performed on a Kin-Com isovelocity load- activation of mus-
ing dynamometer. Electrical stimulation “train- cle fibers. Also,
ing” consisted of a 1-second train of 500 micro- muscle fibers are
sinusoidal pulses delivered at 50 Hz. The cur- recruited first from
rent was adjusted to evoke around 70% of max- the smallest and
imal voluntary isometric torque. Current was then from the
increased over the course of the training, so by largest motor units
the end of training, stimulation evoked around (size principle). On
80% of the pre-training maximal voluntary iso- the other hand,
metric torque. In both groups, only the left electrical stimula-
quadriceps femoris was trained, while the right tion invokes asyn-
served as the contralateral control. The electri- chronous firing of
cal-stimulation group increased quadriceps both small and
femoris muscle cross-sectional area (as deter- large motor units.
mined via magnetic resonance imaging) by 10%, while the group Further, as with voluntary exercise, electrical stim-
that engaged in voluntary exercise increased cross-sectional area ulation does not uniformly activate all regions of a
4%; training torque increased 25% and 56% in the voluntary muscle. You may actually get regional-specific
exercise and electrical stimulation group, respectively. There were adaptations (i.e., some parts of the muscle grow
no changes in any of the measured parameters for the untrained while others don’t). This study should not be inter-
contralateral thigh. These data indicate that in untrained subjects, preted to apply to well-trained bodybuilders, pow-
voluntary effort may limit the hypertrophic response of skeletal erlifters, or weightlifters. These athletes already
muscle during the initial phases of a resistance-training program. have major neural adaptations to resistance exer-
(C.L. Ruther, C.L. Golden, R.T. Harris, and G.A. Dudley, cise. It would be interesting, though, if you could
“Hypertrophy, Resistance Training, and the Nature of Skeletal cause electrical stimulation-induced hypertrophy
Muscle Activation,” J. Strength Cond. Res. 9.3 [1995] : 155-159.) of those muscles which are typically resistant to
growth (e.g., the calves for some individuals) or
Comments: stimulate regions of a muscle which may not
It’s apparent that untrained subjects may not be respond as well as other regions (e.g., the biceps
working out as hard as they possibly could. It’s also brachii muscle near its tendon insertion may not
interesting that electrical stimulation produced a grow as easily as the area around the mid-belly).
ten percent increase in muscle cross-sectional —J.A.
area in nine weeks! This has been supported by
earlier investigations. However, it should be noted
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You don’t have to have a “pro card” to be a bodybuilding champion. The majority of those who read
Muscle Media 2000 will never compete in the Mr. Olympia, the national bodybuilding championships,
nor a state or local bodybuilding contest. But, that doesn’t mean they aren’t champions in their own
At Muscle Media 2000, we believe in giving credit where credit is due—we know there are thousands
of people who read Muscle Media 2000 who have their own “success stories.” Some of them compete,
and some of them don’t. But they all share one thing in common—they have a passion for building the
best body they possibly can—they have discipline, drive, and determination! In this new column called
“MM2K Champions,” we’ll acknowledge the efforts of some bodybuilders who are working hard to be
their best and who rely on Muscle Media 2000 to help them with their efforts!

“MM2K caters to ordinary people.”

Like many guys hitting their 30’s, Kurk Malwin of Venice, Florida, started
getting out of shape. His clothes didn’t fit the same anymore, and he just felt
lousy. His job as a cable installer was stressful (when someone doesn’t pay the
bills, the company sends Kurk out, and customers aren’t usually too happy to

see him), and when you combine chronic stress with
poor exercise and eating habits, things like your
waistline head south.
When Kurk picked up a copy of Muscle Media 2000,
things just clicked. “You use a lot of photos of guys
Media 2000
tells it
with achievable looks—a lot of the guys look ‘nor-
mal,’ but they still look great. I like the fact that it
gives alternatives to people who want to go the
drug-free route. I like the fact that MM2K caters to
ordinary people.”
Weightlifting has given Kurk a whole new lease, or
should we say, cable subscription, on life. Thanks to
bodybuilding, he’s now in the greatest shape of his is.”
life! “It’s a great stress reliever, and I just feel phys-
ically better.”

Steven Scutti of Coconut Creek, Florida, tried other sports, but they just Bill Davey, of Fort
didn’t give him the same satisfaction bodybuilding did. Somehow, compet- Myers, Florida, has a
ing against others in team sports just wasn’t the same; too much of your healthy respect for
success depends on others. In bodybuilding, however, he was able to push those bodybuilders who
as hard as he wanted to, and if he didn’t succeed, it was nobody’s fault but stay natural. “It’s a
his own. “You’re always competing against yourself, trying to get better and great sport, and it’s
better. In bodybuilding, supposed to be a
you have to work hard “Overall, it’s just a healthy sport, but the
bodybuilders who abuse

Steven quality magazine.” drugs have taken it

beyond what it’s sup-
and smart, and no one can take that posed to be.” Although Bill Davey
Scutti away from you,” says Steven. he’s a personal trainer
Hey, with ideas like that, it’s only and staying in shape is
natural that Steven and Muscle Media part of his job, he enjoys competing against himself
2000 would eventually find each and getting better and better. He also enjoys compet-
other. Steven likes the fact that ing on stage, although he doesn’t think you have to
MM2K is always writing about what’s compete to have a great body. That’s why he likes
new: “getting the inside story on Muscle Media 2000: “Your magazine tells it like it is.
supplements and nutrition—focusing You get to the point and tell what works and what
on the important issues in bodybuild- doesn’t, and that info is great for the competitor and
ing.” He also likes the fact that many non-competitor alike.”
of our articles are based on scien-
tific research and include references. Would you like to be featured as a “Muscle
Steven says the things he has learned Media 2000 Champion”? If so, send us a photo,
by reading Muscle Media 2000 have a short paragraph about yourself, and tell us
helped him build more muscle! why you read Muscle Media 2000. The address
is: “MM2K Champs,” Attn: Sue Daniel, P.O. Box
277, Golden, CO 80402.