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# In chapter 1, we have seven sections which are:

## • All about numbers up to 100 000.

• The addition of numbers with totals up to 100 000.
• The subtraction of numbers with totals of less than 100 000.
• The multiplication of numbers with products up to 100 000.
• The division of numbers with dividend up to 100 000.
• The mixed operation with the basics process (addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division).
• The solving problem involving the basic process and the mixed operations.

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In this section, the students will learn all about numbers. The students will know how
to write numbers in words and numerals. The students also know how to determine
their place values. Moreover, the students can compare the values of the numbers
and round-off the numbers to the nearest place values.

## 1. Identify numbers by writing in numerals or in words.

2. Determine of the place value of numbers that have five digits such as
ten thousands, thousands, hundreds, tens and ones.
3. Compare the values of numbers, larger or smaller between two 5-digits
numbers.
4. Round-off numbers to a certain place value by using the steps that are
given and by using the number line.

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Naming and writing skills of the numbers

## Determination of place values

In a whole number, the entire number can be partitioned into digits. Each digit
has their place values and digit values.

For example:

## So that, the number is 52 341.

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Comparing the values of numbers.

You can compare two digits numbers by comparing the five digits in their
place values. First, the comparison must start at the highest place value (ten
thousands). If the digits are the same, then move to second highest place
value (thousands), and so on.

We have two methods that can be use to compare the two 5-digits numbers:

Rounding-off numbers

The rounding-off of a whole number is to get the nearest place value for that
number. There are two methods to round-off a whole numbers. One is by
using the number line by as shown below.

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We have two methods that can be use to compare the two 5-digits numbers:

## Steps for rounding off of a whole number:

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In this section, the students will learn about the addition of numbers with totals up to
100 000. The addition is a process to determine the total of two or more numbers.
We can use words like total, sum, add or plus to show an addition.

## 1. Determine the value of numbers after doing the addition of numbers.

2. Know how to add numbers in vertical form with regrouping and vertical
form without regrouping and also in horizontal form.
• The addition can be expressed in two forms which are vertical or horizontal.
The vertical form is divided into two types which are vertical with regrouping
and vertical without regrouping. We can use the steps below to add the whole
numbers.

1. First, we align the numbers that we want to add in vertical form. All the
digits must be placed according to their place values.

For example :

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2. Then, add the numbers from the right side to the left side.

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In this section, the students will learn about the subtraction of numbers with totals of
less than 100 000. Subtraction is a process to determine the difference between two
or more numbers. We can use words such as subtract, minus or difference to shows
the subtraction.

## 1. Determine the value of numbers after the subtraction is done.

2. Know how to subtract numbers in vertical form with regrouping and
vertical form without regrouping and also subtraction in the horizontal
form.
• Subtraction is the inverse of the addition. Subtraction can be expressed in two
forms which are vertical or horizontal. In vertical form there are vertical with
regrouping and vertical without regrouping. We can use the steps below to
subtract numbers.

1. First, we align the numbers involved in the subtraction in the vertical form.
All the digits must be placed according to their place values.

2. Then, subtracted the numbers from the right side to the left side.

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For example :

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In this section, the students will learn about the multiplication of numbers with product
up to 100 000. The multiplication is a process of repeating of the addition of two or
more numbers. Product is a result of the multiplication process. We can use words
like multiply or times to show the multiplication.

## 1. Determine the value of numbers after the multiplication is done.

2. Know how to multiply the digits starting from ones, tens, hundreds,
thousands and so on.
3. Know how to solve the multiplication problems.

## The multiplication is a commutative operation, which means that the product is

not affected by changing the order of the numbers. For example: 4 x 2 = 2 x 4
= 8.

We must add one, two or three zero after the number when we multiply
numbers with 10, 100 or 1 000.

For example:

578 x 10 =

## We can use the steps below to multiply numbers.

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The product of any number when multiply by zero is zero. For any number
when multiply by one, the product is the original number.

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In this section, the students will learn about the division of numbers with dividend up
to 100 000. Division is a process where numbers will be shared or grouped equally.
The quotient is the result of the division process. While, the dividend is the number
that will be divided with divisor to get the quotient.

For example :

If the division has a leftover, it’s called the remainder. This implies that the number
cannot be divided exactly.

