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/f]Sg] clek|foaf6 @) cf}+ ztfAbLsf] cfwf/sf ?kdf !) jif]{ hgo'4sf] qmddf -@)^@÷)^#_ km]l/Psf] /fhg}lts lgdf{0f ug{ ;s]sf 5}gg\ . tby{jfbL
hgdt ;+ux| sf] Ph]08f lglj{sNk aGg k'u]sf] 5 . pQ/fw{ l t/ JolQmut :jtGqtf, ljsf; u/] . h;nfO{ pgLx?n] k|r08kysf] kl/j]z / ;fdflhs cGtlj{/f]wsf] 9+un] oL bnx? ;+rfng ePsf 5g\ .
x:tIf]kljxLg cy{tGq -pbf/jfb_ / gfdfs/0f u/] . zflGt k|lqmof;Fu} k|r08ky k[i7e"lddf kf6L{x?n] gofF ljrf/sf] ax; Pdfn] leqsf] dfwjs'df/ g]kfnsf] u'6sf]
To;}n] b]znfO{ jt{dfg /fhgLlts ;+s6af6 kf/ cfly{s ;dfgtf / JolQmsf] ;§f 5f8]sf dfcf]jfbLn] gofF hgjfbsf] s'/f rnfpg] ck]Iff ul/Psf] lyof] . ljsl;t cndn / rf}af6f]sf] l:yltdf 5 . o:tf]
nufpg tTsfn k|ultzLn ;+oQ' m ;/sf/ agfP/ hgdt ;fdflhs lxtnfO{ pRr k|fyldstf - ub{5g\ . pTkLl8t, dlxnf blnt, ;fdflhs ;DaGw / cGt/lj/f]w xn l:ylt x'gd' f ljrf/z"Gotfn] l;h{gf
;dfhjfb_ lbFb} o'/f]kdf nf]stflGqs hghflt, l;dfGts[t ;d'bfonfO{ ug]{ ;jfndf jLkLsf] k|hftflGqs u/]sf] ;d:of xf] . cf]nLsf] lsQfdf
;+ux| sf] 3f]if0ff ug'{k5{ . ToxL ;/sf/sf] g]t[Tjdf b]zdf ;dfhjfbL ljrf/wf/f -gjdfS;{jfbL ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df /fHosf] ;dfhjfb, Pdfn]sf] jx'bnLo hgjfb, plePsf dfcf]jfbL g]tfx? /fdaxfb'/
s:tf] zf;g Joj:yf / zf;g k|0ffnL nfu" ug]{ xf], To;sf] ljrf/wf/f_ sf] hGd eof] . nf]stflGqs d"n wf/df Nofpg] s'/fdf of] ljrf/wf/fn] dfcf]jfbLsf] gofF hgjfbh:tf cfofltt yfkf, n]v/fh e§, 6f]kaxfb'/ /fodfemL
;dfhjfbn] k'h F Ljfb / ;dfhjfb b'js } f] hf]8 lbG5 . dfcf]jfbLsf] ;dfj]zLs/0fsf] ljrf/x? k|of]u x'g] cj:yf lyPg . / dl0f yfkfx? Dffcf]jfbL kf6L{ vf/]hLsf]
km};nf ug]{ clwsf/ hgtfnfO{ lbg'k5{ . hgtfn] /f]h]sf] lj/f]w ub{5 . lg:s[o k'h F LnfO{ zf]if0fsf] l;4fGt klg o'/f]lkog ;dfhjfbsf] ;dsfnLg ljZjdf k'/fgf] e};s]sf dfu /fv]/ lgjf{rg cfof]udf ph'/L
cfwf/ dfGg] s' / f / ;a} vfn] cfbz{af6 cnu 5}g . ljrf/x? g]kfnsf] nflu gofF x'g] s'/f lbg hfg' j} r fl/s bl/b| t f /
Joj:yf / zf;g k|0ffnLn] dfq b]zsf] jt{dfg /fhgLlts ;jf{lwsf/jfbsf] lj/f]w u/of] . dfgjnfO{ o'/f]ksf] nf]stflGqs ;dfhjfb /fHo klg lyPg . df}lns ljrf/n] dfq g]kfnL g}ltsxLgtfsf] k/fsfi6 xf] . ljrf/sf]
;+s6sf] bL3{sfnLg ;dfwfg x'g ;S5 . cGoyf kl/l:ylt g}lts k|f0fLsf ?kdf x]¥of] . wd{ / lgolGqt ;dfhjfb xf] . o;sf] cy{ xf] ;dfhsf] cGt/lj/f]wx? xn ug{ z"Gotfn] g]tfx?sf] g}lts w/ftn
g}ltstfnfO{ dxTj lbof] . cfly{s ;dfhjfbL Joj:yfsf] 9fFrf /fHo lgolGqt ;SbYof] . t/, kf6L{ x ? ljrf/ slt;Dd l3b{5 eGg] s'/f Pp6f of]
lbgk|ltlbg gfh's aGb} hfg] lglZrt 5 . If]qnfO{ lgoGq0f ug]{ / JolQmsf] lghL x'g kb{5 eGg] dfGoftf xf] . o'/f]lkogx?n] lgdf{0feGbf ;Qf / zlQmsf] b'?kof]u ultnf] pbfx/0f xf] .
;DklQsf] lgoGq0fdf hf]8 lbof] . cEofo; u/]sf] of] Joj:yf Ps;o jif{ u/]/ e|i6Ls/0fsf] ofqfaf6 cl3 a9\g …vfnL lbdfudf ;}tfgsf] af; x'G5Ú
t;y{, b]zsf tdfd ;+;b\jfbL bnnufot, qmflGtsf/L, k|ultzLn s/ k|0ffnL, plrt Hofnf, k'/fgf] eof] . clxn] o'/f]kn] L b]zsf gofF vf]h] . ljrf/sf] ax; jf cGt/kf6L{ eg] h:t} ljrf/z"Go /x]sf kf6L{sf
k|ultzLn, nf]stGqjfbL, /fi6«jfbL bn / g]tfx? Psh'6 ;fdflhs Gofo, pBf] u sf] lkF9Ldf /fHo lgolGqt ;dfhjfbk|lt hgjfb h:tf sDo'gli6sf ;fdfGo d"No g]tfx?sf lqmofsnfkx? klg ;}tfgL
;fdflhsLs/0f cflb nf]stflGqs ljt[i0ftf k}bf x'bF 5
} uPsf] b]lvG5 . /fHo dfGotfaf6 ljd'v x'bF } uP . h:tf b]lvPsf 5g\ . ljrf/ljxLgtfn]
eP/ hgdt ;+ux| df hfg'sf] ljsNk 5}g . hgtf ?i6 ;dfhjfbsf k|dv ' ;}4flGts dfGotfsf lgolGqt ;dfhjfbn] o'/f]ksf] a9\bf] g]kfnsf d"nwf/ / If]qLo:t/sf ;a} ubf{ kf6L{x? lj37gpGd'v 5g\ . o;n]
;fy cl3 a9\of] . ;dflhs cGt/lj/f]wnfO{ xn ug{ g;Sg] kf6L{x? ljrf/ z"Go h:t} b]lvPsf 5g\ . ;Qf /fhgLltnfO{ klg k|ToIf k|efjdf
eO;s]sf] Joj:yfdf JolQm km]/]/ zf;g ug{ vf]Hg' !( cf}+ ztfAbLdf o"/f]kdf j}1flgs lgisif{df k'us ] f] b]lvG5 . /fHo lgolGqt kf6L{nfO{ zlQm / ;Qf cfh{g ug]{ ;fwgdf kf/]sf] 5 . kf6L{x?df ljrf/sf] z"Gotfsf]
;+;b\jfbL bn / g]tfx?nfO{ g} cfTd3ftL x'g] lglZrt 5 . ;fDojfbsf ?kdf ljsl;t ePsf] nf]stflGqs ;dfhjfbL Joj:yfsf] dfq ;Lldt ul/Psf] 5 . ljrf/sf] cj:yf hlt nlDaG5 TolQ g} b]zsf
ljrf/wf/fnfO{ rLgdf PlzofnL, ljsNksf] ?kdf gofF o'jfx?nfO{ nlIft z"Gotfn] kf6L{ k|ltsf] cfsif{0f 36bf]] nflu 3fts x'G5 . x/]s 36gf / a:t'x?
To;sf/0f ;/sf/ xf]Og ;Qf, JolQm xf]Og Joj:yf abnf}F . cw{;fdGtL / cw{cf}klgj]lzs cj:yfdf l:y/, o'jf nlIft, ;d[4, :jfwLg b]z 5 . gLltn] g]tT[ jnfO{ lgb]z { g ug's
{ f] pRrtd\ ljGb'df k'uk] l5 nf]k jf lj36g
cfhsf] cfjZostf, ;dosf] dfu / hgrfxgf klg oxL dfcf]T;]tª' n] u/]sf] k|of]unfO{ g]kfnsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ /fhg}lts Joj:yfsf] vf]hLsf ;§f g]tfsf] km/dfg / cfb]zaf6 kf6L{ x'G5g\ . nf]k jf lj37g ;bfsf nflu
;Gbe{df g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf ;+:yfks nflu gofF ax; rNb} 5 . o;/L / ;Qf rn]sf] 5 . ljrf/ljxLgtfsf] x'bF g} , Eofs'd -l/Qmtf_ af6 gofF ljrf/sf]
5, r]tgf eof . k'iknfnn] gofF hgjfbsf] ?kdf kl/dfh{g ljrf/wf/fsf] ljsf;sf b[li6n] g]kfnsf k|efj tLg txsf] ;/sf/ ;+rfngdf hGd x'G5 . cf;f u/f},+ of] l/Qmtfaf6
ug]{ k|of; u/] . of] ljrf/nfO{ dbg d"nwf/sf /fhg}lts bnx?sf] ljrf/wf/f k/]sf] 5 . ljrf/ z"Gotfsf] k|efjsf gofF / pGgt ljrf/ hGdg] 5 .

g]skf dsjfgk'/åf/f tLg a'b“ ] ;xdlt kfngf ug{ hf]8


sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ cfiff9 @&M@* ut] x] 6 f} F 8 f l/kf]6{ /fVg' eof] . s]lGb|o of]hgfsf] af/]df Jofks 5nkmn ax; ub}{ bjfj / kxn ug]{ lg0f{o ul/of] . c:yfoL / s/f/ dhb'/x¿nfO{ :yfoL
dsjfgk'/sf] !& cf}+ k"0f{ a}7sn] kfl/t pkdxfgu/kflnsfdf a;L u/]sf s]xL efj / l/kf]68{ ] sf] ;+Zn]if0f;xLt k|dv
' w|j' Ls/0fsf] k|of; / kxn ug]{ . !)= l/l4l;l4 l;d]G6 pBf]un] ;Grfng u/fpg, /fHon] tf]ss ] f] tna eQf
u/]sf] lg0f{o ;fj{hlgs ePsf] 5 . ;f] dxTjk"0f{ lg0f{ox¿ ;fa{hlgs ug{ of] cltly tof lhNnf OGrfh{ sd/]8 To;sf] nflu a}rfl/s, /fhg}lts, u/]sf] vfgLn] /fS;L/fª $ lu+us ' f] / hLjg aLdfsf] Uof/]G6L u/fpg
kf6L{sf] c;f/ @& / @* ut] a;]sf] !& k|;] lj1KtL hf/L ul/Psf] 5 . gogn} rf/ dlxg] sfo{of]hgf j]; ;fË7lgs ultljlwnfO{ tLj| kfg]{ hgtfsf] Gofof]lrt dfunfO{ k"/f ;+3if{sf] p7fg ug]{ lg0f{o ul/of] .
cf}+ k"0f{ a}7sn] kfl/t u/]sf] lg0f{o kqsf/ != a} 7 ssf] k| f /Dedf PsLs[ t ug{e' of] . lgs} pT;fx / pdª\uk"0f{ lg0fo ul/of] . tLg a'bF } ;xdlt u/fpg vfgL ;+rfnsnfO{ bafa !*= ;xLb a]kQf kl/jf/ tyf 3fOt]
;Dd]ng u/L ;fa{hlgs ul/Psf] xf] . sfo{Gjog u/fpg /fHonfO{ lbg] lg0f{o ul/of] . ckfËx¿sf] lzIff, :jf:Yo /
pQm sfo{qmddf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf hgbafa a9fpg] lg0f{o ul/of] . !!= dfkb08 lakl/t ;+rfng ul/Psf] cfjf;sf] Uof/]G6L ug]{ u/fpg
s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf dsjfgk'/sf lhNnf bf];f| ] nx/sf] sf]le8af6 cfqmfGt qm;/ / ca}w vfgL pBf]u aGb ;DalGwt lgsfodf kxn / bafa
OGrfh{ gogn] ;/sf/aLr ePsf] tLg hgtfx¿nfO{ kIfkft / e]befj ug]{ ;DalGwt lgsfonfO{ Wofgfsif{0f a9fpg] lg0f{o ul/of] .
a'bF ] ;xdltcg';f/ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ gu/L ;a} n fO{ vf] k nufP u/fpFb} ;+3if{ ug]{ lg0f{o ul/of] . !(= kf6L{sf] g]tf, sfo{stf{ / hgtfnfO{
cl3 a9\g] s'/f k|:6ofpFb} ;/sf/n] klg gnufPsf] lgu/fgL u/L lje]bk"0f{ !@= v]tLof]Uo hldgdf Knl6ª ug{ /f]Sg], cfTdlge{/ agfpg] p2]Zo;xLt
s' g } lsl;dsf] vf] 6 g/fvLsg b]lvPdf e08fkmf]/ / hg;8\3if{ e"–dflkmoflj?4 e08fkmf]/ cleofg ;fd'lxs pTkfbgnfO{ hf]8 lbg]
OdfGbfl/tfsf ;fy sfof{Gjog ug{k' g]{ ug}{ lg0f{o ul/of] . rnfpg] lg0f{o ul/of] . lg0f{o ul/of] .
atfP . pgn] o'4 lagfg} zflGtk"0f{ ^= ;/sf/L c:ktfndf la/fdLsf] /fd|f] !#= j}1flgs jg Joj:yfkgsf] gfddf @)= o'jfx¿nfO{ s'nt\, b'Jo{;gL,
qmflGtsf] af6f] x'bF } k|ultzLn ;+oQ' m pkrf/ gug],{ lghL c:ktfndf ul/g] jg ljgfz / lu6L afn'jf– ;fdflhs ck/fw / u'08fubL{af6
;/sf/ / hgdt;+ux| dfkm{t\ j}1flgs ;j{;fwf/0fn] pkrf/ ug{ g;Sg, 9'ªu\ fsf] bf]xgnfO{ /f]Sg] lg0f{o arfpg hfu/0f sfo{qmd ;Grfng
;dfhjfbL Joj:yf :yfkgf ug]{ p2]Zosf cTolws z'Ns lgrf]//] eP klg ul/of] . ug]{ lg0f{o ul/of] .
;fy g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ cl3 a9\g lnO 5f8\g] l:yltnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{ !$= ;/sf/L sfo{no / :yfgLo @!= j}bl] zs 7uL / dfgj a]rljvg
rfx]sf] / o;sf] nflu ;/sf/n] cg'sn" c:ktfnx¿df lgu/fgL ug]{ lg0f{o lgsfox¿df x'g] 3';, clgoldttf lj?4df hg;+3if{ cleofg rnfpg]
jftfj/0f to ug{k' g]{ s'/f ;d]t k|i6 ul/of] . / e|i6frf/ lgoGq0fsf] nflu o'jf lg0f{o ul/of] .
kf/]sf 5g\ . olb ;/sf/n] o; lsl;dsf] hgqmflGt / hgo'4sf ;xLb tof jftfj/0fdf sfo{ o f] h gfnfO{ &= hftLo 5'jf5't / dlxnfdfly x'g] kl/rfng ug]{ lg0f{o ul/of] . @@= s/f/, /fxt / c:yfoL
jftfj/0f l;h{gf gu/L km]l/ k|ltudgsf/L a]kQf of]4fx¿nfO{ :d/0f / ;Ddfg ;j{;Ddtn] kfl/t ub}{ b[9tfk"js
{ ;a}vfn] pTkL8gsf] lj?4 cleofg !%= ls;fgnfO{ ;dod} dn, aLp– lzIfsx¿sf] Gofof]lrt dfu /
sbd rfNg yfn]df kf6L{ an k|of]usf] efjk"0f{ >bf~hnL, qmflGtdf 3fOt] nfu" ug]{ lg0f{o ul/of] . ;+rfng ug]{ lg0f{o ul/of] . lahg pknAw u/fpg ;DalGwt cfGbf]ngk|lt P]Soa4tf hgfpFb}
l;4fGtdfkm{t\ g} j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL x'ge' Psf ;a} sd/]8x¿k|lt ;Ddfg #= kf6L{ s] G b| s f] lg0f{ o / *= k|fs[lts ;|ft] ;fwgsf] bf]xgsf] lj?4 lgsfonfO{ bafa lbg' ;fy} dn ;DalGwt lgsfonfO{ bafj lbg]
Joj:yf :yfkgf ug{ afWo x'g] s'/f ;d]t / :jf:Yonfesf] sfdnf, /fHosf] lgb]z
{ gcg';f/ k|ultzLn ;+oQm hg;+3if{sf] cleofg ;+rfng ug]{ lg0f{o dfly sfnf] ahf/L ug] { lg0f{o ul/of] .
:ki6 kf/]sf 5g\ . lgoGq0fdf k/]/ aGbL hLjg ;/sf/, hgdt ;+ux| / j}1flgs ul/of] . larf}lnofx¿nfO{ hgsf/afxL ug]{ @#= dWojtL{ cf/Ifdf kg]{ dfgj a:tL
g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ dsjfgk'/sf] ljtfO/xg' ePsf ;a} g]tf, sfo{stf{ ;dfhjfbsf] /fhg}lts sfo{gLltsf] (= ;'sDaf;L a:tL, af9L klx/f] / lg0f{o ul/of] . xfd|f] lhNnfdf dgx/L, xfFl8vf]nf,
!& cf}+ k"0f{ a}7sn] kfl/t u/]sf] lg0f{o sd/]8x¿nfO{ ljz]if ;Ddfg, ;xLb af/] d f dsjfgk' / af;L e"sDksf] hf]lvd /x]sf] x]6f}8F f !% !^= af]l8{ª sn]hx¿n] cgnfOg kbdkf]v/L, r'l/ofdfO{s + f a:tLsf]
o; k|sf/ /x]sf 5g\– æxfd|f] uf}/jzfnL tyf j]kQf of]4fk|lt ulx/f] ;dj]bgf hg;d'bfonfO{ :ki6 kfb}{ hfu[t sf] lrKn]6L / af;3f/Lsf] %) sIffsf] gfddf ljBfyL{af6 lnPsf] ljifok|lt hgtfnfO{ ;r]t u/fpFb}
tof hglk|o kf6L{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ k|s6 ub}{ a}7ssf] k|f/De ul/of] . / ;Ël7t ug] { , ldq zlQm 3/w'/LnfO{ plrt / ;'/lIft rsf]{ z'Ns lkmtf{ u/fpg bafj / a:tL lj:yflkt x'gaf6 arfpg
dsjfgk'/sf] !& cf}+ k"0f{ a}7s ;]qm]6/L @= pkl:yt $! hgf lhNnf sDo' l g:6 kf6L{ , ;d" x of af;:yfgsf] Joj:yf u/fpg kxn ug]{ lg0f{o ul/of] . ;DalGwt lgsfodf hgbafa;xLt
s= jf6/sf] cWoIftfdf ldlt @)&* ;b:ox¿n] cf–cfk\mgf] sfo{If]qsf] JolQmx¿;Fu o; sfo{gLltsf] ;DalGwt lgsfodf Wofgfsif{0f, !&= pBf]u tyf sDkgLx¿df sfo{/t ;+3if{ p7g ug]{ lg0f{o ul/of] .Ú
@)&* ;fn ;fpg # ut] cfOtaf/ 3

;+;bLo ax'bnLo Joj:yf k'gM c;kmn / ckmfkl;4


g]kfndf ax'bnLo ;+;bLo Joj:yf lJxk pNn+ 3 g ug] { ;b:ox? c8\sn lg/fwf/ b]lvGg . x'g;S5 ana'l4 nufP/ lj/f]w / e08fkmf]/
;+;bLo Joj:yf
c;kmn ;fljt Û
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o cf]dk|sfz k'gn] ;+;bLo
km]l/ klg c;kmn / ckmfkl;4 ePsf] lgisf;g;Ddsf] sf/jfxLdf kg]{ ljlw, pgn] of] km};nfaf6 b]zdf c/fhstf, ug{k' g],{ gË\ofpg'kg]{ / lgsDdf ;flat
Joj:yf c;kmn ePsf] 7f]sj' f u/]sf 5g\ . g]tf k'gn] g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{
tYo xfn}sf] ;jf]{Rr cbfntsf] ljwfg, Joj:yf / Jojxf/ x'g] eg]sf] c:tJo:ttf, cltjfb / cft+snfO{ ug{k' g]{ ;+;b\, ;f+;b / ;+;bLo Joj:yf
km};nfaf6 klg k|fKt eof] . ;+;bLo xf] . t/, Gofofnosf] cfhsf] lg0f{on] a9fjf lbP/ cfkm}F >L % aGg] jf tyf lj:tf/jfb / ;fd|fHojfb cfkm}F s~rgk'/åf/f cfof]lht kf6L{ w|'jLs/0f sfo{qmdnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ ;af]{Rr
Joj:yf eg]sf] ;+;b\ ;fj{ef}d, ;jf]R{ r t oL ;a} s'/f pN6fOlbP/ cyf{t\ lvn/fh aGg] bfpF u/]sf klg xf]pmg\ . o;/L logsf cfˆg} Pp6f k|d'v cbfntn] k|wfgdGqL tf]Sg], cbfntn] kf6L{ h'6fpg]– km'6fpg] h:tf sfo{n]
/ ;j{zlQm;DkGg ;+:yf x'g] / b]zsf bn / bnsf g]tfx?n] lJxk hf/L km]l/ cbfntsf] of] lg0f{o oxfFsf cËaf6 cy{ x Lg / cf} l rToxLg ;+;bLo Joj:yf c;kmn;fljt u/]sf] 7f]s'jf u/]sf x'g\ .
