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ABSTRACT LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES NOMENCLATURE 1.INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Motivation 1.3 Previous Work 1.4 Outline of the Present Work 1.5 Conclusion 2. DESCRIPTION OF DRIVE SYSTEM 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Motor selection procedure 2.3 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive System 2.3.1 Operation 2.4 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor 2.4.1 Permanent Magnet Materials 2.4.2 Classification of Permanent Magnet Motors 2.4.2.1 Direction of field flux 2.4.2.2 Flux density distribution 2.4.2.3 Permanent magnet radial field motors 2.4.3 Advantages of PMSM 2.4.4 Applications of PMSM 2.5 Position Sensor 2.5.1 Position Revolver

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2.6 Current Controlled Inverter 2.6.1 Hysteresis current controller 2.6.2 PWM Current Controller 2.7 Conclusion 3. MODELLING OF PM DRIVE SYSTEM 3.1 Introduction 3.2. Dynamic d-q Model 3.3AxesTransformation 3.4 Synchronously Rotating Reference Frame²Dynamic Model (Kron -Equation) 3.5 PM Motor Control 3.6 Field Oriented Control of PM Motors 3.6.1 Constant torque operation 3.6.2 Flux-weakening 3.7conclusion 4. INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB/ SIMLINK 4.1 Introduction 4.2. Advantages of MATLAB 4.3 WHAT IS SIMULINK? 4.3.1 Tool for Model-Based Design 4.3.2 Tool for Simulation 4.3.3 Tool for Analysis 4.4 About the Simple Model 4.5 Creating a Simple Model 4.6 Adding Blocks 4.7 Conclusion 5. SIMULATION OF PMSM DRIVE 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Simulation Tools

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5.3 Simulink Simulation of PMSM Drive 5.4 Speed Control of PM Motor 5.4.1 Implementation of the Speed Control Loop 5.5 Conclusion 6. SIMULATION RESULTS 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Simulation Results 6.3 Simulation for Operation at 200 rad/second 6.3.1Hysteresis Current Control 6.3.2PWM Current Control 6.4 Simulation for Operation at Higher Speed of 700 rad/sec 6.4.1Hysteresis Current Control 6.4.2PWM Current Control 6.5 Conclusion

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CONCLUSION FUTURE WORK REFERENCES APPENDIX

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and analysis of the drive system are given. and the brushless dc motor (BDCM) drive with a trapezoidal flux distribution. These are the permanent-magnet synchronous-motor (PMSM) drive with a sinusoidal flux distribution. Performance differences due to the use of pulse widthmodulation (PWM) and hysteresis current controllers are also examined. The application of vector control to the PMSM and complete modeling. Some experimental verification of the drive performance is also given.ABSTRACT There are a variety of ac servo drives on the market competing with both the dc brush machine and others ac servo drives. 4 . simulation. Particular attention is paid to the motor torque pulsations and speed response. Two types of permanent-magnet ac motor drives are available in the drives industry.

4. PWM current controller Coupling effect in three-phase stator and rotor windings of motor Figure3.3 Figure4.2 Figure4. Figure2.6 Figure3.2 Figure3.1 Motor selection procedure Drive System Schematic PM Synchronous Motor Cross Section Surface Permanent Magnet Motor Interior Permanent Magnet Motor Resolver Inverter circuit of PMSM Hysteresis current controller.5 Figure3.3.3 Figure3.4 Figure2.1 Figure2.qe transformation Figure3.LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figure2.7 Figure2.6 qe_axis circuit d axis circuit Steady State Torque versus Speed shows the simple model of the Simulink showing the Simulink library shows the commonly used blocks shows the untitled page of simulink shows the Simulink sources simulink library browser e 6 6 7 9 10 12 13 14 15 18 19 19 21 24 24 26 33 33 34 34 35 36 5 .5 Figure4.8 Figure2.4 Figure4.2 Figure2.7 Figure4.6 Figure2.5 Figure2.9 Figure3.1 Figure4. Equivalent two-phase machine Stationary frame a-b-c to ds-qs axes transformation Stationary frame ds -qs to synchronously rotating frame de.

9 Figure6.6 Figure6.5 Figure5.1 conversion of 3-phase variables into 2-phase variables conversion of 2-phase variables into 3-phase variables torque block speed block Hysteresis Current Controller PWM Current Controller System flow diagram PI controller PM Motor Drive System in Simulink Iabc Currents with Hysteresis Control at 200 rad/s Developed Torque with Hysteresis Control at 200 rad/s Motor Electrical Speed with Hysteresis Control at 200 rad/s Iabc Currents with PWM Control at 200 rad/s Developed Torque with PWM Control at 200 rad/s Motor Electrical Speed with PWM Controller at 200 rad/sec Iabc Currents with Hysteresis Control at 700 rad/sec Developed Torque with Hysteresis Control at 700 rad/sec Motor Electrical Speed with Hysteresis Control at 700 rad/sec Iabc Current with PWM Control at 700 rad/sec Developed Torque with PWM Control at 700 rad/sec Motor Electrical Speed with PWM Control at 700 rad/sec inverter frequency Vs window size interior permanent magnet motor parameters 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 42 43 45 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 50 50 51 51 44 6 .11 Figure6.1 Figure6.3 Figure5.13 Table6.5 Figure6.6 Figure5.9 Figure6.2 Figure6.8 Figure6.1 Figure5.10 Figure6.2 Figure5.8 Figure5.12 Figure6.Figure5.4 Figure5.7 Figure.5.4 Figure6.7 Figure6.3 Figure6.

q m Permanent magnet synchronous Motor Permanent magnet Pulse Width Modulation Proportional integral Indution Motor Brush less DC motor damping constant moment of Inertia electric torque load torque rotor angle rotor speed number of poles stator resistance stator d and q axis flux linkage air gap flux linkage 7 .NOMENCLATURE PMSM PM PWM PI IM BDCM B J Te Tl r r P R d.

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1. cost of building prototypes and ensures that requirements are achieved. A speed controller has also been designed for closed loop operation of the drive.2 Motivation Modeling and simulation is usually used in designing PM drives compared to building system prototypes because of the cost. the simulation process can start to calculate steady state and dynamic performance and losses that would have been obtained if the drive were actually constructed. The growth in the market of PM motor drives has demanded the need of simulation tools capable of handling motor drive simulations. 9 . Implementation has been done in Simulink. In this work. by reducing cost and time. previous work carried out by different authors on modeling and simulation of PMSM drive and organization of thesis. Simulations have helped the process of developing new systems including motor drives. Permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors are widely used in low and mid power applications such as computer peripheral equipments. This practice reduces time. A closed loop control system with a PI controller in the speed loop has been designed to operate in constant torque and flux weakening regions.1. The simulation circuit will include all realistic components of the drive system.1 INTRODUCTION: This chapter discusses briefly about the motivation of work. the simulation of a field oriented controlled PM motor drive system is developed using Simulink.INTRODUCTION 1. adjustable speed drives and electric vehicles. Having selected all components. A comparative study associated with hysteresis and PWM control techniques in current controllers has been made. Simulation tools have the capabilities of performing dynamic simulations of motor drives in a visual environment so as to facilitate the development of new systems. Design method for the PI controller is also given. robotics. A comparative study of hysteresis and PWM control schemes associated with current controllers has been made.

