In partial fulfillment for the award of B. Tech. degree in Information Technology Submitted to: S To: Submitted by: Submitted By:

C. NEW DELHI & AFFILIATED BY R. Acknowledgement .). DABOK. (Department of Information Technology) of Geetanjali Institute of Technical Studies have successfully completed seminar on “PLASTIC MEMORY”.I. KOTA) AIRPORT ROAD.U.E. VI Sem. UDAIPUR (RAJ.T.T.(APPROVED BY A. PH: 0294-2657492 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Students of B.Tech.

We feel very delighted to get this rare opportunity to show our profound senses of reverence and indebtedness to all our esteemed teachers and for their keen and sustained interest. We wish to acknowledge and express our personal gratitude to all those without whom this work could not have been reality. Last but not the least we would like to thank all those who have directly or indirectly helped and cooperated in accomplishing this. The enduring pages of the work are the cumulative sequence of extensive guidance and arduous work. For this kind of consideration we beholden to them in a special manner and no words can fully convey our feelings of respect and regards for them. At last we also want to express our sincere thanks to all the classmates for their coordination and friendly cooperation with their suggestions.It is a fortune to find opportunity to express our deep sense of gratitude to all those people who helped us with their guidance and assistance. throughout the project. Contents . Their contribution has been invaluable. valuable advice. without which the project would not be possible.

 Types of Memory  Introduction  Structure  Memory cell  Read-write-erase cycle  Features  How it works  Applications  References Types of Memory .

Primary storage (RAM) Volatile Temporary Secondary storage ◦ Nonvolatile ◦ Permanent Secondary storage characteristics ◦ Media ◦ Capacity ◦ Storage devices Access speed Introduction .

The findings appear in the journal Nature on Thursday. then form the one and zero necessary to store digital data.'s HP Labs developed the memory. The magical ingredient isn’t smaller transistors or an exotic material cooked up by the semiconductor industry. which could store a megabit of data per square millimeter. It’s a plastic. The polymers two possible states. a publication of Nature. conductor or insulator. plastic memory chip. Unlike flash memory found in consumer devices. California. The key to the new technology was the discovery by researchers from Princeton University. and Hewlett-Packard Laboratories in Palo Alto. Researchers at the Zernike Institute of Advanced Materials at the University of Groningen have developed a technology for a plastic ferro-electric diode which they believe will achieve a breakthrough in the development of ultra low-cost plastic memory material. technically a hybrid that contains a plastic film. and Hewlett-Packard Laboratories in Palo Alto. a flexible foil substrate and some silicon. The findings appear in the journal Nature on Thursday. It acts in that respect like a nonrewriteable compact disc. New Jersey. Researchers at Princeton University and Hewlett-Packard Co. California. the new technology can be written to only once. technically a hybrid that contains a plastic film. a flexible foil substrate and some silicon. . Researchers at Princeton University and Hewitt-Packard Co’s HP Labs developed the memory. which can potentially be turned in to an inexpensive. that passing a high current through PEDOT turns it into an insulator. California: A new memory technology promises to store more data at less cost than the expensive-to-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras. though it can be read many times. rather like blowing a fuse.Researchers from Princeton University. cellphones and portable music players. San Jose. Their findings will be published in the July edition of Nature Materials. New Jersey. have managed to develop a polymer-based memory unit.

which retains data even when there’s no power. and promises more capacity.”(AP) . “Even in accounting. won’t require a power-hungry laser or motor to read or write. “For music or photographs. one of the paper’s co-authors and scientist at HP Labs.But the new memory. it’s actually an advantage to have something you can’t rewrite.” said Mr Warren Jackson. it would be quite useful if you have a trail of files that you can’t erase.

shaping. which increases the distance between them. take their former position and the plastic becomes stiff and hard again.10 times denser than current magnetic memories. This property is called plastic memory. unless it has been damaged due to overheating or overstretching. A conducting plastic has been used to create a new memory technology with the potential to store a megabit of data in a millimetre-square device . so would only be suitable for permanent storage. Thermoplastics: There are a wide range of thermoplastics. some that are rigid and some that are extremely flexible. When heat is applied the molecules move apart. cell phones and portable music players. The device should also be cheap and fast. causing them to become untangled.The molecules of thermoplastics are in lines or long chains with very few entanglements. but cannot be rewritten. This allows them to become soft when heated so that they can be bent into all sorts of shapes When they are left to cool the chains of molecules cool.What is a Plastic memory? Each time a thermoplastic is reheated it will try and return to its original shape. A new memory technology promises to store more data at less cost than the expensive-to-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras. The process of heating. reheating and reforming can be repeated many time Long chain molecules .

with the capability to form a fuse.diodes . which does not exist in silicon. .Cyle for Thermoplastic Plastc Memory: It combines the best of silicon technology . It has potential to store a megabit of data in a millimetre-square device It is10 times denser than current magnetic memories. A conducting plastic has been used to create a new memory technology .