sfo{sf/L ;/sf/ k|d'v Pj+ /fi6« ug{ gkfpg], ul/xfn] klg lJxk GofofwLzx?sf] :jljj]s / :jfWoog t'NofOg' / gË\ofOg'n] t s'rf]n] pgn] ljBdfg bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yfs} sf/0f b]zdf pTkfbg gu/L
k|d'vh:tf pRrtd kbx? cyf{t\ pNn+3g ug{ ;lsg] t/ lJxk pNn+3g cfwf/df geP/ ef/tLo lj:tf/jfb a9fg{ ' k g] { sl;+ u /nfO{ xjfn] cfoft dfq ubf{ Jofkf/ 3f6f a9]sf]n] b]z 6f6 klN6Psf] atfpb} j}bl] zs
p8fOlbPh:tf] xfO;Grf] kf] ef] t Û< zlQms]Gb|sf] :jfy{df glbgfnf / k|fs[lts vfgL a]r]/ vfg] k|j[lQn] /fi6«nfO{
gf/fo0f zdf{ pk/f] Q m unt sfd, sf/0f,
ljz]iftf / Jojxf/n] ubf{ g} cfh
ljb]zLsf] qmL8f:yn agfPsf] atfP . pgn] ef/tLo of]hgfcg';f/ lxGb'/fi6«
3f]if0ff, ;‹Lotf vf/]h, gful/stf ljw]osdfkm{t\ lkmlhs/0f ug]{ of]hgf
xfdL ;Rrf ;dfhjfbL–;fDojfbL qmflGtsf/Lx?sf] nflu klg km]l/ ;+;bLo ax'bnLo Joj:yf c;kmn ePkl5 o'/f]lkogx¿sf] of]hgfdf Pd;L;L nfu" ug]{ if8\oGq eO/x]sf]
c;kmn / ckmfkl;4 ePsf] 5 . o;n]
t o;/L v;Lsf] 6fpsf] b]vfP/ s's/' sf] df;' a]Rg] of] s'/fsf] klg /fd|f];Fu dfu u/]sf]
k;nsf] ?kdf s'Voft ;+;b\sf] cy{ / cf}lrTo ;dfKt 5 ls g]kfnL P]ltxfl;stf, df}lnstf,
ljz]iftf / b]zsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs,
x'g,' ;+;bLo k|ltlqmofjfbL ;Qfsf slyt tLg cËx?sf ;f+ : s[ l ts / e" / fhgLlts
aLrsf] tyfslyt lgoGq0f / ;Gt'ngsf] l;4fGt / cj:yfcg';f/sf] Pp6f o'ufg's"n
lgtfGt gofF Joj:yf g]kfndf clgjfo{
Jojxf/n] xfjf vfg', /fi6«sf] 7"nf] af]emsf] ?kdf /x]sf ?kn] cfjZos 5 . jf:tjdf of]
slyt gfd dfqsf cleefjs /fi6«kltsf] lg/y{stf / lg/Lxtf dfq xf]Og cgfjZostf / ax'bnLo ;+;bLo Joj:yf g]kfndf
af/af/ o;/L lg/y{s, lgsDdf,
cf}lrToxLg k'li6 x'g,' ljleGg :jfy{ / zlQms]Gb|af6 lgb]l{ zt ePsf bn / ltgsf c;kmn / ckmfkl;4 x'g'sf k5fl8
g]tfx?sf] ;fGble{stf ;dfKt x'g' tyf afXo zlQms]Gb|x?sf] x'sd' , x}sd, x:tIf]k / Psflt/ of] cfofltt / lgb]{lzt
Joj:yf x'g' / csf{lt/ b]zdf /fli6«o
xflnd'xfnL k|dfl0ft x'g' k|sf/fGt/n] ;sf/fTds s'/f g} xf] . xfdLn] a8f] b'Mvsi6 u/]/ / k'h
F Lsf] cfjZos ljsf; geP/ g]kfnL
ana'l4 nufP/ lj/f]w / e08fkmf]/ ug{k' g],{ gË\ofpg'kg]{ / lgsDdf ;flat ug{k' g]{ ;+;b\, ;dfhsf] cfly{s–;fdflhs cj:yfn] 7f]s'jf ub}{ ljb]zL zlQms]Gb|sf] n8fOFdf g]kfnsf ;+;b\jfbL bnsf g]tf
k' F h LjfbL ;dfhdf km8\ s f]
s7k'tnL dfq ePsf] bfaL u/] . x/]s ;/sf/L sfof{nob]lv dGqfnox¿df
;f+;b / ;+;bLo Joj:yf tyf lj:tf/jfb / ;fd|fHojfb cfkm}F o;/L logsf cfˆg} Pp6f dfl/g;s]sf] clg b]zsf] g]tT[ j lnPsf
e|i6frf/ df}nfPsf] / sldzgdf of]hgf afF8kmfF8 x'g] u/]sf] pgsf] egfO{
/ lng tlD;Psf ;+;b\jfbL bnx?,
k|dv ' cËaf6 cy{xLg / cf}lrToxLg t'NofOg' / gË\ofOg'n] t s'rf]n] a9fg{k' g]{ sl;+u/nfO{ rfx] tL sDo'lg:6 g} lsg gx'g,\ sf] lyof] . /fi6«sf nflu of]ubfg ug{ geO{ :jfy{sf sf/0f kf6L{ abNg] k|j[lQ
xjfn] p8fOlbPh:tf] xfO;Grf] kf] ef] t Û< lbn–lbdfu / tL bnsf g]tfx?sf] JofKt x'Fbf e|i6frf/ df}nfPsf] pgn] atfP .
dg–dl:tisaf6 klg ;fdGtjfbsf] hftLo, If]qLo, e]uLo, lnlËo tyf juL{o lje]b / c;dfgtfsf] cGTo ub}{
pk/f]Qm unt sfd, sf/0f, ljz]iftf / Jojxf/n] ubf{ g} cfh klg km]l/ ;+;bLo ax'bnLo pGd"ng eP/ k'h F LjfbL ;f]r, z}nL / j}1flgs ;dfhjfb :yfkgf ug{ ;Dk"0f{ b]zeQm, k|ultzLn / ;dfhjfbL
Joj:yf c;kmn / ckmfkl;4 ePsf] 5 . o;n] of] s'/fsf] klg /fd|f;] uF dfu u/]sf] 5 ls ;+:sf/sf] ;;Ddfg klg gePsf] zlQm w|l' js/0f cfhsf] cfjZostf ePsf] eGb} PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] ofqfdf
lj8Dagfk"0f{ cj:yf 5 . w|'ljs/0f x'g cg'/f]w u/] . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{df cfa4 g]tf, sfo{stf{,
g]kfnL P]ltxfl;stf, df}lnstf, ljz]iftf / b]zsf] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts / cem o:tf] gePsf] dfq xf]Og lzIfs a'l4hLlj, ljBfyL{ pbfx/0fLo x'g cfjZos /x]sf] pgn] atfP . x/]s
e"/fhgLlts cj:yfcg';f/sf] Pp6f o'ufg'sn " lgtfGt gofF Joj:yf g]kfndf clgjfo{ ls ;fdGtjfb g} emg\ hAa/ ePsf] If]qdf cAan eP/ dfq j}1flgs ;dfhjfb :yfkgf ug{ ;lsg] eGb} cu|0fL
/ cem sltko ;Gbe{ d f t e"ldsf lgjf{x ub}{ g]t[Tj ug{ cg'/f]w u/] . cfFvfdf :jfy{ / lg/fzfsf] jfbn
?kn] cfjZos 5 . jf:tjdf of] ax'bnLo ;+;bLo Joj:yf g]kfndf af/af/ o;/L ;fdGtjfb / To;sf gfOs] af]s/] lxF8g\ ] slxNo} sDo'lg:6 x'g g;Sg] pgsf] egfO{ lyof] . Joj:yf kl/jt{g
lg/y{s, lgsDdf, c;kmn / ckmfkl;4 x'gs ' f k5fl8 Psflt/ of] cfofltt / lgb]l{ zt /fhf/fgLx?sf] eGbf klg a9L geO{ hghLjg kl/jt{g gx'g] eGb} pgn] eg] …kf6L{ / g]tf r'g/] s]xL gx'g]
zfgzf}st, ef]uljnf;, ;'v;on / /x]5 JolQm r'g]/ s]xL gx'g] /x]5 ca Joj:yf r'Gg] clwsf/ hgtfnfO{
Joj:yf x'g' / csf{lt/ b]zdf /fli6«o k'h F Lsf] cfjZos ljsf; geP/ g]kfnL ;dfhsf] df]hd:tL hgtfsf 5f]/f elgPsf lbg'k5{ .Ú
cfly{s–;fdflhs cj:yfn] k'h F LjfbL ;dfhdf km8\sf] dfl/g;s]sf] clg b]zsf] g]tT[ j hgk|ltlglw / g]tf zf;sx?af6 x'g] sDo'lg:6x¿n] hgtfnfO{ ;DklQ /fVg glbg] e|d km}nfOPsf] eGb}
ul/Psf] x'gfn] klg of] ;+;bLo sDo'lg:6n] g} hgtfnfO{ ;DklQsf] dflns agfpg] pgsf] egfO{ lyof] .
lnPsf / lng tlD;Psf ;+;b\jfbL bnx?, rfx] tL sDo'lg:6 g} lsg gx'g,\ sf] lbn–lbdfu ax'bnLo Joj:yf ab\\gfd, 3[l0ft / lk5l8Psf If]q / hgtfsf] k|ltlglwTj ug{ dfcf]jfbLn] NofPsf] ;dfg'kflts
/ tL bnsf g]tfx?sf] dg–dl:tisaf6 klg ;fdGtjfbsf] pGd"ng eP/ k'h F LjfbL ;f]r, lt/is[t;d]t x'Fb} c;kmn / ckmfk Joj:yfdf ;dfg'kflts kb k};fdf vl/blaqmL x'g yfn]sf] eGb} k'h F Ljfbn]
klg l;4 eO/x]sf] xf] . To;}n] o;sf] hgk|ltlglw ;d]t e]8fafv|f agfPsf] pgn] atfP . g]tfn] lghL ;DklQ /fVg
z}nL / ;+:sf/sf] ;;Ddfg klg gePsf] lj8Dagfk"0f{ cj:yf 5 . ljsNksf] ?kdf g]kfnL df}lnstf / gx'g] eGb} pgn] eg] sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] g]tfn] ;fd"lxs hLjg ;d[4 ug]{ xf]
ca of] cl:y/tf, c:tJo:ttf, c/fhstf / cGof]ntf pTkGg ug]{ cToGt} c;kmn / ljz]iftfdf cfwfl/t cyf{t\ g]kfnsf] lghL hLjg xf]Og .
;fdflhs, cfly{ s / ;f+ : s[ l ts sfo{qmddf g]skf dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|sf ;'8f, b}hL OGrfh{ dfgaxfb'/ 6]/,
ckmfkl;4 of] k'h F LjfbL ;+;bLo zf;gJoj:yfsf] ;d"n?kn] zL3|fltzL3| ;dfKt ug{ ;+oQ' m / cj:yf cg's"nsf] Joj:yf cfjZos /fli6«o hgdf]rf{ lgs6 /fli6«o o'js ;‹sf ;'b/" klZrd k|bz ] ;x;+of]hs
;zQm ;+3if{ ;j{yf plrt / cfjZos ePsf] 5 . oxL cfjZostf k"lt{ ug{–u/fpg nflukg{' g} 5 / o:tf] JoJ::yf dfq oxfF bLuf] cld/ s'Fj/, o'jf ;‹sf uf]s0f{ hf]zL, /fli6«o hgdf]rf{sf j8f ;+of]hs
/ bx|f] ?kdf sfod eO{ ;kmn / dlg/fd n'xf/, ;b:o u0f]z gfy, dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|sf Pl/of ;b:o z]/axfb'/
clxn]sf xfdL qmflGtsf/L, b]zeQm, hgjfbL, jfdkGyL, k|ultzLn / ;Rrf nf]stGqjfbL ;fy{s x'g ;S5 . o:tf] Joj:yfn]
ad, g]kfnL sfFu; ]| sf lqmofzLn ;b:o hLjg sfsL{, k"jh { gd'lQm ;]gf sdn
zlQm–JolQm, ;+3;+:yf, ;d"x–;+u7g, cleofg–k|lti7fg / dGr–df]rf{ cflb ;a} kl/jt{gsfdL dfq ljutb]lv jt{dfg;Ddsf ljlw,
P;s], hgdf]rf{ lgs6 g]kfn o'js ;‹ lhNnf ;lrj e'kG] b| e08f/L, :jtGq
ljwfg / Joj:yf;F u ;DalGwt
hg;d'bfo / cu|ufdL gful/s ;dfhx?sf] cxd\ bfloTj xf] . ljs[lt / lj;ËlthGo Jojxf/nufot a'l4hLlj chol;+xnufotsf bh{gf}F g]tf sfo{stf{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{df
b] z / hgtfsf xslxt;F u w|'ljs/0f ePsf 5g\ .
k|wfgdGqL / /fi6«klt–pk/fi6«klt
h:tf zf;sx? ;+;b\–;f+;bx?n]
u/]afktdf pNn+3g ug]{ ;b:odfly
sf/jfxL ug{ klg gkfOg] lg0f{o /
/ cd]l/sL ;fd|fHojfbnufotsf
b] z L–ljb] z L k| l ts[ o fjfbL
;DalGwt ofjt\ ;d:ofx?sf] xn
ug]{5 . /, of] Joj:yf j}1flgs
P;O{Os
{ f] glthf ;fpg
lgjf{lrt ug]{ eg]sf] xf] . t/, xfnsf]
of] km};nfaf6 To:tf] ;+:yf t cbfnt
ghL/ sfod ul/lbP/ bnx?sf]
cl:tTj, cy{, cf}lrTo / dxTj
zlQms]Gb|x?sf] cfb]z–lgb]z
;d]t cg'dfg u/]sf] s'/fdf klg
{ df ePsf] ;dfhjfbf]Gd'v :jtGq, cfTdlge{/,
/fi6« j fbL, hgu0ftGqfTds, d;fGtleq k|sfzg ug]{ tof/L
ePsf] kf] b]lvof] . Joj:yflksfn] ug]{ ;dfKt kfb}{ lgb{nLo Joj:yfsf] ;Totf n' s ] s } kfOG5 lsgls qmflGtsf/L, hgf] Q /bfoL, sf7df8f}F . /fli6«o k/LIff af]8n
{ ] P;O{Os
{ f] glthf cfpg ;fpg d;fGt;Dd
pQm sfd clxn] Gofokflnsfn] u¥of] cEof; g} u¥of] . pgLx?nfO{ of] ;/sf/ / ;+;baf6 e|i6frf/k|lt lgd{d / ldtJooL nfUg] hgfPsf] 5 . lhNnfdf /x]sf lzIff ljsf; tyf ;dGjo PsfOn]
cyf{ t \ Gofokflnsf lg/Í' z , olt dfq xf]Og, /fHosf tLg cË Pd;L;L / gful/stf ljw]os / o:tf lgjf{rg k|0ffnL;xLtsf] /fi6«ktLo xfn;Dd ljBfyL{sf] ljj/0f cBfjlws ug{ g;s]sf] tyf ljleGg lhNnfdf
:j]R5frf/L, ;j{;QfjfbL / tfgfzfxL Joj:yflksf, sfo{ k flnsf / cGo 3f]/ /fi6«3ftL lanx? clxn] g} zf;g Joj:yf x' g ' k 5{ . clg cfPsf] af9L–klx/f]sf sf/0f klg glthf k|sfzg s]xL lbg k/ ;g]{ ePsf]
eof] . ;+;b\n] k|wfgdGqLsf] ?kdf GofokflnsfaLr x'gk' g]{ lgoGq0f / kf; u/fpg'kg]{ 5 . To;dfkm{t\ dfq} ;'zf;g / bLuf] xf] . af]8{sf P;O{O{ x]g]{ k/LIff lgoGqs ?b| clwsf/Ln] l9nf]df klg ;fpg
lgjf{lrt k|ltlglw;efsf ;b:o ;Gt'ngsf] cfk;L ;DaGw klg o; xfdL ;Rrf ;dfhjfbL–;fDojfbL ljsf; g} cfhsf] xfd| f ] k/d d;fGt;Dd glthf k|sfzg ug]{ cfk"mx¿sf] tof/L /x]sf] hfgsf/L lbP .
cyf{t ;f+;b jf ;+;b\df ax'dt k|fKt km};nfaf6 lalu|Psf] 5 . sfg'gL qmflGtsf/Lx?sf] nflu t o;/L v;Lsf] cfjZostf k"lt{ ug{ / x'g ;Dej o;sf nflu && j6} lhNnfdf /x]sf lzIff ljsf; tyf ;dGjo PsfOaf6
7"nf] bnsf] g]tfnfO{ k|wfgdGqL lgo'lQm /fhsf] gfddf ;+ljwfg / sfg"gsf] 6fpsf] b]vfP/ s's'/sf] df;' a]Rg] 5 Û To;} n ] ca of] cl:y/tf, ljBfyL{sf] ljj/0f cfpg'kg]{ pxfFsf] egfO 5 . ;dGjo PsfOnfO{ af]8n { ] c;f/
ug]{ sfd /fi6«kltsf] xf] . of] sfd JofVof ug]{ gfddf Gofokflnsfn] o;/L k;nsf] ?kdf s'Voft ;+;b\sf] cy{ c:tJo:ttf, c/fhstf / cGof]ntf d;fGt;Dd ljj/0f k7fpg ;do;Ldf lbP klg xfn;Dd Pp6f lhNnfaf6
;+;b\sf] lgjf{rg / lg0f{ocg';f/ cfˆgf] If]qflwsf/ gf£b} ;+;bLo d"No, / cf}lrTo ;dfKt x'g', ;+;bLo pTkGg ug] { cToGt} c;kmn /
dfq} ljj/0f cfPsf] / Tof] klg cldNbf] ePsf sf/0f kmsf{OPsf] hfgsf/L
/fi6«kltn] ug{' kg]{df ca of] k|dnfO{ dfGotf, ljlw, ljwfg, k4lt, k|so[ fnfO{ k|ltlqmofjfbL ;Qfsf slyt tLg ckmfkl;4 of] k'FhLjfbL ;+;bLo
af]8{n] lbPsf] 5 . ;dGjo PsfOsf] tof/L x]bf{ s]xL l9nf x'g;Sg] cfFsng
lgo'lQm lbg], ;ky v'jfpg] sfd / k/Dk/f cflbnfO{ wf]tL nfpg' cËx?sf aLrsf] tyfslyt lgoGq0f zf;gJoj:yfsf] ;d" n ?kn]
ul/Psf] 5 t/ ca af]8{n] ;dGjo PsfOnfO{ ljBfyL{sf] ljj/0f k7fpg Dofb
cbfntsf] cfb]zdf ug{'kg]{ ePkl5 ;+;bLo ax'bnLo Joj:yfnfO{ c;kmn / ;Gt'ngsf] l;4fGt / Jojxf/n] xfjf zL3|fltzL3| ;dfKt ug{ ;+o'Qm /
yk eg] gug]{ ePsf] 5 .