Different authors have carried out modeling and simulation of such drives. discussed that interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motors possessed special features for adjustable speed operation which distinguished them from other classes of ac machines. The PMSM is very similar to the wound rotor synchronous machine except that the PMSM that is used for servo applications tends not to have any damper windings and excitation is provided by a permanent magnet instead of a field winding. A basic feed forward algorithm for executing this type of current vector torque control was discussed. T. presented PM motor drives and classified them into two types such as permanent magnet synchronous motor drives (PMSM) and brushless dc motor (BDCM) drives. G.1. The electrical excitation requirements for the IPM synchronous motor were also discussed. In 1988 Pillay and Krishnan. and Neumann.. They were robust high power density machines capable of operating at high motor and inverter efficiencies over wide speed ranges. The impact of the buried magnet configuration on the motor¶s electromagnetic characteristics was discussed.M. reviewed permanent magnet synchronous motor advancements and presented equivalent electric circuit models for such motors and compared computed parameters with measured parameters. M.. The rotor magnetic saliency preferentially increased the quadrature-axis inductance and introduced a reluctance torque term into the IPM motor¶s torque equation. including the implications of current regulator saturation at high speeds. In 1986 Jahns. A. T. T.B. and Rahman. The magnet cost was minimized by the low magnet weight requirements of the IPM design. including considerable range of constant power operation.W.3 Previous Work: PM motor drives have been a topic of interest for the last twenty years. R. Kliman. Slemon. Hence the d. The PMSM has a sinusoidal back emf and requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce constant torque while the BDCM has a trapezoidal back emf and requires rectangular stator currents to produce constant torque. q model of the 10 . Experimental results on laboratory motors were also given. The control of the sinusoidal phase currents in magnitude and phase angle with respect to the rotor orientation provided a means for achieving smooth responsive torque control. R. The key results were illustrated using a combination of simulation and prototype IPM drive measurements. G. In 1986 Sebastian.

Pillay. Equations of the PMSM are derived in rotor reference frame and the equivalent circuit is presented without dampers. and Krishnan. 11 . All the equations were derived in synchronously rotating reference frame and was presented in the matrix form. The application of vector control as well as complete modeling.PMSM can be derived from the well known model of the synchronous machine with the equations of the damper windings and field current dynamics removed. The damper windings were not considered because the motor was designed to operate in a drive system with field-oriented control. The damper windings are not considered because the motor is designed to operate in a drive system with field-oriented control. State space models of the motor and speed controller and real time models of the inverter switches and vector controller were included. simulation. Particular attention was paid to the motor torque pulsations and speed response and experimental verification of the drive performance were given. in 1989 presented the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which was one of several types of permanent magnet ac motor drives available in the drives industry. The modeling of PM motor was derived from the model of salient pole synchronous motor. B. P.. K. The motor had a sinusoidal flux distribution. All the equations were derived in rotor reference frame and the equivalent circuit was presented without dampers. Because of the non sinusoidal variation of the mutual inductances between the stator and rotor in the BDCM. The machine model was derived for the PMSM from the wound rotor synchronous motor. R. and analysis of the drive system were given. Bose. Performance differences due to the use of pulse width modulation (PWM) and hysteresis current controllers were examined. Some discussions on vector control using voltage fed inverter were given. it is also shown in this paper that no particular advantage exists in transforming the abc equations of the BCDM to the d-q frame. in 2001 presented different types of synchronous motors and compared them to induction motors. The equivalent circuit was presented with damper windings and the permanent magnet was represented as a constant current source. As an extension of his previous work.

previous works carried out by different authors on modeling and simulation of PMSM drive and organization of thesis. The real drive system is simulated using Simulink with block by block explanation. 1.1. 12 .creating a simple model and adding blocks to window. closed loop control techniques used for PM motor drives.5 Conclusion: This chapter discussed about PMSM. Chapter 1 presents a theoretical review about motivation of PMSM and the previous work carried out by different authors for modeling and simulation of PMSM drive. and the design of speed control for PM motor. classification of the permanent magnet motors.4 Organization of thesis: The thesis consists of 6 chapters.A comparative study of PMW and Hysteresis current controllers used with this drive system has been made in terms of total harmonic distortion. position sensors. Chapter 2 presents a theoretical review of permanent magnet motors drives which includes permanent magnet materials. Chapter 3 deals with the detailed modeling of PMSM. field oriented control of the motor in constant torque and fluxweakening regions. inverters and current controllers.simulink. It deals with the selection of the simulation tool for dynamic simulation of motor drives. Chapter 4 This chapter gives main idea about introduction to matlab. Chapter 5 is dedicated to the simulation. Chapter 6 deals with the simulation results .

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speed bandwidths and lower maintenance. 14 .1 it is clear that the first decision to be made is whether to use a dc brush or a brushless servo. The mechanical commutator and brushes of the dc motor also enforces severe limitations on its maximum speed and over current capabilities. the PMSM drive and the BDCM drive.1. classification of PM motors. Assuming that it has been decided to use a brushless servo motor drive. The reasons for choosing brushless servo motor drives over the brush type dc motor drives are well known and include robustness. From the figure. 2. Depending on the application. then there are hardly any guidelines to differentiate the available permanent magnet motor drives. Hence if a reasonable smooth output torque is required. the next decision to make is whether to use an ac or a switched reluctance motor.2 Motor selection procedure: There are a variety of ac servo drives on the market competing with both the dc brush machine and others ac servo drives. higher torque. although some work has been done in an attempt to reduce the torque ripple.2. advantages and applications of PM motor. namely. an induction or permanent magnet machine is to be preferred over the switched reluctance motor. operation of position sensor and operation of two control techniques namely hysteresis and PWM current controllers. DESCRIPTION OF DRIVE SYSTEM 2. If the choice is narrowed to an ac permanent magnet motor drive.1 Introduction: This chapter gives main idea about the operation of PMSM drive. The switched reluctance motor is inherently a pulsating torque machine. a choice is made between an IM or ac PM motor drive if the dc brush and switched reluctance servos are excluded. The selection process of a servo drive for a particular application in the fractional to 30-hp range can be represented by the figure-2.2.

Figure 2. inverter.2 Drive System Schematic 15 .3 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive System: The motor drive consists of four main components. control unit and the position sensor.2. The components are connected as shown in figure 2.APPLICATIONS DC BRUSH BRUSH LESS AC MOTORS SWITCHED RELUCTANCE PERMANENT MAGNET INDUCTION PMSM BDCM Figure 2.1 Motor selection procedure 2. the PM motor.

For the proper operation of PMSM we need position sensor in the rotor shaft which measures the position of rotor.2. This error is given to the gate signals of inverter due to which input voltage is controlled. By using the inverter DC voltage is converted into AC voltage of variable frequency and magnitude. The motor is fed from a voltage source inverter with current control.4 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor: A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is a motor that uses permanent magnets to produce the air gap magnetic field rather than using electromagnets. PM synchronous motors offer a number of advantages in designing modern motioncontrol systems. These motors have significant advantages. the PM synchronous motor is an equivalent to an induction motor. The rotor position feedback is necessary to generate the reference currents.1 Operation: The operation of PMSM drive system is as follows. The PM synchronous motor is a rotating electric machine with classic 3-phase stator like that of an induction motor. attracting the interest of researchers and industry for use in many applications. Now the controller compares reference currents with actual currents which produces an error. The use of a permanent magnet to generate substantial air gap magnetic flux makes it possible to design highly efficient PM motors. So by controlling the input voltage output can be controlled. so the rotor magnetic field is constant. PM Synchronous Motor Cross Section 16 .3. the rotor has surface-mounted permanent magnets.3. Descriptions of the different components used in drive system are as follows: 2. where the air gap magnetic field is produced by a permanent magnet. The control is performed by regulating the flow of current through the stator of motor. Figure 2. In this respect.

The second is axial field motor meaning that the flux is perpendicular to the radius of the motor.1 Direction of field flux: PM motors are broadly classified by the direction of the field flux. The earliest manufactured magnet materials were hardened steel. Sinusoidal distribution of magnet flux in the air gap 2.The rare earth magnets are categorized into two classes: Samarium Cobalt (SmCo)magnets and Neodymium Iron Boride (NdFeB) magnets.2 Classification of Permanent Magnet Motors: 2. Sinusoidal current waveforms 3. 2.4.4.4. 17 .2. They have the following: 1. they could hold very low energy and it was easy to demagnetize.2 Flux density distribution PM motors are classified on the basis of the flux density distribution and the shape of current excitation.2. The first field flux classification is radial field motor meaning that the flux is along the radius of the motor. NdFeB magnets are the most common rare earth magnets used in motors these days. The PMSM has a sinusoidal-shaped back EMF and is designed to develop sinusoidal back EMF waveforms.1 Permanent Magnet Materials: The properties of the permanent magnet material will affect directly the performance of the motor and proper knowledge is required for the selection of the materials and for understanding PM motors.2. They are PMSM and PM brushless motors (BLDC). SmCo magnets have higher flux density levels but they are very expensive.4. Strontium Ferrite or Barium Ferrite (Ferrite). Sinusoidal distribution of stator conductors. In recent years other magnet materials such as Aluminum Nickel and Cobalt alloys (ALNICO). Magnets made from steel were easily magnetized. Samarium Cobalt (First generation rare earth magnet) (SmCo) and Neodymium Iron-Boron (Second generation rare earth magnet) (NdFeB) have been developed and used for making permanent magnets . However. 2. Radial field flux is most commonly used in motors and axial field flux have become a topic of interest for study and used in a few applications.

