REGENERATION OF DECAYING URBAN PLACE THROUGH ADAPTIVE DESIGN INFILL (Case Study: Kampung Kriya, Cultural Tourism and

Creative Sectors Infill at Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Bandung, Indonesia)

PROPOSAL TESIS DESAIN Kara Tulis sebagai Salah Satu Syarat untuk Memperoleh Gelar Magister dari Institut Teknologi Bandung

Oleh HAFIZ AMIRROL NIM : 25209022

PROGRAM STUDI MAGISTER ARSITEKTUR SEKOLAH ARSITEKTUR, PERENCANAAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN KEBIJAKAN INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG 2011
   

 

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REGENERATION OF DECAYING URBAN PLACE THROUGH ADAPTIVE DESIGN INFILL (Case Study: Kampung Kriya, Cultural Tourism and Creative Sectors Infill at Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Bandung, Indonesia)
 

Abstract
The phenomena of urban transformation that Bandung is experiencing are something that needs comprehensive analysis and understanding. This is due to the fact that these phenomena and conditions will be transformed into possibilities that would affect Bandung’s built environment and its whole future development. The topic is crucial in developing total understanding of the city with all of its conditions, since these conditions of the city will also condition the whole living environment, and also represent human’s achievement per excellence (Rossi, 1984). What Bandung is experiencing today is a representation and manifestation of the collective will of the people that inhabit it, and currently, the image is not a good one. This thesis is hoped to produce better analysis and understanding in helping to recognize conditions and transformations of the city into better practices. By conducting research and analysis on the phenomena of urban transformation, the objective of this thesis is to provide a visionary thinking through best practices approaches and methods on how to intervene the city. The case study is along the active and vibrant stretch of Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, in which rows of old buildings and interesting activities exist both along the street and behind it. However, these interesting urban artefacts suffer from serious urban decay, which is the result of many issues concerning planning policies, sterile and non flexible zoning regulations, underutilization of functions and use, disproportionate allocation of services and financial resources, lack of awareness in conserving urban heritage and so on. By considering that the city must achieve a balance between natural and artificial elements, as it is an object of nature and a subject of culture (Levi-Strauss, 1972), this thesis is interested in responding to these problems through the articulation of architectural design strategies in developing alternative approaches to regenerate the place into becoming an urban area that will offer better physical and non-physical qualities for its dwellers. Keywords: decaying urban place, urban transformation, strategic operations, engineeredbricolage, adaptive infill, incremental design                  

 

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I. I.1

INTRODUCTION Thesis Background The proposed thesis is concerned with the process of urban transformation that

is happening in Bandung today (Figure 1), along with its impact towards the quality of life of the built environment. The research is interested in these transformations and conditions because of their importance in understanding the whole phenomena of the city, which might lead to the development of the city in the future. This thesis, which deals with the practice of architectural and urban modernism and its transformation opens against a background in which expectation tinged with equal measures of uncertainty. Public and professional attitudes towards modern architecture and planning systems, and its continuing potential for reshaping cities had changed dramatically since the death of modernism was announced1. Although some continued to believe in and practice modernism as if nothing had happened, as what happened in Indonesia, elsewhere the mood was critical, apologetic and sometime confused (Gold, 2007). Architects and urban planners, who previously enjoyed general endorsement as built environment’s experts now faced criticisms and are accused of authoritarianism, dogmatism, unaccountability, elitism, hegemony, lack of ethical concern, arrogance, and above all, being a whore for those with capital strength. These criticisms usually come from the grass-root level of society that primarily are users of the places and spaces designed by architects and planners. These places which society celebrated in the past now stood condemned as dysfunctional, socially sterile, without respect for history and the collective mnemonic memory and monotonous. This kind of transformation and changes are the primary research topic of the thesis, which tries to investigate and understand the evolution of use and functions of the designed places and spaces over the transformative period that had happened, and what new potentials that can be generated from the transformation that happened, will happen or to be proposed in the future.

                                                             
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Architectural theorist and critic, Charles Jencks in his book on The Language of Post-Modern Architecture (1977) opens with the statement: 'Happily, we can date the death of Modern Architecture to a precise moment in time... It expired finally and completely in 1972'.

 

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The chosen site for the case study of this thesis will be along the vibrant and active stretch of Jalan Jenderal Sudirman (Figure 2), which is located at the city center of Bandung, and will also respond to its surrounding areas, which include settlement areas and other functions that co-existed there. The site was chosen as it represents a comprehensive example of a transforming area in the urban context of Bandung. Initially designed to accommodate military logistics during the Dutch colonial era, trading activities and other supporting functions emerged parallel to the development of the city (Figure 3). However, the many transformative period that happened due to economic and population growth, expansion of settlement areas, changes of functions and land use types, changes of regulations and policies and so on, Jalan Jenderal Sudirman and its surrounding areas experienced unprecedented amount of changes and were forced to adapt to those conditions. These transformations had caused the areas to suffer, as they cannot adapt to those changes and inevitably caused places to decay and being left in dilapidated conditions.

Figure 1: Transformation of Bandung (Source: Voskuil, 1999)

Figure 2: Jalan Jenderal Sudirman (Source: Bandung Heritage Society, 2010)

Figure 3: Early development map of Jalan Jenderal Sudirman (Source: Kunto, 1984)

 

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I.2

Why is the Topic Important to be Develop as a Thesis? It is the interest of this thesis to analyze both physical and non-physical

changes that have been happening at the area, and how the changes affected the overall living conditions and qualities of the place. The study will provide significant contribution to the place as it will contribute to a totality of understanding in the designing and controlling of architectural interventions that deemed appropriate for the site. From the studies, appropriate interventions will be proposed and tested to simulate what better condition can be achieved at the area of study, and how they can contribute to the betterment of the built environment values and qualities. Being aware that the place is always being ignored despite of its strong potentials, the thesis is important as it would offer proper development framework for the area and also Bandung in the form of intervention proposal through the testing and evaluation of ideas with pilot projects. This thesis will be developed to become an approach to counterpoise the current development of the site. I.3 Reasons for Choosing and Developing the Topic as a Design Thesis Responding to the phenomena and conditions of the area as explained above, there is a strong needs to have a well-researched design thesis that will tackle the issues and problems of the site holistically. Noticing that there has not been many researches conducted before, and appropriate solutions and suitable approaches to respond to the issues are critically needed, the thesis is hoped to fill in the missing link that the site need. Understandably, the area of study have been experiencing changes through planning, building, expansion and growth on the basis of halfhearted applications of outdated and non-contextual planning theories, or on nothing more than economic criteria and market forces. The future development direction of the area, as well as of Bandung is always pluralistic and unpredictable. Given this crucial situation, what is our next action to be taken? This thesis will provide a discussion ground that will lead to some design proposals responding to the situation. The big issue that will act as the main framework of the thesis therefore will be: Jalan Jenderal Sudirman – quo vadis?

 

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I.4

Jalan Jenderal Sudirman – Quo Vadis? After noticing and understanding the issues and problems of the site, the next

question to be responded is “where do we go from here – in terms of urban and architectural ideas and interventions?” Historically and naturally, transformation and changes always happened in non-orderly ways. This is due to the fact that people always respond immediately to issues and needs that they currently face, and the required solutions demand quick solutions, that in most cases are not the best, most sustainable or appropriate solutions. It is the interest of this thesis to path new ways and directions to the question above. It is important to understand that non-orderly development is not always bad. In fact they have been resulting non-stagnant conditions of places, which are the unique characteristics of most Asian cities. The ability to flexibly change, adapt and transform is a prerequisite planning character for any interventions to be applied. This will enable the community to receive, filter and adopt with confidence and comfort the rapidly changing values and qualities of their built environment condition. In the overall process of determining the best intervention to be applied on the site, a dynamic, rich and distinctive localism will be developed, a local heritage and characteristic, which the citizen can all proudly call their own. I.5 What Research Has Been Done Before? Not much detail research has been done on the aspects of urban transformation and regeneration effort in the context of urban and architectural design of Bandung, except for a comprehensive PhD dissertation entitled ‘Bandung – The Architecture of a City in Development’, written by Prof. Sandi Aminuddin Siregar (1990). Other previous researches focuses on historical analysis, conservation and heritage, planning policies and guidelines, good governance of the city, and most recently issues on Bandung as a creative city. However, in the context of modern architecture and the rapid development that is happening in the built environment of the site and Bandung, this thesis try to find out what are the inner logic of the whole structure of the city’s part, and what could be develop to provide better living standards and built environment for the future. These are some previous related researches that have been conducted, touching on the issues of urban transformations, transitions and possible developments, both on Bandung and other places. However, minimal research has

