You are on page 1of 9




P. CA WLEY University of Bristol

R. D. ADAMS University of Bristol. Fellow of the Institution

A method of non-destructively assessing the integrity of structures using measurements of the structural natural
frequencies is described. It is shown how measurcments made at a single point in the structure can be used to detect,
locate and quantify damage. The scheme presented uses finite-element analysis, since this method may be used on any
structure. The principle may, however, be used in conjunction with other mathematical techniques. Only one full
analysis is required for each type of structure.
Results are presented from tests on an aluminium plate and a cross-ply carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic plate. Excel-
lent agreement is shown between the predicted and actual damage sites and a useful indication of the magnitude of the
defect is obtained.

1 INTRODUCTION Location and assessment of the severity of the damage,

A d a m et al. (1)t found that, with fibre-reinforced however, requires that a full dynamic analysis of the struc-
plastics, a state of damage could be detected by a reduc- ture be carried out. This analysis must be sufficiently
tion in dynamic stiffness and an increase in damping, accurate to give a reasonable indication of the mode
whether this damage was localized, as in a crack, or distri- shapes.
buted through the bulk of the specimen as many micro- The present work describes the extension of the
cracks. Changes of stlffness, whether local or distributed, frequency method to two-dimensional and, potentially, to
lead to changes in the natural frequencies of the structure. three-dimensional structures. The analysis of the one-
Also, since the stress distribution through a vibrating dimensional structures described in (2) was carried out
structure is non-uniform and is different for each natural using receptance techniques (3). There is no two-dimen-
frequency (mode), any localized damage would affect each sional equivalent of the receptance technique, so another
mode differently, depending on the particular location of method had to be used. Finite-element analysis was
the damage. Thus, the measurement of the natural fre- chosen as it is well-documented (4), accurate, and can be
quencies of a structure at two or more stages of its life used to analyse any structure. The method described in
offers the possibility of locating damage in the structure this paper is therefore applicable to all structures, and the
and of determining the severity of the damage. If one set of proposed technique can be used with any type of
frequencies were measured before the structure was put structural vibration, that is torsional, axial, flexural or
into service, subsequent frequency measurements could be combinations of these. When testing one-dimensional
used to test whether the structure was still sound. Changes structures, it was convenient to use axial or torsional
in damping could be used in exactly the same manner for modes, but this is not practicable with shell-type struc-
locating defects. tures, so the results presented here were obtained using
Measurement of the dynamic characteristics, natural flexural vibration.
frequencies and damping, of a structure is potentially a Measurements of structural damping were not under-
very attractive method of non-destructive testing, since taken in the tests described here, though the results of (1)
these properties can be measured at one point of the struc- indicate that the damping would increase with damage. It
ture and are independent of the position chosen. was felt that changes in dynamic stiffness would be easier
The authors ( 2 ) successfully tested the frequency- to measure than changes in damping, though it is intended
measurement principle on structures which could be to investigate the latter at a later stage.
treated as one-dimensional and which were, therefore, cap-
able of solution by closed-form analytical techniques. It 1.1 Notation
was found to be possible to detect damage equivalent to A Area of damage
the removal of one per cent of the cross-sectional area of B Matrix of derivatives of element shape func-
the structure at a single location. Excellent agreement was tions
also obtained between the predicted and actual damage D Elasticity matrix
sites. The presence of damage can be detected simply by De Average elasticity matrix for layered material
noting changes in the natural frequencies of the structure. Dk Elasticity matrix for kth layer of layered
The MS. of this paper was received at the Institution on 20th July 1978
D* Elasticity matrix for damaged volume
and acceptedfor publication on 15th November 1978. E Total normalized error
t References are given in Appendix 2 . e Error



