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Name: Graded by: Level _

Social Sec. #: Score _



Date: Pass - Fail

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Directions: Circle the letter corresponding to the answer which correctly completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The source of penetrating energy used in Industrial Radiography is: (a) X-ray tubes or radioisotopes

(b) Radiography cameras

( c) Incandescent and florescent light (d) Nuclear reactors

2. Images of discontinuities in welds appear as dark areas on the radiograph because: (a) The discontinuities casts a shadow on the film

(b) The defect represents more dense material than the weld

( c) The discontinuity produces a thinner portion of material at that place in the weld (d) The weld is thicker at the place that the discontinuity occurs

3. Lead screens placed in contact with the film can reduce the exposure time because: (a) The penetrating energy bounces otT of the lead

(b) The interaction of the penetrating energy with the surface of the lead screens produces free electrons which intensify the image production on the radiograph

(c) Lead reacts with the film emulsion

(d) All of the above

4. The difference between X-rays and Gamma rays is: (a) X-rays are of higher energy

(b) Gamma rays travel faster in air

(c) Gamma rays are produced through radioactive decay and x-rays are produced in a vacuum tube

(d) All of the above

5. Slower speed films with smaller grain size will result in definition and

sensitivity than fast films with large grain size (a) Greater

(b) Less

( c) About equal

(d) None of the above

RT Level II General Exam 95660 Pagel

6. Gamma rays are produced during the __ - of radioactive atoms.

(a) Neutron bombardment

(b) Radioactive decay

(c) Atomic construction

(d) Exposure

7. The regulations governing the use of radioactive material are established by the: (a) Department of Health and Human Resources

(b) Occupational Safety and Health Administration

(c) U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

(d) Department of Defense

8. Radiographic Testing is one of several methods used to assure the

quality of manufactured items. (a) Nondestructive Testing (b) Construction code

(c) Destructive Testing

(d) Chemical testing

9. Proper exposure geometry is necessary to assure that of the image are

kept to a minimum.

(a) Density and thickness

(b) Enlargement and distortion ( c) Backscatter and darkness (d) All of the above

10. Geometrical unsharpness increases as: (a) The focal point size increases

(b) The source to film distance decreases (c) The film speed increases

(d) Both (a) and (b)

11. Radiographic sensitivity is in general related to: (a) The radiograph exhibiting the required density

(b) The size ofthe smallest perceptible discontinuity imaged ( c) The source strength

(d) Exposure time

12. A graph which plots the reduction in radioactivity over a period of time for a given

source is called a (n): (a) Exposure device (b) Source log

(c) Hand D Characteristic Curve (d) Decay curve

RT Level II General Exam 95660 Page2

13. The time necessary for half of the atoms in a radioactive source to decay and become

stable is called the:

(a) Half-value Layer (b) Half Life

(c) Half-wave rectified current (d) Half Time

14. Manual processing methods for radiographs involves the following basic steps in this

order as a minimum.

(a) Developer, Rinse or Stop Bath, Fixer, Wash, Dry (b) Developer, Fixer, Stop Bath, Dry

(c) Fixer, Wash, Developer, Dry

(d) Developer, Fixer, Dry

15. Radiography which is performed by the radiation passing through two walls of a pipe,

but only the film side image viewed for interpretation is the technique.

(a) Double Wall Exposure!Double Wall Viewing

(b) Single Wall Exposure/Single Wall Viewing

(c) Double Wall Exposure/Single Wall Viewing

(d) Both (a) and (c)

16. In comparison to Iridium 192, the penetrating ability of gamma rays emitted from

Cobalt 60 are:

(a) Less penetrati ng

(b) Slightly more penetrating (c) About the same

(d) Much more penetrating

17. One drawback to the use of Co 60 instead oflr 192 is that the radiographs made using

Co 60 will exhibit:

(a) Less definition and sensitivity (b) More artifacts

(c) More sensitivity but require longer exposure times (d) Lower densities at the same processing times

18. X-ray radiography is used less than gamma radiography in the Petro-Chem industry


(a) The costs of equipment and personnel are higher

(b) X -ray machines need sources of external energy (electricity) (c) Down-time due to malfunction is more frequent

(d) All of the above

19. Penetrameters are used in industrial radiography to: (a) Compare the size of acceptable discontinuities (b) Assure that the proper film was used

