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# Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

## Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Department of Marine Technology

STRUCTURAL DESIGN
AND STRENGTH ASSESSMENT
Prepared By

## HJ. YAHYA BIN SAMIAN

yahya@fkm.utm.my
Department of Marine Technology
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
81310, UTM Skudai
Johor Bahru, JOHOR
July 2005
Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 1/16

## SHIP STRUCTURES DESIGN

3.0 Introduction 1.0 Structural Design Process
Structural design is an important design task and The ship structure is design upon completion of lines
one of the most difficult parts in ship design that plan and general arrangement design as indicated in
often required deep understanding and vast Figure 1. Structural design is also an essential part of
experience. It requires good knowledge on ship production process as it provides important data for
structures and often involves a lot and tedious material ordering and costing. In general practice, the
calculation, initial estimation (guestimate) with little midship scantling of the ship is to be designed first
information, judgement and critical decision making. and the rests / detailing of the structures will be
Whilst strength is the most important aspect in derived from it. Midship scantling is also important to
structural design which is not to be compromised at determine the overall strength of the ship, which
any time, it is also important to consider the weight need to be known at the early of design stage. The
and function of the ship so that the ship can be design process may differ from one rule to another,
operated in cost effective manner. Therefore it is but generally it involves determination of rule
essential that the designer have a good exposure and dimensions, material selection, framing systems,
had gone through structural design exercise before determination of plating thickness and stiffener /
embarking on serious design project. frames sizes, midship scantling drawing and strength
assessment.
4.0 Aim of the Note
2.0 Midship Scantling Calculation
This note is written to facilitate the participants with Procedures Using Lloyds Rules
a brief guideline on how ship structures should be
designed based on the Lloyds Register Rules and The ship structures can be designed with three
Regulations. The details can be referred to the rules different approach; From first principles (rational
and the participant will be given a copy of the design), using rules and regulation / standards, or
selected part of the rule during the hands on project. mixed of both above. Design from first principles is
tedious and involves a large amount of man- hours. It

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 2/16

## SHIP STRUCTURES DESIGN

often done for novel or military vessels. For Merchant assessment need to be carried out. In order to do this
ships, the structural design is normally designed accurately, first the midship scantling need to be
based on rules and regulation developed by drawn / sketched in scaled and all measurement
classification societies. The conventional rules use must be taken from this drawing. Then the overall
formula that were based purely on empirical data of section modulus of the ship structures or hull girder
previous good designs and often are overly designed. can be calculated using the standard procedures. The
The new approach, however, as in Lloyds Register, Hull bending strength and shear strength will be
had incorporated first principles calculation in the determined based on the hull girder section modulus.
formula especially in the strength assessment. This For local strength, the plate panel strength
will allow the designer to rationalize his/her design in assessment will be done using hull buckling strength
order to be more cost effective. criteria. The strength assessment procedure is shown
in Figure 4.
The midship scantling calculation procedures using
Lloyds Register Rules is shown in Figure 2. It Although the scantling formula used in Lloyds rules
basically involves determination of rule dimensions may differ form other rules, the basic concept and
measured from lines plan drawing, selection of calculation procedures in general, remain the same.
material properties, equipment number and design Therefore it is expected that once the designer has
loading appropriate to the required location. Once experienced in one particular rule, he/she will be
these basic data have been determined (same able to design in other rules without any difficulty.
procedure for all types of ships), the following
calculation will be based on the specific type of ship 5.0 Hands on Structural Design Project
being designed. As an example in Figure 2, the
general cargo is selected and the scantling design The participants will be given a hands on structural
involves calculation of plating thickness for deck, design task of a selected general cargo. The step by
shell envelope, scantling for deck and shell envelope step design procedure is given in Table 1. All the
stiffening members, bottom structures and necessary formula, calculation sheets, drawings and
bulkheads thickness and stiffeners sizes. Upon diagrams will also be given during the hands on
completion of midship scantling calculation, strength structural design project.

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 3/16

DESIGN
RULE DIMENSION
REQUIREMENTS

## MATERIAL PROPERTIES SHELL

MAIN EXPANSION
DIMENSIONS

STRUCTURAL
HULL FORM SELECTION OF FRAMING SYSTEM
DETAILING
DESIGN
PLATING THICKNESS
HYDROSTATICS NESTING
CALCULATION STIFENERS SCANTLING

## OTHER STRUCTURES SCANTLING MATERIAL

GENERAL TAKE OFF
ARRANGEMENT
STRUCTURES SCANTLING LIST

MATERIAL
MIDSHIP SCANTLINGDRAWING
PRELIMINARY COST
WEIGHT ESTIMATION
STRENGTH ASSESSMENT

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 4/16

## RULE DIMENSIONS SYMBOLS & DEFINITIONS

(Part 3, Chapter 1, Section 6.1- 6.8) (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 1.5) MIDSHIP
SCANTLING DRAWING
DECK PLATING
EQUIPMENT NUMBER (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 4.2)
(Part 3, Chapter 1, Section 7.1)
MIDSHIP
SHELL ENVELOPE PLATING SECTION MODULUS
(Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 5.1 – 5.4)
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
(Part 3, Chapter 2, Section 1.1- 2.1)
DECK STIFFENING HULL BENDING STRENGTH
(Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 4.3 – 4.4) (Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 5.1 –5.9
STRUCTURAL IDEALIZATION
(Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 3.1- 3.3) SHELL STIFFENING
(Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 6.1 – 6.4) HULL SHEAR STRENGTH
(Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 6.1 –6.7
(Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 4.1- 4.4) BOTTOM STRUCTURES
(Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 7.1 – 8.5)
HULL BUCKLING STRENGTH
(Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 7.1 –7.5
(Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 5.1- 5.3)
(Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 9.1 – 9.2)

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 5/16

## TABLE 1 : Structural Design Project – Hands On

Preparing Data and Drawings (Lines Plan, GA, Hydrostatics, Capacity Plan etc). A sketch (scaled)
1
on Midship Frame Section is required based on Lines Plan and GA Drawing.
2 Preparation of Calculation Sheets – see examples in Table 2(a) and 2 (b).