Functions Thus, provided that the change in stiffness is independent

z co-ordinate of top of kth layer of layered offrequency,
Functions of x, y
Global stiffness matrix
Element stiffness matrix
The ratio of the frequency changes in two modes is
Global mass matrix
Number of layers therefore only a function of the damage location. Posi-
tions where the theoretically determined ratio 6oi/60,
Volume of damage
Position vector equals the experimentally measured value are therefore
Strain energy possible damage sites.
Sensitivity of mode i to damage at r It is now necessary to compute the change in the
Thickness natural frequency of the structure due to damage at a
given site. The basis of the method is to consider damage
Weighting factor as a local decrease in the stiffness of the structure. One
Mode shape vector way of computing the changes in the natural frequencies
Co-ordinate in thickness direction due to damage in a given element of the finite-element
mesh would be to reduce the stiffness of that element and
Small change in quantity X
Strain vector to repeat the dynamic analysis. This could be done for
each element in turn, so that the theoretical changes in
Stress vector frequency for damage at a number of sites would be
Frequency found. The problem with this method is that the amount of
computer time involved would be prohibitive.
i,j Mode i,j 2.3 Use of sensitivity analysis
r Position given by vector r A very attractive alternative to repeating the full dynamic
min Minimum analysis in order to compute the changes in the natural
k Layer number frequencies due to localized damage is to use a sensitivity
(perturbation) analysis. The basic principles of the method
2 THEORY are described by, for example, Courant and Hilbert (8). By
this method, the sensitivities of the natural frequencies of a
2.1 Dynamic analysis system to small changes in the stiffness are calculated
The computer program used for the basic dynamic from the mode shapes of the undamaged structure pro-
analysis has been described in (5). The element used was duced by the initial full dynamic analysis.
the eight-node, 40 degrees-of-freedom finite-element The basic eigenvalue equation which is solved in the
described by Zienkiewicz et al. (6)(7). This element was dynamic analysis was
chosen because it can accommodate irregularly-shaped
boundaries and is readily generalizable to shells. It can (K - MI)x = 0 (6)
therefore be used in the analysis of most two-dimensional Consider the effect of a small change, SK, in the stiffness
structures. All the results presented in this paper have been matrix with similarly denoted changes in the other para-
obtained using this element. None of this analysis, how- meters. Equation (6) then becomes
ever, is specifically dependent on this particular element
but can be applied to any, suitable, type of element. {(K+ 6 K ) - ( M + 6M)(A+ SI)} (X + 6 ~=) 0 (7)
Multiplying out and neglecting second-order terms yields
2.2 Method of damage location
The change in the natural frequency of mode i of a K x - W X - I ~ M X~+ K x
structure due to localized damage is a function of the posi-
tion vector of the damage, r, and the reduction in stiffness -~IMx+K~x-W~X=O (8)
caused by the damage, 6K. Thus But K x - IMx = 0 from equation (6) and the model of
damage used does not include a change in mass, so 6M =
= f ( 6 K r)
h, (1) 0. Equation (8) therefore reduces to
Expanding this function about the undamaged state (6K =
0), and ignoring second-order terms, yields ~ K -x6AMx + K 6 ~ A
- M ~=x0 (9)

8s Multiplying through by X-T gives

60, = f ( 0 ,r) + 6K -(0,r)
WK) X' 6K x - 6A X'MX+ ( J K - A x ' M ) 6~= 0 (10)
But f ( 0 , r) = 0, for all r, since there is no frequency Since K and M are symmetric matrices (4), the transpose
change without damage. Hence, of equation (6) is

60, = 6Kg,(r) (3) J ( K - IM)= 0

Similarly, Post-multiplying by 6x gives
60, = 6K g,(r) (4) ( J K- A i M ) 6x = 0



Hence, equation (10) reduces to define the damage site uniquely or to reduce the number of
possible sites to the minimum dictated by symmetry. How-
ever, because the frequency changes tend to be small and
the model of damage is unsophisticated, it is desirable to
XT 6 K x use a larger number of mode pairs, so that some averaging
6A = ~