(c) Compare the density of one film to another

(d) Assure that the required sensitivity level is met

RT Level II General Exam 95660 Page3

20. Calculation of the Geometrical Unsharpness formula tells the film interpreter: (a) The degree of image enlargement in the radiograph

(b) Whether internal undercut can be measured

(c) Whether the density of the image is within limits (d) Where the length of interpretable image starts

21. Exposure time is directly related to: (a) Speed of the film

(b) Activity of the source (c) Source to film distance (d) All of the above

22. Shims of radiographically similar material to the test piece are placed under the

penetrameter so that:

(a) The required sensitivity is easier to achieve (b) The I.D. numbers are more readable

(c) The thickness of the material under the penetrameter is approximately equal to the thickness of the test piece

(d) All of the above

23. When the configuration of the test piece prevents placement of the penetrameter on the test piece, it can be:

(a) Left off of the radiograph

(b) Placed on a block of radiographically similar material of the same thickness as the test piece

( c) Placed on the ground next to the test piece (d) On the back of the cassette

24. Indications on the surface of the film which do not correspond to discontinuities in the

test piece are called: (a) Defects

(b) Smudges

(c) Film Artifacts

(d) None of the above

25. Discontinuities which are regularly found in the external reinforcement of a weld are: (a) Inadequate Penetration

(b) Internal undercut

(c) Wagon Tracks

(d) None of the above

26. Developer temperatures which exceed those recommended by the manufacturer for a

given developing time will:

(a) Cause the radiograph to melt (b) Cause the density to be too dark

( c) Lengthen the required development time

RT Level II General Exam 95660 Page4

(d) Cause scratches on the film

27. The specific activity of a given radioisotope is measured in: (a) Curies per gram

(b) Roentgens per hour

( c) Pounds per square foot (d) Miles per second

28. A radiograph which shows obvious artifacts which could cause misinterpretation

should be:

(a) Noted as deficient on the interpretation report

(b) Deleted from the film pack but noted on the report

( c) Reshot before interpretation and replaced by an acceptable radiograph (d) Presented to the client without remarks

29. Elliptical exposure techniques and superimposed techniques both require:

(a) That the source to film distance be increased by raising the source position above the source side surface of the pipe

(b) That both the film side and source side image of the weld be interpreted on the same radiograph

( c) Penetrameter selection be based on single wall plus allowable reinforcement (d) All of the above

30. Contact radiographic techniques (OWE/SWV) can be used on any 0.0. pipe if: (a) The radiographer is familiar with the techniques

(b) Geometrical Un sharpness requirements can be met

(c) Exposure time is critical

(d) The pipe is carbon steel

31. A lead letter "B" is usually placed on the back of the film cassette as a check for: (a) Backscatter radiation

(b) Forward scatter radiation ( c) Density control

(d) Tears in the cassette

32. Radiographic quality level of 2-2T requires that a hole whose diameter is twice the thickness of the penetrameter be imaged on the radiograph. The thickness of the penetrameter must be:

(a) Equal to the diameter of the 2-T hole (b) Twice the thickness of the test material (c) Twice the thickness of the 2-T hole

(d) 2% of the test material thickness

RT Level II General Exam 95660 Page5

33. Radiography must be performed to the safety requirements of: (a) OSHA

(b) The radiography company's Operating and Emergency Procedures and Radioactive Material License Conditions

(c) Mil-Std 204-A

(d) All of the above

34. Penetrameters are placed on the source side of the material being radiographed unless: (a) Source side placement is impossible or impractical

(b) Permission for use of film side placement is granted by the client

(c) A procedural radiograph is taken to prove the ability of the technique to attain the required sensitivity

(d) All of the above

35. The following methods can be used to reduce the possibility of film artifacts using

manual processing techniques.

(a) Fully open screens before removing film

(b) Keep the loading bench clean and free of dirt ( c) Check cassettes regularly for tears

(d) AU of the above

36. Film viewing lights should have a feature which allows for varying: (a) The cooling fan speed

(b) The color of the screen

(c) The light intensity

(d) The background light

37. Before making interpretations of radiographs for material acceptance, the

radiographer should know:

(a) The radiographic technique used (b) The welding procedure used

(c) The Code referenced for acceptability (d) All of the above

38. Automatic processing methods usually produce fewer artifacts than manual processing

methods because:

(a) There is less handling of film

(b) Processing time and temperatures are electronically controlled (c) The chemicals are stronger

(d) Both (a) and (b)