Gofofnon] g} ;+;bsf] sfd ul/lbPsf] kfg]{ gLlt / lgot;Fu ;DalGwt 5 . vfg', /fi6«sf] 7"nf] af]emsf] ?kdf /x]sf ;zQm ;+ 3 if{ ;j{ y f plrt /
cg'ej ePsf] 5 . o;af6 b]zsf] lgot o; cy{df xf] eGg] nfUb5 ls slyt gfd dfqsf cleefjs cfjZos ePsf] 5 . oxL cfjZostf Dofb yk x'bF f ljj/0f tof/ ePsf lhNnfn] klg ljj/0f gk7fpg] ePsfn]
;jf]{Rr ;+:yf /fi6«kltsf] dof{bfdf cfˆgf lktfk'vf{sf] >L # vf];s] f] oxL /fi6«kltsf] lg/y{stf / lg/Lxtf dfq k"lt{ ug{–u/fpg nflukg{' g} clxn]sf s]xL lbg l9nf eP klg Dofb yk gx'g] hgfOPsf] 5 . ;a} ljj/0f cfPkl5
klg x|f; NofOPsf] ;d]t cg'el" t ;+;bLo ax'bnLo Joj:yf Nofpg g]sfF, xf]Og cgfjZostf / cf}lrToxLg xfdL qmflGtsf/L, b]zeQm, hgjfbL, af8{n] ljBfyL{sf] ljj/0f cBfjlws u/]/ clGtd glthf k|sflzt ug]{5 .
ePsf] 5 . g] s kf cflb ljleGg bnx?åf/f k' l i6 x' g ' , ljleGg :jfy{ / jfdkGyL, k| u ltzLn / ;Rrf o;sf ;fy} c;f/df cfPsf] af9L klx/f]sf sf/0f w]/} ljBfnon] ljBfyL{sf]
o;}u/L, ax'bnLo Joj:yf eg]sf] ul/Psf] @))& ;fn jl/kl/sf] zlQms]Gb|af6 lgb]{lzt ePsf bn / nf]stGqjfbL zlQm–JolQm, ;+3;+:yf, cfGtl/s d"Nofª\gsf] sfo{ g} k"/f ug{;d]t ;d:of ePsf] u'gf;f] af]8{df
;QfkIf jf ljkIfdf ePsf ljleGg cfGbf]ngn] g} lyof] . To;}n] cfˆgf] ltgsf g]tfx?sf] ;fGble{stf ;dfKt ;d"x–;+u7g, cleofg–k|lti7fg / cfPsf] hfgsf/L clwsf/Lx¿n] lbPsf 5g\ . ljBfnon] ljBfyL{sf] cfGtl/s
bnx? g} /fHosf vDaf x'g], bn / >L # sf] >Lk] r vf] l ;Psf] d f x'g' tyf afXo zlQms]Gb|x?sf] x'sd ' , dGr–df]rf{ cflb ;a} kl/jt{gsfdL d"NofÍgsf] glthf lhNnfsf] lzIff ljsf; tyf ;dGjo PsfOdf a'emfpg]
bnsf] lg0f{o ax'dtaf6 x'g], bnsf k| w fgGofofwLz /f0ff c;Gt' i 6, x}sd, x:tIf]k / xflnd'xfnL k|dfl0ft hg;d' b fo / cu| u fdL gful/s ;do;Ldf eg] ;lsPsf] 5 . af]8{n] c;f/ @) leq PsfOdf cfˆgf] ljj/0f
g]tfn] ;f] lg0f{o kfngf / sfof{Gjog cfqmf]lzt / k|ltzf]wsf] efjgfn] x'g' k|sf/fGt/n] ;sf/fTds s'/f g} ;dfhx?sf] cxd\ bfloTj xf] . r]tgf a'emfpg] ;do;Ldf lbPsf] lyof] . xfn ;dGjo PsfOdf ljBfnoaf6 k|fKt
ug{–u/fpg lJxk nufpg ;Sg] / ;f] u|l;t eP/ o:tf] lg0f{o u/]sf] eGg] xf] . xfdLn] a8f] b'Mvsi6 u/]/ / / ;fx; eof ÛÛ ljBfyL{sf] ljj/0f ?h' ug]{ sfd rln/x]sf] 5 .
4 @)&* ;fn ;fpg # ut] cfOtaf/

vfgkfgsf dxTjk"0f{ lgodx¿ ckgfpg';\ / bL3{hLjg kfpg'xf];\


!_ ef]hg ug]{ Pp6f lglZrt @&_ ef]hg ug]{ 306fnfO{ 5f]8]/ :gfg ug{' x'Fb}g . :gfg u/]sf] #) *= k|s[ltlj¿4 cfxf/ M dfG5] zLtn k|sl[ tsf kbfy{x¿sf] ;]jg @!=k/]jfsf] df;' t]ndf ksfpg'
;do lgwf{/0f u/f}+ / ;f]xL ;dodf g} cGo Ps–Ps 306fdf klg lkpg' ldg]6 kZrft g} vfgf vfg' /fd|f] xf] . ;flTjs, /fhl;s / tfdl;s u/]/ ug{x' b'F g} . x'Fb}g . k/]jfsf] df;' / Kofh Ps}
lgoldt ?kdf vfgf vfg] afgL kb{5 . $(_ w/} tftf] / w/} lr;f] vfg] tLg k|s[ltsf] 5 . ;flTjs k|s[ltsf] !!= v/a'hf jf t/a'hf;Fu n;'g, ef]hgdf ldnfP/ vfg' x'Fb}g .
a;fnf}F . @*_ ;]tf lrgL, d}bf, kfln; s' / f vfF b f xfd| f ] kfrglqmofdf dfG5]nfO{ tf/]sf] / e"6]sf], ul/i7 / bxL, b"w, d"nf, k'lbgf lr;f] kfgLh:tf @@= df;sf] bfn;Fu ;Vv/ vfg' x'bF g} .
@_ vfgf d:t ef]s nfu]kl5 dfq u/]sf] rfdn / kmfOa/ lemlsPsf– xflgsf/s k|efj kg]{ x'bF f o:tf] vfgf pQ]hs vfg]s/' f lbFbf Tof] vfgf ul/i7 vfg]s/' f gvfcf}+ . @#= tfdf, lkQn / sfF;sf]
vfg] u/f}+ . ef]s gnfuL vfg vfg' x6fOPsf k|zf]lwt vfg]s/' f gvfcf}+ . vfg' x'Fb}g . x'g hfG5 eg] /fhl;s JolQmnfO{ ;fbf !@= eftdf cldnf] ld;fP/ efF8f]df b"w, bxL / l3p /fVbf
:jf:Yosf] nflu plrt xf]Og . @(_ vfgfdf ;s];Dd lrNnf]sf] %)_ s8f kl/>d u/]/ cfP kl5 vfgflbFbf Tof] vfgf klg lj¿4 vfgf vfg'xb'F g} . w]/} g'g xfn]sf] vfg]s/' fx¿ ljiffQmtf pTkGg x'G5 .
#_ hlt vfgf vfFbf nfu]sf] ef]s t'?Gt} kfgL lkpg' x'bF g} . x'G5 . vfFbf klg :jf:Yo rf}k§ x'G5 . @$= kfs]sf] ?v s6x/ vfPsf]
zfGt x'G5 Tolt dfq vfgf lng] u/f}+ . Ps;fy vfFbf Hofg} klg hfg;Sg] (= ljs[ l t -/f] u _ lj¿4 !#= df;sf] bfn / d'nfsf] ;fu bz 306f;Dd kfg, ;"lt{ tyf cGo
$_ ef]sn] dfu]sf] eGbf sd vfFbf oL vfg]s'/fx¿ – cfxf/ M x/]s /f]udf vfg'x'g] / jf ;nfb vfg'xb'F g} . r'gf jf v/fgL ldl;Psf] vfg]s'/f
If'bf zfGt x'bF g} eg] sf]rLsf]rL vfFbf :jf:Yosf nflu u'0fsf/L / kf]ifs vfg' gx'g] s'/fx¿sf] ;"rL x'G5 . /f]u !$= s] / f / df] x L Ps;fy vfFbf tTsfn Hofg} klg hfg ;S5 .
klg kfrgdf ;d:of / Zjf; km]g{ dflgPsf b' O { jf b' O { e Gbf w] / } cg' ¿ k gePsf] vfg] x ' ¿ nfO{ gvfg'xf]nf . @%= vfnL k]6df cfFk gvfPsf]
sl7g x'G5, df]6f]kg a9\5 . vfg]s/' fx¿ klg Ps} k6s vfFbf Pp6f ljs[ltlj¿4sf] cfxf/ elgG5 . !%= dx, bxL, /S;L / enfof]sf] /fd|f] .
%_ vfgf vfFbf :jR5, ;kmf / vfB kbfy{sf] u'0f wd{ csf]{;Fu !)= an -kl/>d_ lj¿4 ;fydf u/d cfxf/sf] ;]jg ug{' @^= as'Nnfsf] df;'nfO{ ;'Fu'/sf]
zfGt 7fpFdf a;]/ vfgf vfg' kb{5 . gldNbf To;n] :jf:YonfO{ xflg cfxf/ M dfG5] kl/>dsf cfwf/df x'bF g} . af];f]df ksfP/ vfFbf ef]hg lj¿4
^_ vfgf vfg'k"j{ /fd|/L xft w'g' k'¥ofpg ;S5 . oL vfg]s/' fnfO{ xfdL lgliqmo, ;fdfGo / ;lqmo !^= lv/ / lvr8L klg Ps};fy x'G5 .
kb{5 . xft w'g ;Dejt v/fgLsf] lj¿4 cfxf/ eg]/ lrG5f}+ . lj¿4 hLjgz}nLsf] x'g ;S5 / p;n] ug]{ vfg' x'Fb}g . @&=;'uF /' sf] df;' / ao/ Ps;fy
k|of]u ug{' /fd|f] xf] . ;fa'gn] xft w'g' cfxf/x¿ 5' § f5' § } vfF b f To;n] kl/>d klg ;fdfGo dWod / sl7g !&= lv/;Fu ;ft' vfg' jf lv/ vfg'xbF' g} .
:jf:Yos/ xf]Og, o;n] SofG;/ h:tf] 8f= x]d/fh sf]O/fnf :jf:YonfO{ kmfObf u/] klg Ps;fy x'g ;S5 . o;y{ sl7g kl/>dLnfO{ vfPsf] $ 306f glaTb} kfgLdf ;ft' @(= tLg dlxgf gk'us ] f] cGg /
uDeL/ la/fdL klg x'g ;Sg] vt/f dfqf s6f}tL u/f}+ . vfFbf of] gf]S;fgbfos x'g] u5{ . sd vfg lbg' / ;fdfGo kl/>dLnfO{ 3f]n]/ lkpg' x'Fb}g . Ps jif{ k'/fgf] cGgnfO{ Ps;fy
a9fpg] tYo d]l8sn l/;r{x?n] #)_ cldnf], lk/f] / cToflws lj?4 cfxf/ ;]jg ubf{ tTsfn} w]/} vfglbg' anlj¿4sf] cfxf/ !*= sfFrf] s]/fsf] t/sf/L;Fu bxL ksfP/ vfg' x'Fb}g .
b]vfPsf 5g\ . d;nfsf] k|of]u gu/f}+ . :j:y tl/sfn] jf sfnfGt/df cg]sf}+ /f]ux¿sf] vt/f dflgG5 . vfFbf tTsfn jf s]xL ;dokl5 pN6L #)= b"wnfO{ kmnfdsf] s/fOdf
&_ vfgf vfg k|of]u ul/g] yfn, k|of]u ul/Psf d;nfx?sf] k|of]un] /xG5 . clwsf+z cj:yfdf xfdLnfO{ !!= ao -pd]/_ lj¿4 cfxf/ x'g ;S5 . ttfpg', sf7 jf afF;sf] ef8fs'8F fdf
srf}/f, rDrf, lunf;, cDvf]/fh:tf xfgL ub}g{ t/ d;nfnfO{ tfbf{, e'6b\ f o:tf /f]ux¿sf] sf/0f} yfxf gx'g M ln6f] vfg]nfO{ eft vfg lbg' / !(=kfs]sf] a8x/;Fu bxL, df;sf] /fVg' / l:6nsf] ef8fFjt{gdf k|of]u
efF8fs'F8f klg /fd|f];Fu ;kmf u/L / k8\sfpbf cToGt xfgLsf/s / ;S5 . t/, lj¿4 cfxf/sf] ;]jgn] eftvfg]nfO{ ln6f] vfglbg' ao bfn, l3p, dx / ;Vv/ cToGt u/f}+ .
;'sfPsf] x'g kb{5 . ljiffQm aGb5 . klg w]/} k|sf/sf /f]ux¿ pTkGg lj¿4sf] cfxf/ xf] . xflgsf/s x'g ;S5 . -n]vs M of]uL g/xl/gfy of]u
*_ ef]hg ug{k' j" { 3/df ePsf #!_ lrof, skmL, ag{le6f, xln{S; u/fpg ;S5 . oL vfB kbfy{x¿sf] !@= kfs ;+:sf/lj¿4 cfxf/ @)= ;'uF /' , aË'/ / df5f h:tf tyf k|fs[lts lrlsT;fno e/tk'/–
s's'/, ufO{, la/fnf]h:tf xfdLdf h:tf k]o :jf:Yosf nflu /fd|f] xf]Og . lj¿4 yfxf gx' F b f xfdL /f] u sf] M cldnf] vfg]s'/fnfO{ tfdf jf k|f0fLx¿sf] df;';uF dx, ;Sv/, ltn, b"w, ! jfuLZj/L lrtjgsf d]8Lsn
cfl>t kz'kI+ fL Pj+ hgfj/x?nfO{ oL k]ox?sf] k|of]u gu/f}+ . rk]6fdf hfgL–ghfgL kl//x]sf x'G5f}+ . lkQnsf] ef8fdf /fVbf jf ksfpFbf d'nf, df; / cÍ'l/t cGg vfg' x'bF g} . 8fO/]S6/ x'g\ ._
ef]hg u/fpg' kg]{ x'G5 .
(_ ef]hgk"j{ Oi6 b]jtfx?nfO{
cfXjfg u/L ef]hgnfO{ k/dfTdfsf]
#@_ sf]sfsf]nf, k]K;Lsf]nf, km]G6,
ldl/G6f, l8p, :k|fO6 h:tf sfaf]g{ 6] 8\
k]o klg :jf:Yosf] nflu cToGt
o;y{lj¿4 cfxf/sf ljifodf tkfO{+
xfdL ;a}hgf hfgsf/ x'gk' 5{ . cfxf/
;+of]usf] cfwf/df dfqlj¿4 x'Fb}g .
vfgf ljiffQm x'G5 . o;}u/L dx jf
bxLnfO{ ttfpFbf klg xflgsf/s
x' G 5 . o:tf vfg] s ' / fnfO{ kfs
tLg p8fgdfkm{t\ e]/f];]n vf]k NofOg] Û
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn jfo';j] f lgudsf] jfO8a8L ljdfg sf]/f]gf efO/;lj?4sf]
k|;fbsf] ?kdf u|x0f ug{'k5{ . xflgsf/s 5 . o;y{ oL k]ox?sf] b]z, sfn, kl/l:ylt, df};d, kfrg ;+:sf/lj¿4sf] cfxf/ elgG5 . vf]k …e]/f];n
] Ú lngsf nflu cfufdL a'waf/ rLgtkm{ hfg] ePsf] 5 . lrlgofF
!)_ ef]hg lnO;s]kl5 klxnf] klg k|of]u gu/f}+ . Ifdtf, dfqf, bf]if, k|s[lt, ljs[lt - !#= jLo{ l j¿4 cfxf/ M vf]k pTkfbs sDkgLsf] g]kfnnfO{ vf]k pknAw u/fpg] tof/L gk'us ] fn] cfufdL
ufF;nfO{ /fd|/L rkfP/ lgNg'k5{ . ##_ xKtfsf] Pslbg pkjf; ug]{ /f]u_, an, ao, ;+:sf/, jLo{ clbsf zLtjLo{ kbfy{ x ¿nfO{ pi0fjLo{ a'waf/ dfq lgudsf] jfO8a8L ljdfg rLgtkm{ hfg] ePsf] xf] . o;cl3 c;f/
klxnf] uf; rafP/ w'nf]lk7f] gkf/];Dd afgL a;fnf}F–pkjf; a:bf ;se/ cfwf/df klg lj¿4 x'G5 . kbfy{ x ¿;F u vfPsf] cfxf/nfO{ #! ut] rLg hfg] eg] tfklg hxfhsf] tflnsf kl/jt{g u/]/ Ps xKtf k/
bf];|f] uf; lng' x'Fb}g . kof{Kt kfgL dfq lkP/ a:g] u/f}+ . != b]z jf :yfglj?4 cfxf/ jLo{lj¿4sf] cfxf/ elgG5 . ;fl/Psf] xf] . lgudsf ck/]zg ljefu k|dv ' bLk'/fh Ho'xfr{gn] oxL ;fpg ^
!!_ ef]hgnfO{ tfg]{, e'6\g], w]/} kfgLdf dfq pkjf; a:g g;s] df};d :jf:Yosf nflu ;a}eGbf lxts/ !$= ¿lrlj¿4 cfxf/ ut]bl] v tLg p8fgdfkm{t\ lgoldt vf]k NofOg] hfgsf/L lbP . pgsf cg';f/
lrNnf], g"gcldnf] lk/f] xfNg]eGbf klg cg';f/sf] kmnk"mnsf] /;df pkjf; vfg]s'/f eg]sf] JolQm al;/x]s} cfk" m nfO{ ¿lr gePsf] rLg;Fu v/Lb ul/Psf vf]k lng oxL ;fpg ^ ut] kf}g} ^M)) ah] uP/ csf]{
ef]hgs} k|fs[lts :jfbdf lng] ug{' a:g] u/f}+ . :yfgdf kmn]km" n]sf] vfg]s/' fx¿ x'g\ . vfg]s'/fx¿ kl/l:ylta; vfg'k/]sf] lbg cyf{t\ ;fpg & ut] laxfg vf]k lnP/ hxfh g]kfn cfpg] 5 .
kb{5 . #$_ v;| f ] df] 6 f cGgx?nfO{ :yfgLo jf If]qLo vfg]s'/fx¿ vfFbf vfg]s/' fnfO{ xfdL ¿lrlj¿4sf] cfxf/
!@_ ef]hg Psfu| eP/ zfGt vfgdf ;dfj]z u/f}+ . sf]bf], ds}, JolQm / vfg]s'/fsf] k|s[lt ldN5 t/ eG5f}+ . o:t} ;fpg & ut] k'gM hxfh uP/ ;fpg * ut] / ;fpg ( ut] uP/
lrQn] ug{'kb{5 . kmfk/, hjf/, afh/f, sfu'gL, ;fdf, Ps If]qdf kmn]km" n]sf] vfg]s/' f csf]{ !%= ;+of]usf lj¿4 cfxf/ M hxfhn] ;fpg !) ut] vf]k g]kfn Nofpg] 5 . rLg ;/sf/;Fu ggl8:Snf]n/
!#_ /ftsf] zog ;doeGbf # h'gn] f], hf} h:tf v;|f df]6f cGgx?df If]qsf dfG5]n] vfFbflj¿4 x'G5 . b'O{ jf b'O{eGbf w]/} kbfy{sf] ld>0f ;Demf}tfcg';f/ ;/sf/ …e]/f];n ] Ú vf]k v/Lb u/]/ Nofpg yfn]sf] xf] . o;cl3
306f k"j{ g} ef]hg ul/;Sg' kb{5 . oy]i6 dfqfdf kmfOa/ -/]zf/ rf]s/_ @= sfnlj¿4 cfxf/ :jf:Yosf nflu xflgsf/s x'g ;S5 c;f/ @% ut] cf7 nfv dfqf vf]k rLgaf6 NofOPsf] lyof] . ;/sf/n] rLgaf6
!$_ b'O{ ef]hgx?sf] aLrdf %– / k"0f{ kf]ifstTjx? kfOG5 . sfn cyjf ;dosf cfwf/df klg eg] To; vfg]s'/fnfO{ ;+of]ulj¿4 vf]k NofPkl5 lgoldt?kdf vf]k cleofg klg ;~rfng ul//x]sf] 5 .