## 1. Determine the value of numbers after the division is done.

2. Know the meaning of dividend, divisor, quotient and remainder.
3. Know how to solve the division problems.

The division process is starts from the left to the right of the number. It is
different from the process of addition, subtraction and multiplication. The
division also is the inverse of the multiplication. We can check the answer of a
division by multiplying the quotient with the divisor.

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For example:

When a number with zero as the last digit is divided by 10, then the result is
the same number without the last zero digits. This rule is also applied to
numbers having two or more zero as the end digits when being divide by 100
or 1 000 respectively.

For example:

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In this section, the students will learn about the mixed operation with the basic
processes such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The mixed
operation is a process which involved more than one operation.

## At the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. Know how to solve the mixed operations and basic processes problems.
2. Use the four steps that will be given. By using the steps, students will get the

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In this section, the students will learn on solving problems involving the basic
processes and the mixed operations. The problems are involved with mixed
operations and the basic processes such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and
division.

## At the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. Know how to solve the mixed operations and basic processes problems.
2. Use the four steps that will be given. By using these steps, the students will
get the correct answer.

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We have some steps to solve the problem in our daily situations. The steps are:

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In chapter 2, we have four sections which are:

## • The Proper fractions.

• The Equivalent Fractions.
• The Addition of Fractions.
• The Subtraction of Fractions.

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In section 2.1, the students will learn all about the proper fractions. The students will
know how to write the proper fraction in words and numerals and compare the value
of two proper fractions.

## At the end of this section, you should be able to:

• Identify the proper fraction by name and writing and also know to draw the
figure with shaded part of figure to show the fraction of numbers.
• Compare the values of the fraction whether larger or smaller. If the numerator
is same, the largest fraction is shows the value of denominator smaller. If the
denominator is same, the largest fraction is shows the value of numerator is
larger and for vice versa.

## A fraction is a part of a whole. The fraction will be presented by numbers. For

example, the figure above shows the triangle. The shaded part of triangle
shows that is ½ out of the triangle. We can write as ½ or one over two or one
half of triangle. The table below shows the name of fraction. We can see
clearly about fractions and easy to determine the fractions of any part or any
numbers.

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There are two numbers in fraction. The top number in fraction called
numerator and the bottom number is called the denominator.

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In proper fraction, the numerator is smaller than the denominator.

For example:

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The comparison the values of two fractions

The values of two fractions are compared when the denominator of two
fractions is same. The fraction with the larger values of numerator is the
largest fractions.

The values of two fractions also are compared when the numerator of two
fractions is same. So, the fraction with the smaller values of denominator is
the largest fractions.

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In section 2.2, the students will learn about the equivalent fractions. The students will
know how to express and write equivalent fractions.

## At the end of this section, you should be able to:

• Identify the equivalent fractions and know how to express and write the
equivalent fractions.
• Know how to determine the equivalent fractions and express equivalent
fractions in the simplest form.
• Compare the values of the two fractions

The equivalent fractions are the fractions which have the same value of
fractions and the same size. However, the equivalent fractions have a different
numerator and denominator.

For example:

The shaded part in the figure above shows the same value and the same size.

## The equivalent fractions also can show by using a number line.

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For example:

We also can get the equivalent fractions by using multiplication. The value of a
fraction will not change when both the numerator and denominator are
multiplied by the same number.

For example:

The equivalent fractions can give value in simplest form. A fration in the
simplest form is a fraction with its numerator and denominator not divisible by
any number except 1. The numerator and denominator must be divide by
same number.

For example:

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In section 2.3, the students will learn all about the addition of fractions. The students
will know how to add two proper fractions with different denominators up to 10 to its
simplest form and solve problems involving addition of proper fractions.

## At the end of this section, you should be able to:

• Know how to add two proper fractions with same denominator and different
denominator.
• Solve problem involving addition of proper fractions.

## The addition of fractions is a process of adding two fractions. Students have to

add two proper fractions with the same denominator and with different
denominators up to 10 its simplest form.

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The addition of fraction with same denominator.

## The addition of fraction with different denominator.

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We have some steps in determination of addition of fractions with the different
denominator. The steps are:

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Solve problems involving addition of proper fractions.

## In order to solve the problems by using the additions of fractions, we need to

use Polya’s four steps algorithm. The steps are:

## The total of fractions can be shows in its simplest form.

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In section 2.4, the student will learn subtraction of proper fractions with denominators
up to 10. The student will know how to determine the subtraction p of fractions with
same denominator and different denominator. The students also will learn to solve
problems involving subtraction of proper fractions.