## FOR ALL TYPES OF SHIPS

Based on the GA and Lines Plan Drawing Determine the Rules Dimension, L, B, D, T, CB etc. Also
3 determine the weather /strength /freeboard deck as required by (Part 3, Chapter 1, Section 6.1-
6.8). Also calculate the Equipment Number based on (Part 3, Chapter 1, Section 7.1).

Select material to be used. For high Tensile steel or Aluminum, determine the Material Properties
4 Factors as in (Part 3, Chapter 2, Section 1.1- 2.1). These factors will be used throughout the
scantling calculation.

If Bulkheads Number and Location need to be checked, used (Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 4.1-
5 4.4) to determine the minimum number of bulkheads, position of collision bulkhead and aft end bkhd
arrangement. Transverse bkhds location need to be adjusted to the nearest frame location.

Loading Calculation – Based on (Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 5.1- 5.3), Determine the appropriate
6 design Load, design head, stowage factors etc for decks, tanks and bkhds. The design load must be
calculated based on the position (height) of the structures in consideration.

## Department. of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 6/16

## FOR GENERAL CARGO

7 Determining the Basic Data for calculation as required in (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 1.5).

## Selection of Framing Systems (Longitudinal or Transverse) and Frame Spacing. Stiffeners,

8 Longitudinals, Stringers, etc spacing need also to be selected. No specific formula is given, thus it
should be determined based on shipyard standard practices.

## 9 Calculation of Deck Plating Thickness based on (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 4.2).

Calculation of Shell Envelope Plating Thickness (Keel, Bottom & Bilge, and Side Shell)as required
10
by (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 5.1 – 5.4).
Calculation of Deck Stiffening Section Modulus for Deck Longitudinals, Beams, and Girders
11 based on (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 4.3 – 4.4). The scantling of deck stiffening members should be
determined based on Structural Idealization as specified in (Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 3.1- 3.3).

Calculation of Shell Envelope Stiffening Section Modulus for Logituidinals or Transverse, and
Primary Structures based on (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 6.1 – 6.4). The scantling of shell envelope
12
stiffening members should also be determined based on Structural Idealization as specified in
(Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 3.1- 3.3).

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 7/16

## Structural Design Project – Hands On

Calculation of Bottom (Single or Double Bottom) Structures Plating Thickness and Stiffening
13 members Section Modulus as required by (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 7.1 – 8.5). The calculation
includes Girders, Floors, and Inner Bottom Plating and Longitudinals.

Calculation of Bulkheads Platting Thickness and Stiffeners Section Modulus for watertight
14
deep tank bulkheads and Shaft Tunnel based on (Part 4, Chapter 1, Section 9.1 – 9.2).

STRENGTH ASSESSEMNT
Preparation of Scantling List, which should at least includes Name, numbers, sizes (thickness and
15 stiffeners scantling). See example in Table 3. This list will be used for strength calculation and
materials take off.
Preparation of Midship Scantling Drawing / sketches based on lines plan, GA and scantling list.
16 The scantling drawing should be drawn in scale. Clearly label the structures name and size. See
example Figure 3.

Calculation of Moment of Inertia and Section Modulus of the Hull Girders. Hull girder should
17 consists of all continuous longitudinal structures as specified in (Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 3.4). Use
Calculation Tables as shown in the example in Table 4 and the formula given Table 5 & 6.

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 8/16

## Structural Design Project – Hands On

Determine the Hull Bending Strength by Calculation of Design Vertical Wave BM, Design Still
Water BM, Minimum section Modulus, Permissible Still Water BM, Permissible Hull
18 Vertical Bending Stress, Factors of reduction, and Minimum Moment of Inertia as required
by (Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 5.1 – 5.9). Strength is to be determine by comparing the required
minimum or permissible to the actual or design value.
Determine the Hull Shear Strength by calculating Design Wave SF, Design Still Water SF,
Design Shear Stress, Permissible Still Water SF, Permissible Shear Stress as required by
19
(Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 6.1 – 6.7). Strength is to be determine by comparing the permissible to
the design value

Determine the Hull Buckling Strength (Local Strength) by calculating or checking the Elastic
20 Critical Buckling Stress, Design Stress and comparing with Scantling Criteria as given by
(Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 7.1 – 7.5).

Based on the Strength Assessment, Modification of Structural Scantling may be required either
to increase the strength (in case of inadequate strength) or reducing strength (in case of excessive
strength / overly design). The modification can be in the form of adding/removing structures,
21
changing plating thickness or/and changing section modulus for stiffening members. It is
recommended that once modification has been carried out, the strength Assessment need to be
carried out once again.