4 shows the placement of the magnet. Rectangular distribution of magnet flux in the air gap 2. the magnets can be placed in two different ways on the rotor.This configuration is used for low speed applications because of the limitation that the magnets will fly apart during high-speed operations. Depending on the placement they are called either as surface permanent magnet motor or interior permanent magnet motor. Surface mounted PM motors have a surface mounted permanent magnet rotor. Concentrated stator windings. This flux density then reacts with currents in windings placed in slots on the inner surface of the stator to produce torque. Alternating magnets of the opposite magnetization direction produce radially directed flux density across the air gap. The permeability of the permanent magnet is almost that of the air. Rectangular current waveform 3. These motors are considered to have small saliency. For a surface permanent magnet motor Ld = Lq .4 Surface Permanent Magnet Motor 18 .4. 2. thus having practically equal inductances in both axes.Thin permanent magnets are mounted on the surface of this core using adhesives. Figure 2.BLDC has a trapezoidal-shaped back EMF and is designed to develop trapezoidal back EMF waveforms. The rotor has an iron core that may be solid or may be made of punched laminations for simplicity in manufacturing . making it easy to build. Figure 2. Each of the PM is mounted on the surface of the rotor.2. They have the following: 1. and specially skewed poles are easily magnetized on this surface mounted type to minimize cogging torque.3 Permanent magnet radial field motors In PM motors. thus the magnetic material becoming an extension of the air gap.

The need for magnetizing current and the fact that the IM has a lower efficiency necessitates a larger rated rectifier and inverter for the IM than for a PM machine of the same output capacity. In other words.the rotor losses in the IM.the torque to inertia ratio of these PM machines is higher. The PM machine already has the excitation in the form of the rotor magnet. 2. 19 . The PM machine is smaller in size than an induction motor of the same capacity. it is advantageous to use PM machines. especially where space is a serious limitation. Hence. Figure 2.depending on the operating slip.3 Advantages of PMSM: 1. 4. Each permanent magnet is mounted inside the rotor. The PM machine has a higher efficiency than an induction machine. These motors are considered to have saliency with q axis inductance greater than the d axis inductance ( Lq > Ld ). The IM requires a source of magnetizing current for excitation.4. this makes for a faster response for a given electric torque.5 Interior Permanent Magnet Motor 2. It is not as common as the surface mounted type but it is a good candidate for high-speed operation. This is primarily because there are negligible rotor losses in permanent magnet machines . The rare earth and neodymium boron PM machine has a lower inertia when compared with an IM because of the absence of a rotor cage.5.Interior PM motors have interior mounted permanent magnet rotor as shown in figure 2. This discussion is applicable to constant flux operation. 5. There is inductance variation for this type of rotor because the permanent magnet part is equivalent to air in the magnetic circuit calculation. however. 3. can be considerable .

A problem that has been encountered in the machine tools industry is the transferal of these rotor losses in the form of heat to the machine tools and work pieces thus affecting the machining operation. Depending on the application and performance desired by the motor a position sensor with the required accuracy can be selected. 2.6. The need of knowing the rotor position requires the development of devices for position measurement. Aerospace actuators 4. The position can be calculated using the two voltages. Ship propulsion 6.4 Applications of PMSM: PMSM is preferable for certain high performance applications like 1. optical encoder and resolvers. The ones most commonly used for motors are encoders and revolvers. linear variable differential transformer. 2. In addition.5. Cement mills 2. The resolver is 20 . the power density of permanent magnet machines is higher. the permanent magnet machine weight less. works on the transformer principle. Robotics 3.6 also called rotary transformers. The rotor losses in a PM machine are negligible compared with those in the induction motor.1 Position Revolver: Position revolver as shown in figure 2. This problem is avoided in permanent magnet machines. The primary winding is placed on the rotor and depending upon the rotor shaft angle the induced voltage at the two secondary windings of the transformer shifted by 90° would be different.5 Position Sensor: Operation of permanent magnet synchronous motors requires position sensors in the rotor shaft when operated without damper winding. In other words. Electric vehicles 5. There are four main devices for the measurement of position. 7. Spinning mills 2.4. the potentiometer.

Vcos. Proper selection of the inverter devices and selection of the control technique will guarantee the efficacy of the drive. The reference winding is fixed on the rotor. The basic reason for the selection of current as the controlled variable is the same as for the DC machine. it rotates jointly with the shaft passing the output windings.6 Resolver 2. Both windings will be further referred to as output windings. and therefore. the respective voltages are generated by resolver output windings Vsin . In consequence of the excitement applied on the reference winding Vref and along with the angular movement of the motor shaft . High-performance drives utilize control strategies which develop command signals for the AC machine currents. Figure 2. stator inductance. and induced EMF) are eliminated.basically a rotary transformer with one rotating reference winding (Vref) and two stator windings.6 Current Controlled Inverter: The motor is fed form a voltage source inverter with current control. Thus. Vcos) respectively.6. Two stator windings are placed in quadrature (shifted by 90°) with one another and generate the sine and cosine voltages (Vsin . The power converter in a high-performance motor drive used in motion control essentially functions as a power amplifier. the stator dynamics (effects of stator resistance. Current controllers are used to generate gate signals for the inverter. The control is performed by regulating the flow of current through the stator of the motor. as is depicted in figure 2. reproducing the low power level control signals generated in the field orientation controller at power levels appropriate for the driven machine. to the extent that the current regulator functions as an 21 .

Both types are discussed below.6.1 Hysteresis current controller: Hysteresis current controller can also be implemented to control the inverter currents.ideal current supply. The controller will generate the reference currents with the inverter within a range which is fixed by the width of the band gap. The AC drive current regulator forms the inner loop of the overall motion controller. Both current source inverters (CSI) and voltage source inverters (VSI) can be operated in controlled current modes. In this controller the desired current of a given phase is summed with the negative of the measured current. 2.7 Inverter circuit of PMSM. the order of the system under control is reduced and the complexity of the controller can be significantly simplified. The current source inverter is a "natural" current supply and can readily be adapted to controlled current operation.2.7 Figure. The power circuit that drives the PMSM is shown in Figure. Current controllers can be classified into two groups. by necessity. Current regulators for AC drives are complex because an AC current regulator must control both the amplitude and phase of the stator current. The voltage source inverter requires more complexity in the current regulator but offers much higher bandwidth and elimination of current harmonics as compared to the CSI and is almost exclusively used for motion control applications. 22 .2. hysteresis and PWM current controllers. As such. have zero or nearly zero steady-state error. The error is fed to a comparator having a hysteresis band. it must have the widest bandwidth in the system and must.