39. When processing manually, the general rule of thumb is that fixing time be twice the: (a) Developing time

(b) Clearing time

(c) Wash time

(d) Lunch time

RT Level II General Exam 95660 Page6


40. The responsibility of the film interpreter is to:

(a) Assure that the radiographs are acceptable to the procedure requirements (b) Suggest repair methods

(c) Interpret material discontinuities for acceptance to the specification (d) Both (a) and (c)

RT Level II General Exam 95660 Page7







Graded by: Level

-------------- --------

Social Sec. #: _





Date: Pass - Fail

------------ -----------

Directions: Circle the letter corresponding to the answer which correctly completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The SPEC 150 and Amersham 880 exposure devices are both: (a) Pipeliner type devices

(b) Rated for use with 200 Ci of Ir 192 (c) Crankout (external) type devices (d) Type "A" containers

2. ANSIJASME Sec. V, Art. 2 requires that radiography be performed to sensitivity level: (a) 2-2T

(b) 1-2T

(c) 2-4T

(d) I-IT

3. A WS D 1.1 requires that the source to object distance be at least: (a) 6"

(b) 7 times the object to film distance (thickness of material) (c) Equal to the width of the film used

(d) Vz the length of the film used

4. The location markers on the radiograph must appear: (a) within 1" of each end of the film

(b) At least every 2"

( c) As images of lead numbers or letters (d) None of the above

5. Radiograph identification is required to contain: (a) The radiographer's name

(b) The radiography company's name or initials (c) The date

(d) Both (b) and (c)

RT Level II Specific Exam 95660 Pagel

6. When the wire type I.Q.I. is used and placed perpendicular to the weld, the wires must: (a) Cross the thickest portion of the weld

(b) Be sealed within the plastic package

( c) Not be bent or broken

(d) All of the above

7. When hole type penetrameters are used, they must be placed: (a) On the north side of the weld

(b) So that the I.D. numbers are not in the area of interest (c) On a block of similar material

(d) None of the above

8. If the radiographer cannot return the source to the shielded position within the camera

using normal methods, he must: (a) Notify the NRC

(b) Cover the source with lead, sand or other shielding material (c) Follow his company's Emergency Procedures

(d) All of the above

9. Inadequate penetration will usually appear as in the image of the weld on

the radiograph.

(a) A straight, dark line 1/16" to 1/8" wide (b) A fine, dark line which changes direction

(c) A dark linear indication at the edge of the external reinforcement (d) A dark, linear indication transverse to the weld

10. The required minimum transmitted density in the area of interest on a radiograph made to API-II 04 Standards is:

(a) l.5 to 3.5

(b) 2.0 - 4.0

(c) 1.8 to 3.5

(d) 1.8

11. Location markers (lead numbers or letters) must be placed on: (a) The test material

(b) The front of the cassette ( c) The back of the cassette (d) The unexposed film

12. A system of radiograph identification can employ the use of to place

information on the radiograph: (a) Permanent ink markings

(b) Images of lead numbers and letters (c) "Flash" type imprinters

(d) All of the above

RT Level II Specific Exam 95660 Page2

13. A Level I radiographer can set up and perform the examination, but he cannot: (a) Report the results of the examination

(b) Interpret the results of the examination

(c) Certifying the Level I

(d) All of the above

14. The Level Il radiographer is responsible for: (a) Administering Level I written exams

(b) Providing "on-the-job" training to the Level I (c) Certifying the Level I

(d) All of the above

15. ASME Section V, Article 2 requires that be made when using the

"Elliptical" (DWEIDWV) technique:

(a) A minimum of four exposures at 60 degrees (b) A minimum of three exposures at 120 degrees (c) A minimum of two exposures at 90 degrees (d) A minimum of three exposures at 60 degrees

16. For panoramic (SWE/SWV) techniques to API-II 04 Standards are


(a) 4 penetrameters at 90 degrees (b) 3 penetrameters at 120 degrees

( c) 2 penetrameters on each radiograph (d) 1 penetrameter on each radiograph

17. 75 days from the date that an Ir 192 source of 30 Curies was loaded, the source activity

will be:

(a) 20 Curies (b) 10 Curies (c) 35 Curies (d) 15 Curies

18. AWS D1.1 categorizes discontinuities as: (a) Round, long and wide

(b) Elongated, rounded and cracks

(c) Root defects, filler defects and crown defects (d) Girth, long seam and material defects