 

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been done specifically on the topic of regenerating a decaying urban place, and this thesis is hoped to contribute to produce better analysis and understanding in helping to recognize conditions and transformations of the city into better architectural design practices. I.5.1 On Bandung and Indonesia 1. SIREGAR, S. (1990) Bandung – The Architecture of a City in Development: Urban Analysis of a Regional Capital as a Contribution to the Present Debate on Indonesian Urbanity and Architectural Identity, PhD Dissertation, Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Prof. Sandi Siregar’s dissertation has become one of the most important and influential references in understanding the urban built environment of Bandung. Focusing both on the issues of Indonesian professional world as to the identity of Indonesian architecture, and the development of Bandung’s urban morphology and city architecture, his research provide critical discourse in reading the city both as a diachronic and synchronic reading – leading to a total understanding of urban problems, issues, history, development guidelines and concepts. Apart from that, his detail research, explaining its findings through diagrams and sketches, provide a strong starting point for this thesis to further analyze and re-assess the condition of Bandung’s city architecture and its future. 2. LIM, M. (2002) From Walking City to Telematic Metropolis: Changing Urban Form in Bandung, Indonesia, in BUNNEL, T., DRUMMOND, L. & HO, K.C. in Critical Reflections on Cities in Southeast Asia, pp. 75-100, Singapore: Brill Publisher and Times Academic Press. This research analyzed the potential of Bandung and its future urban condition, with specific interest on telecommunication and the city. The author try to see Bandung’s directions of future trends, by creating a clear relationship analysis of telecommunication and its impact towards the city’s condition of decentralization and re-centralization. The research also studied patterns of goods productions, services productions, and social interaction that contribute to Bandung’s urban transformation process. Lim’s research provide a basic framework for the development of this thesis

 

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through her understanding on the city’s unique lifestyle trends and practices, which leads to an understanding on how to adapt to the dynamic character of city dwellers. 3. LIM, M. & PADAWANGI, R. (2008) Contesting Alun-Alun: Power Relations, Identities, and the Production of Urban Spaces in Bandung, Indonesia, Liverpool: International Development and Planning Review, Vol. 30 (3), pp. 307-326, Liverpool University Press. The research tries to disentangle the relationship between the production and uses of space to show how social actors can project their identities and/ or ideologies by being dominantly involved in the production of public spaces, in this case, the alun-alun of Bandung. The article also recognizes the importance of civil society and the market in place making, and legitimizes their authorities over the production of urban space. 4. POERBO, H.W. (2008) Coping With the Commodification of Culture in Bandung: an Urban Design Control Approach, Bandung: Arte-Polis 2, Institut Teknologi Bandung. Dr.-Ing. Ir. Heru Poerbo, MURP discusses the role of cultural economy in affecting the form of the city, particularly the streetscape of some notable areas in Bandung. The paper described the changes in urban culture in Bandung, explained how these culture affect the land use configuration and the externalities caused by them, and investigated the possible urban design measures in coping with the externalities of such urban developments. This thesis will benefit from Poerbo’s paper as it provides a general discussion on the issues of urban culture and land use. 5. MIRZA, S. (2010) Strategic Urban Planning and Design Tools for Inner City Regeneration: Towards a Strategic Approach of Sustainable Urban Form Future – the Case of Bandung City, Netherlands: International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISOCARP). The research focuses on the process of regeneration learnt from successful case studies from several European cities and try to promote these experiences into the context of Bandung, stressing on the needs to set up comprehensive concepts and strategies in order to achieve the development vision. The research also proposed the need for Bandung’s inner city to be clustery developed based on its human assets,  
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natural and environmental assets, heritage of built environment and the distinctiveness and vibrancy of cultural life assets, and also the organized civil society assets. 6. KUSNO, A. (2006) Back to the City: a Note on Urban Architecture in the New Indonesia, in Arts, Popular Culture and Social Change in the New Indonesia, Seminar Proceedings of Conference at the Centre for Southeast Asian Research, pp. 59-93, Institute of Asian Research, University of British Columbia. Dr. Abidin Kusno focuses on the sensitivity of urban architecture towards the post-1998 social environment reform, and explained the ways in which the architectural world has tried to tailor its design culture into the urban fabric of the city. In this article, he studied the works of Adi Purnomo (MAMO Studio) and Ridwan Kamil (URBANE Indonesia), in understanding the forces of urban architecture towards the shaping of the city in the search for norms of public life in the new Indonesia. This paper offers new perspectives on how contemporary designs help to shape urban architecture in Indonesian cities. I.5.2 On Others 1. BLAU, E. & RUPNIK, I. (2007) Project Zagreb: Transition as Condition, Strategy, Practice. Barcelona: Actar. Project Zagreb is a research production based on the two-semester seminar at the Graduate School of Design of Harvard University in 2004-2005. The research reads the city of Zagreb, Croatia as an open work, dynamic but coherent, in which architecture plays an active role in the formation of both urban practices and the city itself. The research sees transition of the city as conditions, strategies and practices for its development process. 2. HANSON, J. (1999) Urban Transformations: a History of Design Ideas, London: Space Syntax Second International Symposium, Brasilia, Space Syntax Laboratory, University College London. The paper explained the ‘how’ and ‘why’ in urban transformations by unfolding the story that lies behind the design ideas of the architects and urban designers in understanding how social ideas about power and control influence the

 

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frameworks and assumptions in the development of the built environment. It stated social objectives as an important paradigm in creating a better built environment – not repeating the same mistakes made during the modernist’s urban genotype. 3. READ, S. (2006) The Urban Image – Becoming Visible, published in HAUPTMANN, D. (ed.) The Body In Architecture, Rotterdam: 010 Publishers and TU Delft. This research is part of TU Delft’s Research Laboratory for the Contemporary City (SPACELAB), concerning issues on urban spatial form, movement and process, social-spatial forms and transformations, and urban spatial evolution that are happening in most cities today. Dr. Stephen Read demonstrated in the context of the world, which is always provisional, human experience has always been one of being on the brink of an unspecified outcome for the urban environment and shifted the human paradigm into somewhat is coherent in the making of cities and its evolution process. 4. ROSSI, A. (1984) Architecture of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press. In this seminal work by Aldo Rossi, issues and critics concerning the failure of modern movement in the built environment were extensively discussed. The book provided important theories and critics based on structure of the city itself, seeing problems of description, classification and typological analysis, individuality of urban artifacts and the urban history, as well as the dynamics of the urban and the problem of politics as choice. This thesis benefits from Rossi’s book as it provide a total understanding on the issues of urban and place history, its collective memories and locus of a place – these are all crucial area of studies that need to be adopted before deciding on any type of intervention on a place that have strong historical and communality values. 5. KOOLHAAS, R. (1978) Delirious New York – A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan. London: Thames and Hudson. The book is an engaging review of modern architecture and urbanism, setting a celebratory account of the surreal ‘culture of congestion’ in Manhattan. Written while Rem Koolhaas was a visiting professor at the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York – during a period of financial crisis and the city  
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government narrowly avoiding bankruptcy through a substantial federal loan, the book promotes Manhattan as a prototype of the modern metropolis, a collaboration of visionaries that strive to make life in the city a ‘deeply irrational experience’ and celebrating the architecture of the city as tools for reinventing city life. It is important to learn from Koolhaas’ research as this thesis’ area of studies currently resembles almost similar characteristics concerning urban economics, development controls and regulations, as well as its hope to reinventing the city life into a new dimension of experience. 6. LEE, C.M. & JACOBY, S. (2007) Typological Formations: Renewable Building Types and the City. London: AA Publications. The book is a compilation of design researches conducted by the students of the Diploma Unit 6 at the Architectural Association School of Architecture that focuses on building types designs as the dominant material manifestation of the city. One of the projects that were discussed in this book researched on arcade building types as a critique towards the mono-functionality and enclosed shopping mall typology. The proposal projects the arcade building type into a more contemporary urban situation and designed them as a connective structure that suggests a more beneficial use to the society and the city itself. Learning from the case studies and design proposals from the students of the Diploma Unit 6, it is important to respond contemporary urban culture with new inventive building types that will contribute to the overall development of the city and its urban fabric. I.6 What Research will be Conducted on this Thesis? By conducting research and analysis on the phenomena of urban transformation that the site is experiencing, the objective of this thesis is to provide a visionary thinking through best practices approaches and methods on how to intervene the site. The thesis will not try to describe urban transformation from the perspective of functions, land use zonings, or urban and architectural design policies, but will be focused on the process of finding strategic operations for design approaches, application of those strategic operations on several scales of operations (design simulations), and measuring the applicability and positive affect that those strategic operations will contribute to the whole long transformation process of the city, from present to the future.  
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Although the thesis will consider the generative functional system of building types and urban architecture of the site, with analysis from various disciplines that directly give impact to the built environment, such as politics, economics, social and cultural practices, it will be directed to focus more on the aspects of spatial structure and design intervention. Thus, direct urbanism and direct architecture that are generated from a design-perspective thinking will be the main generative component of the thesis. By considering that the city must achieve a balance between natural and artificial elements, as it is an object of nature and a subject of culture (Levi-Strauss, 1972), this thesis is interested in seeing articulation of architectural designs being put together in the context of a transforming city, in order the test the design approaches proposed and its impact towards the context itself. It is an approach of an engineered bricolage in unifying the many disparate elements of the city’s architectural components. This thesis will be divided into thematic parts, which will be discuss in Chapter 2, forming the whole argumentation and analysis of the phenomena. Apart from the thematic divisions of the research, the whole content of this thesis will be structured into seven main chapters: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Background Topic Interests Literature Reviews Approaches and Methodology Analysis and Design Simulation Design Reflection and Assessment Conclusion

