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# CHAPTER1

Hans Oersted Relationship of magnetism and electricity that served as the foundation of theory for
electromagnets

## Most important electrical effect is the magnetic effect

Michael Faraday Theory of electromagnetic induction

## Current Carrying conductor would move when placed in a magnetic field

James Maxwell Electromagnetic Theory of light
Andre Ampere Demonstrated that there are magnetic effects around every current carrying conductor
and that these conductors act like a magnet
Kamerlingh Onnes Superconductivity
Faraday’s Law Whenever a conductor cuts a magnetic flux, an emf is induced in it
Faraday’s 1st Law The magnitude of induced emf is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux linkages
Faraday’s 2nd Law Whenever the flux linking a coil or current changes, an emf is induced in it
Coulumb’s 1st Law Force between 2 magnetic poles is directly proportional to their strengths
Coulumb’s 2nd Law Force between 2 magnetic poles id inversely proportional to the distance between them
Child’s Law Current in a thermionic diode varies directly with the three halves power of anode voltage
and inversely with the square of distance between the electrodes
Wiedmann-Franz Law Ratio of the thermal conductivity to the electric conductivity is directly proportional to the
absolute temp for all metals
Curie’s Law The magnetic susceptibilities of most paramagnetic materials are inversely proportional to
their absolute temperatures
Curie-Weiss Law Law relating the M and E susceptibilities and the absolute temperature
Ewing’s theory of Theory of ferromagnetic phenomena which assumes each atom is a permanent magnet
Ferromagnetism which can turn freely about its center under the influence of applied fields and magnets
Ampere’s Theorem States that a current flowing in a circuit produces a magnetic field at external points
equivalent to that due to a magnetic shell whose bounding edge is the conductor and
whose strength is equal to the strength of current
Right hand rule Also called corkscrew rule
End Rule If looking at any one end of a solenoid, the direction of current is found to be clockwise
then the end under observation is a south pole
Helix Rule If a solenoid is held by the right hand with the fingers pointing to the direction of the
current flow, the outstretched thumb will point to the north pole
Unit Pole A pole which when placed in air from a similar and equal pole repels it with a force of 1/4pi
newtons
Magnetic Pole Point in a magnet where the intensity of the magnetic lines of force is max
Magnetic Axis Straight Line passing through 2 poles of a magnet
Dia Ur<1 U<Uo ; air, H, bismuth, gold, antimony, copper, zinc, mercury, silver
Para Ur>1 U>Uo ; aluminum, platinum, manganese, chromium, oxygen

Greatest % of materials
Ferro Ur>>1 U>>Uo ; cobalt
10^-10 m Diameter of atom
10^-15 to 10^-16 m Diameter of atomic nucleus
1.1 x 10^-8 cm Diameter of Hydrogen Atom
Permeance Reciprocal of Reluctance / Analogous to conductance
Coercivity Amount of magnetizing force to counter balance the residual magnetism
Leakage Factor Ratio of flux in iron to flux in air (iba iba yung tawag sa book at sa coaching)
Intensity Magnetism The flux density produced in it due to its own magnetism
Hysteresis Lag between B and H
Ferrites Non metallic materials that have ferromagnetic properties
Air Gap Air space between magnets
Keeper Used to maintain the strength of magnetic field
Moving electrical charge Where all magnetic field originates from
Stationary Electrical Charges Magnetic field does not interact with this
Uniform Magnetic field inside a solenoid
Current Carrying Wire Loop Resembles the magnetic field of a bar magnet
North A current is flowing east along a power line. If the earth’s field is neglected, the direction
of the magnet below it is
½ revolution When a wire loop is rotated in a magnetic field, the direction of the induced emf changes
every
Domain Group of magnetically aligned atoms
Toroid Electromagnet with its core is in the form of a close magnetic ring
Hall effect Small voltages generated by a conductor with current in an external magnetic field

## Effect which is generally used in the gaussmeter to measure flux density

Edison effect Emission of e- from hot bodies