of the results is obtained. This scheme has been imple-

mented, but it was found difficult to automate the plotting
The sensitivities of the natural frequencies to changes in of the loci, which meant that they had to be plotted
stiffness, 6K, may therefore be readily computed from the manually. This procedure was very tedious, particularly
mode shape vectors and the mass matrix of the un- when a large number of mode pairs was used.
damaged system. These may be output from the dynamic An alternative was to output the sensitivities at a series
analysis. of grid points and to compute an error function at each
It is now necessary to compute the change in stiffness, point, which was a measure of the error in assuming the
6K, due to damage at a point in the structure. The element damage to be at that point. The point at which the error
stiffness matrix is given by (4) was a minimum gave the approximate position of the
Ke = Jv BTDB d V damage.
(12) Define the error in assuming the damage to be at posi-
Consider a change in the stiffness of the element over tion r, given frequency changes d o i and 6oj in modes i
some volume R. Then the change in the stiffness matrix is andj, respectively, as
given by
6K = IRBT(D*- D)B d V errJ..=-- 1,
(13) 6w;l6w, s,; 6w;
In two-dimensional structures, the damage is modelled as
being of constant severity through the thickness and
affecting an area A . If the damaged area is small, then
6K z !iB'(D* - D)B],A dz (14) The total error, e,, in assuming the damage to be at posi-
tion r is the sum of the errors in all the mode pairs. Thus,
where [BT(D* - D)BI, denotes that the expression within
the brackets is evaluated at the position of the damage site, e,= e,ij
r. For a three-dimensional structure, the corresponding allpairs i . j

expression would be To aid interpretation, this error is normalized with

respect to the minimum value of the total error. The final
6K z RIBT(D* - D)Bl, value output to the damage location chart is
If it is assumed that the damage affects the stiffness by
the same proportion in all directions, then (D* - D ) K D.
If the damage is equivalent to a hole, then D* = 0 and er
equation (14) reduces to The most probable damage site(s) is (are) therefore that
6K z - I,(Br DB),A dz (those) where E, = 100.
This expression may be readily evaluated using the Hole
routines which calculate the stiffness matrix in the I
dynamic analysis. Equation (1 1) may then be used to out-
put the sensitivities of the natural frequencies to damage at
any point of the structure.
The results of the sensitivity analysis when the damage
has been taken to be the equivalent of removing a whole
element have been compared with those obtained by
setting the stiffness of the element to zero and repeating
the dynamic analysis. Excellent agreement was obtained,
so the sensitivity analysis method was adopted for all the
tests reported here.

2.4 Presentation of the results of the location scheme

2 2; 4 5 ; 57 1001 100 57; 5 4; 2 2
Measurement of the frequency changes in one pair of I I I I I
modes will yield a locus of possible damage sites, that is, 2 21 4 41 28 1 8 1 IS 201 4 41 2 2
points where the ratio of the experimentally determined
I 2; 4 5 ; 6 6 ; 6 6 ; 5 4; 2 I
changes equal the theoretical ratio. The loci for several I I I I I
pairs of modes may be superimposed, the actual damage 2 21 2 31 3 31 3 31 3 21 2 2
site being given by the intersection of the curves. With
symmetrical structures, two or more sites will be pre- - - - - Finite-elementmesh
dicted, the number depending on the degree of geometric Plate boundaries
symmetry and the elastic symmetry of the structural
material. At least two mode pairs must be used in order to Fig. 1. Location chart for rectangular aluminium plate with hole