 

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II. II.1

TOPIC INTERESTS Thesis Statement The main interest of the thesis development is within the perimeter of urban

transformation and conditions that are happening today as the research background, with specific focus towards the state of urban decay that most of the urban and architectural components there are experiencing. From this poor condition of the place, the thesis will look at potential intervention approaches that will regenerate the place in improving its quality and values. Bandung is in many ways the perfect location for examining the generative dynamic of transition that it is experiencing today (Anderson, 2008). The primary objective in conducting this research is to understand the physical and social repertoire of the city and its architectural design components. The research would start from seeing urban transformation as a complex adaptive system of the city, and try to understand the need to develop suitable methods in responding the design issues. By analyzing conditions that are unstable, multiple and contingent on a broad range of equally unstable factors, the research will initially be divided into three main frameworks, as described in Diagram 1. The research process will start by identifying the relationship between physical and social structures in selected clusters of the site. The selected clusters are those that are experiencing urban transformation that leads to decay, and are constantly acting and reacting to its surrounding conditions, be it social, economic or culturally at the architectural, urban or direct scales. By studying organizations and observing the relations and behavior of patterns emerging from their interactions, systematic approaches will be introduced in developing spatial and strategic designs that respond to, activate and enrich the complexity of these conditions. Diagram 2 described the systems approach in devising the perimeter of the research. Following these systems approaches, the thesis will soon be sub-divided into smaller chapters discussing specific thematic parts of the place that are important in creating ‘operational definition’ in intervening the site. These chapters, which will be discussed in detail in Chapter 5, include studies on: 1. 2. Street, Public Spaces and Buildings Heritage and Urban Conservation

 

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3. 4. 5.

Spatial Characteristics and Qualities Design Intervention Approaches Programming and Adaptive Design Infill

Diagram 1 and 2: Main frameworks and systems approach in devising research perimeter (Source: Author, 2010)

II.2

Design Issues and Problems The state of urban and architectural decay of the site has always been a classic

case in most urban centers of Asian cities. The center of a city usually always displays urban decays (Figure 4), because development is concentrated too much in these areas. Seeing this almost ubiquitous phenomenon, radical examination and reassessment on all the planning and design principles that we have used until now is needed. However, there will be no single and definite answer to how city planning for the future should be, but there will only be many options that must be carefully selected before being implemented in each different context of a place. Many urban places in Bandung have experienced unprecedented growth, urban growth and radical changes in recent years. In the process, much of the traditional urban areas have been either damaged, destroyed or badly mutilated, with policy makers often arguing that  
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conserving these areas as being a luxury, which emerging economies can ill afford during the early stages of their development. This is what exactly had happened, and will continue to happen to the downtown area of Jalan Jenderal Sudirman and its surroundings. Once was one of the most important district in Bandung, with all of its potential and rich tissue of urban components, the area is being left to suffer decay and lack of attention, both from policy makers and those involved in the industry of built environment. Another critical problem that need to be addressed and responded in this thesis is on the issue of planning and zoning. In general terms, rapid changes never happened in an orderly manner. The traditional planning policies and approaches that we have been using over the years failed to accommodate these chaotic and fast changes, while strict planning regulation are not flexible and will only result in stagnant urban condition. Changes and transformation occurs all the time and have been an integral part of the planning process. In this case, the ability to change and adapt is essential to any plans. This ability to adapt is the target of this thesis, challenging single usage zoning, as being practiced now to be replaced. Adoption of modern planning approaches, as those practiced in western cities has done more damage to urban life, as we can witness at the site today. Tokyo, in the other hand, is a mix bag of everything, and this may be the reason why it is never boring, despite the ultra-regulated culture of the Japanese. On top of that, Bangkok city has no planning at all, and this also maybe the reason why Bangkok survived the sterile conditions that single usage zoning has bring to other cities and places (Lim, 1994).

Figure 4: Decaying urban artefacts of the site (Source: Author, 2011)

 

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III. III.1

LITERATURE REVIEWS Positioning the Topic Through Scientific Discourse The topic of interest, which is concerned with building typologies and urban

transformation, and their impacts on the city’s urban and architectural design, will be discussed using scientific analysis of established existing theories. The reference theories for the scientific discourse were selected from various sources and branches of knowledge, but are all related with the main argument of the thesis. The proposed references of theories related to the study of the design of the built environment include: 1. The Architecture of the City (1966), by Aldo Rossi, which will be used to understand the manifestation of an ideal city and its architectural components, as well as the study concerning building typologies in architectural designs. 2. Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan (1978), by Rem Koolhaas will be the reference in understanding contemporary culture of the city. 3. Urban Transformations: Power, People and Urban Design (2001), by Ian Bentley will be the reference in examining crucial issues concerning how cities are formed, how people uses them, what are the valid standard in designing good spaces and places, and how can they be transformed into better environment? 4. Bandung – The Architecture of a City in Development: Urban Analysis of a Regional Capital as a Contribution to the Present Debate on Indonesian Urbanity and Architectural Identity (1990), by Prof. Sandi A. Siregar will be the starting basis for this thesis to further analyze and re-assess Bandung’s urban and architectural development and its possible future. 5. The Theory of Structural Anthropology (1972), based on the idea of Claude Lévi-Strauss, will be used as the approach in researching city dwellers’ behavior towards consuming urban and architectural spaces III.2 The City as Evaluated by Aldo Rossi This chapter review and analyze the phenomenal book written by Aldo Rossi – The Architecture of the City (1966) and will delineate the relationship between his

 

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theoretical arguments about the city and my research topic. The city has been the focus of many literatures in urban theories, where scholars try to understand the city and try to determine how to design it. In the context of modern architecture, Rossi tried to seek for the inner logics of the whole structure of a city, and this chapter will elaborate Rossi’s theoretical assumptions and arguments in order to position the thesis’ topic within theories that are established and reliable. III.2.1 City as Work of Art Aldo Rossi recognize the city as architecture and sees it as a discipline with self-determining autonomy, inseparable from life and society. He considers the city as a unified element – an overall synthesis of its disassociated parts, and is always undergoing changes, be it for natural or man-made reasons. In his study, Rossi framed his area of studies on the city by looking at the city through two systems of study. The first one viewed the city as a product of the generative functional systems of its architecture and urban spaces, while the second one consider city as a spatial structure, which system belongs more to architecture and geography. The Architecture of the City is divided into four main parts: 1. 2. 3. 4. Problems of description, classification and typology Structure of the city Individuality of urban artifacts and the locus Urban dynamics and the problem of politics of choice Rossi is primarily concerned with the form of a city, which is the summary of its architecture, and emphasizes to explain the city as an object of art. Urban artifacts such as buildings, streets, urban furniture, etc. are considered as work of arts, which Rossi believe are the manifestations of social and daily life practice. Rossi also supports Claude Levi-Strauss’ theory of structural anthropology (1972) that considers the city as an object of nature and a subject of culture, and will be able to achieve a balance between natural and artificial elements. Beside recognizing the city as a work of art, Rossi also view the city as human’s achievement per excellence, and believe that the whole product of the city is more important that its single parts, thus making him examining the city in a broad measure of its many parts.