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 9/16

## TABLE 2(a) : Example of Scantling Calculation Sheet

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1
(Table 3.5.1)
2 Weather Deck (Standard Cargo)
2(a) Frd. - 0.075L from FP
p 12.73
(KN/m^2)
p 29.64 + 14.41E
(KN/m^2)

## E = (0.0914 + 0.003L)/(D- Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

T)-0.15 (Table 3.5.1)
but must 0.0 ≤ E ≤ 0.147
h1 1.8
Beam/Long(m)

## Equivalent Design Head - Prime Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

h1 4.2 + 2.04E
Structures(m) (Table 3.5.1)
Standard Stowage (m^3/tonnes) C 1.39
8.5
(KN/m^2)

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 10/16

## LLOYDS SCANTLING CALCULATION : BKHD NUMBER AND COLLISION BKHD

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 4.1.1
1 No of Bulkheads See Table 3.4.1
(Table 3.4.1)

2 : Ship Without Extending Part of Underwater Body more than LL (Other Than Passenger Ships)
2(a) Collsion Bulkhead Ship <= 200 m
Distance From Fore End of LL Pt.3, Ch.3 - 4.2.1
(m) (Table 3.4.2)
LL from Pt.3,Ch.1 -
Minimum 0.05LL
6.1.8

Maximum 0.08LL

## 2(b) Collsion Bulkhead Ship > 200 m

Distance From Fore End of LL Pt.3, Ch.3 - 4.2.1
(m) (Table 3.4.2)
Minimum 10

LL from Pt.3,Ch.1 -
Maximum 0.08LL
6.1.8

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 11/16

## TABLE 3: Example of Scantling List

STRUCTURE Size Z
No.
DESCRIPTION Thickness (mm) Web (mm) (m From Keel)
Bottom Plate 6 - 0
Inner Bottom Plate 6 - 2.8
Deck Plate 8 - 10
Side Plating 7 - 6.15
Centre Girder 7.5 1 1.4
Side Girder 6 1 1.4
Long BKHD 6 1 6.4
bilge Plating 8 - 1.15
Margin Plate 6 - 2.55
Deck Longi L - 6x20x20 4 9.8
Side Longi -1 T - 6x15x15 8.3
Side Longi -2 T- 6x15x15 3 6.3
Side Longi -3 T- 6x15x15 4.3
Inner Botton Longi Bulb - 5x20x10 5 2.5
Bottom Longi Top Hat - 5x10x10 2 0
Bilge Longi -1 I – 6x15x15 0.43
2
Bilge Longi -2 I – 6x15x15 1.15

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 12/16

8m

1.5m
DECK PLATE
t = 8 mm
DECK LONGL
A = 12 cm2
SIDE PLATE
t = 7 mm 2.0m

t = 6 mm

## INNER BOTTOM PLATE

t = 6 mm SIDE LONGL 2.0m
A = 12 cm2
INNER BOTTOM LONGL
A = 12 cm2
CENTRE
GIRDER
t = 6 mm 0.5 m
1m 2m 1m 1m BILGE PLATE
t = 6 mm 2.0m

## SIDE GIRDER BILGE LONGL

2.8 m t = 6 mm A = 10 cm2
2.3m
BOTTOM LONGL
2.5m A = 12 cm2 BILGE PLATE
t = 10 mm

BOTTOM PLATE
t = 10 mm 4m

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 13/16

## TABLE 4: Example of Section Modulus

Calculation L
STRUCTURE t Z A 1st Mmt 2nd Mmt Io Angle h
NO 2 Type
DESCRIPTION (m) (mm) (m From Keel) (m.mm) (m .mm) (m3.mm) 3
(m .mm) (deg) (m)
1 Bottom Plate 4 6 0 24 0 0 0 HP
2 Inner Bottom Plate 5.5 6 2.8 33 92.4 258.72 0 HP
3 Deck Plate 4 8 10 32 320 3200 0 HP
Side Plating 7.7 7 6.15 53.9 331.485 2038.63275 266.311 VP
4 Centre Girder 2.8 7.5 1.4 21 29.4 41.16 13.72 VP
5 Side Girder 2.8 6 1.4 16.8 23.52 32.928 10.976 VP
6 Long BKHD 7.2 6 6.4 43.2 276.48 1769.472 186.624 VP
7 bilge Plating 4.61 8 1.15 36.88 42.41 48.77 16.33 IP 30 1.15
8 Margin Plate 2.54 6 2.55 15.24 38.84 99.01 0.31 IP 11.3 0.25
Deck Longi x 4
9 9.8 4 39.20 384.16 0 Sec
(4x10/10)
Side Longi -1
10 8.3 1.2 9.96 82.67 0 Sec
(1x12/10)
11 Side Longi -2 6.3 1.2 7.56 47.63 0 Sec
12 Side Longi -3 4.3 1.2 5.16 22.19 0 Sec
13 Inner Botton Longi x 5 2.5 4 10.00 25.00 0 Sec
14 Bottom Longi x 2 0 2.4 0.00 0.00 0 Sec
15 Bilge Longi -1 0.43 1 0.43 0.18 0 Sec
16 Bilge Longi -2 1.15 1 1.15 1.32 0 Sec
292.02 1228.00 8051.85 494.28
∑A ∑ 1s t Mmt ∑ 2nd. Mmt ∑ Io

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 14/16

## FORMULA ITEM VALUE UNIT VALUE UNIT

(a) ∑A Total Area = 292.02 m.mm
(b) ∑ 1 Mmt Total 1st. Moment = 1228.00 m 2.mm
st

## ( c) (b)/(a) Dist of NA from Keel = 4.21 m

(d) ∑ 2nd. Mmt Total 2nd. Moment = 8051.85 m 3.mm 80518.49 m 2.cm 2
(e) ∑ Io Total Io = 494.28 m 3.mm 4942.78 m 2.cm 2
(f) (d) + (e) Total I about Keel = 85461.27 m 2.cm 2
(g) (f) – (a)*(c)2 Total I about NA = 80297.28 m 2.cm 2
(h) Measure Height of Deck = 10.00 m
(h) – ( c) or (c )
(i) Max y (ydeck or Ykeel) = 5.79 or 4.21 5.79 m
whichever greater
(j) (g) / (i) Section Modulus (Half) = 13856.78 m 2.cm 2
(k) (j) x 2 Section Modulus (Full) = 27713.5562 m 2.cm 2