It remains to decide how many grid points should be Thus, for the example shown in Fig. 2, W,,, ",0; W,,, z
used. The finite element used in the work described here 1.
gives a quadratic displacement variation across it, which The values of stresses at the grid points may be com-
allows for a linear stress variation. The effect of damage at puted during the dynamic analysis using standard tech-
a point in the structure is dependent on the stress at that niques (4). The values of the stresses obtained depend on
point, so it would be wasteful of computer time to use the position through the thickness at which they are calcu-
more than two grid points along one side of the element. lated. In flexural vibration, the direct stresses would be
Values between the points could be computed by inter- zero at the midplane. The stresses are therefore calculated
polation. The results presented here have been computed at a point away from the midplane, the precise position
using a 6 x 6 finite-element mesh with two grid points per being immaterial, since only the direction of the stress
element side, giving 144 points in all. The accuracy vector is required, not the magnitude. The transverse shear
obtained has not warranted the use of interpolation stresses were sufficiently small to be neglected in all the
between the points. structures tested. Most of the results presented in this
An example of the chart output is given in Fig. 1, the paper were obtained on structures fabricated from layered
hole shown being the actual damage in this case. The materials. If the stress-weighting procedure described
dotted lines show the finite-element mesh. In this case, four above is to be used with these materials, it is necessary to
possible sites are indicated because of symmetry. compute a n average stress vector. This is because the
direction of the stress vector at a given position through
2.5 Problem of directional damage the thickness depends on the orientation of the layer. A
The model of damage used in the preceding sections has mean value may be computed by defining an average elas-
assumed that the local stiffness of the structure is reduced ticity matrix for the ply orientations used. The derivation
by the same proportion in all directions. This would be the of this matrix is described in Appendix 1.
case with a hole in an isotropic material, but the assump- In practice, in order to reduce the amount of data
tion is no longer valid with a crack or with a hole in an required to be output from the dynamic analysis and
anisotropic material. hence to save on the amount of disc space relquired, the
Consider the situation shown in Fig. 2. The crack stresses were computed at the mid-points of the elements.
shown will have negligible effect on the frequency of mode These values were then assigned to all the grid points
B, since there is little stress across it, whereas a hole at that within the element. This procedure is sufficiently accurate
site would have a significant effect. O n the other hand, the provided the stress directions d o not change rapidly with
crack would have a relatively large effect on modes A and position. (Rapid change of magnitude does not matter as
C. The damage location scheme described in the previous the stresses are normalized.) This is the case with the lower
section would, therefore, be expected to give erroneous modes of vibration, such as those used in this investi-
results with mode pairs A and B or B and C. O n the other gation.
hand, modes A and C should give good results, since the The stress-weighting procedure has been adopted in all
stress direction at the crack is similar in the two modes. the results presented here. The results obtained without
The damage location scheme could therefore be improved weighting were fairly similar to those presented, parti-
by giving high weight to modes in which the directions of cularly in cases where more modes were used. This is
the stress vectors at the point of interest are similar, and probably because the results tend to average-out to give
low weight to modes where there is low similarity. This is the correct solution. The results with stress-weighting
readily achieved by weighting the error according to the tended to be better defined and there was a marked
scalar product of the normalized stress vectors for the two improvement in some cases where only a few rnodes were
modes. Thus, equation (17) becomes used.

e, = e," Wrij 2.6 Problem of erroneous frequency measurements

all palrs 1.1 Occasionally, it was found that the results using the
damage location scheme described in the preceding sec-
where tions were incorrect but that the errors were rectified if the
results were computed without using the readings from
one mode. This could be due to an error in thr: frequency

measurements, the appearance of a double resonance
which was not noticed, a relatively large change in mode
Displacement nodal lines
shape due to the damage (the location scheme assumes
that the mode shape is essentially unchanged) or the model
of damage not being good enough to predict the frequency
change accurately. A method was therefore sought to
automate the procedure of checking whether one mode
_ _ _ _ - was causing the final result to be incorrect.
The technique developed uses the fact that if one mode
---- is causing errors in the final results while the osther modes
give correct results, then removing this mode will tend to
make the damage site more clearly defined on the location
Crack chart. The sum of the numbers on the location chart will
therefore be reduced. The modified location scheme com-
Fig. 2. Illustration of the problem of directional damage putes the results with all the modes included and with each