 

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III.2.2 Typology and Function Many previous studies on urbanism and architecture addressed typologies in relation to function. But according to Rossi, existing classification on these matters failed to see the root of the problem in a holistic manner. This is supported through his argument that urban artifacts are changeable with time and needs, thus seeing functionalism as physiological in nature, which justifies the formation, development and alterations of forms. To Rossi, types on the basis of functions seem to be inadequate to understand the city. Since every function can be articulated through forms, and forms will contain the potential to exist as urban artifacts, forms are reflexive enough to allow them to be articulated as urban elements. While function alone cannot be indicated as a principal issue in studies on city, other elements such as individuality, locus, mnemonic meanings and design itself are priorities to urban analysis. Rossi believes that all urban forms are capable to incorporate functions with some alterations and transformations if required. III.2.3 Theory of Permanence and Monuments The theory of permanence, as developed by Pierre Lavedan in his thesis Histoire de l’Urbanisme (1926) was important to Rossi’s hypothesis of the city as a giant man-made object produced in the process of time. Here, the theory of permanence is useful in seeing the city as the product of individual and collective artifacts, and sees the persistence of the city is revealed through ‘monuments’ as well as through the city’s basic layout and plans. However, this concept of permanence can be propelling or pathological. Urban artifacts help to perceive the city in a holistic way, but may also appear as isolated elements of the urban system. Rossi explained that if a monument survived through times because of their form can accommodate different functions over time, it becomes a propelling element. But if the monument stands virtually isolated and contributes nothing to the city, then it is considered as a pathological artifact. The latter condition is what we usually experience in cities like Bandung or Jakarta, where buildings stands alone without having positive interactions with its neighboring context.

 

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III.2.4 City as a Spatial System The city is conceived as a spatial system composed of many different parts, and this spatial system is attached to nature and evolution of the city, and constitutes the city’s image. This concept of totality of the system challenges theories of the functionalists, i.e. zoning system. Rossi considers specialized zones are characteristics of a city and they may have their own autonomous parts within the whole system. Their distribution and positioning in the city’s spatial system was determined by the entire historical process, and not based on function alone. In the case of Bandung, we can witness how the area of Jalan Asia-Afrika, Jalan Otista, Jalan Braga or Jalan Jenderal Sudirman (Figure 5) evolved through time and history, and made them to be specially positioned and zoned as what they are today. These phenomena were caused by cultural demand, human preferences, and history, and function alone may not contribute to its condition in the city’s spatial system. These urban phenomena and elements are capable of accelerating the process of the city’s spatial transformations. These elements play important role in the evolution of the city overtime and constitute the physical structure of the city. Over time, these urban artifacts become transformed and their functions or form altered. According to Rossi, such elements have metaeconomic character and become works of art.

Figure 5: Figure ground of Jalan Asia-Afrika, Jalan Otista and Jalan Braga (Source: Pusat Studi Urban Desain, 2010)

 

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III.2.5 History, Collective Memory and Locus History is the collective memory of the people of the city, and it has important influence on the city. History expresses itself through urban artifacts and monuments, thus city become the reflection of the collective will through out the time and its existence. Rossi believes that urban history is a useful tool to study urban structure. For example, urban aesthetics constitute mnemonic meanings inherent in the preexisting urban artifacts and buildings of the city, and through this collective memory, people engaged to discover their meanings and beauty. Rossi also viewed the city with emphasis on cultural stability that somehow will inspire further developments. The city itself became a locus of the collective memory. The value of history seen as collective memory is that it helps us to grasp the significance of the urban structure, its individuality, and its architecture, which is the form of individuality. Locus in the context of Rossi’s study on the city is conceived of singular place and event, which bridge the relationship of architecture to the city’s constitution, and the relationship between context and monuments. Locus is regarded as conditions and qualities of space. On the other hand, architecture shapes a context, which again constitutes changes in space, thus contributing to the city’s transformations. III.2.6 The Architecture of the City and Bandung Rossi’s thesis on the city that regards all of the above arguments is useful tools in the process of analyzing and understanding the city of Bandung. As a city that has undergone a process of transformation from its early period until today, where it can be regarded as one of those city that resembles problems due to the modernist and capitalistic approaches in city planning, Bandung can be re-approached according to Rossi’s methods in devising ways to construct the city towards a more holistic and user-oriented perspectives. Moreover, Rossi conceived the city as an archaeological artifact and analyzed it as a whole construct, set within the domain of architecture. Some parts of Bandung are suitable to be approached this way since they resembles typologies that have survived through different periods and users’ demands, thus requiring typological and function analysis to understand them. The theory of permanence is also very relevant to understand Bandung as the fact that its past is partly being experienced now, and this may be the means to give permanency to the city – they are pasts that we are still experiencing.

 

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III.3

Performative Urbanism – Rem Koolhaas’ Delirious New York This chapter will review and analyze Rem Koolhaas’ Delirious New York: A

Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan (1978) – a book with an engaging review of modern architecture and urbanism. In this book, Koolhaas presents the city as world of the ‘fantastic’, disguised as the pragmatic, and termed the city as the Rosetta Stone of the 20th century. Manhattan, the main subject of discussion of the book was viewed as a world of illusion that was brought to life and became a factory of man-made experience. This condition had caused the real and the natural condition of the city to ceased to exist, lacking a sense of the real. III.3.1 From Modernity to Performative Modernity Throughout the 1970s, intense hostility toward the modernist approaches in architecture and urban planning provided motivation for a reengagement with architectural history, and stressed out upon an articulation of architecture as a system of communication. The parallel framing of architecture as a communicative system was influenced by methods from other disciplines, such as semiotics and structuralist linguistics. However, Delirious New York was written by depicting the architecture of Manhattan not in linguistic or representational terms, but as a kind of a performative drive. In this context, Koolhaas’ processes of understanding the city were done through the analyzing of the block grid that is Manhattan. The block grid was conceived in 1807, breaking Coney Island into 2028 blocks, totally indifferent to topography. Manhattan was basically formed by the imposition of the mental over the real. The city form was a result of overlying the grids, shifted out of the real into the fantastic with the advent of the skyscrapers. This had made Manhattan became lobotomized, in the words of Koolhaas. The external image of the city representing the illusion of what a proper and monumental urban structure should be, while the internal being entirely divorced from the external, and being only what it was – be it fantasy or the mundane of everyday life. III.3.2 Performative Driven Urbanism – The Culture of Congestion Delirious New York was represented as the ‘popular’ American modernism – a modernism of unselfconscious density, which in Koolhaas’ view, the culture of congestion. What keeps Manhattan running is congestion, a world constantly on the edge of total gridlock. This is the similar phenomenon that Bandung is also facing  
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currently. The simultaneous explosion of human density and invasion of new technologies, together with unregulated forces of capitalism and politics surpasses established urban planning and architecture theories. In the case of Manhattan, Koolhaas coined the term ‘Manhattanism’ – which is the undeclared modern phenomena that exceeds both the rationality of Le Corbusier’s machine age modernism (Corbusier, 1927) and the irrationality of Salvador Dali’s paranoid-critical surrealism. The reason Le Corbusier could not conquer Manhattan is that his urban form removed the congestion phenomena of the city, replacing it with an ideal city form to live in. This congestion, similar to what Bandung is facing today, forces the city to be divorced from reality – into a more speculative world filled with people with unique human desires. These desires were also caused by the systemization of the efficient city, which lack inspiration and surrender individuality to the automatism of a synthetic routine of living in the city. III.3.3 Delirious New York as an Inductive Research Framework for this Thesis Koolhaas’ research on Manhattan operates predominantly in an inductive mode, involving the extraction of general principles (theories) from observation of specific phenomena (facts). His approach was in opposition to the deduction method, which is the testing of general principles through the production of specific phenomena. If the modernist manifesto was intended to be read according to logic of rationalist deduction, Delirious New York is a reversal to it. The research attempt to recuperate an alternative to the rationalist’ modernism through a parallactic historiography, in which the object of study is being reframed by the point of view assumed by a repositioned subject. This method led to the blurring of roles, which plays out in the book structure and way of writing. This generative mode of polemical architectural research, directed toward theorizing urban phenomena outside of the architectural profession was, perhaps made famous by the work of Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown and Steven Izenour’s Learning From Las Vegas (1972). The research for the thesis follows the similar approach of both Delirious New York and Learning From Las Vegas, looking to contemporary explosive locations of urban growth and transformation that are driven by the global and local market economy and socio-political factors, rather that the dictates of architects and planners.