## SM required = 10422.272 m 2.cm 2 Calculated based on emphirical Formula

SF = SM actual / SM required = 2.66 Acceptable but overly designed

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 15/16

## TABLE 6: Formula for Midship Section Modulus

TYPE 1 : Vertical Plate
Data Required and Calculation Diagram
L = Length (m) t
t = Thickness (mm)
Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)
A = Area = L x t (m.mm) L
1st . Moment = A x Z (m2 .mm)
2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z (m3 .mm)
Io = Inertia Moment = L3 x t (m3 .mm) Z From Keel

## TYPE 2 : Horizontal Plate

Data Required and Calculation Diagram
L = Length (m) t
t = Thickness (mm)
Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)
A = Area = L x t (m.mm)
1st . Moment = A x Z (m2 .mm) L
2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z
(m3 .mm)
Io = Inertia Moment = 0 (Negligible) Z From Keel
TYPE 3 : Inclined Plate
Data Required and Calculation Diagram
L = Length (m)
t = Thickness (mm)
h = Distance of Centroid to base = L/2 x Sin( θ ) t
Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)
A = Area = L x t (m.mm) L
1st . Moment = A x Z (m2 .mm)
2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z h
(m3 .mm) θ
Z From Keel
Io = [A x (2xh) 2 ] / 12 (m3 .mm)
TYPE 4 : Sections
Data Required and Calculation Diagram
A = Area (m.mm)
= Area (cm2 /100)
= Area (mm2 /1000)
Z = Distance of Centroid from keel (m)
1st . Moment = A x Z (m2 .mm)
2nd. Moment = A x Z2 or 1st Moment x Z
(m3 .mm)
Io = 0 (Negligable) Z From Keel
Sections can be grouped together provided they
have the same centroid position (Z)

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

Structural Design and Strength Assessment Note - 16/16

## FIGURE 4: Strength Assessment Procedure

Scantling Overall Strength Local Strength

## DETERMINATION OF HULL BENDING STRENGTH HULL BUCKLING STRENGTH

RULE DIMENSION
Calculation of; Calculation of;
f) Design Wave Bending Moment a) Critical Buckling For Plate
g) Design Still Water Bending Moment b) Critical Buckling For Longi
ASSUMING INITIAL DESIGN
h) Minimum Hull Section Modulus c) Design Stress
VALUES & FACTORS
i) Permissible Still Water BM d) Scantling Criteria
j) Permissible Vertical BM
k) Local Scantling Reduction Factors
CALCULATION OF PLATES AND
STIFFENERS SCANTLING Comparison
Between Design
Comparison and Criteria
MIDSHIP SCANTLING Between Design and
NO YES NO
DRAWING / SKETCHES
Permissible

## HULL SHEAR STRENGTH

MIDSHIP YES
SECTION MODULUS & INERTIA YES Calculation of;
a) Design Wave Shear Force
b) Design Still Water Shear
Force
c) Design Shear Stress
d) Permissible Still Water SF STOP
CHANGING INITIAL DESIGN
VALUES & FACTORS

## Department. of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM, 2005

STRUCTURAL SCANTLING CALCULATION SHEETS
(Based on LLOYDS Rules and Regulation 1997)

Important Note

The calculation sheets used in this short course were designed for the purpose of
demonstrating the calculation procedures and examples of selected structures and
for a specific type of ship. Under no circumstances do they represent the complete
calculation process provided in the rules. All formula shown in the calculation
sheets should be checked with the formula given in rules.

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Rule Dimensions - 1

## STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION SHEET – RULE DIMENSIONS & EQUIPMENT NUMBER

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
1 Length (m) L Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.1
2 Breadth (m) B Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.3
3 Depth (m) D Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.4
4 Draught (m) T Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.5
5 Block Coef Cb Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.6
6 Length Bet PP (m) Lpp Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.7
7 Length Load Line (m) LL Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.8
8 Block Coef at LL Cbl Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.9
EqN = Disp^2/3 +
9 Equipment Number EqN
2BH+A/10

## Freeboard Height (m) H Pt.3,Ch.1 - 7.1.1

A = L x (H + Hss)
Area in Profile View
A Hss = Height of
(m 2)
SuperStrctures

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Material Properties - 1

## STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION SHEET – MATERIAL PROPERTIES

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
A : For Steel (Mild and High Tensile Steel)

## High Tensile Steel

2 Factor For Hull Girder KL
SM Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.2
(Table 2.1.1)
3 Specific Min Yield Stress SigmaO

## High Tensile Steel k = 235/SigmaO

4 Factor For Local K or = 0.66 whihever Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.3
Strength higher

B : Aluminum Alloy
1 Aluminum Alloy Types - - Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.3
2 Yield Stress (N/mm^2) SigmaA (Table 2.1.2)
3 Thickness Equi Factor TeF (ka)^0.5*c
ka = 245/sigmaA
Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.3.2
Factor c = 0.95 or 1.0
4 SM equi Factor SMeF ka*c

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1
(Table 3.5.1)
2 : Weather Deck (Standard Cargo)
Aft of 0.12L from FP (KN/m^2)

p 8.5+ 14.41E
Structure

## E = (0.0914 + Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

0.003L)/(D-T)-0.15 (Table 3.5.1)
but must L, D & T refer to
0.0 <= E <= 0.147 Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.5
2(c)
h1 1.2 + 2.04E
Beam/Long(m)
Equi Design Head - Prime Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1
h1 1.2 + 2.04E
Struct(m) (Table 3.5.1)
Standard Stowage
C 1.39
(m^3/tonnes)
8.5
(KN/m^2)
1.2
(m)

