SCE 3106: THINKING AND WORKING SCIENTIFICALLY Group members: 1. Nur Adilah bt. Mohd Paiz 2. Nurul Ain bt.

Mohd Yusof 3. Nuruljanna bt. Karton TUTORIAL 1 By referring to the article ³Higher Order Thinking´, discuss how we implement HOTS in Primary Science Teaching. Higher order thinking is used as a term to describe a number of related ideas, all essentially held to be in contrast to rote learning, learning of facts, superficial thinking. It is more focusing on engaging students in meaningful learning. By referring to the article of ³Higher Order Thinking´ given, HOTS was implemented in Primary Science Teaching through several ways. 1. Encouraging students to actively engage with ideas and evidence This point emphasise that real learning is an active process that involves students being challenged, and challenging each other, rather than accepting received wisdom and practicing its application. It means that teachers should encourage students to express their ideas, but to maintain a high standard of challenge and attention to evidence based on scientific traditions. This is because, the combination of two ideas that it is learning involves activity and engagement, and that scientific processes fundamentally involve argument from evidence is hardly to be saperated in practicing science classroom situation. Thus, Primary Science Teaching has implementing that teachers should encouraging their students to actively engage their ideas with evidence.

several ideas used in HOTS that has been implemented in Primary Science Teaching can be simplified as below: Student Centeredness This idea emphasise that student¶s ideas should be treated with respect and should not be dictated by teachers. It is characterised by argument based on evidence. It is also linked to the social constructivism. . It concern with student engagement with ideas and with schooling. Teachers indeed should acknowledge their students. Community Engagement with ideas and evidence can be interpreted as a communal enterprise. Student autonomy or their responsibility in learning This idea emphasise both the active and intentional nature of learning and the purpose of schooling in promoting autonomous adults.SCE 3106: THINKING AND WORKING SCIENTIFICALLY Other than that. minds-on¶ science. Argumentation Argumentation is ability to frame and respond to argument. Student-student interaction Rich learning environment is based on the high quality of the student ± student dialogue. Inquiry based learning Science teaching and learning must be based on students actively exploring and investigating and questioning. or socio cultural theory. It is the µminds-on¶ part that is referred to by this Component. if they are to learn and they must be given a measure of control over the ideas that are discussed. A related phrase often used in primary science education is µhands-on.

The conceptual change literature. It is a skill which a student should master in practicing science. Divergent thinking It is the ability to use it to solve unexpected problems. Challenging students to develop meaningful understandings Student conceptions Students come to any science topic with prior ideas will often contradict the science version of understanding. 2. will emphasises probes of understanding. that can interfere with learning. so they can listen and challenge. . Metacognition This is simply means that students need to be helped to develop good learning habits.SCE 3106: THINKING AND WORKING SCIENTIFICALLY Science processes and concepts of evidence In Primary Science Teaching. For an example. Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) It is essential for teachers to be knowledgeable themselves. µset up tables¶. and to monitor the adequacy of their own understandings. or to generate a variety of related ideas. µdeal with measurement error¶ and etc. µcontrol variables¶. It is a form of knowledge needed on how students learn particular concepts and also know the difficulties that they experience and the different ways they may interpret the science idea. and challenge activities. the skills are including on how to do things like µsample biological data¶. it has always called as science process skills.

Historical case studies. y Challenging students¶ understandings. a textbook. a newspaper. and encourages them to apply ideas to unfamiliar situations. evaluation. y Encouraging students to examine critically and even challenge information provided by the teacher. students are challenged to extend their understandings. . y Uses of higher order thinking tools when planning activities to allow for multiple entry points and to develop higher order thinking skills such as synthesis. y Using sets of learning challenges by teachers that require students to analyse.SCE 3106: THINKING AND WORKING SCIENTIFICALLY 3. Poses questions and hypothetical situations by teachers. evaluate and create. This is also implemented in Primary Science Teachings through: y y y y Reflection on tasks. Encouraging and supporting to construct their own responses to such questions. Students are challenged to extend their understandings Through HOTS. y y y y Stimulus materials provided. Open-ended problems or tasks are set that require divergent responses and provide the opportunity for solutions of differing kinds to be developed. Open questions for interpretive responses. Students are asked to represent their understandings in a variety of ways including frequent open ended problems and explorations.