Wiegand effect Ability of a mechanically stressed ferromagnetic wire to recognize rapid switching of
magnetization when subjected by a dc magnetic field
Wall Effect Contribution to the ionization in an ionization chamber by e- from the walls
Bridgman effect Phenomenon when current passes through an aristropic crystal, there is an absorption of
heat due to the non uniformity in current distribution
Hydrogen Simples atom to exist; it is a diamagnetic material
Germanium 32p+, 32e- and 40n = 72Ge32 = (AtomicWeightGeAtomicnumber)
Atomic Mass Sum of proton and neutrons (di ko sure pero eto nakalagay e)
Atomic Number # of protons or # of electrons
72.6 Ge exact atomic weight
28.09 Si exact atomic weight at 300K
# of protons Determines the atomic # of an element
Copper 34n
Metallic bonding Atom bonding due to the force of attraction between groups of + ion and – ion
Motor Action Physical motion resulting from the forces of magnetic field
Flux linkages = flux x # of turns
Electron Volt (eV) Customary energy unit in atomic and nuclear physics
Joule, Watt-sec, KW-h Units of electrical energy
KW-h Practical unit for electrical energy
Ion An atom or group of atoms carrying a net electrical charge
Thermionic emission Evaporation of e- from a heated surface
Amber Greek word for electron
Plasma Charged Gases
Exclusion Principle Principle that states that each e- in an atom must have a different set of quantum
numbers
Pauli Exclusion Principle Principle that states that only 2 e- with differebt spins are allowed to exist in a given orbit
Radio Freq Common application if an air-cored choke
Ohms Law For linear circuits (AC,DC)
Crystalline Solid One of the solid structures in which the position of the atoms or ins are predetermined
Amorphous Solid with no defined crystal structure; also called non-crystalline
Permits mechanical Reason for air gaps between rotor and stator
Clearance
Van der Waals Bond Formed when there exist distant electronic interaction between opposite charges present
in the neighboring atoms or molecules
Atomic Packing Factor Measures compactness of crystal = atom volume/cell volume
Madelung Constant Corrects the electrostatic forces of the more distant ions in an ionic solid
Creepage Conduction of electricity across the surface of a a dielectric
Aurora Corona discharge
1.15 to 1.25 Leakage coef for electrical machines
Astrionic Science of adapting electronics to aerospace flight
Air Has straight BH curve passing through the origin
Soft iron BH curve not straight
Using material with narrow Reduces hysteresis loss
hysteresis loop
Silicon steel Least hysteresis loop area
Unlimited # of compounds in nature
Ohm-m SI unit for specific resistance
Siemens / Mhos SI / CGS for conductance
Siemens/m SI for conductivity
Resistivity ∞ Temperature For Conductors
2 Wb/m^2 Typical saturation flux density for most magnetic materials
insulators Temp coefficient of resistance is NEGATIVE;
Temp coefficient of resistance is directly proportional to T;
R is inversely proportional to T
semiconductors Temp coefficient resistance is NEGATIVE
conductors Temp coefficient resistance is POSITIVE;
Temp coefficient of resistance is inversely proportional to T;
R is directly proportional to T
Temp coefficient resistance Dependent on nature and temp of material
Tells how much the R changes for a change in T
+ temp coef Manganin, Tungsten Filament
- temp coef Electrolytes, carbon
.0034 Temp coef of resistance of pure gold
.0038 Temp coef of resistance of silver
.0039 Temp coef of resistance of lead
Almost 0 Eureka’s Temp coefficient resistance
Silicon Carbibe Ohms law cannot be applied to this material
10x Hot R = ___x Cold R
Neutral A body under ordinary conditions
Dielectric constant or Another name for relative permitivitty
Specific Inductive Capacity
Breakdown Volatage Another name fore Dielectric Strength (V/mil)
Magnetic conductivity Another name for permeability
1/(Єoμo) = c2 Relationship of Eo and Uo and c (light velocity)
1 and 10 Dielectric constant of most materials
Mica Insulating material used in an electric ion
Porcelain Insulating material used in voltage transformers
Earphones Uses permanent magnets
Motors Uses temporary magnets

CHAPTER2
+ to - Conventional Flow
- to + Electron Flow
W P –true power