19. The following defects are not allowed in any size in accordance with ANSIIASME B31.3

(critical service) acceptance criteria. (a) Porosity, slag and concavity

(b) Root penetration and crown reinforcement (c) Cracks, inadequate penetration, non-fusion (d) All of the above

RT Level II Specific Exam 95660 Page3

20. The formula for calculation of the Geometrical Unsharpness formula is Ug =. Fd These

symbols represent: D

(a) Geometrical unsharpness is equal to the focal spot size times the object to film distance divided by the source to object distance

(b) Geometrical unsharpness is equal to the film size times the thickness of the pipe divided by the source to weld distance

(c) Gross unsharpness is equal to force of energy times table equivalents divided by diameter of the object

(d) None of the above

21. The radiographer is responsible for:

(a) Assuring that the radiograph meets the requirement of the specification (b) Interpreting the acceptability of the material

(c) Accurately reporting his radiograph review

(d) All of the above

22. One method of reducing radiographic contrast is to:

(a) increase the distance between the radiation source and the object (b) decrease the distance between the object and the film

( c) decrease the wavelength of the radiation used

(d) increase the development time within manufacturers recommendations

23. When sharp, black, bird-foot shaped marks which are known not to correspond with

any discontinuities appear at random on radiographs, they are probably caused by: (a) prolonged development in old developer

(b) exposure of the film by natural cosmic ray showers during storage (c) static charges caused by friction

(d) inadequate rinsing after fixing.

24. The range of thickness over which densities are obtained that are satisfactory for

interpretation is a measure of the: (a) subject contrast iof a radiograph (b) sensitivity of a radiograph

( c) latitude of a radiograph

(d) definition of a radiograph

25. Images of discontinuities close to the source of ;the specimen become less clearly defined as:

(a) source-to-object distance increases

(b) the thickness of the specimen increases (c) the size of the focal spot decreases

(d) the thickness of the specimen decreases

RT Level II Specific Exam 95660 Page4

26. Because of geometrical factors such as source size, source-to-specimen distance and specimen-to-film distance, there can be a lack of perfect sharpness at the edges of indications. The unsharpness caused by geometrical factors may be referred to as the: (a) astigmatic effect

(b) penumbral shadow

(c) focus variation

(d) none of the above

27. The quantitative measure of film blackening is referred to as: (a) definition

(b) photographic density (c) film contrast

(d) radiographic contrast

28. SUbject contrast is affected by:

(a) thickness differences in specimen (b) radiation quality

(c) scattered radiation

(d) all of the above

29. On a radiograph of a pipe weld there is a very light irregularly-shaped small image in the weld. This image would most likely be due to the presence of:

(a) Porosity

(b) Slag inclusion

(c) Tungsten inclusion (d) Inadequate buildup

30. The range of specimen thickness that can be adequately recorded on the radiograph is

referred to as the:

(a) sensitivity of the radiograph (b) latitude of the radiograph (c) accuracy of the radiograph (d) intensity of the source

RT Level II Specific Exam 95660 Page5


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Global X-Ray & Testing Corporation

Joel Moreau, President, Level In

RT Practical Examination

Technician Social Security # Date
Level Applied For GXT Procedure # Test Specimen # Pipe or Plate Gamma X-Ray Film
Size or 0.0.: Device: Device: Brand &
Thickness: Source Size: Effective Focal Size:
Grade: Source Type: Voltage Density
Rating(KV): Required: Penetrameters Sketch relative Position Intensifying Screens
Type: Of weld image, Front thickness:
Identifyin2 # i Penetrameters, and
Essential Hole, or wire: reference markers Back Thickness:
Shim Thickness: rl 1
Material: Material:
L •
Film Processing 0 Manual 0 Automatic
Developing Rinse or Fixer Washing Drying
Stop bath
Manufacturer Exposure Geometry

N umber of Exposures per weld:



Source to Object Distance
Source Offset GXT Specimen # Code
Source to Weld Distance
Object to Film Distance
Source to Film Distance Interpretation Of Results
Ug= FxOFD Exposure ACC. REJ. Defects
SOD Noted
Exposure Time Exposure #1
Penetrameter Density
Average Weld Density Exposure #2
Penetrameter Number
Smallest Visible Wire/Hole Exposure #3
Penetrameter Outline Visible
Shim Outline Visible Exposure # 4
Radiographer: Date:
Examiner: Date:
Actual Score T
Pass: Fail: T