 

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III.4

Structural Anthropology as Research Method Structuralism is a mode of thinking and a method of analysis, mainly used in

the 20th century field of social sciences and humanities. Methodologically, structuralism analyzes large-scale systems by examining the relations and functions of the smallest related elements of such systems. Structuralism in this context was used ranging from human languages and cultural practices to works of literature. For the purpose of this research, structural approaches introduced by Claude Lévi-Strauss that are more related to the domain of anthropology and cultural phenomena studies will be used. Lévi-Strauss basic procedures to structuralism are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Structural phenomena Structural analysis regards the elements of infrastructure as relational, not as separated, independent entities Structural analysis attends the system in a single-minded way Structural analysis offers general laws accounting for the underlying organizing patterns of phenomena The views of Karl Marx (2007) and Sigmund Freud (2002), both of whom that thinking and approaches towards any subject of studies were concerned with underlying causes, unconscious motivations, and transpersonal forces, were paralleled to Lévi-Strauss’ methods that values deep structures over surface phenomena. Similar to Marxism and Freudianism, structuralism continues the ongoing diminishment of the individual, portraying the single element as a construct and consequence of impersonal systems. It regards collective controls and conventions over the subject of analysis. III.4.1 Structuralism in Architecture In 1950s and 1960s, Structuralists’ thoughts that were already popular in the linguistics and anthropology fields began to influence works of architecture in the United States and Europe. The work of Lévi-Strauss in anthropology and Ferdinand de Saussure in linguistics led to the idea of the existence of ‘deep structures’ in their respective fields of studies. Generally, structuralism in this context was characterized by the attempt to study relationships linking phenomena, rather than studying the  
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analysis

examines

unconscious

infrastructures

of

cultural

phenomena themselves in isolation. This led to the view that individual phenomena are part of the cause and effect of a larger matrix of phenomena, rather than as the outcome of a linear chain of cause and effect. Lévi-Strauss’s studies on traditional cultures drew attention to the built forms of these cultures, and as there seemed to be ‘deep structures’ shaping the social patterns of these cultures, there should also be ‘deep structures’ defining the organization of their built environment. It is in this context that structural analysis is believed to be appropriate to be used as a method in analyzing the ‘deep structures’ of the community in Bandung city in order to reveal the ‘deep structures’ of their cultural and daily life practices that have shaped and transformed their built environment. Another influence that structuralism had on architecture came from the interest of a number of architects, such as Aldo van Eyck, Peter and Allison Smithson, Herman Hertzberger and John Habraken, who grafted onto the traditional architectural approach with a set of formal gestures that symbolized the broader shifts in thoughts in which structuralism is represented. Generally, this approach organized architecture as arrangements that are less or more flexible and interchangeable, and can be defined as clear set of modules (Habraken, 1998). Space was categorized and divided to patterns of use and combined according to devised sets of rules. In this approach, components of architectural forms were generally articulated and were made clearer, and again are very appropriate to be used as an approach in devising methods in the design simulations of this thesis.

 

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IV.

APPROACHES AND METHODOLOGY Since the interest of this thesis is to analyze the unstable and transforming

qualities of areas within the perimeter of Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, together with their effects to the current state of urban decay, strategic research methods are selected in forming the structure of the studies. The research is not to produce a historical analysis of Bandung nor the site, but is designed to produce strategic design operations for the area. Multi variables conditions (spatial, programmatic, social, culture, politics, economic, as well as the historical particularities of the site) are the focuses of the study, and will be used to devised ways of developing an appropriate architectural language, design methods and methods for drawing and representing consequent strategic and spatial interventions incorporating all pertinent and direct elements, before producing the design simulation proposal to support the arguments (Diagram 3). The basic methodologies used in this thesis are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Field research (source for primary data) Survey research (source for primary data) Literature studies (source for secondary data) Develop strategic operations (design methods) Develop spatial and strategic interventions (design approaches)

  Diagram 3: Design process cycle (Source: Author, 2010)

 

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IV.1

Strategic Operations The design thesis will be operated within designed strategic operations. The

first approach is to choose or identify and existing urban condition within the perimeter of Jalan Jenderal Sudirman that can be anything from a current development strategy to any form of current events that directly influence the site and its surrounding areas (Figure 6). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Devise methods for immersing in the chosen urban condition. Devise ways of understanding the structure of the urban condition. Identify variables that make up and influence the urban condition. Investigate the relationship between the urban condition and the city’s fabric. Choose a moment within the urban condition and formulate an understanding of the relationship between physical and social structures. Develop strategies for creating interactive relationships between physical and social structures. Devise appropriate methods of representation and communication. Define the perimeter and analyze the structure of this urban territory. Investigate the variables that make up this urban territory. Investigate different ways of transforming it into a potential territory of action for an urban hub. Devise appropriate methods of representation and communication. Prepare preliminary proposals for a direct hub at the architectural scale and an urban hub at the urban scale.

Figure 6: Figure ground of Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, explaining physical relationships of the site’s urban fabric characteristics (Source: Author, 2011) At the architectural scale, the research will focus on territories (Figure 7) that relate to the chosen urban condition, defining its perimeter, analyze its structure and transform it into a potential architectural design intervention by designing spatial and  
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strategic engineered bricolage proposal. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Explore the potential of the designed direct hub as an urban component and explore its relationship to rule-based urban systems. Reassess the territory of action as a potential design intervention. Identify and make use of relevant agents and initiatives. Define and design the direct role of the intervention by producing design simulations and other strategic representations of the idea. Define the relationship between the proposal for the intervention and the city's infrastructure, fabric and rule-based systems. Speculate on the interrelationship between the intervention, the urban condition and the overall newly proposed environment. Finalize the strategy for the design, model and represent its spatial configuration. Devise appropriate methods of representation and communication. Compile the whole process as a design thesis.

Figure 7: Research cluster territories and perimeters (Source: Author, 2011) IV.2 Responding to the Issue The current conception of the city has been dominated by the deterministic approach of city planning and its growth, which include rationalist, planned and functionally driven approaches. These ideas of scientific planning have ignored other elements that are similarly important; pleasure, delight and happiness, fun, memory and its mnemonic meanings (Zubir & Amirrol, 2007). It is through this thesis,  
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qualitative and experiential natures of the city are to be addressed in seeking approaches in making a city pleasurable. Subjective notions of habitation and occupying the city can be best addressed through speculative research in order to understand the city from a more holistic, user-oriented perspective. This thesis will try to move away from the modernist and rationalist legislative planning and design methods in suggesting particular transformation and augmentation phenomena of the urban landscapes. It is within this concept that the research will suggest that the issue of the late-capitalist city is not simply to do with the material, the functional and the acqusitional aspects of the city, but contemporary urbanisms should also be concerned with the experiential and qualitative expectations of the city users. The research will approach the city by mapping out tactics to address urban territory that resists the functionalist concepts inherited from the Modern Movement. By introducing the concepts of the ‘irrational’, ephemeral and speculation through changes in design practices (Borden & Clear, 2009), it is hoped that the research will be able to propose valid new logics that underlies value systems that are not prescriptive and reductive, but is driven with the performance of the city. These ideas are seen as an alternative method in suggesting the urban condition in addressing and promote values and forms of social organization that are liberating and celebratory. By shifting the perspective in the research and design approaches, the thesis will focus on social practices rather than the conception of the formalist and functionalist urbanism. The practice of urbanism in the city of Bandung, which was the product of the 19th and 20th century urbanism were facilitated by forms of technological development, driven by industrial production and were designed heavily based on the zoning and land use distribution of the city use. With the declining quality and condition of Bandung’s city area, it is important to re-address the whole idea of needs in sustaining the transformation process of the city. While not ignoring the programmatic aspects of the city, what the thesis try to articulate is the effect of such transformations on building types and its inhabitation that project needs in creating a responsive urban discourse in creating a new conception of new forms of symbolic values, new ‘interface’ replacing the machinic capitalist city, and the requirements of a much greater levels of self-

 