VAR Q – reactive power
VA S – apparent power
Power factor Cosθ = P/S
Reactive factor Sinθ = Q/S
Voltage Magnification Factor Q Factor of Series resonant circuit
Current Magnification Factor Q factor of // Resonant Circuit
Voltage Resonance Series Resonance
Current Resonance Parallel Resonace
Ionization Current Results from free electrons
ELI Series Resonace / Acceptor Circuit
ICE Parallel Resonance / Rejector Circuit
ELI by exactly 90 deg Pure inductance
ICE by exactly 90 deg Pure capacitance
ELI by less than 90 deg RL
ICE by less than 90 deg RC
Reactance = 0 If I and V are in phase for an AC circuit
0.707 Current is ____ times the max current at half power points of a resonance curve
Gang Capacitor Variable Capacitor which the C is varied by varying the plate area
Trimmer Capacitor A variable capacitor in which C is varied by changing distance between plates
55 ohm-cm Specific resistance of pure Ge
60 ohm-cm Resistivity of pure Ge under standard conditions
55 ohm-cm Specific resistance of pure Si
Leading or Lagging Power factor of series RLC at its half power points
Lagging pf Inductive Load
Separation of the half power Meaning of BW in series RLC
points
Effective Value Most important value of a sinewave
Faradic current An intermittent and non symmetrical alternating current like that obtained from the
secondary winding of an induction coil
Stray Capacitance Capacitance that exists not through design but because 2 conducting surfaces are
relatively close to each other
1.73 Peak factor of a triangular wave
Triangular Wave Peakiest waveform
Independent to each other Reason for // connection of appliances in homes
Appliances have different Reason why not in series connection of appliances in homes
current ratings
Sinusoidal Most popular waveform
Square wave Most common non sinusoidal waveform
Ideal Current Source Infinite internal resistance
(parallel r) Zero internal conductance
Ideal Voltage Source Zero internal Resistance
(series r) Infinite internal conductance
Ideal Ammeter R is 0
(in series to the circuit)
Ideal Voltmeter R is infinite
(in // to the circuit)
Resonance Curve Frequency VS Current
Reactance Chart Estimates the resonant freq and to find the reactance at any freq for any value of C or I
Edge Effect Refers to the outward curving distortion of the lines of force near the edges of 2 // metal
plates that form a capacitor
The narrower the passband (For Series RLC), the higher the Q
Internal Heating Leakage resistance in a capacitor results to
Phase The_____ of an alternating quantity is defined as the fractional part of a period or cycle
through w/c the quantity has advanced from a selected origin
3.7K Metal tin becomes a superconductor at this temp
It has a varying magnetic Reason why AC can induce voltage
field
Exponential Law Charging of capacitor through a resistance obeys _______
Sinewaves The factor 0.707 for converting peak to rms applies only to _____
Joule Term to express the amount of electrical energy stored in a electrostatic field
Breakdown Voltage Refers to the lowest voltage across any insulator that can cause current flow
Blocks DC current Capacitor
47 ohms Preferred value of resistor (among the choices which are 520, 43K and 54K)
Electrolytic capacitor Most suited for dc filter circuits;
Highest cost per uF;
Only Capacitor used in DC circuits;
Used in Transistor amplifiers
Variable Capacitor Used air dielectric
Barium Strontium Titanite Also called ceramic
Dielectric
Surge Voltage Max voltage that can be applied across a capacitor for a short period of time
Voltage It is used as the reference phasor for // AC circuits
It has reactance in radio freq Disadvantage of wirewound resistors
circuits
Manganin Most common material for wirewound
Temp coef Indicated by the first band for a 5band method of capacitor color coding
Rate at which electrons pas Determines the magnitude of an electric current
a given point
Q of 10 Means that the energy stored in the magnetic field of the coil is 10x the energy wasted in
the resistance
770V Neon lamp ionizes at approx _____
Anticapacitance Switch Switch designed to have low capacitance between terminals when open
Bifilar Resistor Resister wound with a wire doubled back on itself to reduce inductance
Alloy Fusion of elements without chemical action between them