## • Know how to determine the subtraction of fractions with same denominator

and different denominator.
• Solve the problems involving subtraction of proper fractions.
• Scientific

## The subtraction of fractions is a process of finding the differences between two

fractions. We have two processes to subtract two proper fractions with the
same denominator and with different denominators up to 10 to its simplest
form.

## We have some steps in determination of subtraction of fractions with the same

denominator. The steps are:

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The subtraction of fraction with different denominator.

## We have some steps in determination of subtraction of fractions with the

different denominator. The steps are:

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The problems solving by using the subtraction of fractions.

Solve the problems involving subtraction of proper fractions. Polya’s four step
algorithms are:

## The differences of fractions can be shows in its simplest form.

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In chapter 3, we have six sections:

## • The Decimals Numbers

• The Addition of Decimals Numbers
• The Subtraction of Decimals Numbers
• The Multiplication of Decimals Numbers
• The Divisions of Decimals Numbers
• The Problems Solving of Decimals Numbers

In section 3.1, the students will learn all about the decimal numbers. The students
will know how to write the decimals numbers in words and numeral. You also can
determine the place values and digit values of decimals numbers.

In section 3.2, the students will learn all about the addition of decimal numbers. The
addition is the determination the total of two or more decimals.

In section 3.3, the students will learn all about the subtraction of decimal numbers.
The students will know how to find the difference between two or more decimals.

In section 3.4, the students will learn all about the multiplication of decimal numbers.
The students will know how to determine the multiplication of decimal numbers
involving whole numbers.

In section 3.5, the students will learn all about the division of decimal numbers. The
students will know how to determine the division of decimal numbers involving whole
numbers.

In section 3.6, the students will learn all about the problem solving of decimal
numbers. The students will know how to determine the problem solving of decimal
numbers involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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At the end of this section, students should be able to:

1. Identify the decimal numbers by writing in words and numerals, and also know
to draw the figure with shaded part to show the fraction numbers.
2. Change the fraction to the decimal numbers and change the decimal numbers
to the fractions.

Decimals numbers are shown the fractions with the denominators such as 10, 100,
… and so on.

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Decimals numbers have a dot which mean as decimal point.

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The decimals point is the separation of whole number and fractions.

## The determination of place values and digit values of

decimal numbers
Every digit in decimal has its own of place values and digit values.

The number of decimal places is the number of digits after the decimal point.

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The conversion of fraction to decimal and vice versa
You can change the denominator of fraction like 10 or 100 to a decimal.

## The decimal numbers can be changed to fractions.

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At the end of this section, students should be able to:

## We can express the decimals in form such as:

i. Figure

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ii. Mathematics sentence

## iii. Vertical form

• The digits in decimal numbers are aligning according to their place values.
• Add zeros as place holder for easier calculations.
• Start to add the digits from the right side to the left side.

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At the end of this section, students should be able to:

## The subtraction of decimal numbers is a process of determine the differences

of two or more decimals. We must align the digits vertically according to their
place values and start to subtract the digits from the right side to the left side.
The decimal point must in vertical line. You can add zeros as place holder for
easier calculations.

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At the end of this section, students should be able to:

## 1. Know how to determine the multiplication of two or more decimal numbers.

2. Know the quickest way to get answer if the decimals multiply with 10, 100 or 1
000.

## The multiplication of decimals is the determination the product of the

multiplicand and the multiplier. The multiplication of decimals involving
repeated of whole number in addition of decimals.

## We have some steps to multiply decimals:

• We must start from the right to the left to multiply decimal numbers.
• We need to find the total number of decimal places of the multiplicand
because it can be as decimal places of the product. Then, we put the decimal
point at the product according to the total number of decimal places.

We can move the decimal point 1, 2 or 3 places to the right side to multiply a
decimal with 10, 100 or 1 000. This is the quickest way to get the answer.

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At the end of this section, students should be able to:

## 1. Know how to determine the division of two or more decimal numbers.

2. Know the quickest way to get answer if the decimals divide with 10.

The division of decimal numbers is the determination the quotient of the sum.
The division of decimal numbers also mean as dividing the decimals with
whole numbers equally. We need to arrange the place of decimal point of the
quotient exactly above the decimal point of the dividend and then do the
division as usual.

We can move the decimal point 1 place to the left side respectively to divide a
decimal with 10. This is the quick way to get answer.