The opposite occurs when T4switches from ³on´ to ³off. the scheme in Figure. ¨i defines the hysteresis bands. 2. The control strategy is as follows. and ib that are flowing into the motor are measured. It is assumed that a reasonably well-filtered dc supply is available. 2. When this occurs. two other curves consisting of ia* + ¨i and ia* . As soon as T1 switches from an ³on´ to an ³off´ position. in this case T4. The hysteresis property allows the actual value of ia. But when the current attempts to become less than the upper reference 23 . From this ic can be constructed.´ A similar procedure exists in the other phases. In making the comparison between the actual currents and the reference values.8. Fig.8 shows the reference value ia*. In addition.¨i are shown. this removes the need for an additional current sensor. and since the current through the machine winding cannot go to zero instantaneously.´ i increases positively using either the B or C phases as a return path. begins to conduct the phase A current. to exceed or be less than the reference value by ¨i. The actual and reference values are compared and error signals generated. Figure. 2. the upper switch of the inverter leg is turned on. the voltage of phase A switches from + vdc/2 to . the freewheeling diode across its complementary transistor. Hysteresis current controller. The actual values of ia. When the error crosses the lower limit of the hysteresis band.8 is used. Note that complementary switching of the power devices is considered undesirable and. where the midpoint of the dc supply v d c is taken as the reference. is not used. therefore.Whenever TI is ³on.The six switches Tl-T6 are used to control the three stator phase currents.vdc/2.

band. This will generate a PWM signal like in figure 2. The inverter leg is forced to switch at the frequency of the triangle wave and produces an output voltage proportional to the current error command.PWM current controllers are widely used. therefore. The switching frequency is usually kept constant. however. Figure 2. approximately sinusoidal: the smaller the hysteresis bands.9. When the error command is less than the triangle waveform. The comparison will result in a voltage control signal that goes to the gates of the voltage source inverter to generate the desire output. The error signal comes from the sum of the reference signal generated in the controller and the negative of the actual motor current. the bottom switch is turned on. imply a high switching frequency. The nature of the controlled output current consists of a reproduction of the reference current with high-frequency PWM ripple superimposed. the inverter leg is switched to the negative polarity (lower switch on). The phase currents are. Increased switching also implies increased inverter losses. This controller does not have a specific switching frequency and changes continuously but it is related with the band width. If the error command is greater than the triangle waveform. 2.6.2 PWM Current Controller: A second method used to generate the required stator currents is to use a pulse widthmodulated (PWM) current controller. They are based in the principle of comparing a triangular carrier wave of desire switching frequency and is compared with error of the controlled signal. Its control will respond according to the error. The reason that this is called a hysteresis controller is that the phase voltage switches to keep the phase currents within the hysteresis bands. the more closely do the phase currents represent sine waves. the inverter leg is held switched to the positive polarity (upper switch on). which is a practical limitation on the power device switching capability.9 PWM current controller 24 . Small hysteresis bands.

operation of position sensor and operation of two control techniques namely hysteresis and PWM current controllers. advantages and applications of PM motor. In the hysteresis controller the switching frequency depends on the value of the hysteresis window. it has a negligible effect on the drive performance. This automatically forces van to equal to . For example. In the PWM controller this does exist with the average lag being equal to half the period of the PWM However. the freewheeling diode across T4 immediately starts conducting to maintain the current flow through the motor inductance. The advantage of the hysteresis over the PWM controller is that. This is called a PWM current controller because of the pulse width modulation of the voltage. if this lag is less than about one-tenth the stator time constant of the machine.Vdc. A trialand-error procedure must be adopted to ensure that the inverter switching frequency is not exceeded./2 even though T4 is not yet conducting. there is no transportation delay or system lag.7 Conclusion: This chapter discussed about the operation of PMSM drive. therefore. classification of PM motors.Note that it is un necessary to use complementary switching to achieve this voltage profile. and it is. easy to ensure that the inverter switching capability is not exceeded. 2. 25 . By switching T1 off. if T1 is conducting. from a control point of view. and the actual switching frequency demanded from the inverter is unknown. The advantage of the PWM current controller over hysteresis that the switching frequency is preset. Van is equal to + V dc2 . where Vdc is the dc supply voltage and the reference is taken as the midpoint of the supply.

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4) There are no field current dynamics. Basically. 3. The dynamic performance of an ac machine is somewhat complex because the three-phase rotor windings move with respect to the three-phase stator windings as shown in Figure 3. They are as follows: 1) Saturation is neglected although it can be taken into account by parameter changes. Dynamic d-q Model: The permanent magnets used in the PMSM are of a modern rare-earth variety with high resistivity.1. the problem of time-varying parameters still remains.3. the following assumptions are needed.1 Introduction: This chapter gives main idea about the modelling of PMSM by which d-q variables are obtained from abc variables through park transform and abc variables are obtained from d-q variables through the inverse of park transform and also about the field oriented control i. 5) There is no cage on the rotor. 2) The induced EMF is sinusoidal. Note that a three-phase machine can be represented by an equivalent two-phase machine as shown in Figure 3.In order to make modeling of PM drive system easy. but such a model tends to be very complex.qs correspond to stator direct and quadrature axes.2. so induced currents in the rotor are negligible . 3) Eddy currents and hysteresis losses are negligible. where the coupling coefficients between the stator and rotor phases change continuously with the change of rotor position r The machine model can be described by differential equations with time-vary- ing mutual inductances. vector control of PMSM due to which SM can be controlled like a separately exicted DC motor. Although it is somewhat simple. it can be looked on as a transformer with a moving secondary. 27 .e. MODELLING OF PM DRIVE SYSTEM 3. and dr ± qr correspond to rotor direct and quadrature axes.2 where ds .

replaced the variables (voltages. H. In this case. C. S. This model is extremely important. he transformed. and will be discussed later in detail. or referred. H. in effect. He formulated a change of variables which. the stator variables to a synchronously rotating reference frame fixed in the rotor. and flux linkages) associated with the stator windings of a synchronous machine with variables associated with fictitious windings rotating with the rotor at synchronous speed. In fact.1 Coupling effect in three-phase stator and rotor windings of motor 28 . Stanley showed that time-varying inductances in the voltage equations of an induction machine due to electric circuits in relative motion can be eliminated by transforming the rotor variables to variables associated with fictitious stationary windings. Kron proposed a transformation of both stator and rotor variables to a synchronously rotating reference frame that moves with the rotating magnetic field. currents. Later. With such a transformation (called Park's transformation).R. in the 1930s. in the 1920s. Figure 3. he showed that all the time-varying inductances that occur due to an electric circuit in relative motion and electric circuits with varying magnetic reluctances can be eliminated. Brereton proposed a transformation of stator variables to a rotating reference frame that is fixed on the rotor. it was shown later by Krause and Thomas that time-varying inductances can be eliminated by referring the stator and rotor variables to a common reference frame which may rotate at any speed (arbitrary reference frame). Later. Essentially. D. G. Park. proposed a new theory of electric machine analysis to solve this problem. the rotor variables are transformed to a stationary reference frame fixed on the stator.

as shown in Figure 3. Figure3.qs). we will try to develop a dynamic machine model in synchronously rotating and stationary reference frames.Figure 3.3 Axes Transformation: Consider a symmetrical three-phase induction machine with stationary as-bs-cs axes at 2 /3-angle apart.1b Our goal is to transform the three-phase Stationary reference frame (as-bs-cs) variables into two-phase stationary reference frame (ds-qs) variables and then transform these to synchronously rotating reference frame (de. and vice versa.2 Equivalent two-phase machine Without going deep into the rigor of machine analysis.3 Stationary frame a-b-c to ds-qs axes transformation 29 . 3.

3) (3. so that the qs axis is aligned with the as-axis. as shown in Figure 3. Ignoring the zero sequence component.5) .6) (3. We have considered voltage as the variable.1) The corresponding inverse relation is sin( U 0 .5 120 0 ) » « v as » ¼ sin( U 120 0 ) ¼ ¬ v bs ¼ ¬ ¼ ¼ ¬ v cs ¼ 0 .2) (3. It is convenient to set = 0.Assume that the ds-qs axes are oriented at angle.4) (3.7) ¡ ¡ cos( U 120 0 ) 120 0 ) cos( U 2 Vdss 2 Vdcs 30 ¢ « v qs s » ¬ s¼ ¬ v ds ¼ ¬v s ¼ os ½ « cos U 2 ¬ sin U 3 ¬ ¬ 0 .5 ½ ½ (3. the transformation relations can be simplified as Vas=Vqss Vbs= Vcs = Vqss s Vqs + and inversely Vqss = 2/3 Vas -1/3Vbs -1/3 Vcs= Vas Vdss = -1/ Vbs+1/ Vcs (3. The current and flux linkages can be transformed by similar equations.5 where voss is added as the zero sequence component.3 The voltages vdss and vqss can be resolved into as-bs-cs components and can be represented in the matrix form as «va s ¬ ¬ vbs ¬ vcs s » « cosU sinU 1» «vqs » ¬ s¼ ¼ ¬ ! ¬cos(U 1200 ) sin(U 1200 ) 1¼ ¬vds ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¬cos(U 1200 ) sin(U 1200 ) 1¼ ¬vos s ¼ ½ ½ ½ ( 3. which may or may not be present.