Vpeak Used in calculating max instantaneous power
Vrms Used in calculating Vave
Maximum capacitance Happened when movable plates of gang capacitor overlaps the fixed plates
Thevenin’s Theorem Used for analysis of Vacuum tubes
Phasor Rotating vector whose projection can represent either current or voltage
CHAPTER3
1 # of e- in 4th orbit of copper atom
8 e- Each atom in a Si Crystal has _____ in its valence orbit
32 p+ Silicon Atom has ____
More slowly e- in the largest orbit travel _______ than the e- in smaller orbits
Intrinsic semiconductor Pure Semiconductor
Extrinsic semiconductor Doped semiconductor;
2 Ohm-cm = resistivity
2mV/°C For Ge or Si diodes, the barrier potential decreases _____
Piecewise Linear Model A diode modeling circuit which considers the threshold voltage, Rave and switch as the
diode’s equivalent
Diffusion and drift 2 mechanisms by which holes and electrons move through a Si crystal
Diffusion Random motion due to thermal agitation in the movement of h+ and e- in a Si crystal
Drift Current Happens when charges are forced to move the electric field of a potential difference
Carrier Drift Mechanism for carrier motion in semicon
Zener and Avalance Effects Two possible breakdown mechanism in PN jxn diodes
Zener Breakdown Electric field in the depletion layer increases to the point where it can break covalent
bonds and generate electron-hole pairs
Avalanche Breakdown (In semiconductors) this takes place when the reverse bias exceeds a certain value;
Happens when the minority carriers that cross the depletion region under the influence of
the electric field gain sufficient KE to be able to break covalent bonds in atoms
Avalance effect Occurs are higher reverse voltages
Diffusion or Storage Is the forward bias capacitance of a diode
Capacitance
Lifetime Amount of time between the creation and disappearance of a free electron
Recombination Annihilation of e- and h+;
Merging of e- and h+
Transit time Time taken by e- or h+ to pass from emitter to collector
Reverse recovery time Time taken by a diode to operate in the reverse to forward condition;
Time it takes to turn off a FB diode;
= storage time + transition interval from F to R bias
Insulator At room temp, silicon acts like a ______
Compound Semicon Gallium Arsenide, Alluminum Arsenide and Gallium Phosphide are classified as ______-
Increase electric Purpose of adding impurities
conductivity
Ptype semicon Silicon doped with trivalent impurity;
Holes are majority carriers
Ntype semicon Silicon doped with pentavalent impurity;
Electrons are majority carriers
Trivalent Atom Acceptor Atom;
Boron, Indium, Gallium,
Pentavalent Atom Donor Atom;
Phosphorus, Arsenic, Antimony, Bimsuth
N type Forms when the # of free e- in a doped semiconductor is increased;
Forms when pentavalent atom is added
P Type Forms when the # of free e- in a doped semiconductor is reduced
Forms when trivalent atom is added
PN crystal Other name for Jxn Diode;
Commonly rated by its PIV and max forward current;
Max forward current is limited by Jxn Temperature
Dipole Each pair of + and – ions at the jxn is called _____
Barrier Potential Inversely proportional to temp
High field emission Creation of free electrons through a zener effect
Intensity of electric field Zener effect depends on this
Forward current Most impt diode parameter which gives the current value a diode can handle without
burning
Reverse Breakdown Voltage Maximum reverse voltage that can be applied before current surges
Esaki Diode Tunnel Diode;
Principal char is that it has negative resistance region;
Widely used in oscillators, switching networks and pulse generators
Schotty Diode Most impt application is digital computers
Shocklet Diode No depletion layer
Bulk resistance Sum of the P and N regions’ resistances;
rB = (V-VT)/I
VAristors Are transient suppressors
Varactor Diode Also known as epicap, varicap, voltage-variable capacitance, voltacaps;
Used for tuning the Receivers and is normally operated at reverse biased
Point Contact diode Used metal cat whiskers as its anode;
Classified as hot carrier diode
PIN diode Used in RF switches, attenuators and other phase switching devices
Bulk resistance decreases in If doping increases, ___________
semiconductors
High Resistance Lightly doped semiconductors have ____