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At the end of this section, students should be able to:

## 1. Solve the problems by using the addition, subtraction, multiplication and

division.
2. Know the addition is the inverse of subtraction and vice versa. The subtraction
is the inverse of division and vice versa.

## In order to solve the problems by using the addition, subtraction, multiplication

and division of decimals, we have to follows the steps below for easy
determination. The steps are:

## d) Always check the results.

The problems are related with daily life such as lengths, volumes of liquids,
masses and money.

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In Chapter 4, five sections are covered:

## • Money up to RM10, 000

• Money in basic operations
• Money in mixed operations
• Rounding off money
• Solving problems on money

In section 4.1, students will learn all about money. Students will know how to
write the value of money in words and numerals up to RM10, 000.

In section 4.2, students will learn about basic operations using money The
basic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

In section 4.3, students will learn about money in mixed operations involving
the addition and subtraction of money up to RM10 000.

In section 4.4, students will learn about the rounding off of the value of money
to the nearest ringgit. This is for easier calculation.

In section 4.5, students will learn to solve problems involving the value of
money up to RM10 000.

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At the end of this section, you should be able to:

RM10 000.

## Naming and writing skills on money up to RM10 000

The Malaysian currency uses ringgit (RM) in the note form and sen in coins
respectively.

## The values of money are the following:

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a) Notes: RM1, RM5, RM10, RM50 and RM100

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Questions:

a) RM45.80

b) RM5 785.28

Questions:

## b) Six hundred ninety-seven ringgit and seventy-five sen

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At the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. Know to use basic operations with money, for example, addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division.

## Addition of money up to RM10 000

The addition of money up to RM10 000 is conducted the same way as with the
addition of decimal numbers. The addition can be expressed in vertical form.
We must separate the ringgit (RM) and sen values by using the decimal points
in a vertical line. We can use the steps below to add money.

1. First, we line up the values of money in the vertical form. All the digits
must be placed according to their place values.

2. Then, the values must be added from the right side to the left side.

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Questions:

## Subtraction of money up to RM10 000

The subtraction of money up to RM10 000 is conducted in the same way as
the subtraction of decimal numbers. Subtraction is also the inverse of addition.
Subtraction can be expressed in the vertical form. We can use the steps below
to subtract numbers.

1. 1. First, we line up the values of money involved in the subtraction in the vertical
form. All the digits must be placed according to their place values. The values of
the ringgit and sen will be separated by using decimal points.

2. Then subtract the values from the right side to the left side.

## 3. Always subtract the larger amounts before the smaller amounts.

. 4. Solve the first two values before proceeding to other values of the money.

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Questions:

## b) RM8 135 – RM4 011 – RM10.35

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Multiplying money up to RM10 000
Multiplying values of money up to RM10 000 is the same as multiplying with
decimal numbers. The product is bigger than the factors.

## 1. We can use the steps below to multiply numbers.

2. Arrange the value of money in the vertical form. All the values must be
placed according to their place values and ringgit and sen are
separated by decimal points.

3. Then start multiplying numbers from the right side to the left side.

4. For ease of calculation, the values with more digits are placed above
when we multiply the values of money.

In multiplication, when any value of money is multiplied with zero, the product
is zero. For any value of money multiplied with one, the product will remain the
same value.

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Questions:

a) RM5 712 x 4

b) RM800 x 25

## Division of money less than RM10 000

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The division of money of not more than RM10 000 is the same as the division
of decimal numbers. The division of money is a process where numbers will
be shared or grouped equally. The quotient is the result of the division
process. The dividend is the number that will be divided with the divisor to get
the quotient.

## We can use the steps below to divide the values of money:

1. Arrange the values of money according to their place values and ringgit and sen
are separated by the decimal point at the quotient.

2. Then start the division of money from the left side to the right side.

Questions:

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a) RM9 528 ÷ 6

b) RM2 127.75 ÷ 5

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At the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. Know to use the mixed operation with the value of money involving additions
and subtractions of money up to RM10 000.

## The mixed operations of money, therefore, involve the addition and

subtraction of money. We can perform the mixed operations from the left side
to the right side.

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Questions:

## b) RM569.25 – RM35.55 + RM1 565.55 = ?

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At the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. Know how to round off the values of money for easier calculation.

In our daily life, the estimation or rounding off of the values of money is very
important. This is for easier and quick calculation.