4 shows the synchronously rotating d -q axes.4.qs axes can be converted (or resolved) into the de .qe axes.11) e e 31 .8) (3.Vdsssin Vds = Vqsssin e+Vdss cos e (3.qe transformation For convenience.9) e Figure 3.qe frame as follows: Vqs = Vqss cos e . resolving the rotating frame parameters into a stationary frame.qs windings are transformed into the hypothetical windings mounted on the de . Again. the relations are Vqss = Vqs cos e + Vdssin Vdss = . Stationary frame ds -qs to synchronously rotating frame de. the superscript e has been dropped from now on from the synchronously rotating frame parameters.10) (3. The voltages on the ds .Figure 3. The two-phase ds . which rotate at synchronous speed e with respect to the ds .qs axes and the angle e = et.Vqssin e+Vds cos (3.

we need to represent both ds .2. We can write the following stator circuit equations: 32 .(3.16) substituting Equations (3. 3.9)in (3.16) Vqs = Vm cos Vds = .As an example.12).Vm sin(wet+ ) ) (3.qs and dr . Equation (3.17)_(3.Vm sin Equations (3.8)_(3.15) (3. two-phase voltages of equal peak values and the latter is at /2 angle phase lead with respect to the other component. they can be any arbitrary time functions.7)yields Vqss = Vm cos(wet+ Vdss = .4 Synchronously Rotating Reference Frame²Dynamic Model (Kron Equation): For the two-phase machine shown in Figure 3.18) and Vdss are balanced.qr circuits and their variables in a synchronously rotating de .15)_(3. In fact.13) (3.14) Substituting Equations (3.qe frame.6)_(3.15)-in (3.17) (3. Note that the stator variables are not necessarily balanced sinusoidal waves.18) verify that sinusoidal variables in a stationary frame appear as dc quantities in a synchronously rotating reference frame. and are given by Vas=vm cos(wet + ) Vbs = Vm cos(wet-(2 /3 ) + Vcs = Vm cos(wet+(2 /3 ) + ) ) (3. assume that the three-phase stator voltages are sinusoidal and balanced. This is an important derivation.15)_(3.16) show that Vqss (3.12) (3.

Note that the flux linkage in the de and qe axes induce emf in the qe and de axes. the rotor equations should be modified as Vqr = Rr iqr+ d ( qr) + (we-wr) e dr (3. The last term in Equations (3.22) ds ) . respectively.21)_(3. in d .we qs where all the variables are in rotating form. the equations revert to sta- tionary form. If the rotor is not moving.19) (3.25) 33 .24) dr ) . with /2 lead angle.20) s ds ) where s qs and s ds are g-axis and d-axis stator flux linkages. the following equations can be written vqs = Rs iqs+ d Vds= Rs ids+ d ( ( qs ) + we ds (3.22) Vqr = Rr iqr+ d Vdr= Rr idr+ d ( ( qr) + we dr (3. respectively.21)and (3.vqss = Rs iqss + d vdss = Rs idss + d ( ( s qs ) (3.q frame.21) (3.22) can be defined as speed emf due to rotation of the axes.we qr where all the variables and parameters are referred to the stator. that is. when e = 0. the rotor equations for a doubly-fed wound-rotor machine will be similar to Equations (3. Since the rotor actually moves at speed r the d-q axes fixed e on the rotor move at a speed e - r relative to the synchronously rotating frame. r = 0. Therefore. When these equations are converted to de-qe frame. that is.23) (3.

21)_(3.5 qe_axis circuit Figure 3.22)and (3.6 shows the de .6 as follows: qs= Llsiqs+Lm(iqs+ iqr) (3. as discussed before.26) Figure 3. A special advantage of the de .5 and 3.qe dynamic model of the machine is that all the sinusoidal variables in stationary frame appear as dc quantities in synchronous frame.28) (3.25)_(3.27) (3.qe dynamic model equivalent circuits that satisfy Equations (3.Vdr = Rr idr+ d ( dr ) ± (we-wr) qr (3.26).5 and 3.29) qr= Llriqr+Lm(iqs+ iqr) qm=Lm(iqs+ iqr) 34 .6 de axis circuit Figure 3. The flux linkage expressions in terms of the currents can be written from Figure 3.

32) dr=Llridr+Lm(ids+idr) dm=Lm(ids+ idr) Combining the above expressions with Equations (3.36) (3.21).37) .35) (3.25) and (3.33) (3.22).34) (3.31) (3. 35 £ ¤ ¤ £ ¤ ¤ ¤ £ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ «v qs » ¬v ¼ ¬ ds ¼ ¬v qr ¼ ¬ ¼ v dr ½ « RS SLS ¬ [ e LS ¬ ¬ SLm ¬ ([ e [ r ) Lm £ [ e LS RS SLS ([ e [ r ) Lm SLm SLm [ e Lm Rr SLr ([ e [ r ) Lr [ e Lm » «iqs » ¼ ¬i ¼ SLm ¼ ¬ ds ¼ ([ e [ r ) Lr ¼ ¬i qr ¼ ¼¬ ¼ Rr SLr ½ i dr ½ (3.33) cannot normally be treated as a constant.26) the electrical transient model in terms of voltages and currents can be given in matrix form as The speed to the torques as r in Equation (3. It can be related Te=TL+BWe+J( dWm/dt) The mechanical Torque equation is Te= ( )( diq.(3.(3.30) (3.ds=Llsids+Lm(ids+idr) (3.qid) Solving for the rotor mechanical speed form the above equation Wm = And Wm=wr(2/p) In the above equations r is the rotor electrical speed where as m is the rotor mechanical speed.

at which speed the constant torque operation finishes and the flux weakening starts as shown in figure3. Instead of controlling the inverter frequency independently.7 Steady State Torque versus Speed 36 . This needs a resolver or an absolute optical encoder. The stator windings of the motor are fed by an inverter that generates a variable frequency variable voltage.3.5 PM Motor Control: Control of PM motors is performed using field oriented control for the operation of synchronous motor as a dc motor. These options are based in the physical limitation of the motor and the inverter. the frequency and phase of the output wave are controlled using a position sensor as shown in figure2. Knowing the position.2 Field oriented control was invented in the beginning of 1970s and it demonstrates that an induction motor or synchronous motor could be controlled like a separately excited dc motor by the orientation of the stator mmf or current vector in relation to the rotor flux to achieve a desired objective. The limit is established by the rated speed of the motor. the control needs knowledge of the position of the instantaneous rotor flux or rotor position of permanent magnet motor. In order for the motor to behave like DC motor. Some control options are constant torque and flux weakening. Its calculation using the current matrix depends on the control desired.5 Figure 3. the three phase currents can be calculated.

The vector control separates the torque component of current and flux channels in the motor through its stator excitation.3.6 Field Oriented Control of PM Motors: The PMSM control is equivalent to that of the dc motor by a decoupling control known as field oriented control or vector control. Considering the currents as inputs.38 to 3. The vector control of the PM synchronous motor is derived from its dynamic model.40 in the matrix form: » « ¬ cos([ r t E ) ¼ «ia » ¬i ¼ ! ¬cos([ t E 2T ) ¼ . the three currents are: Ia=imsin( rt+ ) Ib=imsin( rt+ -2 /3) Ic=imsin( rt+ +2 /3) Writing equation 3.

but not in its entirety. the other part is contributed by the equivalent current source representing the permanent magnet field. The q axis current is distinctly equivalent to the armature current of the dc machine. they are similar to the armature and field currents in the separately excited dc machine. For this reason the q axis current is called the torque producing component of the stator current and the d axis current is called the flux producing component of the stator current.i ¼ m r ¬ b¼ ¬ 3 ¼ ¬ ¬i c ¼ 2T ¼ ½ ¬ ) cos([ r t E ¬ 3 ¼ ½ Where (3. the d axis current is field current. The q and d axis is a constant for a given load torque. r is the electrical rotor speed.38) (3.41) is the angle between the rotor field and stator current phasor. It is only a partial field current.39) (3. 37 . using Park¶s transformation. currents are constants in the rotor reference frames since As these constants.40) ( 3. The previous currents obtained are the stator currents that must be transformed to the rotor reference frame with the rotor speed r .