In this project we investigate organic semiconductors. Based on this principle. but quite remarkably these materials have received little attention for dynamic memory applications. research in this area is currently directed towards completely new designs. indium doped tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum. instead of the three-terminal field effect transistor devices currently used.. These have been found to exhibit a profound memory effect in their electrical conductivity. -4 and +4 V. and read out at lower voltage. The first layer consist of PEDOT:PSS to which an inorganic salt (e. Structure Of Plastic Memory A two-terminal device in which an organic semiconducting polymer is sandwiched between two electrodes. a two-terminal device will be developed that can be written and erased repeatedly by voltage pulses of e. The experimental devices contain two polymer layers. EC) have been added. mobile inorganic ions or other materials. The simplest architecture would be a planar two-terminal device.Plastic memory (Frank Verbakel) One of the main challenges in computer hardware construction in the next decade will be the design of new memory chips with decreased size. hence. Motion of the ions present in the device . lithium triflate) and plasticizer (ethylene carbonate. The second layer consists of poly(3hexylthiophene) (P3HT) doped with the plasticizer.g.g. Existing memory architectures have reached their limit of miniaturization and. doped with e.g. Polymer semiconductors might be used for this purpose.

A -6V pulse is applied to bring the memory in its written state. which does not exist in silicon. flexible circuits.5V. Further a +6V pulse is applied to erase to memory. who works on organic electronics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. which could form cheap. like an electronic version of film negatives.with the capability to form a fuse. cellphone or PDA.diodes . Substantial research effort has focused on polymer-based transistors. Ion snatch .under influence of an electric field is expected to induce switching between a high and a low conduction state." says Vladimir Bulovic. "The beauty of the device is that it combines the best of silicon technology .  Fig 1A) Write – Read –Erase cycle.  Fig 1B) A schematic overview of a memory cell The device sandwiches a blob of a conducting polymer called PEDOT and a silicon diode between two perpendicular wires. but polymerbased memory has received relatively little attention. turning the polymer INTO an insulator involves a permanent chemical change. meaning the memory can only be written to once. the so called ON and OFF state of a memory device. Its creators say this makes it ideal for archiving images and other data directly from a digital camera. However. Subsequently the memory is read at -0.

no one suspected that it could be converted into an insulator. But Princeton researcher Stephen Forrest suspects that the heat produced by a high current gives the PSS. Having distinct.and a positively-charged one called PEDT+. The material is a blend of a negatively-charged polymer called PSS. the researchers describe just one such junction. charged components allows it to conduct electricity and means that it is water soluble. they run current through the top wire and measure the current in the bottom wire. This either creates an insulator or leaves it as a conductor. Without the negatively-charged PSS. converting PEDOT into an insulating polymer. To read the memory. The team is not sure why it stops conducting when high currents pass through. No current means the bit is a zero. the device will need many more. Read and Write:To store the memory. and vice versa.to stabilise it. In their paper in Nature. forming a neutral PSSH. the researchers use the wires and the diode surrounding the PEDOT blob to run either a high or a low current through it.layer sufficient energy to snatch a positively-charged hydrogen ion from any water that has dissolved on its surface. So the Hewlett-Packard team . PED+ in turn grabs on to an extra electron and also becomes neutral. But for a memory application.PEDOT's ability to conduct electricity means it is already used widely as the antistatic coating on camera film. But until now.

Ferro-electric diode The breakthrough was accomplished during the research project of PhD student Kamal Asadi.is now working on building a grid of intersecting wires. the memory retains data without being connected to a power source. The magical ingredient isn't smaller transistors or an exotic material cooked up by the semiconductor industry. In both cases. A grid system is commonly used in display screens to switch individual pixels. The challenge was therefore to realize comparable functionality within a memory component carrying only two connections: a diode. they can read and write multiple bits to one device. cellular phones and in the memory cards of digital cameras. replacing the bar codes currently in use. The researchers at the Zernike Institute of Advanced Materials expect the new technology to lead to the development of comparable products possibly even more significant. It is based on a radically new concept: instead of stacking a layer of semiconducting material on a layer of ferroelectric material. Flash memory chips are used in memory sticks. The University of Groningen has obtained a patent on the new material. The disadvantage of such a transistor is that three connections are needed for programming and reading out the memory. it operates as a ‘non-volatile’ memory (meaning that the material retains data without being connected to a power source). The voltages needed for programming are low enough for the diode to be used in commercial applications and the material can be manufactured at low cost using large-scale industrial production techniques. which was financed by the University of Groningen. One product they have in mind is an electronic price tag which could be read radiographically at the cash desk of retail stores. and are therefore much cheaper than silicon devices. a joint team of researchers from the University of Groningen and Philips already successfully integrated a ferro-electric polymer into a plastic transistor. MP3 players. Another possible application is for the material to be used in packaging material which could warn consumers when a product is nearing its expiration date. which must be etched. The ferro-electric characteristic of the mixture is then used to direct current through the semi-conducting part of the mixture. The new memory diode can be programmed quickly. In this way. The newly developed technology is similar to that used in Flash memory chips. Polymer devices can sprayed or printed. a mixture of these two materials is used. Because the ferro-electric material can be switched between two different stable states through the use of a voltage pulse. A new memory technology promises to store more data at less cost than the expensiveto-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras. cell phones and portable music players. retains data for a long time and operates at room temperature. . Plastic transistor In 2005. complicating the fabrication.