We can use some steps to round off the value of money in ringgit and sen to
the nearest ringgit:

## 1. 1. First, look at the value of the sen.

2. If the value is equal or more than 50 sen, you must add 1 to the ringgit value and
ignore the value after the decimal point.

3. If the value in the sen is less than 50 sen, you just retain the value of the ringgit
and ignore the value after the decimal point.

A number line can also be used to round off the values of money to the
nearest ringgit.

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Questions:

## Round off the following values of money to the nearest ringgit.

a) RM8 976.35

b) RM235.60

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At the end of this section, you should be able to:

## 1. Know how to solve problems involving mixed and basic operations.

2. Use the four steps that are given. By using these steps, students will succeed in

We have some steps to solve any problem involving money in our daily
situations.
The steps are:

## 4. Lastly, check the result of the strategy.

Questions:

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Mrs. Tan has bought a sofa set for RM3 285 and a set of furniture for RM4
500. How much money has Mrs. Tan spent on both sets?

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In this chapter, we have five sections:

## • All about time.

• Time schedules and calendars.
• Relationships between Units of time.
• Basic operations with time.
• The duration of time.

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In section 5.1, the students will learn all about time. The students will know how to
write the value of time in words and numerals.

## • Identify the value of time by writing in numerals or in words.

• Tell the time in minutes and hours.

## Naming and writing skills of time

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The time is a particular period of a day. Time is express in 12-hours system. In
a day, time is divided into two phases:

## a) Phase 1 = between 12 midnight until 12 noon

b) Phase 2 = between 12 noon until 12 midnight

We can state the time in a day according to 12-hours system such as:

a) Morning
d) Evening
b) Noon
e) Night
c) Afternoon
f) Midnight

## We also have two types of clocks:

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In section 5.2, the students will learn about the time schedules and calendars.

## • Plan and manage activities by using a simple time schedules.

• Know about year, months, weeks and days.

Time schedules

## A time schedule is time planned for certain activities. It is in table form. We

can put a lot of information in table as a simple schedule.

## We have examples of simple schedules such as personal schedules, school

schedules, bus schedules and etc.

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Ziana’s Weekend Schedule

## From the table, we can obtain some information:

• Ziana does her homework from 9.30 a.m. in the morning till 12.30 p.m. in the
afternoon.
• Ziana take a rest from 1.30 p.m. until 3.30 p.m. in the afternoon.
• Ziana goes to bed at 10.30 p.m.

Calendars

A calendar is a time schedule showing the dates and the numbers of days,
weeks and months throughout a year.

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There are 7 days in a week.

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In section 5.3, the students will learn about units of time. We have units of time such
as second, minute, hour, day, week, month, year, and decade and so on.

## At the end of this section, you should be able to:

• Know all about units of time such as second, minute, hour, day, week, month,
year, and decade and so on.
• Convert the units of time.

The units of time are second, minute, hour, day, week, month, year, and
decade and so on. The relationships units of time are:

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Conversion of units of time

We can convert units of time involving hours, days, months, years and

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In section 5.4, the students will learn about the basic operations of time. The basic
operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

## • Calculate the basic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and

division of time.
• Convert the compound unit of time into single unit for easier calculations.

The basic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The
basic operations of time are the same with the basic operations with whole
numbers. We need to convert a compound of units of time into a single unit for
easier calculations.

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Subtraction of Time

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Multiplication of Time

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Division of Time

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In section 5.5, the students will learn about the duration of time. It is about period of
two given times.

## • Know the period of time when given two times.

• Know the start and ending time of an event, trip, programme and so on.

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Duration of Time

Duration time is a period of time when we are given two times for an event. In
an event, it has a starting time and the ending time. So, duration time is a
period between the starting and ending time.

The duration of time for an event, journey, activities and so on can determine
by using the timeline.

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In chapter 6, we have four sections:

## • All about Length

• Relationships between Units of Length
• Basic operations with Length
• Solving Problems with Length

Section 6.1

The students will learn all about length. The students will know how to write

the value of length in words and numerals and also measure the lengths.

Section 6.2

The students will learn about units of length and the relationship between the
units. We have units of length such as millimeter (mm), centimeter (cm) and
meter (m).

Section 6.3

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The students will learn about the basic operations of lengths. The basic
operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Section 6.4

The students will learn all about the problem solving of lengths. The students
will know how to determine the problem solving of lengths involving addition,
subtraction, multiplication and division.