52 J O U R N A L OF STRAIN ANALYSIS VOL 14 NO 2 1979 @IMechE 1979


mode neglected,in turn. The final solution is taken as the easily met, a variety of methods of exciting and detecting
one with the lowest sum of numbers on the chart. If less the vibrational response may be used. The best method to
than five modes are measured, then all the readings must use in industrial applications would probably be the tran-
be used. sient test, in which the response of the structure to an
impulse is recorded and the natural frequencies computed
2.7 Estimation of the magnitude of damage by Fourier transform techniques. Unfortunately, the
The sensitivity analysis uses equations (11) and (15) to necessary equipment was not available when these tests
output the frequency change in each mode due to a hole of were carried out, so the results presented here were
area A centred on each of the grid points in turn. Compari- obtained using steady-state measurements, which are
son of the measured frequency change in a given mode slower and more difficult to perform. It is hoped to report
with that given by the sensitivity analysis for a hole of area some results obtained using the transient test later.
A at the predicted damage site therefore gives an indica- The system used in this investigation was identical to
tion of the severity of the damage in terms of the size of a that described in (5). The structures were suspended on
hole equivalent to the damage. The result varies consider- nylon thread passed through small holes near the edge of
ably between the modes, particularly if the damage is the structure. Excitation was provided by a moving-coil
directional, so an average value is taken. loudspeaker fed by a high-stability, variable-frequency
The method gives a rough indication of the magnitude oscillator and a power amplifier. Resonance was located
of the damage, but is clearly not accurate. The calculation by tuning to the maximum output of a piezoelectric strain-
is performed at the grid point where the error is a mini- gauge cemented to the structure at a point where the
mum, but the damaged area may be between grid points. stresses across it were predicted to be non-zero in the
This can introduce a substantial error into the calculation. modes of interest.
The model of damage used does not take into account the The tests were carried out in a constant-temperature
mass of material removed by a hole. This is reasonable enclosure, which kept the structure under test at 25 &
with most types of damage, since damage does not usually 1OC. This was found to be sufficiently stable to enable
reduce the mass of the structure. An error is, however, accurate frequency changes to be recorded. With metallic
introduced in the case of a hole. The sensitivity analysis is structures, it was found to be possible to dispense with the
probably only accurate for relatively small changes in the constant-temperature enclosure and to use a correction
local stiffness, since it does not take account of the effect factor based on the temperature coefficient of Young’s
of stress concentrations around the damage. This means modulus, as described in (2). This would be much more
that the effect of a hole is underestimated, resulting in the difficult with composite materials, since the different
area predicted from the measured frequency changes moduli have different temperature coefficients and the
being larger than the actual size of the hole. Nevertheless, coefficients of expansion would be direction-dependent.
the method gives a useful indication of the severity of the Probably the easiest way to determine the correction
damage. The results show that the predicted severity factors with composite materials would be to measure
always increases as the amount of damage is increased. them experimentally from the variation of the natural
frequency with temperature. The signal from the oscillator
was stable to & 0.01 Hz and resonance could be found to
2.8 Final damage location scheme
within 0.1 Hz with most of the modes used. With metallic
The method implemented for these tests involved per-
structures, the resolution was typically better than 0.05
forming the dynamic analysis, the sensitivity analysis and
the stress calculations on the University ICL 4-70
The damage location scheme requires that the mode
computer, the results being output to disc or tape. The
shapes of the modes used be similar to those predicted by
time taken by this program was approximately 50 per cent
the dynamic analysis. Some symmetrical structures have
higher than that required for a single dynamic analysis, so
two or more modes at the same frequency, the mode
the saving in computer time over repeating the dynamic
excited in practice being a combination of the two depend-
analysis with each element damaged in turn was very
ing on the position and nature of the excitation. In these
cases, it is impossible to determine accurately the mode
These results, together with the experimental measure-
shape. Modes of this type were therefore not used in the
ments, were then used as input to the program which com-
location scheme.
puted the relative errors and produced the location chart.
The mode shapes of the structures tested were checked
This program could be readily adapted to run on a micro-
roughly by determining the nodal patterns. The structure
computer. The .major computational effort is in per-
was placed on sponge-rubber blocks and excited by an
forming the original analysis. However, this need only be
electromechanical shaker. Dry sand was spread lightly
performed once for a given type of structure.
over the surface of the structure. When the system was
tuned to resonance, the sand particles migrated to the
3 TEST PROCEDURE nodal lines, giving a check on the theoretical predictions of
their position.
The basic requirement of the method is to determine repro- The test procedure used was to measure the initial
ducibly several natural frequencies of the structure under frequencies of the structure, remove it from the constant-
consideration. It does not matter whether the boundary temperature enclosure, apply the damage and return it to
conditions are exactly the same as those assumed in the the enclosure. After allowing time for the temperature of
dynamic analysis provided that they are reproducible and the structure to stabilize, the frequencies were again
the mode shapes are not greatly altered from those pre- measured. The frequencies quoted in Tables 1 and 2 are
dicted by the theoretical model. Since this criterion is the averages of two or more readings.