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sufficiency and autonomy. The new model of various physical interventions will be conceived as the new typology that responds to the needs of the users’ and their spatial consumption habits, as well as to serve as design intervention guidelines for future transformations. By increasing the permeability of the site’s walkscapes and introducing an improved version of the existing building types, the proposed design type will become a tying element in consolidating the segregated urban fabric and its surrounding infrastructures. IV.3 User Metric Framework In attempting to achieve a more holistic approach to understand the process of the practice and transformation of urbanism in Bandung, a specific, user-oriented analysis framework is established. This user metric framework encapsulate these processes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Review of existing data and literatures. Interviews with stakeholders on mapping assumptions and perspectives on transformations. User case studies, which include interviews and analysis of first hand reports of emerging lifestyle patterns. Parameter surveys. The process of quantifying the qualities of urban spaces and its architecture, and acknowledging social needs is often a complicated and intangible process. The thesis is proposing new techniques to measure the parameter of the city, since current techniques (i.e. land use zoning and distributions, plot ratio regulations, measuring density by the numbers, etc.) in the practice of urbanism does not adequately reflects current social and demographic transformations of the city (Clarke, 2007). They also remain a one-dimensional and restrictive means of ‘measuring’ the city. Therefore, alternative measures that are more user-oriented and reflexive are needed. The question of urban transformation concerning its positive and negative values will be measured against established theories and guidelines, coupled with a survey based on users’ preferences. This method will make up the structure of the research variables. Just as there are many narratives and information sources available to explain chains of events in the history and evolution of Bandung’s urban transformation phenomena, it is important to select and classify a variety of research variables for the  
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thesis (Diagram 4 and 5). The selected variables are generally classified into three types of variables: 1. 2. 3. Independent variables – variables that are presumed to affect or determine a dependent variable. Dependent variables – variables that are dependent on independent variables. Intervening variables – hypothetical conditions that are used to explain relationships between independent and dependent variables.
Independent Variables 1. Building types 2. Programming 3. Physical structures Direct Urbanism Analysis Dependent Variables 1. Spatial usage and consumption patterns 2. Previous and current design interventions User Metric Frameworks Intervening Variables 1. Users’ understanding towards building types and its usage Both

Diagram 4: Classification of research variables (Source: Author, 2010)

Diagram 5: Relationships of research variables (Source: Author, 2010)

 

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V. V.1

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN SIMULATION Urbanization in Indonesia and its Impact Towards the Site’s

Characteristics Rapid urban growth and the emergence of city areas are becoming the new phenomena in Indonesia (Gardiner, 2006). In understanding Indonesia’s urbanization, we cannot escape from the fact that it is largely affected by socio-economic development process. Industrialized countries such as North America, Western Europe, Japan and Australia have high proportion of urbanized population compared to most developing countries. Newly industrialized countries such as South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia have witnessed solid transition towards a more urbanized society, while in contrasts, developing countries such as Indonesia have a relatively lower level of urbanization. This chapter will discuss the urbanization phenomenon in Indonesia and Bandung city in general, by focusing on the reality of dualism that happens almost in all urbanized area in Indonesia. Urbanization is a process of transformation from rural to an industrialized lifestyle (Firman, 2007). It is being considered as one of world’s most phenomenal socio-economic transformation process. The process of transformation from rural into being an urbanized condition usually involved transitions of economic sectors of the place, such as from an agricultural-based economy into industrialized-based economy. Diagram 6 below explains the transitions of economic sectors that happens in the process of a certain country, state or city transforming into becoming urbanized.

Diagram 6: Transformation cycle based on economic developments (Source: Danisworo, 2010)

In most developed countries with high numbers of urbanized population, the scenario above happens progressively within the period of one century. However, Indonesia is experiencing similar transformation process almost within a simultaneous period of this century (Danisworo, 2010). In addition, urbanization of a certain area

 

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are usually caused by these three determining factors: (1) natural increase of population, (2) rural-urban migration, and (3) reclassification. There are two types of urban definition in Indonesia, as stated by Gardiner (2006). One is based on the administrative division, which local government units (kota) were given official status as municipalities. The second definition based on its functional aspect where each smaller administrative units (desa) were given functional status of being urban or rural according to their own characteristics and structures. The Indonesian population censuses conducted in 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 defined a locality to be considered as urbanized when it meets these three requirements; (1) having a population density of 5000 people or more per square kilometer, (2) having 25 percent or less of its households working in the agricultural sector, and (3) having eight or more kinds of basic urban facilities. These facilities include schools, hospitals, primary health care centers, sufficient road network systems, shopping centers, cinemas, market place, factories, banking institutions, restaurants, sufficient electricity and communication infrastructures and other basic public infrastructures. On the other hand, formations of globalized Asian cities are characterized by the followings (Firman, 1999): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Development of economic activities at a global scale Division of functions between core and peripheral area in the city Shifts from being single-core to multi-cored city Conversion of agricultural land on city’s peripheries and changes of land use at the center Development of large-scale urban infrastructures, including airports, seaports, highways, telecommunication networks and other infrastructures Increase of land development rate Increasing numbers of commuters, commuting time and distances

However, the phenomenon of the global city seems to disconnect local economic activities, resulting in regional disparities and uneven distribution of wealth (Ng and Hill, 2003). In general terms, urban development and urbanization patterns in Indonesia were largely affected by its socio-economic developments and political  
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factors, which include the economy boom during the 1980’s to mid 1990’s and the economic crisis at the end of 2000 (Firman, 2002). Changes and reforms of government’s policies and directions from the era of the Old Order (Soekarno’s regime, 1959 – 1966), the New Order (Soeharto’s regime, 1966 – 1998) and the Reformation era of post-Soeharto also contribute to the overall development of Indonesia’s urbanization process. Basically, the development of urban areas and cities were backboned by politics. During Soekarno’s period of presidency, the development of urban areas focused on projects that represent nation and character buildings, while a more capitalistic direction by opening development markets to the globalized world was the focus undertaken during Soeharto’s presidency period. The current urban economic growth in Indonesia is not driven by investments but rely greatly on exports and consumptions. Meanwhile, new laws of regional autonomy and fiscal decentralization would have significant impact towards urbanization in the near future since urban development is becoming a local development affair. As stated by Danisworo (2010), city is the accumulation of decision-makings’ products by many different parties, especially from political decisions. What cities would become are physical manifestations based on the norms practiced during its formation process. In Indonesia, the concentration from capitalistic investments had caused changes in physical developments, but these changes do not apply to behavioral aspects of its dwellers. This dualism phenomenon in most urbanized area of Indonesia has characterized its cities. Looking at these issues, the area of study resembles characteristics as explained above. Shop lots and buildings for commercial uses that are fronting the main street represent a more designed and planned image, while physical developments at areas behind these buildings are mostly structure that are not well planned and are self-regulated. In addition to these physical dualist conditions, dualist behavioral aspects also contributed to the large gap between the two areas – the front and the back. Planning regulations inherited from the Dutch colonial era also contributed to this separation of land use and zoning. Clearly dividing land lots into specific functions of uses, both positive and negative impacts have occurred and making the dualist characteristics stronger. The following chapter will discuss this dualist condition of the site, in relation with the phenomena of urban dualism in most Indonesian cities.  
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V.1.1 Dualism of Indonesia’s Urbanization In her book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), Jane Jacobs pointed out that diversity is natural to big cities. The concept of place and authenticity of a city are often conflicting, and contain contradictions, resistances and differences. In the context of rapid urbanization of most Indonesian’s cities, there are apparently great contrast between kota and kampungs. This dualist condition of the city, which is the product of the above-mentioned decision-makings and transformative process have been discussed long ago by Geertz (1965): “This transformation of kampung or rural into being urbanized or kota have three major aspects. Firstly, there is the emergence of new, semi-modern occupational structure that allowed and encouraged people to move off land and into non-agricultural-based work sectors. Secondly, changes of traditional forms of village social life within the kampungs as the agricultural-based community structure disappeared and new forms of social structure emerge replacing it. Thirdly, partial dissolution of village political structure happens and is reoriented towards the urban political leadership model. In general, it is a process of re-adaptation, not simply of disintegration – as urbanization is so often described.” Referring again to the urban transformation cycle based on economic developments as described in Diagram 1 above, what happened in most urban area of Indonesia are merely ‘physical urbanization’ while most of its dwellers are still not urbanized, mentally. The unsynchronized cultural transformation created this dualism character of the city. The question of integrating the functional and the visual aspects of urban characters holistically had long been a challenge to decision makers and implementers of policies and planning and designs. Table 1 outlined major differences of kampung and kota, and also delineate dualist conditions for urbanized area that were embedded with kampung’s characteristics.