^ 306fsf] cGt/fn x'g h?/L 5 . #%_ kmnk"mn tyf t/sf/Lsf] cfxf/lj¿4 x'g ;S5 . h:tf] sfFqmf] cfxf/ elgG5 . o;}u/L ;/sf/n] v/Lb ug]{afx]s sf]EofS; ;'ljwfdfkm{t\ klg ;/sf/n]
Ps kN6 ef]hg ul/;s]kl5 aLrdf k|of]u klg oy]i6 dfqf ug]{ u/f}F . laxfg !) ah]eGbf klxn] vfg' clt s] ; " u s] gvfg] < vf]k NofO/x]sf] 5 . :jf:Yo tyf hg;+Vof dGqfnosf k|jQmf 8f s[i0fk|;fb
xNsfkm'Nsf lng] . vfgfdf xl/of] ;AhL slxn] klg pQd, !) b]lv $ ah];Dd vfg' l7s} != b"w;"u M bxL, g'g, d'nf, kf}8]nn] ^) nfv hg;+VofnfO{ k'Ug] vf]k sf]EofS;n] pknAw u/fpg]
!%_ lrlGtt, zf]sfs'n, ylst, g6'6fcf}F . t/ rf/ ah]kZrft vfg' xflgsf/s s6x/, ;nfb, zLtn lrgL, ltqL, k|lta4tfcg';f/ vf]k cfO/x]sf] hfgsf/L lbP . ;/sf/n] c;f/ @* ut]
8/fPsf] / x8a8sf] cj:yfdf ef]hg #^_ kmnk"mn tyf t/sf/LnfO{ x'g hfG5 . o;}u/L bxL, ;ft', cldnf] v/a' h f, t/e" h f, a] n , gl/an, cd]l/sfaf6 !% nfv #$ xhf/ *%) dfqf;lxtsf] hf]G;g P08 hf]G;g vf]k
ug{' x'Fb}g . ;b}j vfg' k"j{ @) ldg]6 hlt vfg]s'/fx¿ /flt vfg xF'b}g . sfutL, hd'gf, cgf/, cdnf, ;Sv/, sf]EofS; ;'ljwfcGtu{t cg'bfg ;xof]u k|fKt u/]sf] xf] . o;cl3 sf]EofS;
!^_ ;'t/] p7\g] lalQs} klg ef]hg g'gkfgLsf] 3f]ndf 8'afP/ k|of]u ug]{ #= kl/l:yltlj¿4 cfxf/ M s/f}bf, ltnf}/f, uxt, ;ft', sf]bf], ;'ljwfdfkm{t\ tLg nfv $* xhf/ vf]k ef/taf6 k|fKt ePsf] lyof] . o:t}
ul/xfNg' x'Fb}g . u/f} + . o;f] ubf{ (% k| l tzt dfG5]sf] hLjgdf o'4, zflGt, tgfj, d'ª, df;, uxtt]n, df5f, h:tf hfkfg ;/sf/n] sf]EofS; ;'ljwfcGtu{t hfkfgd} pTkflbt sf]le8–!( lj?4sf]
!&_ ef]hg ;se/ df}gdf g} t/sf/Lsf ljifx? lgit]h x'G5g\ . lrGtf, zf]s, pbf;Lgtf, k|0foh:tf vfg]s'/fsf] ;]jg gug{'xf];\ . o;}u/L P:6«fh]lgsf vf]ksf] !^ nfv dfqf g]kfnnfO{ k|bfg ug]{ 3f]if0ff u/]sf] 5 .
ef]hg ubf{ /fd|f] xf] . af]Ng} k/] klg #&_ ef]hg ubf{ 6]lnlehg x]g]{, cg]s kl/l:yltx¿ cfOnfU5g\ / b"wdf s'g} klg kl/sf/;Fu df5f, df;' g]kfndf clxn];Dd ^% nfv *@ xhf/ *%) dfqf vf]k cfO;s]sf] 5 .
ef]hg u|x0f;Fu ;DalGwt s'/f dfq
af]Ng] u/f}+ .
!*_ ef] h g ubf{ Jofkf/,
klqsf k9\g,] /]l8of] ;'Gg], kmf]gdf s'/f
ug]{ h:tf lqmofsnfk ug{' x'Fb}g .
#*_ ef]hg ul/;Sg] lalQs}
vfg]s'/f oL kl/:ylt cg'¿ksf]
x'gk' 5{ . h:t}, zf]ssf] 38Ldf g'gsf]
;]jg, tgfjsf] kl/l:yltdf ul/i7
c08f cflb vfg' x'Fb}g .
@= bxL;"u M lrof, skmL, b"w,
kgL/, lv/, sfFqmf v/a'hf, d]jf .
8ANo'Prcf]åf/f !)$ /fi6d« f 8]N6f e]l/PG6 kml} nPsf] bfaL
sf7df8f}F . ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7g -8An'Prcf]_ n] ljZjsf !)$ /fi6«x?df
3/kl/jf/ /fhgLlt jf ;dfhsf cGo zf/Ll/s Pjd\ dfgl;s >d ub}{ ef]hgnfO{ lj¿4 dflgG5 . #= lv/;" u M ¿v s6x/, 8]N6f e]l/PG6 km}lnPsf] bfaL ub}{ o;n] eofjx ?k lng] r]tfjgL lbPsf] 5 .
ljifox?sf] af/]df af]Ng' x'Fb}g . gu/f}+ . $= df} ; dlj¿4sf] cfxf/ M e' O F s 6x/, df5f–df;' , cldnf] 8An'Prcf]sf k|dv ' 6]8f« ;
] cwfgf]d u]al]| ;o;n] kl5Nnf] ;do 8]N6f efO/;sf]
!(_ laxfg a]|skmfi6 lng] afgL #(_ ef] h g k" j { / kZrft hf8f]–udL{, jiff{–;'Vvf jf leGg–leGg kmnk"mn, ;ft', dlb/f cflb . ;+qmd0f tLj| ?kdf km}lnPsfn] w]/} b]zx? k|efljt x'g;Sg] atfPsf x'g .
a;fnf}+ . a|]skmfi6 :j:ys/ / cln efjgfnfO{ al;e"t u/f}+ . ef]hg k"j{ df};ddf h] kmN5 ToxL vfP /fd|f] $= dx;"u M ;dfg dfqfdf l3p, ljutsf] !) ;ftf ljZje/ ;+qmd0f b/ 36]sf a]nf kl5Nnf] ;do of]
w]/} ePklg km/s kb}g{ . / kZrft l/;fpg], 8/fpg], lrlGtt x'G5 . h:t}, c;f/sf] cfFk k';df t]n, af];f], c+u/' , sdnsf] lap, d'nf, e]l/PG6 lgs} ;lqmo /x]sf] cg';Gwfgaf6 v'ns ] f] eGb} u]al]| ;o;n] lgoGq0fsf
@)_ laxfg lbpF;f] / a]n'sfsf] x'g] nf]eL / df]lxt x'g] ug{' x'Fb}g . vfg' /fd|f] xf]Og, o;}u/L k';sf] ;'Gtnf tftf]kfgL of b"w, ;Sv/, jiff{ sf]kfgL nflu tof/L /xg lgb]z { g lbPsf 5g\ . of] e]l/PG6n] sf]/f]gfsf] vf]k gnufPsf
vfgf vfg] lglZrt ;do lgwf{/0f ug{' $)_ ef]hgkZrft\ t'?Gt dnd"q c;f/df vfg' /fd|f] xf]Og . o;}u/L cflb lkpg' xFb' g} . JolQmx? a9L ;+qmldt x'g] u/]sf] eGb} vf]k cleofgdf tLj|tf lbg pgn]
kb{5 . Tofu ug]{ afgL /fd|f] xf]Og . hf8f]sf] lr;f] / ;'Vvf vfg]s/' f vfg' %= lr;f] kfgL;"u M l3p, t]n, ;'emfj lbPsf 5g\ .
@!_ af;L vfg]s'/fx?sf] k|of]u $!_ w]/} tftf] jf w]/} lr;f] / udL{ df};ddf tftf] vfg]s'/f vfg' tftf] vfg]s'/f, b"w, t/a'hf, cDas,
:jf:Yosf] nflu sbflk /fd|f] xf]Og .
vfgf cfk}Fmn] agfPsf] / agfPsf] #
j:t'x?sf] ;]jg klg /fd|f] xf]Og .
$@_ ef]hg ubf{ s]xL lkpg} k¥of]
df};d lj¿4sf cfxf/ x'g\ .
%= kfrglj¿4 cfxf/
d'ËkmnL cflb vfg' jf lkpFg' x'bF g} .
^= hf}sf] lk7f]nfO{ cGo cGg;Fu
n]v, /rgf;DaGwL ;"rgf
306f leq vfO;Sg' kb{5 .
@@_ af]6naGb, a§faGb, KoflsË
eg] df]xL, bfnsf] emf]n jf tfhf
e]h;"k lkpg] u/f}+ .
x/] s dfG5] d f kfrg Ifdtf
leGgleGg x'G5 . s;}n] ul/i7 ef]hg
gldnfO{ gvfg'xf]nf . o;}u/L ;ft'nfO{
klg kfgL g/fvL vfg' xF'b}g . …If]Kof:qÚ ;fKtflxs / …hgva/Ú
u/]/ a]lrPsf hÍ km'8x?sf] ;]jg
ug{' x'Fb}g . hÍ km'8 d'vsf] :jfbdf
$#_ ef]hg u/]sf] # 306f ;Dd
of}g ;Dks{ ug{' x'Fb}g .
klg dhfn] krfOlbG5g\ t s;}n]
;fdfGo ef]hg klg krfpg ;Sb}gg\ .
&= ef]hgnuQ} kfgL lkpg' x'bF g} .
lbpF;f] ef]hg u/] k5fl8 df]xL / /flt cgnfOgdf k|sfzgfy{
nflu dfq xf] . o;sf Sofnf]/L afx]s
vf;} cGo kf}li6s tTjx? x'bF g} t;y{
$$_ lr;f] , cldnf] Pjd\
km/d]06];g x'g;Sg] vfg]s/' fx? /flt
o;y{ sdhf] / kfrg Ifdtf
ePsfx¿n] tf/]sf] / e'6]sf] w]/} t]n
ef]hgkl5 b"w lng' nfebfos x'G5 .
*= lb;flk;fa u/] k l5, /fli6«o÷cGt/f{li6«o dxTjsf n]v,
hÍ km'8sf] k|of]u gu/f}+ .
@#_ h"7f] vfgfsf] k|of]u gu/f}+ .
vfg' x'Fb}g .
$%_ /flt ;nfbsf] k|of]u klg
xfn]sf] df5f–df;', c08fh:tf ul/i7
vfg]s'/f vfg' x'Fb}g .
vfgfvfg'eGbf klxn], ¿3fdsL{ nfu]sf]
tyf d'vdf 3fp cfPsf] cj:yfdf /
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kfgL ef]hgsf] #) ldg]6 klxn] g} lzlyn geP;Dd s'g} klg vfB Pjd\ skm a9fpg] vfnsf] / lkQ k|sl[ tsf] xFb' g} . yfkfufp“, sf7df8f},+ kmf]gM (*$!$)#*%!
lkPsf] / ef]hg kZrft Ps 306f;Dd k]o ;]jg ug{x' G' g . dfG5]sf nflu lkQ a9fpg] vfnsf] !)= tftf] kfgL jf tftf] kbfy{sf E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com
glkPsf] /fd|f] xf] . $*_ vfgf vfPkl5 slxn] klg vfg]s'/f lj¿4 cfxf/ x'g\ . ;fydf dx, s'NkmL, cfO;lqmd jf janakhabar@gmail.com
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clgjf{o ?kn] cfzª\sfx? k}bf ug]5
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sf]l/ofdf g]kfnL dhb'/sf] tna Go"gtd b'O{ nfv Û
sf7df8f}F . blIf0f sf]l/ofsf] Hofnf lgwf{/0f ;ldltsf] a}7sn] >fldsn] xfn kfO/x]sf]
tnadf kfFr k|ltztn] j[l4 u/L k|lt306f gf} xhf/ !^) sf]l/og jg sfod u/]sf] 5 .
;g\ @)@@ b]lv nfu" x'g] of] tnacg';f/ xfnsf] k|lt306fsf] Hofnf cf7 xhf/ &@)
eg] slxNo} /f]lsPg, ;fgf jf 7"nf sf]l/og jgaf6 $$) jg j[l4 ePsf] xf] . o;cg'?k xKtfdf kfFr lbg / b}lgs cf7
kl/l:yltaf/] s'/f u/f}F . clxn] xfd|f O6fsf] hjfkm 9'ªu\ fn] lbg' / PsPs ljzfn kl5Nnf] efusf hgtfaf6 u[x le8Gtx? c6'6 ?kdf eO/x] . o;
sfd/]8x?n] rfv /fv]sf] ljifo oxL OGr hldgsf]nflu n8\g' . o; kfnf o'4sf] lj/f]w x'g' / cGt/f{li6«o kl/l:ylt 306f dfq sfd ubf{ klg dfl;s !( nfv !$ xhf/ $$) jg x'g5] . of] /sd em08}
cjlwdf u[x o'4 x'bF e } Pg eGg' wf]sf g]kfnL ? b'O{ nfv a/fa/ xf] . Go"gtd Hofnf lgwf{/0f ;ldltdf gf} ;b:o /x]sf lyP .
xf] . o; kfnf 5'ªlsªdf Sjf]ldGtfª xfdLn] OF6fsf] hjfkm 9'ªu\ fn] lbof}F . csf]{ d'Vo tLg tTjx? x'g\ . xfd|f d'Qm xf] / o; egfOn] tYo;Fu d]n vfFbg} .
/ sDo'lgi6 kf6L{aLrsf] ;Demf}tf–jftf{ zAbdf eGg] xf] eg] xfdLn] t]x| l8lehg If]qx?df !) s/f]8 dflg;x? 5g\, !) ;ldltdf dhb'/sf kIfaf6, sDkgL Joj;foLsf] tkm{af6 / ;j{;fwf/0fsf tkm{af6
ljut cf7 jif{df xfdLn] ;Demf}tf jftf{ k|ltlglwTj x'g] ub{5 . ;f]daf/ ;/sf/L sDKn]S; ;]hf]ªdf ePsf] a}7sn] dWo/ftdf
rf/ lbg;Dd rNof], jftf{sf] glthf ;] g fnfO{ ;vfk kf¥of} F . a} / Lsf] nfv kmf}hx? 5g\ / @) nfv hg;]gfsf ug]{ cfkm\gf] tTk/tf af/af/ k|s6
cvaf/x?df k|sflzt e};s]sf] 5 . cfqmd0fsf/L ;]gfdf #*,))) hjfgx? ;b:ox? 5g\ . of] Pp6f To:tf] zlQm Hofnf a9fpg] lg0f{o u/]sf] xf] . Go"gtd Hofnf lgwf{/0f ;ldltsf] a}7sdf dhb'/sf
u/]sf xfF} . xfd|f] kf6L{sf] ;ftf}F tkm{af6 k|ltlglwTj ug]n{ ] clxn]sf] cf7 xhf/ &@) jgaf6 !) xhf/ jg dfu /fv]sf
oL b'O{ kf6L{sf k|ltlglwx?sf] aLrdf lyP / xfdLn] #!,))) hjfgnfO{ xf] h;nfO{ s;}n] klg nt{/f] 7fGg] cfF6 dxflwj]zgdf xfdLn] s] 3f]if0f u/]sf lyP eg] Joj;foLsf] tkm{af6 k|ltlglwTj ug]n{ ] eg] cf7 xhf/ &@) g} sfod ug{k' g]{
lyof}F eg] ……Sjf]ldGtfªsf clwsf/Lx? c8fg lnPsf lyP . sf]/f]gf dxfdf/Lsf sf/0f Joj;fo w/fkdf k/]sf] eGb} pgLx?n]
ltgsf unt gLltx? TofUg tof/ Hofnf a9fpg gx'g] ts{ u/]sf lyP .
x'gf;fy / hgjfbL ;'wf/x? ug{ dGh'/ dhb'/sf k|ltlglw / Joj;foLsf k|ltlglwaLr lgisif{ lgl:sg g;s]kl5
x'gf;fy} pgLx?;Fu ;Demf}tf–jftf{ z'? ;j{;fwf/0faf6 k|ltlglwTj ug]n { ] dWodfuL{ af6f] ;'emfPsf lyP . pgLx¿n] g}
ug{ xfdL tof/ 5f} .ÚÚ ;Demf}tf–jftf{df k|lt306f $$) jg j[l4 ug{ k|:tfj u/]sf lyP / ;xdlt ePsf] lyof] . k|lt306f
xfdLn] s] 3f]if0ff u¥of}F eg] klxnf] s/f, $$) jgsf] j[l4 eg]sf] kfFr bzdnj )$^ k|ltztsf] j[l4 xf] t/ Go"gtd
rLgnfO{ zflGt rflxPsf] 5 / bf];f| ] Hofnf lgwf{/0f ;ldltn] cf}krfl/s k|of]usf nflu %=! k|ltztsf] j[l4 dfg]sf]
s'/f, rLgnfO{ hgjfb rflxPsf] 5 . 5 . sfg"gL¿kdf Go"gtd Hofnf lgwf{/0f ;ldltn] a9]sf] Hofnf sf]l/ofsf] >d
oL s'/f gsfg]{ s'g} sf/0f km]nf kfg{ dGqfnodf l;kmfl/; ub{5 / >d dGqfnon] cui6 % df Hofnf 3f]if0ff ug]5 { .
g;s]/ Rofª sfO{–z]sn] xfd|f] s'/f dhb'/sf nflu dlxgfsf] !) xhf/ jg k'¥ofpg] r'gfjL nIo /fv]sf
dfGg}k¥of] . Pslt/ …s'/fsfgLsf] ;f/f+zÚ /fi6«klt d'gh] Og sfo{sfnsf] clGtd clGtd r/0fdf k'Ubf klg ;kmn x'g
df k| s flzt zflGtsf] gLlt / ;s]gg\ . t}klg d'g h] Ogsf] sfo{sfndf ;g\ @)!* df !^=$ k|ltzt, ;g\
hgjfb;DaGwL ;xdlt sfutdf @)!( df !)=( k|ltzt, ;g\ @)!( df @=( k|ltzt tyf ;g\ @)@) df
ePsf zAbx? Dffq x'g\ / ltgnfO{ clxn];Dds} ;a}eGbf sd !=% k|ltzt tna j[l4 ePsf] lyof] .
cem} Jojxf/df cQfl/Psf] 5}g,
csf]l{ t/, s}og\ lsl;dsf zlQmx?af6
ltgsf] lgwf{/0f ePsf] 5 . d'Qm
!$ cf}+ blIf0f Pl;ofnL v]ns'b kfls:tfgdf
If]qx?sf hgzlQmx?, ljzfn kl5Nnf] sf7df8f}F . blIf0f Pl;ofnL v]ns'b k|ltof]lutf -;fu_ sf] !$cf}+ ;+:s/0f ;g\
efusf hgzlQmx?, cGt/f{ l i6« o @)@# sf] dfr{ dlxgfdf kfls:tfgdf cfof]hgf ul/g] ePsf] 5 . blIf0f Pl;ofnL
kl/l:ylt oL ;a} s'/fsf] cfdk|jl[ Qn] cf]nlDks sfplG;nsf] lxhf] a;]sf] er{c ' n a}7sn] !$cf}+ ;fu ;g\ @)@# sf]
of] s'/fx? dfq Sjf]ldGtfªnfO{ afWo dfr{df ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] xf] . kfFr zx/df cfof]hgf x'g] !$ cf}+ ;fudf @& v]n
u/fPsf] xf] . …O{6fsf] hjfkm 9'ªu\ fn]Ú ;dfj]z ul/g]5 . k|ltof]ltfdf d'Vo v]nx? nfxf]/df x'g5 ] . To;afx]s km};nfjfb,
s;/L lbg] eGg] s'/f kl/l:yltdf u'h/gjfnf, O:nfdfjfb / l;nfsf]6df klg s]xL v]nx? x'g5 ] g\ . !# cf}+ ;fu ;g\
e/k5{ . slxn] sfxL ;Demf}tf–jftf{ @)!( df g]kfndf cfof]hgf ePsf] lyof] . 3/]n' ;fudf g]kfnn] %! :j0f{ kbs
;Demf}t–jftf{ rln/x]s} 5 . ;Demf}t– n8fO{df ;+nUg u/]sf] lyof}F a}/Lsf ug{ ;Sb}g\ . /fi6«sf] /fhg}lts hLjgdf ug{ hfFb} ghfg' g} O{6fsf] hjfkm 9'ªu\ fn] lhTb} bf];f| ] ePsf] lyof] . !# cf}+ ;fusf] ;dfkgkl5 kfls:tfgnfO{ !$ cf}+ ;fu
jftf{ kmnbfoL ePsf] 5 . Sjf]ldGtfªn] #*,))) hjfgx?df #%,))) hjfg xfd|f] kf6L{sf] :yfg ca g t !(@& sf] lbg' x'G5 . cfof]hgfsf] nflu em08f x:tfGt/0f ul/Psf] lyof] . lhDd]jf/L lnPsf] Ps jif{eGbf
zflGt / Pstfsf l;4fGtx? :jLsf/ Wj:t eP, @,))) hjfg efu] / !,))) h:tf] 5, g !(#& sf] h:tf] g} 5 . a9L ;do;Dd klg ;fusf] ldlt to x'g ;s]sf] lyPg .
u/]sf] 5, hgtfsf s]xL hgjfbL hjfg l5qleq eP / . @ o:tf] n8fO{ sDo'lgi6 kf6L{nfO{ ;dfg dof{bf k|bfg
clwsf/x?nfO{ dfGotf lbPsf] 5 / kl5 klg rln/xg] 5 a}/Lx? xfd|f d'Qm ug{ ;w}F gfdGh'/ ul/cfPsf] Sjf]ldGtfª
u[x o'4nfO{ kG5fpg' k5{ / gf}nf] rLgsf] If]qx? d'7o\ fpg x'?Ss ePsf 5g\ . of] klg ca o;nfO{ To:tf] dof{bf k|bfg
lgdf{0fsf] nflu b'O{ kf6L{n] zflGtk"js { s'/f a'em\g cl3 ufx|f] eP em} nfU5 . ug{ afWo ePsf] 5 . d'Qm If]qx?sf]
cfk;L ;xof]u ug'{k5{ eGg] s'/f xf]Og, oL dflg;x? d'Qm If]qx?df gª\uf| xfd|f] sfdn] l;Fªu\ } rLg / l;Fªu\ }
:jLsf/ u/]sf] 5 . oL a'bF fx?df ;xdlt uf8\g lsg olt ufx|f] lk/f]lnPsf ;+;f/nfO{ k|efljt ul/;s]sf] 5 .
k|fKt e};s]sf] 5 . c? a'bF fx? Klg xf]nfg\ < d'Qm If]qx? xfd|f xftdf /xg', ljzfn kl5Nnf] efusf hgtf
5g\ h;af/] cem} ;xdlt ePsf] 5}g . hgtfsf xftdf /xg' hflt s'/f xf]Og zflGtsf] OR5f u5{g\ / hgjfb
d'Qm If]qx?sf] ;d:of cem} ;'Nem]sf] / < xf], hflt s'/f xf] . t/ of] t xfd|f] rfxG5g\ / 5'ªlsªdf 5Fbf dnfO{
5}g / ;z:q ;]gfx?;DaGwL ;d:of ;f]rfO dfq xf], hgtfsf] ;f]rfO dfq Jofks hgtfsf] xflb{s ;dy{gsf]
t emg\ ;fFlRr g} ;'Nem]sf] 5}g eO;s]sf xf] . pgLx?n] klg o; 9ª\un] ;f]rs ] f ulx/f] cg'el" t eof] . ToxfFsf hgtf
;Demf}tfx? klg cem} sfut d} ;Lldt ePt xfd|f] Pstf eOxfNYof] / xfdL ;a} Sjf]ldGtfª ;/sf/;Fu c;Gt'i6 5g\
5g\ . sfutdf n]lvPsf zAbx? g} …sfd/]8Ú x'GYof}F . t/ pgLx? o; / ltgn] xfdLdfly cfkm\gf cfzf
Jff:tljstf ;/x x'bF g} g\ . ltgLnfO{ 9ª\un] ;f]Rb}gg\ a? ltgn] t x7k"js { s] l Gb| t u/] s f 5g\ . d} n ]
jf:tljstfdf ptfg{e ' Gbf cl3 Hofb} xfd|f] lj/f]w u5{g\ . ltgn] xfd|f] lj/f]w cd]l/sLx?nufot y'k}| ljb]zLx?nfO{
7"n7"nf k|of;x? gu/L gx'g] s'/f lsg gug]{ xf] Tof] s'/f g} a'em\g ;Sb}gg\ . klg e]6] . pgLx?;d]t klg xfdLk|lt
tYofªsn] b]vfO;s]sf 5g\ . ltgn] xfdLdfly cfqmd0f ug'{ Psbd} ;xfg'el" t /fVb5g\ . ljb]zL d'ns ' x?sf
Sjf]ldGtfª Psflt/ xfdL;Fu :jfefljs s'/f xf] . ca xfd|f] s'/f ug]{ Jofks hg;d"x rLgsf k|ltlqmofjfbL
;Demf}t–jftf{ rnfpF5 / csf{lt/ d'Qm xf] eg] xfdLn] ltgn] xfd|f] d'Qm If]qx? zlQmx?;Fu c;Gt'i6 5g\ / pgLx?