Undamaged frequencies (Hz)

Area removed
Damage 125.05 158.94 278.29 301.52 361.44 466.98 (percentage

Frequency reductions (Hz) Actual Predicted

Rectangular 0.41 0.77 1.18 0.37 0.72 0.81 0.31 0.47


Undamaged frequencies (Hz)
Predicted area.
Damage 104.32 260.98 312.74 415.29 584.48 693.24 794.70 936.50 1062.25 1150.93 removed with respect
to virgin condition
Frequency reductions from virgin condition (Hz) (percentage of total)
First saw cut 0.06 0.39 0.29 0.14 -0.07 0.14 2.70 0.62 0.20 0.28 0.19
Secondsawcut 0.85 5.46 4.50 2.08 1.78 4.32 5.29 3.70 1.20 1.68 2.17
Crushdamage 1.24 5.66 5.91 3.44 3.93 4.38 9.02 6.90 10.41 6.51 3.65

4 RESULTS Saw cut

The tests reported here were of a preliminary nature and
were on simple, two-dimensional structures; these tests
were carried out in order to test the accuracy of the pro-
posed technique. The results from tests on more compli-
cated structures with forms of damage which are more
representative of those likely to be encountered in service
will be presented later (9).
The first test was carried out on an aluminium plate of
dimensions 450 x 350 x 6 mm with damage produced by
cutting a rectangular hole at the position shown in Fig. 1,
which also shows the location chart produced from the
frequency measurements set out in Table 1. It can be seen
that the damage was successfully located within the con-
straints imposed by symmetry. The discrepancy between
the actual area removed and that predicted by the loca-
tion routine is probably due to the factors referred to in
Section 2.1.
The second set of tests was performed on a trapezoidal,
cross-ply, carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate,
which was cut from a square plate of side 250 mm and
thickness 2.8 mm, fabricated from HT-S carbon fibre in
DX 210 epoxy-resin. This plate was damaged with saw
cuts, the first being 2.5 cm long at the position shown in
y 4
- - - - Finite-element mesh
Plate boundaries

Fig. 3. The location chart shown in Fig. 3 relates to this

case. Since this structure was asymmetrical, the damage Fig. 3. Location chart for CFRP plate with single saw cut
site was uniquely defined on the location chart. The
second cut was of a similar size but was approximately at The plate was then damaged again at the site shown in
right angles to the first and at the same site. The location Fig. 6, by supporting the plate on a thick-walled steel tube
chart for damage comprising the two cuts together is and pressing a 25-mm diameter steel ball into the surface
shown in Fig. 4. of the plate at the centre-line of the tube using a hydraulic
If the technique described here were to be used as an in- press. The location chart shown in Fig. 6 was produced
service test with measurements being made periodically, it from the frequency changes caused by the cru:shing with
would be important to be able to detect and locate changes the ball-bearing alone, that is, using the frequencies
in the condition of the structure, not only with respect to obtained with the two saw cuts as the initial condition.
the virgin condition but also with respect to a stage where The model of damage used assumes that the damage is
some damage was present. In order to test the method at one site only. It would be difficult to amend the
under these conditions, a location chart was produced technique to enable the location of damage at two or more
using the frequency changes between the first and second sites, and this case would probably be unusual i n practice.
sets of damage. This is shown in Fig. 5 . It can be seen that The location scheme was tested with the case of damage at
the damage is again successfully located. two sites by using the changes between the virgin fre-