This is performed by making the torque producing current iq equal to the supply current Im. the V/f ratio is reduced due to the limit of the inverter dc voltage source which is fixed.6.43) (3.42) (3. (3.6.44) . The rotor flux of PMSM is generated by permanent magnet which can not be directly reduced as induction motor. This operation results in a reduction of the torque proportional to a change in the frequency and the motor operates in the constant power region. After the base frequency.Substituting equation 3. where the maximum possible torque is desired at all times like the dc motor.41 and 3. The principle of flux-weakening control of PMSM is to increase 38 ¦ «i q » ¬i ¼ d½ « sin E » im ¬ ¼ cos E ½ ( 3.2 Flux-weakening: Flux weakening is the process of reducing the flux in the d axis direction of the motor which results in an increased speed range. the torque is dependent of the motor current.2 is obtain id and iq in terms of Im as follows 3. The motor drive is operated with rated flux linkages up to a speed where the ratio between the induced emf and stator frequency (V/f) is maintained constant.1 Constant torque operation: Constant torque control strategy is derived from field oriented control.45) f 3. By making the id current equal to zero the torque equation can be rewritten as: Te=(3/2)(p/2) fiq Assuming that: Kt=(3/2)(p/2) The torque is given by Te=kt.42. The weakening of the field flux is required for operation above the base frequencyThis reduces the V/f ratio.iq Like the dc motor. That results in selecting the angle to be 90 degrees according to equation 3.

39 .7Conclusion: This chapter discussed about the modelling of PMSM by which d-q variables are obtained from abc variables through park transform and abc variables are obtained from d-q variables through the inverse of park transform and also about the field oriented control i.e. which equivalently reduces flux and achieves the purpose of flux-weakening control This method changes torque by altering the angle between the stator MMF and the rotor d axis. In the flux weakening region where r > rated angle is controlled by proper control of id and iq for the same value of stator can be obtained as: current.47 ) 3. The angle = tan-1(iq/id) the current im is related to id and iq by im=(iq2 +id2)1/2 (3.46 ) (3.negative direct axis current and use armature reaction to reduce air gap flux. Since iq is reduced the output torque is also reduced. vector control of PMSM due to which SM can be controlled like a separately exicted DC motor.

40 .

3. There are several option toolboxes written for special applications such as signal processing. optimization non-linear systems and many other types of scientific computations. tool for model based design. statistics. is a software package for performance numerical computation and visualization. which is very easy to learn and use.4. neural net works. INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB/ SIMLINK 4. and which allows user developed functions it also allows access to FORTRAN algorithms and C codes by means of external interfaces. system identification.1 Introduction: This chapter gives main idea about introduction to matlab. reliability and powerful graphics makes MATLAB the premier software package for electrical engineers. These functions provide solution to a broad range of mathematical problems including matrix algebra. The combination of analysis capabilities. developed by math works Inc.tool for analysis.creating a simple model and adding blocks to window. Platform independence 41 . 4. signal processing. The most important feature of MATLAB is its programming capability. MATLAB provides an interactive environment with hundreds of reliable and accurate built in mathematical functions. advantages of matlab. linear systems. 4. control system design.2 Introduction to MATLAB/ SIMLINK: MATLAB. differential equations.simulink. symbolic computations. Advantages of MATLAB: MATLAB has many advantages compared to conventional computer languages for technical problem solving. flexibility. Ease of use 2.tool for simulation. fuzzy logic. Among them are: 1. complex arithmetic.

and analyzing Dynamic systems. It supports linear and nonlinear systems. model it. sampled time. hard stops.4. and see what happens.3. Graphical user interface 4.. Systems can also be multi rate. with this interface. Simulink enables you to pose a question about a system. Device independent plotting 5. Predefined functions 4. you can move beyond idealized linear models to explore more realistic nonlinear models. simulating. This 42 . the dynamics of a predator-prey model. the flutter of an airplane wing. you can easily build models from scratch. air resistance. and the other things that describe real-world phenomena. Thousands of engineers around the world use Simulink to model and solve real problems in a variety of industries. modeled in continuous time. gears lippsage. or a hybrid of the two. With Simulink.4 WHAT IS SIMULINK? Simulink is software for modeling. The following topics highlight key aspects of Simulink: Tool for Model-Based Design Tool for Simulation Tool for Analysis 4. Simulink provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for building models as block diagrams. Simulink turns your computer into a lab for modeling and analyzing systems that simply wouldn't be possible or practical otherwise. For modeling. factoring in friction. have different parts that are sampled or updated at different rates.e. whether the behavior of an automotive clutch system. Simulink provides numerous demos that model a wide variety of such real-world phenomena. you can draw the models just as you would with pencil and paper (or as most textbooks depict them).1 Tool for Model-Based Design With Simulink. or take an existing model and add to it. i. or the effect of the monetary supply on the economy. using click-and-drag mouse operations.

4. The simulation results can be put in the MATLAB workspace for post processing and visualization. so you can build models using both top-down and bottom-up approaches. sources. and revise your models in either environment at any point. 4.4. you can simulate it.5 About the Simple Model This chapter shows you how to create a simple model using many of the model construction techniques that you will use to create your own models. 43 .2 Tool for Simulation After you define a model. 4. then double-click blocks to go down through the levels to see increasing levels of model detail. The instructions for constructing and simulating the example model are brief. You can view the system at a high level. Using scopes and other display blocks. while the command line is useful for running a batch of simulations (for example. linear and nonlinear components. In addition. The menus are convenient for interactive work. either from the Simulink menus or by entering commands in the MATLAB® Command Window. This approach provides insight into how a model is organized and how its parts interact. if you are doing Monte Carlo simulations or want to sweep a parameter across a range of values). Afterward. Models are hierarchical. and connectors. You can also customize and create your own blocks. Simulink includes a comprehensive block library of sinks.interactive graphical environment is a far cry from simulation packages that require you to formulate differential equations and difference equations in a language or program. analyze. you can see the simulation results while the simulation runs.4. which can be accessed from the MATLAB command line. you can change many parameters and see what happens for "what if" exploration. plus the many tools in MATLAB and its application toolboxes. Because MATLAB and Simulink are integrated.3 Tool for Analysis Model analysis tools include linearization and trimming tools. the chapter instructs you to simulate the model that you construct. using a choice of mathematical integration methods. you can simulate.

2 showing the Simulink library 44 . Adding Blocks 3.the Simulink library window appears.1 shows the simple model of the Simulink 4. the block diagram that constitutes your example model should appear similar to this. In the MATLAB Command Window. you will construct a simple model that integrates a sine wave and displays the result along with the sine wave. When completed. . Connecting the Blocks To create an empty model: 1 Start Simulink. enter Simulink. On UNIX. Creating an Empty Model 2.In the sections that follow. Figure 4. Figure 4.6 Creating a Simple Model The following sections show you how to model a simple dynamic system using Simulink: 1.

4 shows the untitled page of simulink 45 . On Windows. click the new model button on the Simulink Library Browser's toolbar. Simulink displays an empty model window. select New> Model. On UNIX.Create a new model.3 shows the commonly used blocks 2. the Simulink Library Browser appears. Figure 4.On Microsoft Windows. Figure 4. from the Simulink library window's File menu.

You can copy blocks from either the Library Browser (Windows only) or a library window (UNIX and Windows). The following steps describe how to add blocks to your example model using each of these methods: 1. you need to copy blocks into the model window that the previous section instructed you to create (see Creating an Empty Model). Figure 4.4.7 Adding Blocks To construct the example model that this chapter describes.5 shows the Simulink sources 46 . On UNIX. in the Simulink library window. Locate the Sine Wave block in the Sources library. double-click the Sources library. Simulink displays the Sources library window.