If]qx?df eoª\s/ cfqmd0f ub}5 { . sAhf ug{ lsg lbg' gx'g] xf] eGg] s'/f rLgsf hgjfbL zlQmx?k|lt ;xfg'el" t
z]gzL–sfg;'–lgªZof ;LdfGt If]qnfO{ xfdL klg a'em\g ;Sb}gf}F . xfdLn] /fV5g\ . pgLx? Rofª–sfO{–z]ssf
3]l//x]sf Sjf]ldGtfª ;]gfx?nfO{ 5f8]/ k|Tofqmd0f ug'{ klg Psbd} :jfefljs gLltx? Klg c:jLsf/ u5{g\ / xfd|f]
klg p;sf *,)),))) hjfgx? oL s'/f xf] . ha b'O6{ f …a'em\g ;Sg]Ú kIfx? d'ns ' / ljZjsf ;a} efudf xfd|f y'k}|
cfqmd0fx?df k|ToIf?kn] nflu;s]sf Ps csf]s { f] ;fd'Gg] kb{5g\ ta ltgsf] ldqx? 5g\ xfdL PSnf] k/]sf 5}gf} .
5g\ . hxfF–hxfF d'Qm If]qx? 5g\ ToxfF le8Gt kl/xfN5 . xf]Og, b'O6{ } a'em\g rLgsf] u[x o'4sf] lj/f]w ug]{ / zflGt
n8fO{ rln/x]s} 5 jf n8fO{sf] tof/L g;Sg] kIfx? 5g\ eg] ltgn] lsg tyf hgjfbsf] kIfdf v8f x'g]
ul/b}5 . …!) cS6f]a/sf] ;Demf}tfÚ sf] ;Demf}tf–jftf{ u/]sf x'g\ t < clg ltgn] dflg;x?df xfd|f d'Qm If]qsf dflg;x?
klxnf] wf/f g} …zflGt / /fli6«o …!) cS6f]a/sf] ;Demf}tf lsg u/]sf dfq gk/]/ ljzfn kl5Nnf] efusf /
k'glg{df{0fÚ— af/]df 5, To:t} eP . To;}n] x'g t < o; ;+;f/sf] j:t'l:ylt Hofb} ljZjel/sf Jofks hg;d" x x?
sfutdf n]lvPsf s'/fnfO{ Jojxf/df hl6n 5 / s}og\ tTjx?n] To;sf] kb{5g\ . cfkm\gf] tfgfzfxL sfod /fVg]
ptfg{ xfd|ft] km{af6 cem} k|of; ug'k{ /]sf] lgwf{/0f u5{g\ . xfdLn] ;d:ofx?nfO{ / sDo'lgi6 kf6L{nfO{ Wj:t kfg]{ Rofª–
5 eg]/ xfdLn] eg]sf xf}F . xfdLdfly Ps kxn'af6 dfq gx]/]/ ljleGg sfO{–z]ssf] dgf]ut OR5 5, t/ p;sf]
cfqmd0f ug{ Sjf]ldGtfªn] olt w]/} kxn'x?af6 x]g] { ug'k{ 5{ . 5'ªlsªsf s]xL cl3lNt/sf] af6f]df s}og\ j:t'ut
kmf}hx?nfO{ kl/rfng ug{sf] sf/0f s] dflg;sf] ;f]rfO s] 5 eg] Rofª sfO{– sl7gfOx? 5g\ . To;sf/0f, p;sf]
xf] t < sf/0f s] xf] eg] p;n] lgs} z]s e/ kg{ g;lsg] wf]sa] fh ePsf]n] cln oyfy{jfbL klg x'g' k/]sf] 5 . p
cl3 g} hgtfsf zlQmx?nfO{ ;vfk p;Fu ;Demf}tf jftf{ s]xL n5fl/Fbg} . oyfy{jfbL x'bF 5} , / xfdL klg oyfy{jfbL
kfg]{ c7f]6 u/]sf] lyof], xfdLnfO{ ;vfk d} n ] e] 6 ] s f Sjf] l dGtfªsf s] x L 5f} . xfdLnfO{ lgDtf ug'{ p;sf]
kfg]{ c7f]6 u/]sf] lyof] . xfdLnfO{ l5§} ;b:ox?nufot s}og\ dflg;n] dnfO{ oyfy{tjfbLkg xf] / p;Fu ;Demf}tf
g} ;vfk kfg'{ p;sf] lglDtf ;aeGbf o;f] eg] . d}n] pgLx?nfO{ tkfO{n] eGg' jftf{ ug{ hfg' xfd|f] klg oyfy{jfbLkg
/fd|f] s'/f xf] cyjf o;f] ug{ g;s]df ePsf] s'/f ;xL / kSsf, xf] tyf o;sf] xf] . xfdL @* cu:tdf 5'ªlsª k'Uof} .
p;n] xfd|f] l:ylt laufg{ / p;sf] glthf tkfO{x?n] eGg' eP h:t} g} @( cu:tsf] a]ns ' f d}n] Sjf]ldGtfªsf
cfkm\gf] l:ylt ;kfg{ rfx]sf] 5 . x'g5] eGg] s'/fdf xfdL xfd|f] c7f/ jif{sf] k|ltlglwx?nfO{ s] eg] eg] !^#^ sf]
;Demf}tfdf zflGtsf] pNn]v eP tfklg cg'ej x]//] kSsfkSsL ljZj:t 5f}F !* ;]K6]Da/sf] 36gfb]lv g} d'ns ' df
jf:tjdf o;n] ;fsf/ ?k lnPsf] 5}g . eg]/ eg] . Sof]ldGtfª / sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ zflGt / Pstfsf] vfFrf] k/]sf] 5 .
zfgzL k|fGtsf zfªtfª If]q h:tf o; ;Demf}tf–jftf{df ljkmn x'g] s'/f xfdLn] zflGt / Pstfsf] dfu u/]sf
7fpFx?df lgs} Jofks :t/df n8fOF lglZrt 5, ltgn] n8fO{ yfNg] s'/f lyof}F t/ ltgn] o; dfunfO{ sfof{Gjog
rln/x]sf] 5 . rf/}lt/af6 yfPxfª, lglZrt 5 / Pscsf]l{ ;t ;DaGw u/]sf lyPgg\ . & h'nfO{ !(#& df
yfPYj] / r'ªYofcf] kxf8n] 3]/s ] f] laR5]b ug]{ s'/f lglZrt 5, t/ of] k|lt/f]w o'4 5]l8g' cl3 !^#^ sf]
zfªtfª If]q s/fO{ h:tf] cfsf/sf] 5 . ;d:ofsf] Ps kIf dfq xf] . ;d:ofsf] lzcfgsf] 36gfkl5 dfq zflGt /
o; s/fO{df df5f / df;' 5 / o;nfO{ csf]{ kIf s] xf] eg] c? s}og\ Pstfn] ;fsf/ ?k lnPsf] lyof] . To;
sAhf ug{ o]g zL–zfgn] t]x| l8lehg tTjx?dWo] Rofª–sfO{–z]ssf] dgdf o'4sf] cf7 jif{sf] cjlwdf hfkfg lj?4
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lgsflnlbPkl5 sDkfpG8/sf] ?kdf ;d:tLk' / sf] xf] . lhNnfsf] efO/n u/fPsf 5g\ . c:ktfndf aDaOof ufpFdf ;'ldt s] zf;sx¿ klg sljtf n]V5g\ <
s'df/ sDkfpG8/sf ?kdf sfd
uy]{ . s]xL lbgcl3 dlxnf 8fS6/n] xf] zf;sx¿ klg sljtf n]V5g\
pgnfO{ hflu/af6 lgsflnlbPsL t/ ltgLx¿ sljtfdf sljtf n]Vb}gg\
lyOg\ . hflu/ uPsf sf/0f l/;fPsf
;'ldtn] abnf lngsf] nflu o:tf] ltgLx¿ sljtfdf nfhefF8 n]V5g\
u/]sf lyP . s] zf;sx¿ klg sljtf dg k/fpF5g <
sDkfpG8/ ;'ldtn] ha/h:tL
dlxnf 8fS6/sf] sfo{sIfdf k;]/ xf] zf;sx¿ klg sljtf dg k/fpF5g\
l;Gb'/ xflnlbP/ kmf]6f] / lel8of] t/ ltgLx¿ sljtfh:tf] sljtf dg k/fpFbg} g\
agfP . dlxnf 8fS6/n] o; ljifodf
k'ln;df ph'/L lbPsL l5g\ . kLl8t a?,
dlxnf lrlsT;sn] ;fdflhs lgnf] lkmNdh:tf] sljtf dg k/fpF5g\
;+ h fndfkm{ t \ sDkfpG8/lj?4
k'ln;df ph'/L btf{ u/]sf] atfPsL hxfF sljtf x'bF g}
l5g\ t/ Sofd]/fcufl8 s'g} aofg c? g} yf]s x'G5 e/df/
lbg c:jLsf/ u/]sL l5g\ . k'ln;
sfd ul//x]sf Ps o'jsn] l/;df bnl;+x;/fo k|v08sL k|ef/L lrlsT;f hfgsf/Lsf cg';f/ k|fylds P;kL dfgjlht l;+x l9Nnf]n] ph'/L To; vfn] sljtf zf;sx¿
dlxnf 8fS6/nfO{ ha/h:tL l;Gb"/ clwsf/Lsf] l;pF b f] d f pgs} :jf:Yo s]Gb|sL k|ef/L lrlsT;f btf{ ul/Psf] k'li6 u/]sf 5g\ kf6L{sf] j}7s /f]s/] klg ;'G5g\ Û
sf/sf] ljzfn lrxfg Û ljZjs} cUnf] 3f]8fsf] d[To' Û sf7df8f}F . ljZjsf] ;a}eGbf pQm 3f]8f em08} @=! ld6/ cUnf]
hj zf;gdf zÍ6 cfpF5
zf;sx¿ slj aGg yfN5g\
sf7df8f}F . a]lNhodsf] blIf0f efudf cjl:yt 3gf h+undf kl5Nnf] &% hj gzfn] em'/ x'G5g\ pgLx¿
jif{b]lv sf/sf] eLif0f hfd e}/x]sf] 5 . of] ckTofl/nf] t/ ;To 36gfsf] cUnf] sLlt{dfgL 3f]8fsf] d[To' ePsf] tyf !! ;o #^ lsnf]u|fd tf}nsf]
oyfy{ rflxF P]ltxfl;s g} 5 . pQm 7fpFdf bf]>f] ljZjo'4b]lv g} sf/sf] hfd 5 . lau h]s gfds a]lNhog gZnsf] lyof] . ;g\ @)!) df p;nfO{ lulgh To;kl5 tL sljtf ;'Gg yfN5g\ Û
nflu/x]sf] 5 / Ps k|sf/n] sf/sf] ljzfn lrxfgsf] ?kdf /x]sf] 5 . 3gf @) jifL{ o 3f] 8 fsf] cd] l /sfsf] a's ckm jN8{ /]s8{;\n] ljZjsf]
lj:slG;gl:yt kf]Og]6df /x]sf] :df]sL ;a}eGbf cUnf] 3f]8fsf] k|df0fkq s] zf;sx¿n] dg k/fpg] slj klg x'G5g\ <
x'G5g\ x'G5g\
w]/} x'G5g\
tL zf;ssf k}tfnfsf] w"nf]h:t} x'G5g\
ltgLx¿sf gfdsf] cufl8
cg]s ljz]if0f em'l08Psf] x'G5
dxfslj
cflbslj
h+unleq /x]sf] pQm Rofl6ng sf/ u|]eof8{df &% jif{b]lv 7"nf] ;+Vofdf /fi6«slj
sf/x? ylGsPsf 5g\ . tL sf/x? hL0f{ e};s]sf 5g\ / sf/leq}af6 ?vla?jf
knfpg yfln;s] . k|mfG; / a]lNhodsf] ;Ldf If]qdf kg]{ Rofl6ng ufpF o'jf slj
glhs} 5 pQm sf/ lrxfg . hxfF %)) eGbf a9L sf/ jiff}bF{ l] v To;} ylGs/x]sf
5g\ . ToxfF sf/x? ;8sdf 6«flkms hfddf k/]h:t} u/L yGsfOPsf 5g\ . cfz' slj cflb cflb Û
xf]nf] kmfd{df d[To' ePsf] xf] . pQm k|bfg u/]sf] lyof] . 3f]8f dflns h]/L
h'g hfddf k/]sf] a]nf 7"nf] k|no eP/ hxfFsf] ToxL c8\lsPh:t} b]lvG5 . kz' kmfd{sf dflns h]/L luNa6{sL luna6{sf cg';f/ of] ;'k/:6f/ s] sljtfn] zf;ssf] ;]jf klg u5{ <
pQm 7fpFdf Tolt w]/} sf/ s;/L cfP < / s;/L ylGsP < eGg] s'/f
/x:os} ?kdf /x]sf] 5 . t/, sltkosf] egfOcg';f/ bf]>f] ljZjo'4sf a]nf kTgL Eofln;of luNa6{n] lau h]ssf] 3f]8fsf] hGd g]a|f:sfdf ePsf] xf] / u5{ lg lsg gug{'
ToxfF vl6Psf cd]l/sL ;]gfn] tL sf/ NofP/ hDdf u/]sf x'g\ . cd]l/sL d[To' b'O{ xKtf cufl8 g} ePsf] atfP hGdFb} p;sf] tf}n !)( lsnf] lyof] .
;]gfn] rsf]{ s/ ltg{' gk/f];\ eGgsf nflu tL sf/x? h+unleq nu]/ n'sfPsf klg 3f]8fsf] d[To'sf] olsg ldltsf] ha ls a]lNhog gZnsf] 3f]8f gf]s/n]h:t} ;]jf u5{
lyP . o'4 ;dfKt ePkl5 cd]l/sL ;]gfn] tL sf/x? cd]l/sf g} n}hfg v'nf;f gu/]sf] PkLn] hgfPsf] 5 . hlGdFbf cf}ift tf}n $% lsnf] x'G5 . bnfnL u5{
rfxGy] t/ o'4 ;dfKtL;Fu} sf/x? ToxfFaf6 nluPgg\ . h;sf sf/0f h+unleq …of] xfd|f] kl/jf/sf nflu lgs} b'vb\ cfk"mn] lau h]ssf] ta]nf l/Q} /fv]/
jiff}{Fb]lv sf/sf] lrxfg alg/x]sf] 5 . 36gf ePsf] x'Fbf xfdLn] p;sf] / To;sf] aflx/ OF6f tyf p;sf] rfs8L u5{
tLg lbg;Dd a]xn' f–a]xn' L 6\jfOn]6 hfg gkfpg] Û d/0fsf] ldlt ;Demgf ug{ rfxFb}gf}FÚ
luNa6{n] eg]sL l5g\ .
t:jL/ / gfd /fv]/ p;sf] :d/0f
ug{ rfx]sf] luNa6{ atfpF5g\ .
w"k– cf/tL u5{
ehg–lst{g u5{
a]xn
sf7df8f}F . O08f]gl] ;ofsf] l68+u ;d'bfodf lax] u/]sf] tLg lbg;Dd gjljjflxt
' f a]xn
' LnfO{ zf}rfno hfg k|ltaGw nufOG5 . of] k/Dk/fsf ljifodf pQm ufp“df >LdtLx?sf] emu8f M lab]zdf >Ldfg\x?sf] n8fO“
sf7df8f} F . ufpF d f cfˆgf sf/0f kLl8t !) k|ltzt :yfoL ckf+u
aGb"sn] eGbf a9L ;'/Iff lbG5 Û
;d'bfodf ljleGg cf:yf tyf dfGotfx? 5g\ . To;}n] pgLx? o;nfO{ lgs}
dxTjk"0f{ dfg]/ k"0f{?kdf kfngf ub{5g\ . ljjfx Ps kljq ;df/f]x xf] / olb >LdtLx?aLr ePsf] emu8fsf ljifodf ePsf] uNkm Go"hn] hgfPsf] 5 . zf;snfO{
gjljjflxt a]xn ' f a]xn ' Lx? zf}rfno uPdf To;n] kljqtf eË ub{5 / pgLx? /f]huf/Lsf] nflu b'aO{ >Ldfg\x? kLl8tsf cg';f/ pgnfO{ cfqmd0f dfG5]af6 eujfg\ agfpg]
cz'4 aGb5g\ eGg] dfGotfsf ;fy lax]sf] tLg lbg;Dd a]xn ' f a]xn' LnfO{ 6\jfOn]6 n8fOdf plqP . kfls:tfgdf ug{e' Gbf klxn] pgnfO{ lgs} ceb| ufnL
hfg lbOFbg} . c6]/ u/]/ 6\jfOn]6 uPdf To;nfO{ cz'e dflgG5 . of] k/Dk/fsf >LdtLx?aLr ePsf] emu8f b'aOdf ul/Psf] lyof] . o;sf] sf/0f kLl8t klxnf] dfG5] slj g} lyof]
k5fl8sf] csf]{ sf/0f rflxF gjljjflxt hf]8LnfO{ v/fa gh/af6 aFrfpg' xf] /] . /x]sf >Ldfg\x?;Dd k'uk] l5 pgLx? / cfqmd0fsf/Lsf >LdtLx?aLr zf;snfO{ dfG5]af6 cnu b]vfpg]
pQm ;d'bfodf s] dfGotf 5 eg] dnd'q Tofu ug]{ 7fpF cyf{t\ 6\jfOn]6 b'ul{ Gwt n8fOFdf plqPsf x'g\ . cGttM tL kfls:tfgdf ePsf] emu8f lyof] .
x'g] x'gfn] ToxfF gsf/fTds zlQmx? x'G5g\ . olb lax] nuQ} a]xn ' f a]xn' L 6\jfOn]6 b'jn
} fO{ h]n ;hfo ePsf] 5 . oL b'O{ d]l8sn l/kf]6{df kLl8tsf] xft klxnf] dfG5] slj g} lyof] .
uPdf pgLx?dfly gsf/fTdstfsf] k|efj kg{ ;Sb5 . To;n] pgLx?sf] bfDkTo
hLjgdf ;d:of Nofpg ;Sb5 / ;DaGwd} kmf6f] cfP/ bfDkTo hLjg g} 6'6g\
JolQmn] b'aOsf] cn sfl;; If]qdf efFlrPsf] / 6fpsf]df rf]6 nfu]sf] s] sljx¿ klg bnfnL u5{g\ <
kz' k G5L ahf/df sfd u5{ g \ . kfOof] . ptf cfqmd0f u/]sf] cf/f]k
;Sb5 eGg] dfGotf ;f] ;d'bfodf /x]sf] 5 .