## 1. Identify the value of length by writing in numerals or in words

2. Measure the unit of length such as millimeter (mm), centimeter (cm) and meter
(m).

## Naming and writing skills of length

Length is a distance between two points in a line. The height and the depth
are the example of the length.

For example

Write the time for each following. The units of length are millimeter (mm),
centimeter (cm) and meter (m). We measure the object starting from ‘0’ mark
of the ruler.

For example :

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At the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. Know all about units of length millimeter (mm), centimeter (cm) and meter (m).
2. Convert the units of length.

The units of time are millimeter (mm), centimeter (cm) and meter (m).The
relationships units of length are:

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Conversion the units of length

We can convert units of length involving millimeter (mm), centimeter (cm) and
meter (m).

For example :

## To convert a smaller unit to a larger unit, we must divide (÷).

For example :

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At the end of this section, you should be able to:

## 1. Calculate the basic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and

division of lengths.
2. Convert the compound unit of length into single unit for easier calculations.

The basic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The
basic operations of lengths are the same with the basic operations with whole
numbers. We need to convert a compound of units of lengths into a single unit
for easier calculations.

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Subtraction of time

Multiplication of time

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Division of time

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In order to solve the problems by using the addition, subtraction, multiplication and
division of lengths, we have to follows the steps below for easy determination. The
steps are:

## a) Understanding the problem that is given.

b). Create a strategy of solving the problems.
c) Work out the strategy.
d). Always check the results.

## In order to solve the problems by using the addition, subtraction, multiplication

and division of lengths, we have to follows the steps below for easy
determination. The steps are:

## d). Always check the results.

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In chapter 7, we have four sections:

## • Measure the Mass

• Relationships between Units of Mass.

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• Basic operations with Mass.
• Solving Problems with Mass.

In section 7.1, the students will learn the measurement of the mass. The
students will know how to read the value and also measure and estimate the
masses.

In section 7.2, the students will learn about units of mass and the relationship
between the units. We have units of mass such as gram (g) and kilogram (kg).

In section 7.3, the students will learn about the basic operations of mass. The
basic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

In section 7.4, the students will learn all about the problem solving of mass.
The students will know how to determine the problem solving of mass
involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

## 1. Identify the value of mass.

2. Measure the unit of mass such as kilogram (kg) and gram (g).

## Measuring and estimating skills of mass

Mass is the amount of matter in an object. The mass of the object can be
measured by used weighing scales.

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The standard units of mass are gram (g) and kilogram (kg). Usually, the
small object has a small mass. The unit of mass, gram (g) will be use for
expressed the small object.

For the larger object, the unit of mass, kilogram (kg) will be use for expressed
it. Always remember that, before measuring the object, the pointer of the
weighing scale points at the ‘0’.

## We also can estimate the mass of an object by comparing an object with

another object of a known object. The weight of an object is similar with the
mass of an object.

## Write the masses of the following.

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At the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. Know all about units of mass such as gram (g) and kilogram (kg).
2. Convert the units of mass.

The units of of mass such as gram (g) and kilogram (kg).The relationships
units of mass are:

## Conversion the units of mass

We can convert units of length involving gram (g) and kilogram (kg).

## To convert a smaller unit to a larger unit, we must divide (÷).

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Convert each of the following.

a. 2 kg to g

b. 5.8 kg to g

c. 429 g to kg

d. 3 kg 380 g to g

e. 8 kg 255 g to kg

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At the end of this section, you should be able to:

## 1. Calculate the basic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and

division of mass.
2. Convert the compound unit of mass into single unit for easier calculations.

The basic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The
basic operations of mass are the same with the basic operations with whole
numbers. We need to convert a compound of units of mass into a single unit
for easier calculations.

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Calculate

## 2.78 kg + 8.11 kg = ________ kg

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Subtraction of mass

Determine

## 5.18 kg - 3.41 kg = ________ kg

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Multiplication of mass

Division of mass

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Solve

8.48 kg ÷ 4 = ______ g

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At the end of this section, students should be able to:

## 1. Solve the problems of mass by using the addition, subtraction, multiplication

and division.
2. Know the addition is the inverse of subtraction and vise versa. The subtraction
is the inverse of division and vise versa.