. Electret material is more commonly used in a type of microphone. We can use three dimensions to create the memory. Because manufacturing wouldn't require vacuum chambers or high temperatures.It's a plastic. "Most importantly. Smaller currents determine what junctions are opened or closed — which translates into the digital world's ones and zeros — to retrieve the contents. it's not on a crystalline substrate so that we can stack these memories very tightly. like a layer cake. causing it to blow and change its conductivity. or material that stores electric charge." Plastic memory retains data Researchers from Johannes Kepler University in Austria have borrowed a technique from audio recording technology to fashion a new type of computer memory made from organic. doesn't use transistors to store information. or plastic materials. a Princeton scientist and study co-author. The researchers' device uses a charge electret. The memory works in a way similar to common ferroelectric transistor memory elements. bits are written when a strong current passes through a polymer fuse. layers could be stacked atop each other. which could end up in a small format similar to CompactFlash or SD Cards. Layers of Memory The new memory. which store the 1s and 0s of computer information as one of two electric polarization directions. Instead. "There are no critical alignment steps and no lithography. Such stacking has yet to be attempted. rather than ferroelectric material to store information." said Stephen Forrest.

electronics devices that can be integrated into textiles. Existing organic semiconductor devices have carrier mobilities ranging from less than one to about 10. Carrier mobility is a measure of a device's ability to conduct electricity. It is the nano size of the gold particles that allows them to store the charge and function . and holds promise for low-cost. and plastic computer chips.The method could eventually be used to make inexpensive plastic computer memory for devices like radiofrequency ID tags. according to the researchers.  The research group. smart cards. 2004 issue of Applied Physics Letters. an electric charge is trapped in or on the polyvinyl alcohol layer. When a voltage is applied to the device. but our device is a nanoparticle-induced phenomenon. It will be five to ten years before the memory can be used in practical applications. a semiconductor layer containing the spherical carbon molecules dubbed buckyballs. The device has a charge carrier mobility of about 10 square centimeters per volt second. led by materials science professor Yang Yang in the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science. has demonstrated high performance of plastic memory devices fabricated by solution processing. The prototype memory cell consists of an indium tin oxide gate electrode. The work appeared in the November 29. "There is a lot of talk about nanotechnology. a layer of polyvinyl alcohol. The device is made from a polystyrene film containing gold nanoparticles. high-density memory storage. and chromium source and drain electrodes. The researchers' prototype stored data for more than 15 hours after power to the device was turned off. according to the researchers.

"Polystyrene is a commonly used plastic material that can be found in the home. "There is a growing demand for inexpensive memory storage. it's inexpensive and easy to work with. to name a few applications. This method is less complicated than vacuum fabrication methods and also less expensive. the office. And our invention turns this commodity plastics into a high-tech invention. In a solution process." He added. the polystyrene base is carried in a liquid and can be applied through spray. "By partnering with industry. we're also able to work . We've combined a traditional material — polystyrene — and a high-tech material to make it happen." Yang said. and flash memory is expensive and slow. paint or print technology. "Plastic memory devices will be both faster and cheaper than current technology. It comes in many shapes and forms. Through the use of the solution process. "We're exploring related scientific issues through materials engineering and a fundamental understanding of the device's operating mechanism to push it to the next level of reliability. including digital memory chips for computers. The new material has a wide range of potential uses. the local grocery store and the cafeteria. "It's a revolutionary technology." Yang said. The team is working to extend its lifetime. Although polystyrene may seem like an unlikely base material for memory devices. digital cameras and cell phones." Yang's first-generation organic memory devices were fabricated in a vacuum chamber. so that it can write and erase for a million cycles and store the data for at least 10 years." In laboratory tests. from foam egg cartons to trays or soup bowls to coffee cups and utensils. his team wanted to develop a memory device that could be processed more easily. the polymer memory device has shown it can meet nearly all of the performance requirements. the polystyrene-based material also can be constructed in three-dimensional arrays for high-density storage.as a memory device." Yang said.

Electronics devices that can be integrated "This is one of the ways in which I think nanotechnology leads to a bright future in scientific exploration. commercial issues. Smart Cards. Applications: Devices like:   Radiofrequency ID tags. into textiles. Bibliography . "Researchers must create novel phenomena based on new materials and by finding new applications." Yang said." Applications:  Devices like:   Radiofrequency ID tags.on practical. Smart Cards. Electronics devices that can be integrated into textiles." This research project also is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Plastic computer chips. Plastic computer chips.

wordpress.com www.com /trnmag.     www.com /www.technologyreview.wikipedia.in .com http://thewere42.scientificamerican.

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