Less than 1 ohm Typical bulk resistance of rectifier diodes
Transition region The reverse bias diode capacitance is termed as ______
capacitance
LED Equivalent to a optocoupler ;
Typical operating current is 10mA;
Voltage drop is 1.5V;
Constructed using Gallium Arsenide;
Gives light when FB
LAD A photodiode which conducts current only when FB and is exposed to light;
Also called photodiode
IR emitters Solid state GaAs devices that emit a beam of radiant flux when FB
Optocoupler Also known as optoisolator
Second approximation (for diodes) an equivalent ckt of a diode in which it is represented as a switch series with
barrier potential
Third approximation (for diodes) an equivalent ckt of a diode in which it is represented as a switch in series
with a resitance
Negative voltage supplies Needed for PMP voltage divider bias
16.7 ms Halfwave signal (1/60Hz)
8.33 ms Fullwave signal (1/120Hz)
40.6% Max rectification efficiency of HW
81.2 Max rectification efficiency of FW
MOSFET Highest Zin;
Sometimes called Insulated Gate FET
FET Has least noise level;
Has higher Zin compared to BJT due to its input which is reverse biased
uA Typical leakage current in a PN jxn
Ohms Resistance of a FB PN jxn
Derating Factor Shown on a data sheet that tells how much you have to reduce the power of a device
Dember Effect Or Photodiffusion effect;
The creation of voltage in a conductor or semicon by illumination of one surface
Bulk Effect Effect that occurs within the entire bilk of a semiconductor material rather than a localized
jxn
Skin Effect Increases the resistance of wires at high frequencies
Anotron Diode A cold cathode glow-discharge diode having a copper anode and a large cathode of sodium
or other material
BARITT Diode A microwave diode in which the carriers that transverse the drift region are generated by
minority carrier injection from a FB jxn instead of being extracted from the plasma of
avalanche
Spacistor Multiple terminal solid state device similar to transistor that generates frequencies up to
avout 10,000 Mhz by injecting e- or h+ into a space charge layer
Zener Diode Principal char is that its voltage is constant under conditions of varying current;
Used as a voltage regulator or reference voltage
Voltage multiplier Converts AC to DC, where the DC output can be greater than the AC input
Photoconductive Cell Or Photoresitive device
Emitter Resistor Most commonly used for biasing a bipolar jxn transistor
Silicon Not a good conductor;
Has the smallest leakage current
% Ripple = (Vac / Vdc) x 100
Ripple Voltage = (rZ / (rZ+rS)) x V
Holes As a general rule, _____ are found only on semiconductors;
An incomplete part of an electron pair bond;
Vacancy left by free electrons
Isotopes A nuclei with common # of p+ but different # of neutrons
Series Capacitors In power supplies, circuits that are employed in separating AC and DC components and
bypass AC components around the load are called _______
Emitter Follower Circuit Av is low and usually less than 1;
Ai is High;
input is in-phase with output;
Employs 100% negative feedback;
Used for impedance matching;
Equivalent to CC amplifier
BJT / transistors Current controlled device;
Largest region is the Collector Region
FET Voltage controlled device;
Has 5v pinch off voltage;
FET transcoductance = ∆IC/∆VGS ;
Square Law Devices;
At cut-off, the depletion layers are touching
Transistors Converts DC power to AC power
Power Transistors Made in large sized to disspate more heat
Power amplifiers Input is DC
Oscillators Converts DC power to AC power
Ohmic Equivalent if transistor at saturation in JFET is ______
IGFET Another name for MOSFET
CMOS Easily damaged by static charges
Saturation region Used by FET (EMOSFET) to act as an amplifier
Triode region and Saturation Used by FET (EMOSFET) to act as a switch
Region
10uF Coupling capacitor value in RC coupling;
Coupling capacitor (Cc) must be high enough to prevent attenuation of low freq
Qpoint / OperatingPoint Point of intersection between a diode characteristic and a load line;
Intersection of dc and ac load lines
Luminous Efficacy Measure of the ability of any LED to produce lumens per applied watt of energy
Scale Current Another name is Saturation Current