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
4 : Cargo Deck
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1
(Table 3.5.1)
7.07Htd
Design Load for All Structures Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1
p Htd (m) = Cargo
(KN/m^2) (Figure 3.5.1)
4(a) Equi Design Head (m) - All h1 Htd
Structures
Standard Stowage (m^3/tonnes) C 1.39
7.07Htd
(KN/m^2)
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1
Mach Space, W/Syop and Stores
(Table 3.5.1)
p 18.37
4(c) (KN/m^2)
Equi Design Head (m) - All
h1 2.6
Structures
Standard Stowage (m^3/tonnes) C 1.39
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1
Ship Stores
(Table 3.5.1)
p 14.14
4(d) (KN/m^2)
Equi Design Head (m) - All
h1 2
Structures
Standard Stowage (m^3/tonnes) C 1.39

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
5: Accommodation Deck
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1
Accommodation Deck
(Table 3.5.1)
p 8.5
(KN/m^2)
5(a)
Equi Design Head (m) - All h3 or 1.2 which ever Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1
h1
Structures greater (Figure 3.5.1)

## Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

6 : Superstructure Deck
(Table 3.5.1)
For F'castle deck Frd of 0.12 L
6(a) See Weather Deck (2)
from FP

## Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1

6(b) Equi Design Head (m) - S/s Deck h1 h3
(Figure 3.5.1)

## Equi Design Head (m) - 1st Tier 0.9 (+ 0.24E if

6( c) h1
Beams & Longl exposed)

## Equi Design Head (m) - 2nd Tier 0.6 (+ 0.24E if

6(d) h1
Beams & Longl exposed)

## Equi Design Head (m) - 3rd Tier 0.45 (+ 0.24E if

6(d) h1
Beams & Longl exposed)

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1
8 : Inner Bottom
(Table 3.5.1)
Ship Without Heavy Cargo Notation

p
& Stiffeners
Equi Design Head (m) - - Plate &
h1
Stiffeners
8(a)
Standard Stowage (m^3/tonnes) C 1.39

9.82T
(KN/m^2) Pt.3,Ch.1 - 6.1.5

## Equivalent Permissible Head (m) 1.39T

p 10.07h4
& Stiffeners (Figure 3.5.2)
8(c)
Equi Design Head (m) - - Plate & h4 = Appropriate
h1

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Bkhd No & Collision Bkhd - 1

## STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION SHEET – BKHD NO & POSITION OF COLLISON BKHD

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 4.1.1
1 No of Bulkheads See Table 3.4.1
(Table 3.4.1)

2 : Ship Without Extending Part of Underwater Body more than LL (Other Than Passenger Ship)

## Distance From Fore End Pt.3, Ch.3 - 4.2.1

of LL (m) (Table 3.4.2)

Minimum 0.05LL
LL from Pt.3,Ch.1 -
6.1.8
Maximum 0.08LL

## 2(b) Collision Bulkhead Ship > 200 m

Distance From Fore End Pt.3, Ch.3 - 4.2.1
of LL (m) (Table 3.4.2)
Minimum 10
LL from Pt.3,Ch.1 -
6.1.8
Maximum 0.08LL

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Deck Plating - 1

## STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION SHEET – DECK PLATING

CALCULATION
ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
1 : Basic Input Data

## Higher Tensile Strength

1 kL
Factor - For Hull Girder
Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.2
Higher Tensile Strength (Table 2.1.1)
Factor - For Local k
Strength
Spacing for Secondary
s
Stiffeners (mm)
Spacing for Primary
S
Members (m)
7.71x10^-2 x L Pt.4, Ch.1 - 1.5
x e^(-0.0044L)

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Deck Plating - 2

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
2 : Strength / Weather Deck Plating (Longitudinal Framing)
2(a) Outside Line of Opening
t = 0.001 x s1 x
Pt.4, Ch.1 - 4.2.1
Thickness (mm) t (0.059L1+7) x
(Table 1.4.1)
SQRT(FD/KL) OR
t = 0.00083 x s1 x
sqrt(LK)+2.5
Which ever Greater
FD = Scant Reduction
Pt.3, Ch.4 - 5.7.2
Factor
s1 = s but bot to less
than 470+L/0.6 or
700 whichever Lower
L1 = L but<=190
2(b) Inside Line of Opening

t = 0.00083 x s1 x
Thickness (mm) t
sqrt(LK)+2.5
But not less than 6.5
s1 = s but bot to less Pt.4, Ch.1 - 4.2.1
than (Table 1.4.1)
470+L/0.6 or

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Shell Plating - 1

## STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION SHEET – SHELL ENVELOPE PLATING

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
1 : Basic Input Data and Preliminary Calculation

## Basic Input Data

Higher Tensile Strength Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.2
kL
Factor - For Hull Girder (Table 2.1.1)
Higher Tensile Strength
Factor - For Local k
Strength
Spacing for Secondary
s Pt.4, Ch.1 - 1.5
Stiffeners (mm)

## 1(a) Spacing for Primary S

Members (m)

7.71x10^-2xLxe^
(-0.0044L)

Scantling Reduction
FD Pt.3, Ch.4 - 5.7.2
Factor above Neutral Axis

Scantling Reduction
FB
Factor below Neutral Axis

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Shell Plating - 2

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
f1 =
f1
1/(1+(s/1000S)^2)

## s1 = s but not less

s1 Pt.4, Ch.1 - 5.3.1
than
(Table 1.5.2)
470+L/0.6 or
1(b) Preliminary Calculation
700mm Whichever
less