pgLx?sf >LdtLx?sf] kfls:tfgdf nfu]sfx?n] klg kLl8t / pgsf bfh' x}6, lsg ub}g{ y] Û
lax]sf] t'?Gt} kl5 olb a]xn ' f a]xn
' Ln] zf}rfnosf] k|of]u u/]df Tof] pgLx?sf
nflu lgs} xflgsf/s x'g;Sg] dfGotf pgLx?df 5 . To;f] ubf{ b'Od{ Wo] s'g} emu8f ePkl5 b'aOdf /x]sf pgLx?n] ldn]/ cfk"mx?nfO{ xf]RofPsf] cf/f]k a]:;/L u5{g
Pshgf Hofgd} vt/f x'g;S5 elgG5 . ljjfxsf] tLg lbg;Dd 6\jfOn]6 hfg klg Pscsf{nfO{ xf]RofP/ af]Ng yfn]sf nufPsf 5g\ . cGttM b' O {
gkfpg] k/Dk/f ;lhn};uF lgefpg ;s'g\ eGgsf nflu a]xn ' f a]xn ' LnfO{ vfgf tyf lyP . b'aO cbfntdf k]; ul/Psf] cfqmd0fsf/Lx?nfO{ ef}lts cfqmd0f tL sljtfsf] gfddf :t'tL n]V5g\
kfgL sd lbOG5 . pgLx?sf] s8f?kdf lgu/fgL klg ul/G5 . gjljjflxt hf]8LnfO{ b:tfj]hsf cg';f/ 5f]6s/Ldf gfd / xf]RofPsf] cf/f]kdf d'2f rnfOPsf] / zf;snfO{ 9f]u ug{ hfG5g\
tLg lbg;Dd 3/leq} gh/aGbdf /fVg] of] k/Dk/f k"0f{ kfngf ubf{ a]xn ' f a]xn
' Ldf PdPr ePsf ^) jif{sf JolQmn] #* 5 eg] kLl8tlj?4 klg csf]{ kIfnfO{
alnof] cfTdLo ;DaGw sfod x'g] / :j:y tyf v';L aRrf hlGdg] ljZjf; jif{sf csf{ l5d]sLnfO{ df;' sf6g] xf]RofPsf] cf/f]k nufOPsf] 5 . km};nf tL sljtfsf] a:qn]
/lxcfPsf] 5 . xltof/n] cfqmd0f u/]sf lyP . h;sf ;]K6]Da/ & df cfpg] ePsf] 5 . zf;ssf] nfh 5f]lklbG5g\
/ k|1f k|lti7fgsf] hflu/ k8\sfpF5g\

t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+ tL zf;ssf] lr/fo'sf] dËnufg n]V5g\


/ h"7f]k/" f]sf] hf]/hfd u5{g\ Û
s] sljtf klg b'Oy{ l/ x'G5g\ <

OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+ c/], yfxf 5}g <


xf] t, b'Oy{ l/ sljtf x'G5g\
zf;s l/emfpg] sljtf
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8 / zf;snfO{ laemfpg] sljtf Û
kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&! sljx¿ klg b'Oy{ l/ x'G5g\
sljtf klg b'Oy{ l/ x'G5g\ Û
@)&* ;fn ;fpg # ut] cfOtaf/ 7

cfhsf] sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng / lng'kg]{ ;xL lzIff


ljZjdf Ps hdfgf lyof]
hltaf]n sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng cToGt}
o; kl/k|I] odf clxn]Ddsf] ljZj
sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngnfO{ xfdLn] ;/;/L
/ lyrf]ldrf]sf] cdfgaLo af6f]df–
lxFl8/x]sf] ;+;f/nfO{ abNg ;lsG5,
cyf{t\ lkFwdf k/]sf zf]lift kLl8t
hgtfsf] zf;g ;Qf :yfkgf u/]sf]
cToGt} uDeL/ / dxTjk"0f{ r/0f xf] .
of] s'/fnfO{ g]kfnnufot ljZjel/sf
sDo'lgi6 l;4fGt / ljrf/wf/fsf]
;d[l4sf lgldQ cfbz{td sfnv08
nf]slk|o / cfd>dhLlj hgtfsf] dfq} klg x] ¥ of} F / s] n fof} F eg] o'uf}F k'/fgf hgtfsf ;a} k|sf/sf lyof] . o;/L Tof] ;dfhjfbL qmflGtsf] sDo'lgi6 tyf jfd kf6L{x?n] dx;'; /x]sf] cf}+Nofpg ;lsG5 . jf:tjdf
cfzf / e/f];sf] Ps dfq ljsNk ljZj:t/df d"ntM tLgj6f cToGt} b'Mvsi6af6 kf/ kfpg ;lsG5, ;a} ;kmntfn] g} klxnf] k6s ljZj ug{' kb{5 / ub}{ cfPsf klg 5g\ . Tof] sfnv08df c?sf] cfnf]rgf ;'Gg]
k|tLt x'GYof] . x'g klg Tof] cfGbf]ng dxTjk"0f{ df]8 o; cfGbf]ngdf cfPsf] lsl;dsf lje] b , cGofo, sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngn] csf]{ of bf]>f] o; ;Gbe{df s]xL jif{ cufl8 / cfˆgf] uNtL ;Rofpg] nf]stflGqs
hg g} l tstf, Odfgbf/Ltf, k|i6;Fu b]Vg / pNn]v ug{ ;lsG5 . c;dfgtfaf6 ;dfhnfO{ d'Qm u/fpg cfwf/e"t / gofF df]8 NofPsf] xf] . kf]ru'{ nsf] /fhwfgL ln:jgdf ljZjsf / kf/bzL{ c;n kl/kf6L cToGt}
hg;jfnsf lx;fan] dfq} xf]Og, ;a} To:tf] klxnf] pNn]vgLo / dxTjk"0f{ ;lsG5 clg k/:k/df k|d ] k"js
{ afFRg Tof] df] 8 ;a{ x f/f qmflGt / ^! b]zsf &^ sDo'lgi6 kf6L{x?sf] k|an ag]sf] lyof] . Tolta]nf dfS;{
lsl;dsf ;fdflhs–;fF:s[lts tyf df]8 ;aeGbf klxnf !*$* df ;lsg] ;' G b/ / ;' v do Pp6f ;fd|fHojfbaLrsf] ;+3if{sf] df]8 lyof] ;+o'Qm a}7sn] Psdtn] s] lgrf]8 / P+u]N;nfO{ ;dsfnLgx?n] u/]sf]
cy{/fhgLlts e]befj cyf{t …auL{o sDo' l gi6 kf6L{ s f] 3f] i f0ffkqsf] ;'lglZrt eljio ePsf] bLuf] / / xf] . jf:tjdf d"ntM clxn] klg lgsfnsf] lyof] eg] 7"nf] wSsf vfP cfnf]rgfx?af6 pgLx?n] ;xL lzIff
zf]if0f / ;fdflhs pTkL8gÚaf6 k|sfzg kl5 g} ljZjdf cf/De ePsf] ultdfg ;+;f/ lgdf{0f ug{ ;lsG5 ToxL qmflGtsf] d"nk|jfxaf6 ljZj klg jf:tjdf j}1flgs ;dfhjfb g} lng] u/]sf] s'/f g} o;sf] ;a}eGbf
sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng ultdfg 5 cyf{t\ k'h
F LjfbL ;+s6af6 d'lQmsf] ljZjsf] HjnGt pbfx/0fsf] ? kdf lng
nf]sgf/f0f ;'ab] L Tof] df]8nfO{ 5f]l8of] eg] Tof] sDo'lgi6
cfGbf]ng /xFbg} , ca?4 x'G5 / To;df
cfhsf] klg Ps dfq ;xL ljsNk
xf] . t/, lautdf / clxn] klg
;lsG5 . jf:tjdf Tof] sfnv08df
cfhsf] h:tf] sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngdf
kl5Nnf lbgx?df ;du| ljZj ljs[ l t la;+ u ltx? cfpF b 5g\ . ;dfhjfbL l;4fGt / Aojxf/sf To:tf] s'g} hfnem]n / if8\oGqx?sf]
sDo'lgi6 cGbf]ng / ljleGg n]lggsf] g]tT[ jdf ;DkGg Tof] klxnf] af/]df h:tf] lsl;dn] tf]8df]8 uGw;Dd klg lyPg . dfS;{jfbL g]tf
;dfhjfbL qmflGt kl5 g} ljZjsf ul/Psf 5g\, h:tf uDeL/ uNtLx? sfo{ s tf{ x ?df kf/bzL{ t f,
b]zsf sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngdf c? w] / } b] z x?df ;fdGtjfb, bf]xf]¥ofOPsf 5g\ / h;/L ;dfhjfbL Odfgbf/Ltf / hgtfk| l t ztt
;fd|fHojfb / pklgj]zjfb lj/f]wL cfGbf]ngnfO{ lzlyn / lbzfxLg ;dk{0f Tof] a]nfsf] k|i6 rl/q /
sDo'lgi6 g}ltstf, lgi7f, cfGbf]ngsf] nx/ ljZjAofkL?kdf t'Nofpg] vfnsf ultlalw eO/x]sf pbfQ :jefj lyof] . jf:tjdf
Odfgbfl/tf, cfr/0f / Aojxf/sf] k}mlnPsf] / ltgn] ;kmntf kfPsf 5g\ ltgaf6 plrt lzIff lnP/ cl3 n]lggsf] g]t[Tjdf ePsf] dxfg\
x'g\ eGg] s'/f Oltxf;n] l;4 ul/;s]sf] a9\ g ;Sbf dfq j} 1 flgs cS6f]a/ ;dfhjfbL qmflGtsf] >]o
7fpFdf hfnem]n / if8\oGqn] tyf s'/f xf] . ToxL qmddf g} rLg / ef/t ;dfhjfbsf dfgjLo, ljZjAofkL d"ntM n]lggn] gjlgdf{0f u/]sf] oxL
pkef]Stfjfbn] g/fd|f];Fu u'0f klg pklgj]zjfbsf] k~hfaf6 d'Qm pknlAwx?, ;dfhjfbL k|0ffnL / dxTjk"0f{ ljz]iftf / a:t'l:yltnfO{
ePsf x'g\ . To;} qmddf g} rLgdf ltgsf] cf}lrTotf / cfjZostfsf] lbOg' ;j{yf plrt x''G5 .
nfpg yfNof] / of] cfGbf]ngnfO{ sd/]8 dfcf]sf] g]tT[ jdf gofF hgjfbL k' g k{ ' l i6 ub} { cl3 a9\ g ;lsg] cfhsf kl5Nnf lbgx?df ;du|
leq}af6 sdhf]/ / vf]qmf] agfpg qmflGt ;DkGg eP/ cfh ljZjsf] cfnf]rgfTds ;f/ Tof] ;+oQ ' m a}7sn] ljZj sDo'lgi6 cGbf]ng / ljleGg
cu|td cfly{s zlQmsf]?kdf rLg lvr]sf] lyof] . To; a}7sn] qmflGtsf] b] z sf sDo' l gi6 cfGbf] n gdf
yfNof] . hfnem]n / if8\oGqsf] :yflkt x'g uO/x]sf] 5 . t/, ljZjn] s'g} Pp6} df]8n ] of gd"gf x'bF g} / sDo' l gi6 g} l tstf, lgi7f,
olta]nf ;dfhjfbL ;f]leot ;+3d} Tof] bf]xf]¥ofO/xg ldNb}g / To;f] ug{ Odfgbfl/tf, cfr/0f / Aojxf/sf]
o:t} cg'e"ltn] ubf{ xf]nf rLgdf Tof] dxfg\ ;dfhjfbL qmflGtsf ;lsFbg} klg eGg] pNn]v ub}{ t/ 7fpFdf hfnem]n / if8\oGqn] tyf
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf cWoIf dfcf]n] ;a{xf/f ;fF:s[lts qmflGts} sfndf cfˆgf] pknlAwx? ghf]lug' / ;f]leot ;dfhjfbL qmflGt ;DkGg ug{, hLaGt pkef]Stfjfbn] g/fd|f; ] uF u'0f nfpg
;dfhjfbsf] ktg x'g'sf] k5fl8sf ;dfhjfb lgdf{0f / To;sf] ;xL 9+un] yfNof] / of] cfGbf]ngnfO{ leq}af6
hLjgsf] pQ/f4{df k'Ub} ubf{ …dfS;{jfbsf] k|of]u u/ ;+zf]]wgjfbsf] xf]Og, Psh'6 j:t'ut / dgf]ut sf/0fx? ;xL Aoj:yfkg ug{ hgtfsf] cu|td / sdhf]/ / vf]qmf] agfpg yfNof] .
xf]pm gkm'6, v'Nnf / v'n:t xf]pm, hfnem]n / if8\oGq gu/Ú eGg] cToGt} dxTjk"0f{ lsl;dn] s]nfP/ ;fy{s lgisif{df lg0f{os e"ldsfnfO{ ;'lglZrt ul/g' hfnem]n / if8\oGqsf] o:t} cg'el" tn]
k'Ug'kg]{ uDeL/td cfjZostf 5– kb{5 / Tof] ;Dea 5 / x'G5 eGg] ubf{ xf]nf rLgdf sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf
dfu{bz{g u/]sf / lgb]{zg lbPsf lyP . jf:tjdf log} dxTjk"0f{ ;f/nfO{ a'em]sf tyf ljZj sxfF k'u]sf] 5 eg]/ x]g{ / s'/fnfO{ laz]if?kdf / b[9tfk"a{s cWoIf dfcf]n] ;a{xf/f ;fF:s[lts
ljZj sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng / To;sf] Pp6f c+u g]kfnL sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng leq klg o;nfO{ ;xL lsl;dn] km]g{sf nflu bf] x f] ¥ ofPsf] lyof] . at{ d fg qmflGts} sfndf cfˆgf] hLjgsf]
uDeL/ cWoog, ljZn] i f0f / cGt/f{ l i6« o l:yltsf] kl/k| ] I odf pQ/f4{df k'Ub} ubf{ …dfS;{jfbsf] k|of]u
lelqPsf] hfnem]n / if8\oGqsf] cg'ej a6'n]sf g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf ;+:yfks ;+Zn]if0fsf] cfjZostf jf:tjdf ljZjel/sf sDo'lgi6 tyf >dhLlj u/ ;+zf]w] gjfbsf] xf]Og, Psh'6 xf]pm
cfh cem a9\g uPsf] 5 . hg;d'bfosf ;fy} ;fd|fHojfb lj/f]wL gkm'6, v'Nnf / v'n:t xf]pm, hfnem]n
dxf;lrj sd/]8 k'iknfnn] klg …/fhgLlt hfnem]n xf]Og, jf:tljs j:t'l:yltsf] of] ljZj sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]gnsf] k| u ltzLn tyf qmflGtsf/L / if8\oGq gu/Ú eGg] cToGt} dxTjk"0f{
cfwf/df juL{o ljZn]if0fsf] lgrf]8 xf]Ú eGg] b"/ufdL / dxTjk"0f{ lgisif{ lgsfn]sf clxn]sf] t]>f] dxTjk"0f{ df]8 xf]— nf]stflGqs zlQmx?sf] P]Soa4tf / dfu{bz{g u/]sf / lgb]{zg lbPsf
;f]leot ;dfhjfbn] &) aif{ rn]kl5 kf/:kl/s ;xof]u g} To:tf] zlQm xf] lyP . jf:tjdf log} dxTjk"0f{ ;f/nfO{
lyP / ljleGg 36gf, kl/36gfx?af6 ;xL lzIff lng'kg]{ dxTjk"0f{ ;Gb]z lbPsf !(() df vfPsf] cToGt} uDeL/ h;n] j}1flgs ;dfhjfb Pp6f ch]o a'em]sf tyf ljZj sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ng
lyP . j:t'tM cfh klg ;du| g]kfnL hgcfGbf]ngnfO{ / ljz]iftM sDo'lgi6 wSsf / o;sf] ktg, h;sf] Aofks ljsNk xf] eGg] s'/fnfO{ d"t{ / / To;sf] Pp6f c+u g]kfnL sDo'lgi6
c;/ clxn] klg ljZjAofkL?kdf 7f];?kdf rl/tfy{ ub{5 / ug{ cfGbf]ng leq klg lelqPsf] hfnem]n
cfGbf]gnnfO{ qmflGtsf/L g}lts w/ftn k|bfg ug{ / qmflGtsf/L lbUbz{g u/fpg of] kl//x]sf] 5 . o;n] ljZj sDo'lgi6 ;Sb5 eGg] cy{k"0f{ lgisif{ klg / if8\oGqsf] cg'ej a6'n]sf g]kfn
lgisif{sf] cToGt} 7"nf] dxTj 5 / /lx/xg] 5 . b]z / hgtfsf] ;d'Gglt, ;dfgtf, ;d[l4 cfGbf] n gsf uDeL/ k| s f/sf a}7sn] lgsfn]sf] lyof] . o;sf nflu sDo' l gi6 kf6L{ s f ;+ : yfks
sldsdhf]/Lx? s]nfpg, o;nfO{ k'gM ljZjsf ab\lnFbf ultljlwx?nfO{ dxf;lrj sd/]8 k'iknfnn] klg
ztt zflGt rfxg] ;a} qmflGtsf/L sDo'lgi6, jfdkGyL / qmflGtsf/L nf]stGqjfbLx?n] ;xL w/ftndf v8f ug{ / ;xL lg/Gt/ x]g]{, s]nfpg], k/:k/ o:tf …/fhgLlt hfnem]n xf]Og, jf:tljs
lbzfdf cl3 a9fpg ljZjel/sf cGt/lqmof ug],{ ljrf/x?sf] cfbfg– j:t' l :yltsf] cfwf/df juL{ o
cfh oL s'/fnfO{ cfTd;ft ug{ / ;xL lbzfdf cl3 a9\g l;Sg', ;Sg' / cu|;/ x'gs ' f] sDo'lgi6 tyf of] zf]if0f pTkL8gdf k|bfg ug]{ / ;do;fk]If / ;xL ljZn]if0fsf] lgrf]8 xf]Ú eGg] b"/ufdL
s'g} ljsNk 5}g . Oltxf; / ;don] lbPsf] ;f/e"t lzIff g} oxL xf] . cfwfl/t ljZj ;dfhnfO{ ;d"n ?kdf qmflGtsf/L ultlalwx?nfO{ cl3 / dxTjk"0f{ lgisif{ lgsfn]sf lyP
km]g{ rfxg] k|ultzLn, jfdkGyL tyf a9fpg x/t/xn] nfUg] k|lta4tf klg / ljleGg 36gf, kl/36gfx?af6
d'lQmsf] h'g lbzfaf]w o;n] u/fPsf] lyof] . j:t'tM o;n] ;+;f/ cyf{t\ eGg] cToGt} dxTjk"0f{, ;f/ule{t / qmflGtsf/L nf]stflGqs zlQmx?n] hgfOPsf] lyof] . o;sf nflu a}7sn] ;xL lzIff lng'kg]{ dxTjk"0f{ ;Gb]z
/ :yflkt u/]sf] lyof], To;sf] dfgj ;dfh / k|s[lt b'a}nfO{ x]g]{, b"/ufdL dfgjLo ;Gb]z ljZjnfO{ ;d]t cfh uxg?kdf ;f]rljrf/ ljZj ;dfhjfbL cfGbf]ngnfO{ cl3 lbPsf lyP . j:t'tM cfh klg ;du|
;fGble{stf / dxTj cfh klg plQs} AofVof ug]{ / km]g]{ Pp6f cToGt} o;n] lbof] . o;/L j:t'tM gofF k'¥ofpg kg]{ b"/ufdL dxTjsf] cToGt} a9fpg ;do;fk]If ljleGg gLlt / g]kfnL hgcfGbf]ngnfO{ / ljz]iftM
5 / cem a9\g uPsf] 5 . oBlk dxTjk"0f{ j}1flgs tyf ;dsfnLg lsl;dn] ;+;f/nfO{ x]g]{ / km]g]{ Tof] uDeL/ s'/f 5 . o;/L ;;{/L x]bf{ ljleGg sbdx? cjnDag ug]{ / sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]gnnfO{ qmflGtsf/L
clxn] of] cfGbf]ng 7"nf] wSsf / ljZjsf c? bz{geGbf leGg åGbfTds 3f]if0ffkqs} cfwf/nfO{ cl3 a9fpFb} o;/L xfdL k|i6 b]Vb5f}+ ls ljZjdf ltgnfO{ Aojxf/df v/f] ptfg] { g} l ts w/ftn k| b fg ug{ /
k/fhosf] 3f]/ larngsf/L k|jl[ Qsf] tyf P]ltxfl;s ef}ltsjfbL ;fdflhs nfg] qmddf g} ?;sf] !(!& sf] dxfg\ clxn];Dd sDo'lgi6 cfGbf]ngsf dxTjk"0f{ lg0f{ox?;d]t lnPsf] lyof] . qmflGtsf/L lbUbz{ g u/fpg of]
g/fd|f;
] uF lzsf/ ag]sf] sfnv08af6 bz{g, ljrf/, b[li6sf]0f / gLlt lbof] . cS6f]a/ ;fdfhjfbL qmflGtn] ;kmntf b'O{6f rqmn] k"0f{tf kfO;s]sf 5g\ dxfg\ ;dfhjfbL cS6f]a/ qmflGt lgisif{sf] cToGt} 7"nf] dxTj 5 /
u'lh|/x]sf] 5 . clg h'g pRrfOsf] j:t'tM sfn{ dfS;{ / km]8l/s PË]N;n] kfPsf] lyof] . k'h
F Ljfb ;fd|fHojfbdf eg] t]>f] rqm cyf{t 7"nf] wSsf x' g ' cl3sf] cfwf ztfAbLsf] /lx/xg] 5 . b] z / hgtfsf]
hgtfsf] ljZjf;sf] w/f]x/ lxhf] of] ljZjsf ;fd' k|:t't u/]sf] Tof] ljsl;t eP kl5 To;sf] ;a}eGbf vfPsf] sfnv08df cfhsf] ljZj sfnv08nfO{ xfdLn] lgofn]/ x]¥of}F eg] ;d'Gglt, ;dfgtf, ;d[l4 ztt
cfGbf]ng aGg ;s]sf] lyof] cfh Tof] sfne] b L sDo' l gi6 3f] i f0ffkqn] sdhf]/ ks8 hxfF x'G5 Tof] b]zdf ;dfh /x]sf] 5+ . To;}n] olta]nf of] klg Tolta]nf sDo'lgi6x? /fHo;Qf zflGt rfxg] ;a} qmflGtsf/L
l:ylt 5}g . a? pN6} sDo'lgi6sf] ;+;f/nfO{ x]g]{, a'‰g], AofVof ug]{ / qmflGt ;Dej 5 eGg] ljsl;t 7f]; wSsfsf ;fËf]kfËf] sf/0fx? s]nfP/ ;~rfng ug]{ ca:yfdf gk'us ] f] eP sDo'lgi6, jfdkGyL / qmflGtsf/L
vf]n cf]9]/ sDo'lgi6 la/f]wL k'/fg} km]g{] Pp6f gofF / ;zQm cfwf/ / kl/l:yltsf] 7f]; lgisif{ dfS;{jfbs} cfGbf]ngsf] k'g;{dLIff ub}{ gofF klg Tof] ;do pgLx?sf] lgldQ a[xt\ nf]stGqjfbLx?n] cfh oL s'/fnfO{
zf]ifs zf;s ju{sf] tfa]bf/L ug]{, ce"tk"a{ pmhf{ k|bfg u¥of] . o; l;h{ g fTds ljsf; / k| o f] u sf] lsl;dn] cl3 a9\gk' g]{ sfnv08af6 ax;, cGt/lqmof / /rgfTds cfTd;ft ug{ / ;xL lbzfdf cl3
ToxL unt k|j[lQsf] cg'z/0f ug]{ / k|sf/ o;n] ljZjdf 7"nf] xnrn dfq cfwf/df lgsfn]/ n]lggn] ;kmn ljZj ;dfh cl3 a9\b}5 . of] r/0f k|s[ofsf] b[li6n] cToGt} pa{/ ;do a9\g l;Sg', ;Sg' / cu|;/ x'g'sf]
hgtfnfO{ e|ldt t'Nofpg] kl/kf6L NofPsf] xf]Og, clxn];Ddsf] unt kf/]sf] Tof] ck"j{ ;dfhjfbL qmflGtn] jf:tjdf 3f]/ larng, l;4fGtxLgtf, lyof] . laz]ifu/L o; ;Gbe{df k]l/; s'g} ljsNk 5}g . Oltxf; / ;don]
k|an alg/x]sf] l:ylt cfh 5 . af6f]df — zf]if0f, cGofo, bdg, bafa ljZjdf klxnf] k6s dhb'/ ls;fgsf] eo+s/ wSsf, / cfTd;dLIffsf] sDo'gsf] c;kmntfkl5sf] sfnv08 lbPsf] ;f/e"t lzIff g} oxL xf] .