Input Char Curve A graphical representation in a transistor where the IE is plotted against the variable VEB
for constant VCB
Output Char Curve A graphical representation in a transistor where the Ic is plotted against the variable VCB
for constant IE
RC coupling Used in low level, low noise audio amplifiers to minimize hum pick up from stray magnetic
fields
Transformer Coupling Major advantage is permitting power to be transformed from the relatively high output
impedance of the first stage to the relatively low input impedance of second stage
1.12eV(Si) and 0.72eV(Ge) From these conditions, it can be said that less # of electron-hole pair will be generated in
Si than in Ge
0.135 m2/V-s Electron mobility in silicon
Harold Black Invented feedback amplifier in 1928
Always points to N and away Arrows in semiconductor symbols
from P
CE circuit Conventional amplifier
Junction and Point Contact Structural category of a semiconductor diodes
Threshold Voltage Turns on an enhancement-device
DMOSFET Acts mostly as a FET;
Can operate in D and E
EMOSFET Can only operate in E
Heat dissipation Most important factor of a power transistor
Collector Efficiency Most important consideration in power amplifiers
Drift transistor Has a high frequency cut off due to its low inherent internal capacitance and low electron
transit time
Poor frequency response Results when transistors are used as video amplifiers
Fission Break up of nuclei into nuclear fragments that are nuclei themselves
Neutrino Zero charge and zero mass
EG => 5eV Energy gap for insulators
EG = 1.1eV Energy gap for Si semiconductors
EG => 0.67eV Energy gap for Ge semiconductors
Bound Electrons Tightly holds the 8 e-
25mV Thermal Voltage at room temp;
Thermal voltage causes holes in intrinsic semiconsuctors
8.62 x 10^-5 eV/K Boltzman constant
Voltage divider Bias Preferred form of biasing a FET
VGS(OFF) = VGS(ON) For N-channel EMOSFET
Beta CE gain
= IC/IB
Alpha CB gain
= IC/IE

CHAPTER5
Collector has reverse bias Reason why a transistor amplifier has high output impedance
Gain-BW product Considered as an amplifier figure of merit
Logic probe In an oscilloscope, it is used to indicate pulse condition in digital logic circuit
Logic analyzer Used to sample and display systems signal
Oscillators Produces undamped oscillations
Biasing Establishes a fixed level of current or voltage in a transistor
AF transformer It is shielded to prevent induction due to stray magnetic fields
Amplitude Distortion Or harmonic distortion
Frequency Ear is not sensitive to this
RC coupling To separate bias of 1 stage to another stage;
Used for voltage amplification;
Av is constant over mid frequencies;
Most economic type of coupling;
Not used to amplify extremely low freq because electrical size of the coupling capacitor
becomes very large;
Type of coupling used in the initial stage of a multistage amplifier;
Transformer coupling Used in power amplifiers;
Provides high freq because DC resistance is low;
Used when load resistance is very low;
Type of coupling used in the final stage of an amplifier;
Introduces frequency distortion;
Most expensive type of coupling;
Provides high gain because it employs impedance matching;
Can be used either in Voltage or Power amplifiers
DC coupling Best freq response;
Used to amplify dc signals in multistage amplifier;
Achieves minimum interference in freq response
Klystron Oscillator Used in order to produce freq in the microwave region
Step Down Transformer Used for impedance matching;
It is also used as the output transformer in power amplifiers
Gives distorted output Disadvantage of impedance matching
Campbell and Wagner Where the basic concept of electric wave filter originated
10Khz Freq that produces highest noise factor
Coupling Capacitor The input capacitor in an amplifier
Bigger AC load line slope is ____ then DC load line slope
At least 2 transistors Used by multistage amplifier
Generator Output level is kept To obtain the frequency response curve of an amplifier
constant
Relaxation oscillator Type of oscillator where the frequency is determined by the charge and discharge of RC
networks used in conjunction with amplifiers or similar devices
GPS Instrument used to measure one’s location in terms of coordinates
1/( 4∏√(LC) ) Cutoff freq for constant-k high pass filter
The smaller the %VR The better!
