Nathalie Dagmang Co-worker: Annjaneth Briones Results and Discussion Report 7: Quantitative Analysis of Soda Ash by Double-Indicator

Method

Group 8 Date Performed: January 13

A solution containing a polyprotic acid is considered a complex system because of the fact that it produces two or more acidic or acidic species solutions. In this experiment, these species produced in the solution was investigated using a double-indicator method. Different indicators which change color at different stages of neutralization were used (in this case, phenolphthalein and methyl orange) to be able to get two endpoints. These two endpoints indicate the completion of one or two of the following reactions: a) CO3- + H+ HCO3b) HCO3- + H+ H20 + CO2 c) OH- + H+ H20 Reaction a) occurs when Na2CO3 is present in the solution, b) when NaHCO3 is present and c) when NaOH is present. Because reaction b) produces carbon dioxide (this can be seen as bubbles that formed at the second titration), the solution was boiled before reaching the methyl orange endpoint to remove the gas and proceed with the reaction until the neutralization is completed. The distilled water used in the experiment was also pre-boiled for this reason. There are only five possible combinations of neutralization reactions that can occur in the titration process: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) CO3- + H+ HCO3HCO3- + H+ H20 + CO2 OH- + H+ H20 reactions a) and b) (CO3- + H+ HCO3- and HCO3- + H+ H20 + CO2) reactions a) and c) (CO3- + H+ HCO3- and OH- + H+ H20)

NaOH and NaHCO3 cannot coexist in a solution therefore this combination and the combination of all three species are not possible. This is because when these react in the presence of moisture, the following reaction takes place: OH- + HCO3- CO32- + H20 when this happens, the carbonate will form, however, there will be possible excess of hydroxide or bicarbonate. Because of this, NaOH and NaHCO3 can only co-exist when in perfectly dry form. This

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reaction also produces Na2CO3 (soda ash), which is also the primary standard used in the experiment. Soda ash can cause the pH to increase in the presence of water and upon addition of HCl, thus making the pH (and the volume reading at the endpoint) inaccurate. If only NaOH is present in the solution, reaction c) will occur and will be completed at the first endpoint, the phenolphthalein endpoint. Hence, at the first drop after the first endpoint and upon the addition of methyl orange indicator, the solution will turn orange. If only Na2CO3 is present, the volume of titrant used for the two endpoints would be equal. This is because the neutralization process wherein the Na2CO3 undergoes is a two-step process: CO3- + H+ HCO3HCO3- + H+ H20 + CO2 It can be observed from the above reactions that each step require equal amount of H+ ions in order to complete. If only NaHCO3 is present, because it is a weak base, the solution will already turn clear at the first drop of HCl after phenolphthalein is added to the solution. Otherwise, there will be two possible combinations of species present in the solution. If the volume of titrant used before reaching the phenolphthalein endpoint is greater that the titrant used to reach the methyl orange endpoint, then the solution contains a mixture of NaOH and Na2CO3. This is because both NaOH and Na2CO3 neutralized at the first endpoint and only Na2CO3 is further neutralized at the second endpoint. Therefore, more H+ ions are needed to reach the first endpoint than those needed to reach the second endpoint. Lastly, if the volume of HCl used to reach the methyl orange endpoint is more than the volume of HCl used to reach the phenolphthalein endpoint, then the solution is a mixture of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3. This is because more H+ ions are needed for the neutralization of both NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 which occur at the second endpoint than those needed for the first endpoint where only Na2CO3 is neutralized. In this experiment, the volume of titrant needed was more for the methyl orange endpoint than the phenolphthalein endpoint. Thus, the working sample solution is composed of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3.It was also computed that the mixture is 14.78% Na2CO3 and 33.99% ± 11.82 NaHCO3. However, the experiment only had only 1 trial for the standardization of hydrochloric acid and 2 trials for the sample analysis resulting to a less reliable data. If the standardization of HCl was not accurate, it would greatly affect the results of the sample analysis by either increasing it (when M of HCl is higher than the actual M) or decreasing it (when M of HCl is lower than the actual M).The endpoints 2

may have been also not detected accurately. The group might have decided that the endpoint was reached earlier than the actual endpoint, increasing the M of HCl (if the error was made in the standardization step).

References: Oulette, R. 1988.Introduction to General Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Second Edition. Skoog, West, et al. 1996. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 7th edition. _________. 1983. Quantitative Analysis.

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