8 @)&*
sf= lh=;fn ;fpgb= #g+= ut]
k|= sf= cfOtaf/
!^#÷@)^#÷^$

;a} = ====
d"Noj[l4, dxFuL, e|i6frf/, z}lIfs –
:jf:Yo ;d:ofnfufot ;'sD' af;Ldfly
5g\, To;af/]df pgLx¿;Fu 5nkmn
ug]{ xfdLn] ;f]r]s} 5f}F . Pdfn] kf6L{
/ p;sf] ;/sf/;Fu t xfd|f] tLga'Fb]
xf]nf . ljleGg 9Ën] ;‹if{ klg xf]nf .
t/ o;nfO{ k"/f u/]/} 5f]8\g'k5{ eGg]
xfd|f] c7f]6 5 / b]z oxL lbzflt/
rnfpF5 . ;/sf/ ;a}sf] ;femf xf] eg]
kf6L{ To:tf] xf]Og . kf6L{n] lbPsf ;a}
;'emfa ;/sf/n] sfof{Gjog ug{ g;Sg]
/f]huf/bftf ;+:yf Go"gtd kfl/>lds nfu" ug{ ;xdt
;xdlt ePs} lyof] . t/, To;nfO{ uO/fv] s f] 5 . sof} F a' l 4hLlj x'g;S5 . To;sf/0f gLlt lgdf{0fdf sf7df8f}F . /f]huf/bftf ;+:yfx? Go"gtd kfl/>lds nfu" ug{ ;xdt ePsf
ePsf HofbtL, hftLo lje]b / 5g\ . tL ;+:yfx?n] ;/sf/n] Psnf}6L 9+un] Go"gtd kfl/>lds lgwf{/0f ug]{
5' j f5' t , dlxnf lx+ ; f / nfu" ug]{ s'/fdf ;/sf/ Odfgbf/ ;fyLx¿sf] klg of] ;xL xf] eGg] dt kf6L{n] ug]{ / ;/sf/ ;+rfngdf k"0f{
x' g ;s] g . ;+ ; b\ j fbLx¿sf] 5 / /fhgLlts kf6L{x¿df s;}n] klg clwsf/ lbg' ;xL x'G5 . ;f/df k|so[ fk|lt c;xdlt eP klg sfdbf/ / >ldssf] lxtsf nflu ;/sf/n] hf/L
anfTsf/nufotsf ljifonfO{ lnP/ u/]sf] Go"gtd kfl/>lds g} nfu" u/L hfg] ;xdlt ePsf] hgfPsf 5g\ . >ldsx?sf]
;+3if{ ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . cGt/f{li6«o k|j[lQ, vfln cfzÍf, o;nfO{ ;f]Rg' x'bF g} , 5nkmn ug{' x'bF g} , ;/sf/df k'us ] f kf6L{ / ;/sf/ ;xof]uL
bafa, df]ntf]ndf rNg] vfnsf] dfGg' x'Fb}g eg]sf 5}g . dfcf]jfbLsf Pj+ k'/s ;+:yfx? x'g\ . ;/sf/sf Go"gtd kfl/>ldssf ;DaGwdf lrof aufgsf dhb'/afx]s pBf]u k|lti7fgdf
o;}u/L, ;f] a}7sn] g]kfnsf] gofF sfd ug]{ >ldsx?sf nflu @)&* ;fpg ! ut]bl] v nfu" x'g] u/L Go"gtd tna
gSzf ;Dk"0f{ If]qdf k|of]u ug]{ u/fpg] k|j[lQn] sfd u¥of] . To;}n] p;n] a'l4hLljleq klg o;df ;sf/fTds ;d:ofx? kf6L{n] a'em\g' k5{ / kf6L{sf
;xdlt nfu" u/]sf] 5}g . oL ;a} ¿kdf 5nkmn ePsf] xfdL kfpF5f}F . ;d:ofx? ;/sf/n] a'em\g' k5{ . kf6L{ / dxFuLeQf ;d]t u/L Go"gtd kfl/>lds !% xhf/ ?k}ofF lgwf{/0f u/L ;/sf/n]
lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . ;fy} pQm a}7sn] /fhkqdf ;"rgf;d]t k|sfzg ul/;s]sf] 5 . /f]huf/bftf ;+:yfx?n] Go"gtd
kf6L{sf] d'vkqnfO{ g]kfnL / c+u|]hL ljifodf xfdL 5nkmn u5f} { + / o;sf af/] d f Pdfn] l eq klg k|dv ' / ;/sf/ k|dv ' Pp6} JolQm ePsf]
;+ o dk" j { s b] z nfO{ cu| u dg, ;sf/fTds 9Ën] 5nkmn ePsf] 5 . cj:yfdf klg o:tf] uDeL/ ljjfb kfl/>lds ;DaGwdf dhb'/x?sf 5ftf ;+u7g 6«˜8] o'lgog, lghL If]qsf 5ftf
b'j} efiffdf k|sfzg ug]{ lg0f{o ;d]t ;+:yf, /f]huf/bftf / ;/sf/;d]tsf] lqkIfLo ;xdltdf Go"gtd kfl/>lds
u/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . ¿kfGt/0f / kl/jt{g lbg'k5{ eGg] sfF u | ] ; s} sltko a' l 4hLlj pTkGg x'g b'n{e x'G5 . xfd|f]df
lgwf{/0f u/L nfu" ug]{ k/Dk/f /x]sf]df ;/sf/n] Psnf}6L 9+un] Go"gtd kfl/>lds
ljKnjåf/f===== xfd|f] :ki6 vfsf 5 / of] ljifo /
Ph]G8fdf xfdL 5nkmn u5f}+{ . To;}n]
;fyLx¿af6 klg ljifonfO{ 7Ls 9Ën]
cl3 a9fpF b f km/s kb} { g eg] /
;/sf/df k' U g] x ?n] cfk" m nfO{
;j{zlQmdfg clg ch/ cd/ 7fGg] / lgwf{/0f ug]{ k|so[ fk|lt c;xdlt k|s6 ub}{ cfPsf lyP .
;+3Lo kl/ifb\ cWoIf 8f= afa'/fd >ldsx?sf] k|ltlglwd"ns ;+:yfx?sf] ;+oQ' m 6«8] o'lgog ;dGjo ;ldltsf
e§/fO{ a Lr e] 6 jftf{ ePsf] 5 . lxhf]sf] kl/36gfaf6 b]z / hgtfn] cfO/fv]sf] 5 . o;n] ubf{ b]zrflxF aflx/ a:g]x?n] cfk"m hfg gkfPsf]df
vf;} s]xL klg gofF s'/f kfpFbg} g\ . Psrf]l6 of] lbzfdf hfG5 eGg]df xfdL if8\oGq ug]{ ;femf ;d:of ag]sf] 5 . dxf;lrj;lxtsf k|dv ' 6«8] o'lgogsf k|ltlglwx?;d]t / /f]huf/bftfsf] tkm{af6
z'qmaf/ laxfg ePsf] ;f] e]6df gofF g]kfn 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u dxf;+3, /fli6«o pBf]u Jofkf/ dxf;+3, ;fgf tyf
;/sf/ u7g ePsf] ;Gbe{df k'/fgf] sf]xL cfzfjfbL ePsf] klg b]lvFbg} . ljZj:t 5f}F .Ú kf6L{n] ;/sf/nfO{ /fd|f] sfd ug{sf nflu
lgtfGt kf6L{ x ¿aLrsf] cfk;L :jfoQmtf k|bfg ug'k{ b{5 . demf}nf Joj;fo dxf;+3;d]tsf] pkl:ylt / ;xdltdf >lds / /f]huf/bftf b'j}
;/sf/;Fu ePsf] tLga'Fb] ;xdltsf]
sfof{Gjogsf ljifodf b'O{ g]tfaLr ;f}bfafhL, df]ntf]n, n8fOFle8Gt dfq bnfn===== @= ;+ ; bLo sDo' l gi6x?df kIfaLr ;+oQ' m 5nkmn u/L b'j} kIfsf] kxndf o:tf] ;xdltdf k'us ] f] g]kfn 3/]n'
xf] eg]/ hgtfn] a'lem/fv]sf 5g\ . ug{ clkn;d]t u/]s 5g\ . j}rfl/s ;+s6 M g]kfnsf ;+;bLo tyf ;fgf pBf]u dxf;+3sf dxf;lrj 8Da/k|;fb /]UdLn] atfP .
5nkmn ePsf] atfOPsf] 5 . ljz'4 ;xdltkqdf g]kfn 3/]n' tyf ;fgf pBf]u dxf;+3sf dxf;lrj /]UdL, ;fgf tyf
/fhg}lts elgPsf] pQm e]63f6df hgtfn] rfx]sf] bL3{sfnLg ;dfwfg lhNnf ;lrj ljzfnsf] sDo'lgi6 g]tfx?df ;a}eGbf a9L
xf] . Tof]rflxF hgtfsf] dtåf/f g} cWoIftfdf a;]sf] pQm j}7ssf] k|dv
' ;fdGtjfbL / gf]s/zfxL k|jl[ Qn] k|efj demf}nf Joj;foL dxf;+3, g]kfnsf cWoIf afa'sfhL dxh{g / /fli6«o pBf]u Jofkf/
;d;fdlos /fhgLlts ljifodf dxf;+3sf dxf;lrj sdn a/fnn] x:tfIf/ u/]sf 5g\ . sf]/f]gfsf] dxfdf/L / ljljw
5nkmn ePsf] / tLg a'Fb] ;xdlt / lbg'k5{ eGg] ;a}sf] 5 . xfdL o; cltly g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf hdfPsf] 5 . ;+;bLo kf6L{ JolQmsf]
ljifodf km]l/ gofF kxn / 5nkmn dxf;lrj ljKnj /x]sf lyP eg] cwLg:y kf6L{ /xG5 . cfh g]kfnL sf/0fn] ubf{ pTkGg r/d dxFuLsf] cj:yfdf pBf]u Joj;fosf vDaf >ldsx?sf]
aGbL l/xfOsf ljifodf 5nkmn ePsf] hLljsfk|lt /f]huf/bftfx?sf] x}l;otdf /f]huf/bftf klg ;+jb] gzLn x'gk' 5{ eGg]
atfOPsf] 5 . ;f] e]6jftf{df g]kfn u5f}{+ .Æ cltlyx¿df kf6L{ s]Gb|Lo ;b:o Pjd\ sfFu; ]| sf] ;+:yfut lg0f{o kf6L{ ;efklt
o;}u/L, dxf;lrj ljKnjn] g]kfn lhNnf OGrfh{ lxtdfg, s] G b| L o z]/axfb'/ b]pjfn] h] af]nfof] ToxL x'G5 . clek|fon] of] ;xdltdf k'us ] f] dxf;+3sf dxf;lrj /]UdLn] atfPsf 5g\ .
sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf ;lrjfno ;b:o
wd] { G b| af:tf] n f / 8f= afa' / fd sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ / ;/sf/aLr ePsf] sfof{ n o ;lrj c;n, :s' l nª Pdfn]sf] s]kL cf]nL / dfs]sf] k'iksdn g;Sg' s]kL cf]nLsf] d'Vo ;d:ofsf sf/0f sDo'lg:6 bz{g, gLlt, ;++:sf/ /
e§/fO{sf] kTgL tyf k"jd { GqL lxl;nf tLg a'bF ] ;xdltdf s]–s:tf k|efj ljefusf ljlkg, laz]if lhNnf ;lrj bfxfnn] h] af]Nof] ToxL cflwsfl/s klg kf6L{ ljeflht aGof] cflv/ $ jif{ ;+:+ s[ltnfO{ cjnDag ug{k' g]{ eGb} To;n]
odLsf] ;d] t ;xeflutf /x] s f] kfg]{ cg'dfg ug{'ePsf] 5 < elg s'dfn, lhNnf g]tfx¿ ?kl;+x, ;'/]z x'G5 . lxhf] s]kL cf]nL / k'iksdn kl5 g} lsg b]pjf ;/sf/ aGg' k¥of] dfq ;dfh ¿kfGt/0f ug{ ;lsg]
g]skfsf s]lGb|o ;b:o k|Hjngn] ;f]lwPsf] k|zgsf] hjfkmdf eg]sf nfdf / z+s/ vqL /x]sf lyP . bfxfnaLr s'/f ldngf;fy r'8l\ snf t < ;j{bnLo ;/sf/ agfP/ :jtGq / atfP . pgn] ;dfh ¿kfGt/0f
hfgsf/L lbP . 5g\– æ;fdfGotM /fHox¿;Fu ePsf lhNnf a}7sn] # dlxg] ;Ë7g e/df Pdfn] / dfs]sf] Pstf eof] / lgikIf r'gfjdf uPsf] eP klg t x'GYof] . ljZjb[li6sf]0fl;t cleGg ¿kdf
;xdlt ;/sf/sf] kl/jt{gåf/f w]/} ;'b9[ , lj:tf/ tyf ;r]tgf cleofg pgLx?aLr n8fO{+ x'gf ;fy lagf d'Vo sf/0f cfufdL r'gfjdf agfpg hf]l8Psfn] o;sf nflu sDo'lg:6 :s'n
v/fa===== k| e fljt x' F b } g g\ , x' g ' x ' F b } g eGg] ;~rfng ug]{ lgo{0f u/]sf] 5 . ;fy} /fhgLlts sf/0f kf6L{ ljefhg eof] . vf]lhPsf] u}/sDo'lgi6x?sf] ljho xf] . ;~rfng ul/Psf] atfP .
lbg'kg]{ atfP . hgtGq Nofpg dfGotfx¿ 5g\, x'G5g\ . o; b[li6n] j}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf] lgdf{0fsf nflu ;+;bLo /fhgLltdf ljrf/sf] ax;sf] To;sf nflu ;dod} Pdfn]sf] ljefhg pQ/;fd|fHojfb / bnfn k'h F Ljfbsf
hgtfsf] dg lhTg'kg]{ atfP . ;Qf lxhf] /fHosf] g]t[Tj u/]sf] lx;fan] /fi6«jfbL, k|ultzLn, jfdkGyLx¿;Fu cGTo ePsf] 5 . :jfy{ / efua08f g} clgjfo{ lyof] . lj?4 n8\g] j}rfl/s xltof/ dfn]dfjfb
abNg ;/sf/ dfq abn]/ gx'g] 7f]sj' f s]kL cf]nL;Fu eP klg Tof] cflv/df 5nkmn / cGtlqmof ul/ Jofks kxn cfhsf] w|j' Ls/0fsf] d'Vo efu ag]sf] $= b' O { ltxfO{ g} NofP klg ePsfn] j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL ;Qf
u/] . sfo{qmddf g]skfsf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o /fHosf] dfldnf ePsf] x'gfn] ca ug]{ lgo{0f;d]t u/]sf] 5 . 5 . sDo'lgi6sf] lj?4 sDo'lgi6 sDo'lgi6x?sf] xftdf ;Qfsf] rfaL :yfkgfsf nflu o;sf kIfw/x? Ps x'gk' g]{
dfOnf nfdfnufotsf g]tf, sfo{stf{n] aGg] ;/sf/ slt /xG5–/xGg, Tof] ;+;b\jfbleq===== plqPsf 5g\ . x'“b}bg} M Pdfn] / Pdfcf]jfbL k6s– pgsf] egfO lyof] . pgn] kf6L{sf] kl5Nnf]
;'bz{gnfO{ :jfut u/]sf lyP . 5'§} s'/f xf], t/ h] xf];\, z]/axfb'/ lx;fa ug]{ xf] eg] ;+;b\sf] Dofb k6s ;+;b\sf] 7"nf] kf6L{ ag] t/ ;Qfsf] sfo{gLlt k|ultzLn ;+o+ Q' m ;/sf/,
b]pjfhLsf] g]tT[ jdf ag]sf] ;/sf/n] cf]nLnfO{ w]/} /fxt eof] t/, dfwj ca s/La Ps jif{ dfq afFsL 5 . of] rfaL pgLx?;Fu /x]g . o;kfln Pdfn] hgdt;+ux| / j}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf
;+ ; bLo===== klg To;nfO{, To;sf] :jfldTj / g]kfnnfO{ 56\k6L eof] / k|r08nfO{ Ps jif{sf nflu lgif]wfTds ;Qfsf] / dfs] ldn]/ ag]sf] g]skfsf] rfaL af/]df klg :ki6 kf/]sf lyP .