Thin base Transistor should have a _____ to have more Av
Darlington Pair Its advantage is that it increases overall Beta Gain
Independent A feedback network is _______ of frequency
Feedback Networks They employ resistive networks
Positive Feedback Employed by Oscillators;
Negative Feedback Employed by amplifiers
Reduces distortion;
Reduces gain;
Increases BW of an amplifier;
The sacrifice factor is (1+Aβ)
Feedback factor (β) Is always less than 1;
= (1/Af) – (1/A)
= Vf / V
Approx gain of an amplifier Reciprocal of feedback factor;
with negative feedback (Af) = 1/β
(Aβ) in negative feedback Very much greater than 1 to obtain good gain stability
Power Again (Ap) = Av x Ai;
Main consideration in the output stage of an amplifier
Crossover network A pair of filter common on a high fidelity system which separates audio freq band
signals into 2 separate groups where one is fed to the tweeter and the other to the
woofer
Armstrong circuit Simplest variable freq sinusoidal oscillator
10uF Typical value of Coupling capacitor
50uF Typical value of emitter bypass capacitor in a CE multistage amplifier
Re, re and β Input R of CE amplifier is affected by ________
Out of phase (180 deg) Output is always _______ with the input signal in a CE amplifier
Zero Phase difference between collector voltage and signal voltage in CE amplifier
Increase Av Purpose of emitter bypass capacitor in CE amplifier is to _____
LC oscillator Used only in/for high freq
RC Oscillator Used only in/for low freq
Sine wave oscillator Composed of 1 or more amplifying devices with some freq determining networks
introducing + feedback
Hartley Oscillator Used commonly in Radio Rx
Crystal Oscillator Used commonly in Radio Tx;
Fixed frequency oscillator;
Has fewer loses and will generate alternating emf longer than LC circuit when shock
excited
Tuned Amplifier Operated in Class C;
Used in Radio freq
Wien Bridge Oscillator Frequency stability of the oscillator output is maximum ________;
Employs both + and – feedback;
Used in signal generators in laboratories;
Hum in the circuit A pulsating DC applied to the power amplifier causes ______
Low Output Important limitation of Crystal Oscillator
High Q Reason why crystal oscillator freq is very stable
More than 10,000 Typical Q of a crystal
Push Pull amplifer Commonly employed at the output stage of an amplifier
X axis Cutting perpendicular to end to end;
Electrical axis;
Connects the corners of the crystal
Y axis Cutting perpendicular to face to face;
Mechanical
+ temp coef When crystal freq increases with temp
- temp coef When crystal freq decreases with temp
Zero temp coef When crystal freq doesn’t change with temp
More battery consumption Low efficiency of a power amplifier results in ______
Buffer Amplifier Used for minimum loading and minimum mismatch
Hand capacitance If you move towards an oscillating circuit, its freq changes because of the ______
Ic becomes maximum When transistor is at saturation
Maximum voltage appears When transistor is at cut-off
across transistor
At minimum In an LC circuit, when the Capacitor energy is at max, the inductor energy is _____
AC load line The operating point in a transistor amplifier moves along ______ when AC signal is
applied
Power stage Also called output stage in an amplifier
DC At zero signal conditions, a transistor sees _____ load
Sum of AC and DC The current in any branch of a transistor amplifier that is operating is the _____
CMRR = infinity For an ideal differential amplifier
To set up an operating point The purpose of dc conditions in a transistor is _____
To avoid drop in gain The purpose of an emitter capacitor is _____
Collector Supply The Poutput of a transistor amplifier is more than the Pinput due to the additional power
supplied by _______
Low When a transistor feeds a load of low R, its Av is _____
25% Max collector efficiency of Resistance Loaded Class A power amp
50% Max collector efficiency of Transformer coupled Class A power amp
RF amplifiers Class C amplifiers are used as
Driver stage Employs class A amplifiers

## 1NPN, 1PNP transistor Complementary-symmetry amplifier

Increases Input Impedance, Negative voltage feedback
Decreases Output Impedance
Decreases Input Impedance, Negative Current Feedback
Increases Output Impedance
ID The Quiescent current of a FET amplifier is _____
AND gate The frequency response of the combined amplifier can be compared with an ______