## hT1 hT1 = (T+CW)

Pt.4, Ch.1 - 5.4.1
But hT1 <= 3.6T
(Table 1.5.3)
FM the greater bet
FM
FD and FB
Calculation Sheet – Deck Stiffening - 1

## STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION SHEET – DECK STIFFENING

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
Basic Input Data
Material Factor - For Hull
kL
Girder Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.2
Material Factor - For (Table 2.1.1)
k
1 Local Strength
Spacing for Secondary
s
Stiffeners (mm)
Pt.4, Ch.1 - 1.5
Relative Density
Rho not to lee than 1.025
(Tonnes/m^3)
2 : Strength / Weather Deck Longitudinals
Outside Line of Opening
Z=0.043xsxkxhT1xle^2x Pt.4, Ch.1 - 4.3.1
Section Modulus (cm^3) Z
F1 (Table 1.4.3)
hT1 = L1/56 fo B-60
Ship
hT1 = L1/70 for B Ship
2(a) or 1.2 whicever greater
L1 = L but <= 190
le = span length >= 1.5 Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3
F1 = 0.25C1
C1 = 60/(225-165FD)
FD = Scant Reduction
Pt.3, Ch.4 - 5.7.2
Factor

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Deck Stiffening - 2

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
4 : Deck Beams for Strength/weather, Cargo and Accomodation Deck
Strength / Weather Decks
Z=
Pt.4, Ch.1 - 4.3.5
Section Modulus (cm^3) Z (K1K2TD+K3B1sh1le^2)
(Table 1.4.5)
k/10^4 or
Z = 2K3B1skh1le^2
/10^4
K1 = Factor based on
Deck No
1 Deck = 20
2 Decks = 13.3
3 Decks = 10.5
4 decks or more = 9.3
4(a) K2 = Factor based on
Location
Bridge & Poop = 133
Elsewhere = 530
K3 = Factor based on
Beam
3.6
Elsewhere = 3.3
B1 = B but <= 21.5
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 5.2.1
(Figure 3.5.2)
le = span length >= 1.8 Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet - Stiffener Section Modulus - 1

bf
FACE
PLATE tf

dw tw

tp WEB PLATE

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet - Stiffener Section Modulus - 2

## STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION SHEET – LONG/FRAME/STIFFENER SECTION MODULUS

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
1 Face Plate Area (cm^2) a bf*tf/100
bf (mm) = Flange Width
tf (mm) = Flange Thickness
See Figure Above
2 Web Depth (mm) dw
3 Web Thickness (mm) tw
Pt.3, Ch.3
4 Base Plate Area (cm^2) A 10*f*b*tp
- 3.2.7
Pt.3, Ch.3
f = 0.3*(l/b)^(2/3) But <= 1.0 - 3.2.1 (Table
3.3.1)
l (m) = (Dist of Primary
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.1
support)
Pt.3, Ch.3
b (m) = (Stiff Spacing) - 3.2.1 (Fig
3.3.2)
(l/b) = Ratio
tp (mm) = Base Plate
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.1
Thickness
a*dw/10 + tw*dw^2/6000 +
Section Modulus Built
5 Z (1+(200*(A-a)) / Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.6
Section (cm^3)
(200*A+tw*dw))
Moment of Inertia about [bf*tf*(tf/2+dw+tp)^2 + Required in Pt.3,
6 Base With Attached Ia (tw*dw^3)/12 + tw*dw* Ch.4 - 7.3 (Table
Plating (cm^4) (dw/2+tp)^2] /10^4 3.3.1)

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Girder Section Modulus - 1

## STRUCTURE L t Z A 1st Mmt 2nd Mmt Io Angle h

NO Type
DESCRIPTION (m) (mm) (m From Keel) (m.mm) (m2.mm) (m3.mm) 3
(m .mm) (deg) (m)

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Girder Section Modulus - 2

## FORMULA ITEM VALUE UNIT VALUE UNIT

(a) ∑A Total Area = m.mm

## (h) Measure Height of Deck = m

(h) – ( c) or (c )
(i) Max y (ydeck or Ykeel) = or m
whichever greater
(j) (g) / (i) Section Modulus (Half) = m 2.mm

## Required Section Modulus (Lloyds Rules)

SM required = m 2.mm

SF = SM actual / SM required =

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Bending Strength - 1

## STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION SHEET – HULL BENDING STRENGTH

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
1 Basic Input Data Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.1.1
Higher Tensile Strength Factor - Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.2
kL
For Hull Girder (Table 2.1.1)
Higher Tensile Strength Factor -
k
For Local Strength

## Ship Service Factor f1 f1 >= 0.5

f1 =1.0 for
Unrestricted Sea-going
Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.1.1
f2 = -1.1 for saging (-
Wave Bending Moment Factor f2
ve) Moment

f2 = 1.9Cb/(Cb+0.7)
for Hogging

2 : Design Value
2(a) Design of Vertical Wave BM
Mw Mw = f1f2Mwo Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.2.1
Mw for restricted (KN-m)
(sagging)
Mw Mw = f1f2Mwo
(Hogging)
Mwo (Kn- Mwo =
m) 0.1C1C2L^2B(Cb+0.7)

## Yahya Samian, Dept. of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Bending Strength - 2

C1 for L <
C1 = 0.0412L +4
90

C1 for L C1 = 10.75-((300-
90-300 L)/100)^1.5
Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.2.1
C1 for (Table 4.5.1)
300 C1 = 10.75
<L<=350
C1 for
C1 = 10.75-((L-
350
350)/150)^1.5
<L<=500
C2 for
C2 = 1.0 Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.2.2
Midship

Mw
Mw for Sheltered Water (KN-m) Mw = 0.5f2Mwo
(sagging)