To:t} /fhgLlts bnx¿df lXjk g} g]t[Tj u|x0f u5{ / To;nfO{ nfu" klg a]r}g eof] . cbfntsf] of] n8fO{+ gn8]sf] eP ;a}sf] hLt x'GYof] . k|/fsfGt/n] ;jf]R{ r cbfntdf k'Uof] / sfo{qmddf s]Gb|Lo :s'lnª ljefusf
nfu" ug{ gkfOg]h:tf h'g k|sf/sf ug]t{ km{ hfG5 eGg] xfd|f] ljZjf; / lg0f{okl5 klg ;xdlt ug{ ;s]sf] eP of] n8fO{n + ] d"ntM /fli6«o cGt/f{li6«o pgLx?nfO{ cnUufpg] sfd eof] . ;+;b\ k|dv ' e]if/fh e';fnn] c;n sDo'lg:6
lg0f{ox¿ ePsf 5g\, of] t s] xf] eg] cg'dfg 5 . t/, of] 5nkmn xfdL Ps x'g] ;Defjgf t lyof] t/ tTsfnLg ?kdf g} sDo'lgi6x?sf] abgfd ePsf] lj36gsf] ;Gbe{df dgdf]xg clwsf/L sfo{stf{ / alnof] sDo'lg:6 kf6L{
nueu /fhgLlts kf6L{ x ¿sf] u5f{}+ . ;fdfGotM /fHo;Fu ;DalGwt lgif]wfTds /fhgLltn] Tof] ;Dej x'g] 5 . o:tf 36gfn] g]tfx?sf] /fhgLlts / s]kL cf]nL b'j} c;kmn eP . lgdf{0fsf nflu sDo'lg:6 :s'lnª h?/L
cf}lrTo ;dfKt ul/lbPsf] s'/f xf] . dfldnfx¿ ;/sf/sf] km]/abnåf/f s'/} ePg . ;f]r / lrGtgnfO{ k|ltlalDat ub{5 . Pdfcf]jfbL 7"nf] bn ePsf] ;+ljwfg /x]sf] atfP . e';fnn] clxn]sf] ljsl;t
sf]xL dfG5] /dfP klg, sf]xL b'MvL k|efljt gx'g] dfGotf g} 5 . x'gx' bF' g} ax'dt / cNkdtsf] ;Gbe{df s]kL olb /fhgLlt ;f]r jf b[li6sf]0faf6 ;efnfO{ sfd ug{ lbOPg . ut r'gfjdf kl/l:yltdf g]tf, sfo{stf{ / hgtfaLr
eP klg To;sf] s'g} cy{ 5}g . eGg] klg b]lvG5 . t/ xfdL To;df cf]nLsf] ts{ lyof]– d dxflwj]zgaf6 lgb]{lzt ePsf] eP of] ljjfbsf] sl/a b'O{ ltxfO{ ax'dt NofPsf] g]skf PsLs[t a'emfO, PsLs[t of]hgf,
/dfpg]x¿sf nflu klg Tof] Ps ;d]t 5nkmn u5f}{+ .Æ lgjf{lrt cWoIf x',F To;}n] dnfO{ x6fpg] l5gf]kmfgf] cbfnt jf ;+;b\af6 xf]Og, ljeflht agfOof] . oL ;a} tYox?af6 PsLs[t g]tT[ j -sdfG8_ / PsLs[t
l5gsf] cfTd/lt dfq} xf] . o;sf] o;}u/L, dxf;lrj ljKnjn] Ps ljlw dxflwj]zg dfq xf] . d]/f] ljrf/df kf6L{leqsf ljlw k4ltaf6 ug'{ kb{Yof] . s] k|i6 x'G5 eg] ;+;bLo Joj:yfdf ;‹if{n] dfq nIodf k'Ug ;lsg] atfP .
kl/0ffd eg]sf] km]l/ klg cl:y/tf, csf]{ k|Zgsf] hjfkmdf eg]sf 5g\– of] uDeL/ k|Zg 5 / of] k|Zgdf ;a}n] h:tf] g]skf Pdfn]leq s]lGb|o ;ldltsf] sDo'lgi6x?sf] xftdf ;Qf x'bF g} . ax'dt pgn] :s'lnªn] g]tf, sfo{stf{sf]
clgZrotf / c/fhstf g} x'G5 . …cfdhgtfsf] kl/jt{ g sf/L Pp6f :ki6 ;dLIff ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . lg0f{o jf dxflwj]zgsf] ljsNk afFsL jf b'O{ ltxfO{ ax'dt g} NofP klg /fhgLlts tyf j}rfl/s :t/ yk j[l4
hgtfnfO{ klg of] s'/f :jLsfo{ 5}g . cfsf+IffnfO{ k"/f ug]{ af6f] eg]sf] jf:tjdf of] n8fO{sf] s]Gb| efudf ;Qf lyof] . kf6L{ PstfnfO{ hf]ufpg] pkfo pgLx?n] ug{ ;Sg] s]xL xFb' g} . ;+;b\df ePsf] / j}1flgs tl/sfn] ts{ ug]{
;+;bLo kf6L{x¿sf] ;Í6, c;kmntf, b'Oj{ 6f af6f] xf] M Pp6f hgtfsf] jf ;/sf/sf] k|Zg ufFl;Psf] lyof] . of] kf6L{leqs} ljlw k4lt ckgfpg' ;xL g] k fnL sfF u | ] ; l67nfUbf] 5, / Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ePsf] atfP .
;+ ; b\ j fbL kf6L{ x ¿df ljs[ l tx¿ ;‹if{, ljb|f]x, qmflGtåf/f o;nfO{ Joj:yfkg ug{ g;s]s} sf/0f Pdfn] / x'GYof] . t/, d'Vo ljjfb ;Qfsf] lyof] sDo'lgi6x? b'Ol{ txfO{ ax'dtdf 5g\ t/ g]skfsL s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf clvn
dlRrPsf] 5, o;df hgtf ;xdt kl/jt{g ug]{ xf] . csf]{ eg]sf] hgtfsf] dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|sf] ljefhg eof], cf]nL / k|ltzf]wsf] lyof] . cGTodf afWotf klg 3'ldlkml/ k|/fsfGt/n] ;Qfsf] rfaL g]kfn dlxnf ;‹ qmflGtsf/LsL cWoIf
5} g g\ . pgLx¿sf] c;kmntfn] dtåf/f, zflGtk"0f{ tl/sfn] kl/jt{g ;/sf/sf] alxu{dg eof] / Pdfn] klg jf xf/u'xf/af6 z]/axfb'/ b]pjfnfO{ g]kfnL sfFu;] | / z]/axfb'/ b]pjfsf] xftdf aGw' rGbn] g]kfnL sDo'lg:6 cfGbf]ngnfO{
hgtfn] Iflt p7fpg'kg],{ ef]Ug'kg],{ ug]{ xf] . clxn]sf] ljlzi6 l:yltdf ljefhgsf] glhs k'us ] f] 5 . jf:tjdf ;Qf a'emfpg b'j} kIf ;xdt eP t/ k'us ] f] 5 . cbfntsf] k|of]uaf6 g]sf PsLs[t ¿kdf cl3 a9fpg'kg]{ :ki6
b]zn] Iflt ef]Ug'kg]{ cj:yf pTkGg xfdLn] s] eg]sf 5f}F eg] hgtf cfˆgf] ca s]kL cf]nL / dfwj g]kfn Ps cfk;df ;dembf/L ug{ s'g} kIf klg ;Qfdf k'¥ofOPsf] 5 / To;nfO{ af]Sg]x? kfl/g\ . pgn] jt{dfg bnfn ;+;bLo
ul/Psf] 5, o;df hgtf ;xdt cledtåf/f of] Joj:yfsf] ljsNk 7fpFdf a:g ;Sg] cj:yf 5}g . csf]{ ;xdt ePgg\ . cfkm\g} kf6L{ cWoIf / sDo'lgi6x? g} 5g\ . Joj:yfsf] cGTo / j}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf]
5}gg\ . hgtfn] zflGt, l:y/tf, lbg rfxG5g\, clxn] Tof] jftfj/0f klg uDeL/ k|Zg 5– s]kL cf]nLsf] k|wfgdGqLnfO{ tfgfzfx, lg/+s'z, cl3Nnf] k6s ;+;b k'g:yf{kgf x'bF f :yfkgf ckl/xfo{ /x]sf] atfOg\ . rGbn]
:jfwLgtf rfx]sf 5g\ . Tof]rflxF of] 5 . zflGtk0f{ tl/sfn] b]znfO{ Pp6f ;/sf/ Pdfn]sf] ;/sf/ lyof] jf kmf;LjfbL / k|ltufdLsf] cf/f]k nufpg] bfxfn / g]kfnn] pT;j dgfP eg] jt{dfg /fhgLlts ;Í6sf] lgsf;
/fHok|0ffnL / of] Joj:yfaf6 x'bF g} / gofF Joj:yfdf ¿kfGt/0f ug{ ;lsg] lyPg < clg Pp6} kf6L{d{ f a;L–a;L cj:yf aGof] . ToxfFleq sf]xL klg ;xL cf]nLn] ?jfaf;L u/] . s]xL lbg kl5 lglj{sNk j}1flgs ;dfhjfb ePsf] eGb}
cfd"n kl/jt{gåf/f xf]cf];\ eGg] hgtfsf] ;Defjgf 5 . of] s'/f /fHon] a'‰g'k5{ cfkm\g} kf6L{sf] ;/sf/ 9fNg ldN5 jf ;dLIff ug{ / uNtLx?sf] dx;'; ug{ Pdfn] / dfs]sf] ljefhg cbfntåf/f PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzfdf ;a}
rfxgf 5 . To;sf/0f of] lg0f{on] s'g} eGg] xfd|f] s'/f 5 . Tof] /fHon] ldNb}g < /fhgLlts g}ltstfsf tof/ 5} g g\ . z] / axfb' / b] p jf u/fO{bF f cf]nL v';L eP eg] bfxfn g]kfn hgtfnfO{ ;dflxt ug{'kg]{ klxnf]
To:tf] gofF ljZjf;sf] jftfj/0f jf a' ‰ g] l alQs} of] ;/sf/, cl:y/ cfwf/df x]g{] xf] eg] of] lgs} hl6n k|wfgdGqLdf lgo'Qm x'bF f jf s]kL cf]nLsf] ?jfjf;L u/] . km]l/ bf];f| ] k6s ;+;b\ cfjZostf /x]sf] atfOg\ .
l:y/tf, :jfwLgtf lbg ;Qm}g . lsl;dsf], lj36g x'g], u7g x'g], k|Zg xf] . Pp6} kf6L{df a;]/ cf]nL ;/sf/ 9Nbf ;a}eGbf ljhof]T;j dfwj k'g:yf{kgf;lxt cbfntåf/f b]pjfnfO{ ¿kGb]xL lhNnf ;]qm]6/L ljZjf;n]
csf]{ s'/f, xfd|f] kf6L{sf] wf/0ff slxn] ;+;b\af6, k|foh;f] aflx/af6, ;/sf/dfly b'O{ h3Go cf/f]kx? klg g]kfn / k'iksdn bfxfnn] dgfP . k|wfgdGqL agfpg] k/dfb]z hf/L xFb' f cfk"mnfO{ / b'lgofFnfO{ abNg] p2]Zosf
5, b] z df h' g vfnsf] ;Í6, cbfntaf6 aGg] hgtfsf] dt nufOP tL x'g–\ -!_ cf]nL lg/+sz ' afn'jf6f/af6 ljbfO{ ePkl5 s]kL bfxfn–g]kfnsf] ;Qf/f]x0f / cf]nLsf] nflu kf6L{n] lgoldt :s'lnª sfo{qmd
cl:y/tf, c/fhstf pTkGg ePsf] Psflt/ 5, c¿ ljleGg vfnsf tfgfzfx / kmf;LjfbL x'g\ . -@_ cf]nLsf] cf]nLn] ;a}eGbf ufnL klg dfwj / alx{ u dg ePsf] 5 . v] n ul//x]sf] / o;n] gofF kl/l:yltdf
5, ljb]zLx¿sf] x:tIf]k a9]sf] 5, ljs[ltx¿ nfb\g] h'gvfn] l:ylt ;+;b\ lj36g k|ltudg xf] . tYox?nfO{ k|r08nfO{ u/] . sDo'lgi6x?nfO{ cfk;df n8fP/} kf6L{sf] lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug]{ ljZjf; JoQm
lgn{Hh k|sf/sf] rnv]n a9]sf] 5 . ag]sf] 5, o;sf] ;§fdf, of] ;/sf/sf] x]g{ ] xf] eg] nueu clwsf+z k|wfgdGqLn] #= ;/sf/L g]skfsf] ljefhg l;4fpg] b]lvPsf] 5 . 36gfqmdx?sf] u/] . pgn] :s'ndf cWoog u/]sf]
ljleGg u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfb]lv lnP/ ;§fdf k|ultzLn ;+o'Qm ;/sf/, oxL ;+uLg cf/f]kx?sf] ;fdgf u/]sf clgjfo{ lyof] M g]kfndf vf;u/L lznlznfaf6 cWoog u¥of] eg] ljifonfO{ ;a} g]tf, sfo{stf{n] Jojxf/df
s" 6 gLlts lgof] u b] l v hf;' ; L ;+;bLo r'gfjsf] ;§fdf Psrf]l6 x'g\ . z]/axfb'/ b]pjf, dfwj g]kfn / rLg lj/f]wL ultljlw ug{sf nflu pgLx?nfO{ la/f]nfn] d';f v]nfP h:t} sfof{Gjog u/L hgtfnfO{ :ki6 kfg]{
;+:yf;Dd ;a}sf] rnv]n a9]sf] 5 . hgdt;+ u | x , clxn] s f] ;+ ; bLo k'iksdn bfxfn …k|r08Ú o:t} cf/f]ksf] ;/sf/L g]skfsf] ljefhg clgjfo{ v]nfOPsf] Oltxf; 5 . olt 7"nf] ckdfg ljZjf; JoQm u/] . :s'lnªsf k|lzIfs
oL ;a} s'/fnfO{ Ps} 7fpFdf NofP/ Joj:yfsf] ;§fdf j}1flgs ;dfhjfb ;fdgf u/]sf HjnGt pbfx/0f x'g\ . lyof] . ljefhgsf nflu cf]nL, bfxfn ul/Fbf klg sDo'lgi6x? g} cu|ufdL u0f]z yfkf / vf]df t/fd' du/n] ;a}
x]bf{ b]zdf Pp6f cfd"n kl/jt{g xfd|f] ljsNk oxL xf] . o;sf nflu !=@ ;/sf/ ;+rfngdf kf6L{ / g]kfnsf sdhf]/Lx? dfly 6]Sg' ljsNksf cj/f]ws zlQm ag]sf 5g\ . g]tf, sfo{stf{nfO{ cfk"mn] k|fKt u/]sf
rflxPsf] 5 . hgtfn] To;sf] lg0f{o hgdt JoQm x'g lbg'k5{ eg]/ xfdLn] / ;/sf/sf] ;DaGw M ;Qfdf kb{Yof] . bfxfn cf]nL;Fu Pstf ug's { f] olb ;+;bLo Joj:yf gePsf] eP dfn]dfjfbL ;}4flGts 1fgnfO{ Jojxf/df
lng kfpg'k5{ . xfdLn] eg]sf 5f}F– k|:tfj cl3 ;f/]sf 5f}F . of] k|:tfj k'uk] l5 hj kf6L{ / ;/sf/sf] ;DaGwdf tTsfnLg p2]Zo ;f+;b lhTg' / s]kL cf]nL kfFr jif{ 9'Ss ;/sf/ rnfpg nfu" ug{ / cfdhgtfnfO{ :ki6 kfg{
hgtfs} dtåf/f Psrf]l6 g]kfndf cfpg]lalQs} Pp6f 7"nf] t/Ë pTkGg ljjfb pTkGg x'G5 ta ;/sf/ ;+s6df bL3{sflng p2]Zo Pdfn]sf] cWoIf aGg' kfpFy] . ;+;bLo Joj:yfn] sDo'lgi6 dfq lgb]z { u/] .
;+ ; bLo Joj:yf ls j} 1 flgs ePsf] 5 . w]/} a'l4hLlj ;fyLx¿n] km:b5 . ha–ha dlGqd08n / cGo g} lyof] . cf]nLsf] bfbflul/sf] lj?4 xf]Og, ;a} bnnfO{ sdhf]/ agfpF5 . sfo{qmddf k|lzIffyL{ k|sfz, lzlz/,
;dfhjfb < bnfn k'h F LjfbL ;Qf ls ax;df efu klg lng'ePsf] 5 . lgo'lStdf efuj08f ldNb}g, ta–ta dfwj g]kfnsf] s'07f clg cfqmf]z 5Fb} xFb' fx'bF f hgdf]rf{sf ;f+;b\;d]t laqmL Zofd, ljZn] i f0f, jL/] G b| , ¿kf,
j}1flgs ;dfhjfb eGg] ljifodf xfdLn] hgtfsf] txdf t Jofks ;/sf/lj?4 c;Gt'li6 a9\5 . xfd|f] lyof] . Pp6f kIfnfO{ k]Ng pS;fpg] / eP . ;+;bLo Joj:yfdf sDo'lgi6x?sf] kf/;nufot g]tf–sfo{stf{n] cg'el" t
hgdt hfx]/ ug{' cfjZos 5 . Tof] 5nkmn rnfO/x] s } 5f} F . xfd| f ] h:tf] /fhgLltdf ;/sf/lj?4 hgdt csf]{ kIfnfO{ k|lt/f]w ug{ pS;fpg] sfd of]eGbf b'/fj:yf s] x'g ;Snf < kf6L{sf] /fv]sf lyP . :s'lnª sfo{qmddf lhNnf
clwsf/ hgtfnfO{ k|bfg ug{'k5{ / kf6L{k+lSt hgtfdf k'lu/fv]sf] 5 . a9\5 lsgls ;/sf/n] hglk|o sfd afXo zlQms]Gb|af6 ePsf] tYo 3fd JxLk nfUg] jf gnfUg] clg sf/afxL ug{ ;b:o, ;Nnfxsf/, hgjuL{o ;Ë7g,
hgdt;+u|x cfof]hgf ug{'k5{ . Tof] of] qmdzM /fHosf] d"n ljifo ag]/ ug]{ ;Sb}g . kf6L{x?leq u'6x?sf] /fh em}+ 5n{ªu\ 5 . dWodfuL{ wf/x? sf]xL jf gug]{ ljifodf ;d]t cbfntsf] bf]xf]/f] df]rf{sf k|dv ' x?, ;lxb tyf a]kQf
clwsf/ hgtfn] kfP eg] To;sf] cufl8 cfPsf] 5 . o;nfO{ hlQg} x'G5 / u'6x?aLr n]gb]g jf ;f}bfafhL klg ;Gt'lnt / lgikIf aGg ;s]gg\ . dfkb08 clg cfb]z bnLo k|0ffnLsf] kl/jf/nufot g]tf, sfo{stf{sf]
km};nfaf6 dfq b]zdf lgsf;sf] bL3{ 5n5fd ug{ vf]h] klg, aË\ofpg vf]h] rN5 . cf]nLsf] sdhf]/L pgn] u'6x?nfO{ ;+;b\ lj36g / k'g:yf{kgf;Fu} ljeflht cj;fg u/fPsf] 5 . ;+;bLo Joj:yfdf ;xeflutf /x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . :s'lnª
;dfwfg cfpF5 eGg] k|:tfj xfd|f] 5 . klg Tof] ;Dej 5}g . lsgls of] ldnfpg ;s]gg\ . u'6x?nfO{ v';L kfg{ aGof] . k|Zg km]l/ klg s] xf] eg] afFsL ;Qfsf] rfaL cGoq} ePsf] k|i6\ofpF5 . sfo{qmddf bz{g, j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL
of] s'/f clxn] klg xfdLn] /flv/fv]sf k|:tfjdf g]kfnL >lds hgtfsf], nfu], cfkm\g} u'6 klg elTsg] cj:yf /x]sf] hDdf Ps jif{sf nflu klg lsg cy{ z f:q, j} 1 flgs ;dfhjfb,
5f}F . ljleGg kf6L{;Fu xfd|f] 5nkmn b]zeQmx¿sf], kl/jt{gsf/Lx¿sf], aG5 . ha ;/sf/ / kf6L{aLr åGå ldNg rfx]g Pdfn] < h'g} kIf g/d
j}1flgs===== ;f}Gbo{zf:q, lj1fg / k|ljlw, Oltxf;,
klg rln/fv]sf] 5 . xfdL 5nkmn nf]stGqsf kIfw/x¿sf] rfxgf 5 . a9\5 ta ax; rN5 …;/sf/n] kf6L{ ePsf] eP of] ljeflht aGg] lyPg . g]tf s[ltn] åGåfTds ef}ltsjfb kf6L{sf] PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzf, gofF
u5f}{+ klg, h:t} g]kfnL sfFu|];, efjgf 5 . To;}n] of] Pp6f d'Vo rnfpg] ls kf6L{n] ;/sf/ rnfpg]Ú Pdfn] eGg] b]pjfnfO{ k|wfgdGqLdf af]Sg] hLjgbz{g ePsfn] o;sf nflu sfo{gLltnufot ljifodf k|lzIf0f
dfcf] j fbL s] G b| , Pdfn] , hgtf ljifo ag]/ cufl8 cfpF5 . To;nfO{ d]/f] ljrf/df s'g} a]nf kf6L{n] ;/sf/ of] unt cg}lts /fhgLlts ;+:sf/ ljZjb[li6sf]0fsf] lgdf{0f h?/L /x]sf] lbOPsf] s]Gb|Lo :s'n ljefusf k|dv '
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