 

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Dualism of Urbanized Indonesian Cities Kampung Space and Place • Tiny space • Fine grain • Public Dualist Conditions • Low-rise settlements • Dense (sprawling low-rise) • Diverse • Soft space • Insecure • Inclusive: no barriers and unfenced • High-rise settlements • Dense (highrise) • Uniform • Hard space Kota • Large space • Massive grain • Private

Legal Aspects

• Majority are illegal (uncertified) • Unprotected • Unplanned and unregulated • Informal and uncontrolled • Unrecognizable boundaries • Less bureaucratic • Autonomy (RT and RW) • Society leaders

• Secured • Exclusive: gated and fenced

• All legal (certified) • Protected • Planned and regulated • Formal and controlled • Recognizable boundaries • More bureaucratic • Central power • DPRD (Provincial Legislative Assembly) • Individualbased • Top-down management • Inadaptable • Multi-ethnic and cultural • Metropolitan • Global • Urban management

Structure

• Democratic

• Top-down power distribution

Sociocultural

• Communitybased • Selfmanagement • Adaptable • Tribal • Kampung and slums • Local • Mutual self-help

• Horizontal conflicts

• Vertical conflicts

Modernization and Globalization

• Traditional

• Modern

Table 1: Dualism in Indonesia’s urbanized areas (Source: Sihombing, 2004) V.1.2 Dualist Condition as Design Potentials From the characteristics above, we can see that the dualist conditions of kampung and kota in most urbanized places in Indonesia have contradictory and  
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different elements between them. However, it is also important to notice their similarity and integration, as these similarities contribute to the important aspects of symbiosis. Historically, both kampung and kota in Indonesia cannot stand-alone. As stated by Siregar (1990), Indonesian cities from the period of the Hindu civilization up to now have contained kampungs but they have never been a kampung. Rossi’s conception of the city as a sedimentary base of meaning critical to the further creation of accumulations through time and space hold no meaning in the newly form urban structure of the capital–driven urbanism. Since globalization has made our urban form becoming disconnected and more generic by the day, the cities are liberated from the captivity of the centre and of identity. Because of poverty and the availability of the informal sectors, kampungs always exist together with kota to support and serve each other. In respect to the main interest of this research, the transformative value that continuously happen in the urbanized area of the city with all of its elements, including the kampung kota needs a better process of allocation and re-allocation of the city’s sources in ensuring fair distributions of wealth for the society. The provisions of conducive in-between spaces in responding to the needs of both the urbanized and non-urbanized dwellers in the city are much needed. This is also important to meet the needs of both formal and informal sectors that have been contributing to the whole transformation process of the urbanized area. Since transformation process cannot happen in a vacuum space, architectural and urban design interventions are some of the most important elements that need to be implemented carefully, with special attention given to the unique conditions of this dualist phenomenon. Essential changes had happened to the lives of these kampung kota communities. If previously they had lived upon agricultural-based economies, now they have to survive the less vital service industries that are being offered the most in cities. This factor is where the symbiosis of this unique dualism shall be accommodated positively. The main characteristics of most kampung kota is that most of its inhabitants originated from the same village or neighborhood, thus creating a strong homogeneity structure within them. Since most of them came from the poor community of the outer city, they are generally low-income and have to labor to survive the demand of the city. However, this does not mean that none of these communities participate in the formal sectors of the cities. Many groups of workers and low-income service providers that work in the trade industries and governmental

 

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offices live in these kampung kota. The low-income level of these groups brings them together with those working in the informal sectors, and this created a mutual togetherness amongst them. (Salim in Budihardjo, 1984). In accommodating the differences in cultural and daily life practices of both the modernized urbanites and the self-regulated community of the kampung kota, it is important to start, firstly, with the recognition of these lower income communities into the better structured system of the city. Rejection and separation will only leave bigger gaps on this dualist condition, and the symbiosis that is being wished for will never happen in a positive manner. Through recognition, it is easier for the community of the kampung kota to adapt into the well-mannered culture of the city. What are meant by well-mannered here are basic lifestyle disciplines such as legality, safety, systematic controls and regulations, and most importantly, cleanliness. It is also through this recognition of both world that the city can be more adaptable into the positive aspects of kampung such as community-based spirits, less bureaucratic systems, self-management and so on. This research would support the maintaining of this dualist urban condition of Indonesian cities, as they uniquely characterized our cities (Amirrol, 2010) and proved to provide positive symbiosis for human interactions and dependency. Apart from allowing synergizing activities to take place, the physical aspects of built environment, resulted from the dualist urban condition between the street fronting development and those behind it offer spatial qualities that are full of surprises, unique and have strong characters. The following chapter will describe and discuss the characteristic of each urban components, and what potential they have in relation to possibilities of regeneration through design infill and specific interventions. V.2 Operational Definition for Specific Interventions Responding to the current condition of the site, which is the by-product of dualist urban characteristics, the thesis utilizes the site’s strong characteristics in creating operational definition for specific interventions. Five design issues will be discussed to help generate possible design infill proposals that are adaptive and inventive:

 

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Street, Public Spaces and Buildings Heritage and Urban Conservation Spatial Characteristics and Qualities Design Intervention Approaches Programming and Adaptive Design Infill

V.2.1 Street, Public Spaces and Buildings The street is an essential thing in connecting urban spaces, bringing people and urban elements together. From the analysis conducted along and around the street and alleyways of Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, one of the most important considerations for the design intervention is to create robust connections between people and buildings that face each other. The design strategy calls for a continuous qualities of street path, blocks and infrastructure, which combined them into an armature – an element that connect and hold the city fabric together. In the case of this intervention, anchors will be placed at strategic locations, creating interesting destination and points for visitors to approach them through the existing small streets and alleys (Figure 8). Victor Gruen, the Austrian architect best known for his commercial and shopping malls in the United States, developed this theory of armature. The labyrinthlike streets of the area, which penetrates from the main street of Jalan Jenderal Sudirman to the settlement areas behind it, provide a good context to implement this idea of connection and networks. The street, a social element in the city may also function as meeting places that can encourage human contact. However, in the case of this study’s site, the street seems to be under-utilized, only functioning as access route for those living there. The potential of the site, which include its strong character as one of the most important area for Bandung may change this condition as long as correct and precise actions were to be implemented. Learning from the critic of Jane Jacobs in her book, ‘The Death and Life of Great American Cities: The Failure of Town Planning’ (1965), this proposal try to improve the quality of life of the street by re-integrating separated elements (housing, commercial, public spaces, leisure) into a continuous networks of programs. The first step to be taken is to give fresh branding idea to the area. From its contextual character, a new kampung kota image as a place making strategy is needed  
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in creating and enhancing new synergy between existing dwellings and home industries. This re-branding concept, which will be known as Kampung Kriya Sudirman will provide better opportunities for home industries, that soon is hoped to create a positive domino effect towards the development of other industries such as tourism and creative markets for the local products of the home industry of the place. To support the idea of Kampung Kriya Sudirman, series of smaller interventions should be placed at strategic places around the site. These series of interventions are urban components and details that are hoped to make the place distinctive and help define its character of place. A rich and rewarding city experience is very important to enhance the quality of place, and creating ‘life between buildings’ is an important measure to achieve this. The seminal text, ‘Life Between Buildings’ by Jan Gehl (1987) is an important reference in developing the idea of placing these interventions. New spatial typologies will be created, and these elements will also function as supporting components for the place re-branding approach.