Mw
Mw = 0.5f2Mwo
(hogging)
Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.2.2 -
5.2.4
Mw
Mw for short Voyage (KN-m) Mw = 0.8f2Mwo
(sagging)

Mw
Mw = 0.8f2Mwo
(hogging)

## Yahya Samian, Dept. of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Bending Strength - 3

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
2(b) Design Still Water BM

## Calculate Directly from Still Water BM

Accurate (KN-m) Ms

## Ms = Cs L^2.5B(Cb + Ship Design Book

Approximate (KN-m) Ms
0.5)*9.81 - Tanker

Cs =[0.618+(110 –
L)/462]/100

## 2( c) Design Section Modulus

Directly Calculated
SM at Deck (m^3) ZD
From Midship For Definition of
Long Continuous
See Pt.3,Ch.3 -
Directly Calculated 3.4
SM at Base (m^3) ZB
From Midship

## Yahya Samian, Dept. of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Bending Strength - 4

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
3 : Minimum or Permissible Value
3(a) Min Hull Section Modulus
Zmin =
Min Hull SM (m^3) Zmin f1kLC1L^2B(Cb+0.7)/
10^6
3(b) Permissible Still Water Bending Moment
Ms Bar Ms Bar =
Still Water BM (KN-m)
(Sagging) FDxSigmaxZDx10^3 - Mw
Ms Bar =
FBxSigmaxZBx10^3 - Mw
Whicever Less
Ms Bar Ms Bar =
(Hogging) FDxSigmaxZDx10^3 - Mw
Ms Bar = Pt.3,Ch.4 - 5.5 -
FBxSigmaxZBx10^3 – Mw 5.6
Whicever Less
FD (Start)

FB (Start)
Sigma
Sigma = 175/kL
(N/mm^2)

## Yahya Samian, Dept. of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Bending Strength - 5

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
Local Scantling Reduction
Vertical Bending Stress at SigmaD =(Msbar +
Deck Mw)/ZD x 10^-3
3( c) Vertical Bending Stress at SigmaB =(Msbar +
SigmaB
Base Mw)/ZB x 10^-4
Reduction Factor at Deck FD FD = SigmaD/sigma
Reduction Factor at Base FB FB = SigmaB/sigma
4 : Strength Assessment
Section Modulus Criteria COMPLIANCE
Section Modulud Safety
SF1 SF1 = ZD/Zmin or Acceptable
4(a) Factor
SF1 = ZB/Zmin which
ever Less
Still Water BM criteria
SF2 = Msbar/Ms
Still Water BM Safety Factor SF2 Acceptable
(hogging) OR
4(b)
SF2 = Msbar/Ms
(Sagging) OR
Whichever Less
Reduction Factor Criteria
Reduction Factor SF3 for plating SF3 = FD/0.67 or Aceptable
SF3 = FB/0.67
whichever Less
4( c)
SF3 for
SF3 = FD/0.75 or Not Acceptable
Longitudinals
SF3 = FB/0.75 Use FB = 0.75 for
Whichever Less Longitudinals

## Yahya Samian, Dept. of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 1

## STRUCTURAL DESIGN CALCULATION SHEET – HULL BUCKLING STRENGTH

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
Basic Input Data
Spacing for Secondary
s
Stiffeners (mm)
Pt.4, Ch.1 - 1.5
Spacing for Primary
S
Members (m)
Modulud of Elasticity
E E = 206000 For Steel
(N/mm^2)

## Specified Min Yield Stress

1 SigmaO SigmaO = 235 Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.2.1
(N/mm^2)

lamO =
Specific Sheer Stress lamO
sigmaO/sqrt(3)

## Higher Tensile Strength Pt.3,Ch.2 - 1.2.2

kL
Factor - For Hull Girder (Table 2.1.1)

## Higher Tensile Strength

Factor - For Local k
Strength

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 2

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
2 : Elastic Critical Buckling Stress For Plating
Plating With Longitudinal Stiffeners
Original Plate thickness Selected Plating /
t Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.2.1
(mm) Stiffeners
Standard Deduction for
dt
Corrosion (mm)
One side exposed - dt = 0.05t (Range 0.5 -
Vertical Plate (mm) 1 mm)
2(a) One Side Exposed - dt = 0.1t (Range 2 -3 Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.2.1
Horizontal Plate (mm) mm) (Table 4.7.1)
Two side exposed - dt = 0.1t (Range 2 -3
Vertical Plate (mm) mm)
Two Side Exposed - dt = 0.15t (Range 2 - 4
Horizontal Plate (mm) mm)
Plate Thickness after
tp t - dt Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.2.1
Deduction
Critical Buckling Stress
(i) SigmaE SigmaE = 3.6E(tp/s)^2
(N/mm^2) Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.3.1
Critical Shear Stress LamE = 3.6[1.335+ (Table 4.7.2)
(ii) LamE
(N/mm^2) (s/1000S)^2] x E(tp/s)^2
(iii) 50 % of SigmaO 1/2sigmaO (ii) exceed (iii)
Correction Required
(ia) Critical Buckling Stress SigmaCR sigmaCR = SigmaO x
(1 - sigmaO/4sigmaE) Pt.3,Ch.4 - 7.3.1
LamCR = LamO x(1 - (Table 4.7.2)
(iia) Critical Shear Stress LamCR
LamO/4LamE)