## In order to solve the problems by using the addition, subtraction, multiplication

and division of mass, we have to follows the steps below for easy
determination. The steps are:

## d) Always check the results.

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Hassan weighs 78.5 kg. Adam is 2.05 kg heavier than Hassan. Find the mass
of Adam, in kg.

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In chapter 8, we have four sections:

## • Measure the volume of liquid

• Relationships between The units of volume of liquid
• Basic operations with the volume of liquid
• Solving Problems with the volume of liquid

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In section 8.1, the students will learn the measurement of the volume of liquid.
Students will know how to read the value and also measure and estimate the volume
of liquid.

## 1. Identify the value of volume of liquid.

2. Measure the units of the volume of liquid such as milliliter (m ℓ) and liter
( ℓ).

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Measuring and estimating skills of the volumes of
liquid
Volume of liquid is the amount of liquid in a container of which it can hold.The
standard units of volume of liquid are milliliter (mℓ) and liter (ℓ).Usually, low
volumes of liquid is measured in milliliter (mℓ) and high volume of liquid is
measured in liter (ℓ). The volume of liquid can be measured by using a beaker
or a measuring cylinder.

The reading of the volume of a liquid should be taken from the bottom of the
meniscus which is in line with the scale.
For example:

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In section 8.2, the students will learn about units of volumes for liquid and the
relationship between the units. The units for the volume of liquid are milliliter (mℓ) and
liter (ℓ).

## At the end of this section, you should be able to:

1. Know all about units of volumes of liquid such as milliliter (mℓ ) and liter (ℓ ).
2. Convert the units of volumes of liquid.

The units of volumes of liquid such as milliliter (mℓ) and liter (ℓ).The
relationships units of;

## Converting the units of volume of liquid

We can convert units of volume of liquid from milliliter (mℓ) to liter (ℓ) and vice
versa.

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For example:

## To convert a smaller unit to a larger unit, we must divide (÷).

For example:

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In section 8.3, students will learn the basic operations involving volumes of liquid.
The basic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

## 1. Calculate basic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

of volume of liquid.

2. Convert the compound units into a single unit for easier calculations.

The basic operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The
basic operations of mass are the same with the basic operations with whole
numbers. We need to convert a compound of units of volume of liquid into a
single unit for easier calculations.

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Subtraction of the volumes of liquid

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Multiplication of the volumes of liquid

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Division of the volumes of liquid

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In section 8.4, students will learn all about solving problems involving volumes of
liquid. Students will know how to solve the problems of the volumes of liquid
concerning addition, subtraction, multiplication and division methods.

## 1. Solve the problems of volume of liquid by using the addition, subtraction,

multiplication and division methods.

2. Know the addition is the inverse of subtraction and vise versa. The subtraction is
the inverse of division and vice versa.

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In order to solve problems using the addition, subtraction, multiplication and
division method, we have to follow the steps below. The steps are:

## • Understanding the problem that is given.

• Create a strategy of solving the problems.
• Work out the strategy.
• Always check the results.

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Chapter 9 comprises two sections:

• Two-dimensional Shapes
• Three-dimensional Shapes

In section 9.1, students will learn how to measure and identify the shape and space.
Students will be exposed on how to read and identify the shapes and also, how to
measure two-dimensional shapes.

n section 9.2, students will learn how to measure and identify shapes and
spaces. Students will also know how to read and identify the shape and how
to measure three-dimensional shapes.

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Identifying Two-dimensional Shapes
In two-dimensional shapes, there are three common shapes.

Square
• Has four straight sides
• All the sides are in equal lengths.
• For example:

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Rectangle
• Has four straight sides
• The opposite sides have the same lengths.
• For example:

Triangle
• Has three straight sides
• Has alternate versions
• The three sides can be equal OR different in length.
• For example:

## How many sides do the following shapes have?

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Identifying the Dimensions of a Square and a
Rectangle
The dimensions of a square and a rectangle are their length and breadth. In a
square, all four sides are equals, so, the length and the breadth are the same.

For example:

In a rectangle, the side nearer to us is the length and the other side is the

For example:

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Measuring Perimeters of Two-dimensional Shapes
The perimeter of a two-dimensional shape is the total distance or the total
length around a closed shape.

## The perimeter of a square, a rectangle and a triangle can be calculated by

using the formula.

## Calculate the perimeters of the following shapes.

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Measuring Areas of Two-dimensional Shapes
Area of a shape is the amount of surface that it covers. We can find the areas
of 2-dimensional shapes by counting the numbers of unit squares it covers on
a grid paper. Unit2 is a square unit.