Saw cuts Saw cuts

/- I
- - - Finite-element mesh
Plate boundaries

Fig. 4. Location chart for CFRP plate with t w o saw cuts; frequency Fig. 6. Location chart for CFRP plate with t w o saw cuts and crush
changes computed with respect to virgin frequencies damage; frequencies after both saw cuts taken as 'undamaged'

Second saw cut

/ First saw cut Saw cuts
/ /

/ _ _ _ _ Finite-element mesh
-Plate boundaries

Fig. 5. Location chart for CFRP plate with two saw cuts; Fig. 7. Location chart for CFRP plate with t w o saw cuts and
frequencies after first cut taken as 'undamaged' values crush damage; virgin frequencies taken as 'undamaged' values

quencies and those measured after the crush damage had of tests are set out in Table 2. It can be seen that the
been applied. The location chart for this case is shown in frequency changes produced by the first saw cut are much
Fig. 7. As expected, erroneous results were produced. The smaller than those produced by the second, in spite of the
presence of damage was, however, still detected from the fact that the cuts were of similar length. The predicted
frequency changes. equivalent area removed was 0.19 per cent for the first saw
The frequency measurements and the equivalent areas cut and 2.17 per cent after the second had been made. It
removed as predicted by the location routine for this series would appear to be difficult to reconcile the fact that two

J O U R N A L O F S T R A I N A N A L Y S I S VOL 14 N O 2 1979 O l M e c h E 1979 55


cuts of similar length produce such disparate areas of APPENDIX 1

damage. The explanation is that the routine which esti-
mates the severity of the damage assumes that the damage DERIVATION OF MEAN ELASTICITY MATRIX FOR A
is in the form of a hole. The stress at the position of the LAYERED MATERIAL
saw cuts in the modes of interest was mainly in a direc-
The strain energy of a structure at any instant is given by
tion parallel to the first cut, which was close to, and
parallel to, the plate edge. Thus, a small hole at that site S = J&'E dV (2 1)
would produce the same frequency changes as this cut. and stress and strain are related according to the equation
The second cut, however, was approximately per-
pendicular to the directions of the major stresses, so a 6 = DE (22)
much larger hole would be required to produce an equi- Thus, the strain energy is given by
valent effect, that is, a relatively large frequency reduc-
tion. The value of the equivalent area removed produced ,
S = $ 1 E ~ DdEV (23)
by the analysis of Section 2.7 can therefore only be It is required to derive a mean elasticity matrix for a struc-
expected to give an idea of the order of the severity of a ture fabricated from n layers so that an average stress
defect unless the damage has the same effect on the stiff- vector may be found. This may be done by specifying that
ness of the structure in all directions. The analysis also the strain energy of the structure computed using the mean
assumes that the damage is at a single site defined by the elasticity matrix according to equation (23) is the same as
grid point at which the location chart shows a value of that obtained by summing the strain energies of the indivi-
100. In the case where the saw cuts and crush damage are dual layers. That is,
combined and compared with the virgin condition, n
erroneous results must therefore be expected from the jJ,eTDeEdV=$ 1 J,ETDkedV (24)
routine, both in terms of defect location and size. It should k=l