6 simulink library browser 4. 47 .tool for simulation. select the Sources library. advantages of matlab. Figure 4. in the left side of the Simulink Library Browser under the Simulink node. tool for model based design.simulink.creating a simple model and adding blocks to window.tool for analysis.8 Conclusion: This chapter discussed about introduction to matlab. The right pane of the Simulink Library Browser displays the contents of the Sources library.On Windows.

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The simulation environment of Simulink has a high flexibility and expandability which allows the possibility of development of a set of functions for a detailed analysis of the electrical drive . and control circuit. ESL. SIMULATION OF PMSM DRIVE 5. Simulink has the advantages of being capable of complex dynamic system simulations. 5. their placement on a worksheet. calculation torque and speed. Today with the growth in computational power there is a wide selection of software titles available for electrical simulations such as ACSL. SIMULINK® is a toolbox extension of the MATLAB program. Their complex models need computing tools capable of performing dynamic simulations. The abc phase transformation to 49 . EASY5. System blocks are constructed of lower level blocks grouped into a single maskable block. IESE and SABER are examples of general-purpose electrical network simulation programs that have provisions for handling user-defined modules.2 Simulation Tools Study of electric motor drives needs the proper selection of a simulation tool.Its graphical interface allows selection of functional blocks.3 Simulink Simulation of PMSM Drive: The PM motor drive simulation was built in several steps like abc phase transformation to dqo variables. selection of their functional parameters interactively.1 Introduction: This chapter gives main idea about the blocks converting the 3-phase variables into 2phase variables and 2-phase variables into 3-phase variables. EMTP.5. and ATOSEC5 for simulating electrical and electronic circuits. It is a program for simulating dynamic systems. Simulink simulates analogue systems and discrete digital systems. and speed control of PM motor. and PSCSP are for general systems and SPICE2. and description of signal flow by connecting their data lines using a mouse device. graphical environment with visual real time programming and broad selection of tool boxes. implementing of torque block and the speed block. 5.

For simulation purpose the voltages are the inputs and the current are output.dqo variables is built using Parks transformation and for the dqo to abc the reverse transformation is used.1 conversion of 3-phase variables into 2-phase variables Where the functions are as follows fcn= 2/3*(u(1)*cos(u(4)) + u(2)*cos(u(4)-2*pi/3) + u(3)cos(u(4)+2*pi/3)) fcn1= 2/3*(u(1)*sinu(4) + u(2)*sin(u(4)-2*pi/3) + u(3)*sin(u(4)+2*pi/3)) fcn2= 2/3*(u(1)*1/2)+u(2)*1/2+u(3)*1/2) Figure 5.1 and the reverse transformation for converting the 2-phase variables into 3-phase variables is shown in figure 5.2 Figure 5. Parks transformation used for converting the 3-phase variables into 2-phase variables is shown in figure 5.2 conversion of 2-phase variables into 3-phase variables 50 .

3 torque block Where the function is F(u) = (u(1)*u(2)-u(3)*u(4))*(3/2)*(u(5)/2) The speed of the motor is obtain using figure 5.3 and equation 3.3shows the implementation of torque block in Simulink.35 Figure 5.36 The developed speed block is shown in figure 5. This block is developed using equation 3.Where the functions are as follows fcn=u(1)*cos(u(4)) + u(2)*sin(u(4)) + u(3) fcn1=u(1)*cos(u(4)-2*pi/3) + u(2)*sin(u(4)-2*pi/3) + u(3) fcn2=u(1)*cos(u(4)+2*pi/3) + u(2)*sin(u(4)+2*pi/3) + u(3) Figure 5.4 Figure 5.4 speed block 51 .

The 52 . current controllers are implemented to generate the gate pulses for the IGBT¶s.4 Speed Control of PM Motor: Many applications.5 and 5. require precise control of speed and position.6 PWM Current Controller 5. Figure 5. such as robotics and factory automation.Where the functions are Fcn3= (u(1)*u(2)/(2*u(3)) Fcn4= (u(1)*u(2)/2*u(3))*(2/u(2)) For proper control of the inverter using the reference currents.5 Hysteresis Current Controller Figure 5.6. Speed Control Systems allow one to easily set and adjust the speed of a motor. Current controllers used are shown in figure 5.

For operation up to rated speed it will operate in constant torque region and for speeds above rated speed it will operate in flux-weakening region.control system consists of a speed feedback system.4.7 System flow diagram 53 . but become expensive due to the need of feedback components such as speed sensors. A properly designed feedback controller makes the system insensible to disturbance and changes of the parameters. The process can be easily understood with the flow diagram in figure 5.7. 5. a motor.1 Implementation of the Speed Control Loop: The operation of the controller must be according to the speed range. 5. and to drive a motor at that speed. an inverter. In this region the d-axis flux and the developed torque are reduced. Closed Loop speed control systems have fast response. a controller and a speed setting device. The purpose of a motor speed controller is to take a signal representing the demanded speed. Figure.

PI controllers are used widely for motion control systems. 54 .8. The design begins with the innermost current loop by drawing the block diagram. it can be modeled like a dc motor. The order of the loops is due to their response. Block diagram of the PI controller is shown in figure 5. They consist of a proportional gain that produces an output proportional to the input error and an integration to make the steady state error zero for a step change in the input. which is fed to the PI controller. how fast they can be changed. This requires a current loop at least 10 times faster than the speed loop. Since the PMSM is operated using field oriented control. But in PMSM drive system the motor has current controllers which make the current loop.8 PI controller Speed control of motors mainly consist of two loops the inner loop for current and the outer loop for speed.Speed controller calculates the difference between the reference speed and the actual speed producing an error. Figure 5. The current control is performed by the comparison of the reference currents with the actual motor currents.

5 Conclusion: This chapter discussed about the blocks converting the 3-phase variables into 2-phase variables and 2-phase variables into 3-phase variables.9.9 PM Motor Drive System in Simulink 5. and speed control of PM motor. 55 . Figure 5.Using all the drive system blocks the complete system block has been developed as shown in figure 5. implementing of torque block and the speed block.

56 .

6. SIMULATION RESULTS

6.1 Introduction:

This chapter deals with the simulation results of PMSM drive system. The parameters of the motor are given. Simulation results for the two techniques hysteresis current control and PWM current control are compared.

6.2 Simulation Results

The system built in Simulink for a PMSM drive system has been tested with the two current control methods, Hysteresis and PWM, at the constant torque and flux-weakening regions of operation. The motor parameters used for simulation are given in table 6.1. These parameters were taken from reference. The motor is operated with constant torque up to its rated speed and beyond that rated speed flux-weakening mode is adopted. Simulation results are given at electrical speeds of 200 radians per second and 700 radians per second. The above speeds represent below and above rated speed of the motor. S.NO SYMBOL 1 VLL Rated voltage 200V NAME VALUE

2 3

Pout P

Magnetic flux Numberof poles

900V 4

4 5 6

Wm Is Ismax

Rated speed Rated current Maximum current

700RPS 3AMPS 2*Is

Table 6.1interior permanent magnet motor parameters

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The simulation was carried out using two current control techniques to study the performance of the motor drive. The techniques are Hysteresis current control and PWM current control. The plots of current, torque and speed are given for both cases. The simulation was carried out using two current control techniques to study the performance of the motor drive. The techniques are Hysteresis current control and PWM current control. The plots of current, torque and speed are given for both cases.

**6.3 Simulation for Operation at 200 rad/second
**

6.3.1Hysteresis Current Control:

Figure 6.1 Iabc Currents with Hysteresis Control at 200 rad/s Figure 6.1 shows the three phase currents drawn by the motor as a result of the hysteresis current control. The currents are obtained using Park's reverse transformation. It is clear that the current is non sinusoidal at the starting and becomes sinusoidal when the motor reaches the controller command speed at steady state. So by using this control the oscillations die out at 0.019sec and reaches the steady state after 0.019sec.

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Figure 6.2 Developed Torque with Hysteresis Control at 200 rad/s Figure 6.2 shows the developed torque of the motor. The starting torque is twice the steady state value. The steady torque is 2.5 Nm.