For example:

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We have another way to find the area of shape without counting the unit
squares. can be calculated by using the formula:

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Calculating the Area of a Square and a Rectangle
The standard units of area are square centimeter (cm2) and square meter (m2).

## Solving Problems Related to Perimeters and Areas of

Two-dimensional Shapes
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The diagram shows a stamp. Find the perimeter and the area of the stamp.

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At the end of this section, you should be able to:

## 1. Identify cubes and cuboids.

2. Measure three-dimensional dimensional shapes.
3. Calculate the volume of cubes and cuboids.

## Three-dimensional shapes comprise cubes and cuboids. The dimensions of

cubes and cuboids are length, breadth and height.

A cube has equal dimensions. The length, breadth and the height of a cube
are equal.

For example:

A cuboid has different dimensions than of a cube. The length, breadth and the
height of a cuboid are not the same.

For example:

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Identify and label the dimensions of the cube and cuboid.

A cube and cuboid can be built from its net. A net is a two-dimensional shape.
A net is folded to get three-dimensional shapes.

For example:

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a) To build a cube

b. To build a cuboid

## Volume of Cubes and Cuboids

The volume of a three-dimensional shape is the amount of its space measured
in cubic units.

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The volume of a cube or a cuboid can be found by calculating the number of
unit cubes that are used in the space.

For example:

## The total number of cubes in 1 layer = 16 x 1 = 16 unit cubes

The cuboid is made of 16 small unit cubes. So, the volume of the cuboid

## Find the volume of each cuboid.

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We can calculate the volume of a cube or a cuboid using the formula.

## Calculate the volume of the cube and the cuboid.

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Solving Problems Related to Perimeters and Areas of
Two-dimensional Shapes

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The diagram shows a biscuit tin. The tin is 10 cm long, 5 cm wide and 15 cm
high. Find the volume of tin.

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Chapter 10 comprises two sections:

## Section 10.1: Pictograph

Section 10.2: Bar graph

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In this section, students will study the pictograph. Students will know how to read and
interpret data from the horizontal and vertical pictograph. The students also know
how to describe and extract a pictograph.

## At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

• Read and display data from the horizontal and vertical pictograph.
• Describe, extract and interpret a pictograph.
• Construct a pictograph from a given data.

## Describing, Extracting and Interpreting the Pictograph

A pictograph is a graph that is used to display data graphically. We use simple
graphic or symbol to represent data in pictograph. Usually, the graphic or
symbol will represent one or more unit from the given data. For example:

## There are two types of pictographs

• Horizontal pictograph
• Vertical pictograph

## In horizontal and vertical pictographs, we must have three points to represent

the pictograph.

• Title: The title of the pictograph will tells us what the pictograph is about.
• Pictures or symbols: The pictures or symbols of the same size, shape and
colour are space equally to represent the data.
• Key: The key is to shows the number of items each picture or symbol
represent.

The horizontal and vertical axis is the difference between a horizontal and a
vertical pictograph.

For example:
The horizontal and vertical pictographs show the number of mangosteens sold
by a shop in four days.

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The Horizontal Pictograph

## The Vertical Pictograph

We can extract and interpret a lot of information from the horizontal or vertical
pictograph.

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In this section, students will study the bar graph. Students will know how to read and
display data from the horizontal and vertical bar graph. The students also know how
to describe, extract and interpret the bar graph.

## At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

• Read and display data from the horizontal and vertical bar graph.
• Describe, extract and interpret the bar graph.
• Construct the bar graph from the given data.

## Describing, Extracting and Interpreting the Bar Graph

A bar graph is used to display data graphically. The width of each bar
represents a certain data in a bar graph. The width of the bar is equal to the
size and space equally in horizontal or vertical axis. There are two types of bar
graphs.

## a) Horizontal bar graph

b) Vertical bar graph

In horizontal and vertical bar graphs, we must have three points to represent
the bar graph.

a) Title: The title of the bar graph will tells us what the bar graph is about.
b) Width: The width of the same size and space equally to represent the data.
c) Interval: The interval is to show the number of items each width of bar
represents.

For example:
The bar graph shows the favourite juices of some year 4 pupils in class 4
Kejora.

## The Vertical Bar Graph

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The Horizontal Bar Graph

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We can extract and interpret a lot of information from the horizontal or vertical
bar graph.

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