be noted that the case given in Table 2 for crush damage where De is the mean elasticity matrix and Dk is the elasti-
corresponds to Fig. 7 and not to Fig. 6. The predicted city matrix of the kth layer, the integral on the right-hand
equivalent area removed corresponding to the location side of the equation being taken over the volume of the
chart shown in Fig. 6, which relates to the case where the layer and that on the left being over the volume of the
frequencies after the crush damage were compared with structure. Cartesian co-ordinates have been used in the
those after the application of the saw cuts, was 1.02 per work described here and, in this case, equati.on (24)
cent of the plate area. The actual area of the tube used in becomes
producing this damage was approximately 0.5 per cent of
the area of the plate, and it is fair to assume that the actual
111&'Dee d x dy dz = 111E'D~Ed x dy dz (25)
damaged area would spread somewhat beyond this. Thus,
the predicted damaged area of 1.02 per cent was of a The elasticity matrices are not dependent on x and y , so
similar order, bearing in mind the assumptions and equation (25) reduces to
simplifications used, to the actual damaged area. n
One of the modes tested showed a frequency increase 1,eTDe&dz = 1 E ~ Ddz~ c
after the first saw cut. This was probably due to an error in
the initial frequency measurement, so this mode was not where h, is the z co-ordinate of the top of the kth layer.
used in the damage location scheme. Flexural vibration has been used in the tests reported
here, so it is reasonable to assume a linear direct-strain
variation through the thickness and a parabolic transverse
5 CONCLUSIONS shear-strain variation. The strain vector for the element
The test results show that the proposed method can be used here is therefore given by
used to detect, locate and roughly quantify damage in
structures. The technique is applicable to all systems
which are amenable to finite-element analysis. The final
scheme has the advantage that only one dynamic finite-
element analysis need be performed on a given type of
structure. The results of the dynamic analysis may be
stored on disc or tape and used as input to the damage
location program, along with the experimentally-deter-
where k,, . . ., k , are functions of x and y.
mined natural frequencies. This program could be easily Substituting equation (27) into equation (26) and equa-
run on a microcomputer. ting similar terms gives
The method requires access to only one point of the
structure and, if the measurement of the natural fre-
quencies were carried out using transient techniques, the
test time would be very short. The presence of damage is

indicated immediately from changes in the natural fre- 15 8
quencies without the need for any computation.
It is possible to use the method to monitor the growth of
0; = -
- hk- --
3t 2
(hi - h i - (28)

damage without the need to have measured the fre-

quencies of the virgin structure by using a damaged state + -(hi - hi- ,)
as the baseline for future measurements. 5P

56 JOURNAL OF STRAIN ANALYSIS VOL 14 NO 2 1979 OlblechE 1979


The C F R P structure used here had a symmetrical ply (3) BISHOP, R. E. D. and JOHNSON, D. C. The mechanics of vibra-
configuration about the midplane. This means that fion 1960 (Cambridge University Press).
(4) ZIENKIEWICZ, 0. C. The finite element method in engineering
De - D e - D e - D ; , = D e - D e -0 science 197 I (McGraw-Hill).
13- 14- 23- 3s - 4s -
(5) CAWLEY. P. and ADAMS. R. D. ‘The theoretical and experi-
The average elasticity matrix, De, defined by equation mental natural modes of free-free C F R P plates’, Jnl of Composite
(28) has been used to compute the stress vectors for the M t l ~1978 12,336-347.
C F R P plate used in these tests. (6) AHMAD, S., IRONS, B. M. and ZIENKIEWICZ, 0. C. ‘Analysis
of thick and thin shell structures by curved finite elements’, In!. J.
Numerical Methods in Engng 1970 2,419.
‘Reduced integration technique in general analysis of plates and
shells’, Int. J. Numerical Methods in Engng 1911 3, 275.
(8) COURANT, R. and HILBERT, D. Methods of mathematical
ADAMS, R. D., WALTON. D.. FLITCROFT, J. E. and SHORT. phvsics 1953 1 (Interscience).
D. ‘Vibration testing as a non-destructive test tool for composite (9) CAWLEY, P. and ADAMS, R. D. ‘A vibration technique for
materials’, Composite Reliability, ASTM STP 580 1975, 159-175 non-destructive testing of fibre composite structures’, Jnl of
(Amer. SOC. for Testing and Mtls). Composite Mtls 1978 (to be published).
ADAMS. R. D.. CAWLEY, P., PYE. C. J. and STONE, B. J. ‘A
vibration technique for non-destructively assessing the integrity of
structures’, J. mech. Engng Sci. 1978 20 (No. 2), 93-100.

J O U R N A L OF S T R A I N A N A L Y S I S VOL 14 N O 2 1 Y 7 Y OIMecht 1979