Figure 8: Street profile studies through mapping of activities and sectional analysis with potential new infill to improve street life qualities (Source: Author, 2011)

 

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REFERENCES*

ADIMIHARDJA, K. & SALURA, P. (2004) Arsitektur Dalam Bingkai Kebudayaan, Foris Publishing: Bandung. AMIRROL, H. (2010) Walking the City: An Alternative Approach in Architectural Pedagogy Through Collaborative Networks, in Soemardi, A.R. (et.al.) (2010) ArtePolis 3 – Creative Collaboration and the Making of Place, Bandung: Institut Teknologi Bandung. ANDERSON, K. (et.al) (2008) Bandung: An Exploration of the Social and Spatial Implications of Policy Transfer, Bandung: Bandung Creative City Movement. ANGELIL, M. & HEBEL, D. (2008) Deviations, Designing Architecture Manual. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich. Germany: Birkhauser. BENTLEY, I. (2001) Urban Transformations: Power, People and Urban Design. London: Routledge. BLAU, E. & RUPNIK, I. (2007) Project Zagreb: Transition as Condition, Strategy, Practice. Barcelona: Actar. BORDEN, I. & CLEAR, N. (2009) Urbanisms, in Bartlett Designs: Speculating with Architecture. London: John Wiley & Sons. BRANDT, C.V. (2008) Direct Urbanism vs. Direct Architecture (AA Diploma 10, Unit Brief). London: AA School of Architecture. BUDIHARDJO, E. (1984) Sejumlah Masalah Permukiman Kota, Bandung: Penerbit Alumni. CLARKE, P. (2008) Metricity: Exploring New Measures of Urban Density. London: Royal College of Art. CORBUSIER, L. (1927) Towards a New Architecture. (translated, with an introduction by Frederick Etchells). London: Architectural Press. DANISWORO, M (2010) Prinsip dan Praktek Rancang Kota di Indonesia, from a lecture delivered at the Institut Teknologi Bandung on November 22, 2010, Bandung: SAPPK. FIRMAN, T. (2002) Urban Development in Indonesia, 1990-2001: From the Boom to the Early Reform Era Through the Crisis, Habitat International Journal 26, pp. 229-49, Vancouver: Habitat International FIRMAN, T. (1999) From “Global City” to “City of Crisis”: Jakarta Metropolitan Region under Economic Turmoil, Habitat International Journal 25.4, pp. 447-466, Vancouver: Habitat International. FIRMAN, T. (2007) The Pattern’s of Indonesia’s Urbanization 1980 – 2006, Urban Policy and Research, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 433 – 454, London: Routledge FOUCAULT, M. (2002) The Archeology of Knowledge. (translated by Sheridan Smith). London: Routledge. FRAMPTON, K. (1990) Modern Architecture – A Critical History. London: Thames and Hudson. FRAMPTON, K. (et al.) (2001) Modernity and Community: Architecture in the Islamic World. Aga Khan Awards for Architecture, London: Thames & Hudson. FREUD, S. (2002) Civilization and Its Discontent, London: Penguin Books. GARDINER, P. and GARDINER, M. (2006 ) Ecology of Population Dynamics in Indonesian Metropolitan Areas, unpublished paper.

 

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GEERTZ, C. (1965) The Social History of an Indonesian Town, Connecticut: Greenwood Press Publisher, Westport. GOLD, J.R. (2007) The Practice of Modernism: Modern Architects and Urban Transformation, 1954-1972. London: Routledge. GROAT, L. & WANG, D. (2002) Architectural Research Methods. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. HABRAKEN, N.J. (1998) The Structure of the Ordinary, Form and Control in the Built Environment, Cambridge & London: MIT Press. HANSON, J. (1999) Urban Transformations: a History of Design Ideas, London: Space Syntax Second International Symposium, Brasilia, Space Syntax Laboratory, University College London. HEALY, P. & BRUYNS, G. (ed.) (2006) De-/signing the Urban. Techno-genesis and the Urban Image. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. HILL, J. (1998) Occupying Architecture. London: Routledge. JACOBS, J. (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities, London: Penguin Books. KHUDORI, D. (2002) Menuju Kampung Pemerdekaan, Jakarta: Yayasan Pondok Rakyat. KOOLHAAS, R. (1978) Delirious New York – A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan. London: Thames and Hudson. KOOLHAAS, R. (2004) Content. London: Taschen. KOOLHAAS, R. & MAU, B. (1995) SMLXL. New York: Monacelli Press. KUNTO, H. (1984) Wajah Bandoeng Tempo Doeloe. Bandung: Penerbit PT Granesia. KUNTO, H. (1986) Semerbak Bunga di Bandung Raya. Bandung: Penerbit PT Granesia. KUSNO, A. (2006) Back to the City: a Note on Urban Architecture in the New Indonesia, in Arts, Popular Culture and Social Change in the New Indonesia, Seminar Proceedings of Conference at the Centre for Southeast Asian Research, pp. 59-93, Institute of Asian Research, University of British Columbia. LEE, C.M. & JACOBY, S. (2007) Typological Formations: Renewable Building Types and the City. London: AA Publications LEVI-STRAUSS, C. (1972) Structural Anthropology, Volume 2, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. LIM, M. (2002) From Walking City to Telematic Metropolis: Changing Urban Form in Bandung, Indonesia, in BUNNEL, T., DRUMMOND, L. & HO, K.C. in Critical Reflections on Cities in Southeast Asia, pp. 75-100, Singapore: Brill Publisher and Times Academic Press. LIM, M. & PADAWANGI, R. (2008) Contesting Alun-Alun: Power Relations, Identities, and the Production of Urban Spaces in Bandung, Indonesia, Liverpool: International Development and Planning Review, Vol. 30 (3), pp. 307-326, Liverpool University Press. LIM, W. (1990) Cities for People – Reflections of a Southeast Asian Architect. Singapore: Select Publishing. LIM, W. (1998) Asian New Urbanism. Singapore: Select Publishing. LIM, W. (2001) Alternatives in Transition – The Postmodern, Glocality and Social Justice. Singapore: Select Publishing. LOW, K.M. (2010) Small Projects. Singapore: Oro Editions. LYNCH, K. (1959) The Image of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press.

 

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MALLGRAVE, H.F (2005) Modern Architectural Theory: a Historical Survey, 1673-1968, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. MARX, K. (2007) Dispatches for the New York Tribune, (eds. James Ledbetter), London: Penguin Books. MERLEU-PONTY, M. (1962) Phenomenology of Perception. (translated by Colin Smith). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. MIRZA, S. (2010) Strategic Urban Planning and Design Tools for Inner City Regeneration: Towards a Strategic Approach of Sustainable Urban Form Future – the Case of Bandung City, Netherlands: International Society of City and Regional Planners (ISOCARP). NALBANTAGLU, G.B. & WONG, C.T. (ed.) (1997) Postcolonial Space(s). New York: Princeton Architectural Press. NAS, P.J. (2007) The Past in the Present: Architecture in Indonesia. Rotterdam: Netherlands Architecture Institute. NG, M.K. & HILLS, P. (2003) World Cities or Great Cities? A Comparative Study of Five Asian Metropolises, Cities, 20,3, p.p. 151-165, Hong Kong: Sustainable World Cities Programme. POERBO, H.W. (2008) Coping With the Commodification of Culture in Bandung: an Urban Design Control Approach, Bandung: Arte-Polis 2, Institut Teknologi Bandung. PURNOMO, A. (2005) Relativitas – Arsitek di Ruang Angan dan Kenyataan. Jakarta: Borneo Publications. ROSSI, A. (1966) Architecture of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press. ROWE, P. (1987) Design Thinking. Cambridge: The MIT Press. SIHOMBING, A. (2004) The Transformation of Kampung Kota: Symbiosis Between Kampung and Kota – A Case Study from Jakarta, Jakarta: Department of Architecture, Univesitas Indonesia. SIREGAR, S.A. (1990) Bandung—The Architecture of a City in Development: Urban Analysis of a Regional Capital as a Contribution to the Present Debate on Indonesian Urbanity and Architectural Identity (Doctoral Dissertation), Leiven: Katholieke Universiteit Leiven. SUGANDA, H. (2002) Jendela Bandung – Pengalaman Bersama KOMPAS. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas. SUNARYO, R.G. (2007) Mengikuti Langkah Pikir Romo Mangun: Sebuah Tinjauan Mengenai Metode Perancangan Arsitektur Yusuf Bilyarta Mangunwijaya, Surabaya: Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, Vol. 35, No. 1 pp. 41 -45. TSCHUMI, B. (1990) Questions of Space: Lectures on Architecture. London: AA Publications. VENTURI, R. (1966) Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. New York: The Museum of Modern Art. VENTURI, R., BROWN, D.S. & IZENOUR, S. (1972) Learning From Las Vegas. Cambridge: The MIT Press. ZUBIR, S.S. & AMIRROL, H (2007) The Ritual Art of Offering as Catalyst for Sustainable Urban Intervention, Southampton: WIT Press. ZUBIR, S.S & SULAIMAN, W.A (2004) Verendahways as Catalyst for Walking in a Tropical City, in Walk 21-V Cities for People, Denmark: The Fifth International Conference on Walking in the 21st Century. ZUBIR, S.S & SULAIMAN, W.A (2004) Initiatives and Intervention in Promoting

 

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Pedestrianization in the Historic City of Melaka, Malaysia, in Walk 21-V Cities for People, Denmark: The Fifth International Conference on Walking in the 21st Century. ZUMTHOR, P. (1998) Thinking Architecture. Basel: Birkhäuser.

*Tentative reading list, and the list may expand as the thesis research progress.

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