Figure 6.3 Motor Electrical Speed with Hysteresis Control at 200 rad/s Figure 6.3 shows a variation of the speed with time. The steady state speed is the same as that of the commanded reference speed.

The above plots have been repeated with PWM control for comparing hysteresis control with PWM control.

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Figure 6.5Nm) under steady state condition.5 shows the developed torque of the motor. The starting torque is twice the steady state value.3. It is clear that the current is non sinusoidal at the starting and becomes sinusoidal when the motor reaches the controller command speed at steady state.4shows the three phase currents as a result of the PWM current control obtained from Park's reverse transformation. The developed torque is the same as the load torque (2.016sec.5 Developed Torque with PWM Control at 200 rad/s Figure 6.6.2PWM Current Control: Figure 6. so by using this control the steady state occurs after 0.4 Iabc Currents with PWM Control at 200 rad/s Figure 6. 60 .

1Hysteresis Current Control: Figure 6.7 shows the three phase currents as a result of the hysteresis current control obtained from Park's reverse transformation.Figure 6. 61 .022sec.4 Simulation for Operation at Higher Speed of 700 rad/sec 6.6 Motor Electrical Speed with PWM Controller at 200 rad/sec Figure 6.6 shows a variation of the speed with time.4. The steady state speed is the same as that of the commanded reference speed. It is clear that the current is non sinusoidal at the starting and becomes sinusoidal when the motor reaches the controller command speed of 700 rad/sec at steady state.7 Iabc Currents with Hysteresis Control at 700 rad/sec Figure 6. so by using this control the steady state occurs after 0. 6.

4. 62 . The starting torque is quiet high and the steady state value of torque is reduced to 1.8 shows the developed torque of the motor.8 Developed Torque with Hysteresis Control at 700 rad/sec Figure 6.2PWM Current Control: The above plots have been repeated with PWM control for comparing hysteresis control with PWM control. At this speed the motor is operating in the constant power region.Figure 6.9 shows a variation of the speed with time.9 Motor Electrical Speed with Hysteresis Control at 700 rad/sec Figure 6. 6. The steady state speed is the same as that of the commanded reference speed of 700 rad/sec. Figure 6.5 Nm at this speed.

11 shows the developed torque of the motor.10 shows the three phase currents as a result of the PWM current control obtained from Park's reverse transformation. When the speed of the motor is less than the rated speed. It is clear that the current is non sinusoidal at the starting and becomes sinusoidal when the motor reaches the controller command speed at steady state. the torque is more and gets reduced at speeds greater than the rated speed. 63 . so by using this control the steady state occurs after 0.Figure 6. Figure 6.019sec.10 Iabc Current with PWM Control at 700 rad/sec Figure 6.11 Developed Torque with PWM Control at 700 rad/s Figure 6.

the required inverter switching frequency increases in a nonlinear manner.35 hy s teres is window s iz e(pu) 0. The steady state speed is the same as that of the commanded reference speed.13 inverter frequency Vs window size 64 .25 0.45 0.2 0.4 0.3 0. As the hysteresis window size decreases.13. INV E RTE R S W ITCHING F RE Q UE NCY V S W INDO W S IZE 8 7 inv erter s withing frequenc y (k hz ) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.12 shows a variation of the speed with time.13 it is also clear that the inverter switching frequency increases as the hysteresis window size decreases.1 0.12 Motor Electrical Speed with PWM Control at 700 rad/s Figure 6.Figure 6.15 0. This relationship is shown in Figure 6.5 Figure 6. From the figure 6.

65 . And also it is seen that PWM current control technique is superior to hysteresis controller. The parameters of the motor are given. PWM has constant switching frequency.From the results it is seen that PWM current control technique is superior to hysteresis controller. 6. Hysteresis control incurs higher switching frequencies with the possibility of exceeding device ratings. Hysteresis control incurs higher switching frequencies with the possibility of exceeding device ratings.5 Conclusion: This chapter discussed the simulation results of PMSM drive system. PWM has constant switching frequency. PWM outperforms in terms of switching frequency and torque pulsations.

the simulation with hysteresis current controller allows faster simulations with reduced time and computational resources. Simulink has been chosen from several simulation tools because its flexibility in working with analog and digital devices. A comparative study has been made of the two current control schemes in terms of switching frequency. Usually in such a drive system the inverter is driven either by hysteresis or by PWM current controllers.CONCLUSION A detailed Simulink model for a PMSM drive system with field oriented control has being developed and operation below and above rated speed has been studied using two current control schemes. 66 . Simulink is capable of showing real time results with reduced simulation time and debugging. However. Mathematical models can be easily incorporated in the simulation and the presence of numerous tool boxes and support guides simplifies the simulation of large system compared to Spice. This study proves that PWM current controllers are better than hysteresis current controllers because of having constant switching frequency Hysteresis current controllers have a variable switching frequency that depends of the hysteresis band and if the bandwidth is very small it may affect the device switching capability.

constant mutual air gap flux linkages control. optimum torque per ampere control and sensor less control can be taken up for detail simulation and performance calculation of PMSM drive systems.FUTURE WORK The implementation of additional control techniques like unity power factor control. 67 . Detailed modeling and simulation of other types of synchronous motor drives can also be taken up for transient and steady state analysis.

.´ in Proc. Wick. Appl. Honsinger. pp. H. Virginia Polytechnic Inst. J. 1985. Villanueva. Lajoie-Mazenc. Richter. E. Control of Electrical Drives. ³Control characteristics and speedcontroller design for a high-performance permanent magnet synchronousmotor drive. Lindsay.´ in Proc.Meeting. ³Study andimplementation of hysteresis controlled inverter on a permanent magnetsynchronous machine. T. 1981. vol. Mar. 4. E. no.P. Krishnan and A. Miller. Rashid. 8. 2. Enjeti. ³Stability and dynamicperformance of variable speed permanent magnet synchronous motors. PowerApp.V. Appl.1986. pp. Ind. 12. IA-21. pp. SOCA. 644650. and T. ³Design and experimental resultsof a brushless ac servo drive. Appl. pp. Ind. J. Appl. 1984.[6] 5. Annu. Ind. 68 .E.M. 408-413. IEEE 1987 Power Electronics Specialists¶Cony. J.´ in Proc. vol. 1987. ³Transient performance of permanent magnetmachines. 9. and A.R. Pillay and R. 1985. nnu.´ in Proc. 7. and State Univ. Hector. Soc. IEEE Ind. IECON. ³Permanent magnet machines: Asynchronousoperation. 11. 500-502.´ IEEE Trans.. L. and M.. 1985. Appl.W. J. B..´class notes. 692-697. pp. Pfaff. ³Application characteristics of permanent magnet synchronousand brushless dc motors for servo drives. Meeting.´ IEEE Trans. ³Performance and design of an axialfield permanent magnet synchronous motor servo drive.-. A. Ind. May/June 1985. ³Parameter estimation and dynamic performance of permanentmagnet synchronous motors. Leonard. 634-640. vol. 749-754. pp.P. Annu. no. 10. Miller. 598-606.pp.T.REFERENCES: 1. Sysr.R. Meeting.[5] 4. no. 2.Meeting. pp.´in Proc. PAS-99..[7] 6. Weschta.´ in Proc. G. W. IEEE Ind. Soc.. Annu. 1982. IA-21. Neumann. New York: Springer-Verlag. C. 1987. 380-390. Hudson. and J. pp. ³Theferrite PM ac motor-A technical and economic assessment. Meeting. 4. 1985.[4] 3. pp. Soc. Krishnan. Beutler. ³Analysis of electronically controlled motor drives. 627-633.´ in Proc. T./Apr. Blacksburg. Appl. Krishnan. Appl. ´ IEEETrans. IEEE Ind. F. Soc.Annu.

8mH 0.6mH 5.APPENDIX PARAMETERS Resistance (R) d-axis inductance (Ld) q-axis inductance(Lq) Moment of inertia (J) Damping constant(B) VALUES 1.00038818Nm/rad/sec 69 .00176kgm2 0.4 6.

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