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 3

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
3 : Elastic Critical Buckling Stress For Longitudinals
3(a) Section / Longitudinal Properties
Face Plate Area (cm^2) a a = bf*tf/100 See Figure Above
Flange Width (mm) bf
Flange Thickness after
tf
Deduction (mm)
Web Depth (mm) dw
Web Thickness (mm) tw
Base Plate Area (cm^2) A 10*f*b*tp Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.7
f = 0.3*(l/b)^(2/3) But Pt.3, Ch.3 -
FactorD f
<= 1.0 3.2.1(Table 3.3.1)
Distance of Primary
l Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.1
Support (m)
Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.1
Stiffener Spacing (m) b
(Fig 3.3.2)
Ratio (I/b) (l/b)
Base Plate Thickness After
tp Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.1
Deduction (mm)
Total Area (cm^2) At A + a + (tw*dw)/100
a*dw/10 +
Section Modulus Built tw*dw^2/6000 +
Z Pt.3, Ch.3 - 3.2.6
Section (cm^3) (1+(200*(A-a)) /
(200*A+tw*dw))

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 4

bftf(dw+tp)^2 +
Inertia Mmt including twdw^3/12 + twdw
Ia
Bace Plate (cm^4) (dw/2 + tp) +
b/4x(tp)^3
St Venant's Inertia Mmt
It It = dwtw^3/3 x 10^-3
for Flat Bars (cm^4)
It = 1/3[dwtw^3
St Venant's Inertia Mmt
+bftf^3 x (1 - 0.63tf /
for Section (cm^4)
bf)] /10^4
Polar Inertia Mmt for Flat
Ip Ip = dw^3tw/3 x 10^-4
Bar (cm^4)
Polar Inertia Mmt for Ip =( dw^3tw/3 +
Section (cm^4) dw^2bftf) /10^4 Pt.3, Ch.4 - 7.3
(Table 4.7.3)
Sectorial Inertia Mmt Flat Iw = dw^3tw^3 /
Iw
Bar (cm^4) (36x10^6)
Sectorial Inertia Mmt Tee Iw = tfbf^3dw^2 /
Section (cm^4) (12x10^6)
Sectorial Inertia Mmt for
Iw = p x (q+r)/10^6
Other (cm^4)
p = bf^3dw^2 /
(12x(bf+dw)^2)
q = tf (bf^2 +
2bfdw+4dw^2)
r = 3twbfdw

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 5

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
3(b) Elastic Critical Buckling Stress
Column Buckling Stress SigmaE = 0.001ExIa /
(i) SigmaE
(N/mm^2) (AtxS^2)
Torsional Buckling Stress sigmaE =
(ii) SigmaE
(N/mm^2) 0.001EIw(m^2+k/m^2)/
(ipS^2) + 0.385EIt/Ip
Web Buckling Stress SigmaE = 3.8E
(iii) SigmaE
(N/mm^2) (tw/dw)^2
k = 1.03CS^4 x 10^4 / Pt.3, Ch.4 - 7.3
k
EIw (Table 4.7.3)
C = kpEtp^3 / [3s
Spring Stiffeness C
(1+1.33kpdwtp^3)
/ stw^3]
kp kp = 1-yp
yp yp = sigmaA / SigmaEP
as critical buckling stress
SigmaEP
of plate
to be selected from
m
Table 4.7.3
(i), (ii) and (iii)
(iv) 50 % of SigmaO 1/2sigmaO
exceeds (iv)

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 6

Correction Required
Critical Column Buckling sigmaCR = SigmaO x
(ia) SigmaCR
Stress (N/mm^2) (1 - sigmaO/4sigmaE)
CriticalTorsional Buckling sigmaCR = SigmaO x
(iia) SigmaCR
Stress (N/mm^2) (1 - sigmaO/4sigmaE)
Critical Web Buckling sigmaCR = SigmaO x
(iiia) SigmaCR
Stress (N/mm^2) (1 - sigmaO/4sigmaE)

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
4 : Design Stress
Longitudial Compressive
Stress (N/mm^2)
Minimum Compressive
SigmaA SigmaA = 30/kL
Stress
Minimum Compressive
Stress above NA
Minimum Compressive
SigmaA sigmaA = sigmaBxZ/ZB
Stress Below NA
Vertical Distance from NA Pt.3, Ch.4 - 7.4
Z Measure from dwg
to structure
Shear Stress
Initial estimation Design
LamA LamA = 110/kL
4(b) Shear Stress
Accurate Design Shear
LamA Based on Part 3, Ch 4, 6
Stress

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

Calculation Sheet – Hull Buckling Strength - 7

CALCULATION
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT DESIGN REF
RESULT
5 : Strength Assessment
5(a) Scantling criteria for plate
Plate Buckling Factor Beta Beta = 1 Pt.3, Ch.4 - 7.5
Design Buckling Stress SigmaR Beta x sigmaA COMPLIANCE
Critical Buckling Stress SigmaCR as in 2(a) - (ia)
Safety Factor SF SigmaCR/sigmaR
Design Shear Stress LamA as in 4(b)
Critical Buckling Shear
LamCR as in 2(a) - (iia)
Stress
Safety Factor SF SF = LamCR/LamA

## Scantling criteria for

5(b) Pt.3, Ch.4 - 7.5
Longitudinal
Longitudinal Buckling
Beta Beta = 1.1
Factor
Design Buckling Stress SigmaR Beta x sigmaA
Critical Column Buckling
SigmaCR as in 3(b) - (ia)
Stress
Safety Factor SF SigmaCR/sigmaR
CriticalTorsional Buckling
SigmaCR as in 3(b) - (iia)
Stress
Safety Factor SF SigmaCR/sigmaR
Critical Web Buckling
SigmaCR as in 3(b) - (iiia)
Stress
Safety Factor SF SigmaCR/sigmaR

## Department of Marine Technology, FKM, UTM. 2005

CALCULATED BY : DATE : SHEET NO : OF :
NO ITEM (unit) SYMBOL FORMULA INPUT CALCULATION DESIGN REF