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OPTIMIZING THE WELDING PROCESS FOR THE STRUCTURE WITH COMPLEX GEOMETRICAL CONFIGURATION

Şef lucr. dr. ing. Ioan-Sorin LEOVEANU Universitatea „Transilvania”, Braşov

Este absolvent al Universităţii „Transilvania” din Braşov, Facultatea de Tehnologia Construcţiilor de Maşini, Secţia utilajul şi tehnologia sudării. A efectuat stagiul la U. „Tractorul” din Braşov şi la I.P.T. Întorsura Buzăului, apoi a fost inginer proiectant la Institutul de Cercetare pentru Autovehicule şi Tractoare – Braşov, la departamentul punţi motoare directoare. Din 1988 este cadru didactic la Universitatea „Transilvania” din Braşov, la Catedra de ingineria materialelor şi sudării. Este doctor inginer al Universităţii „Politehnica” din Bucureşti, din 2002. A contribuit la proiectarea punţilor motoare cu mare unghi de virare pentru tractoare agricole şi industriale, la proiectarea şi omologarea structurilor de rezistenţă sudate pentru tractoare industrial si agricole. A publicat manuale şi monografii pe plan local, central şi în colaborare cu universităţi din străinătate, precum şi articole în reviste şi buletinele unor conferinţe de specialitate din ţară şi din străinătate.

OPTIMIZING THE WELDING PROCESS FOR THE STRUCTURE WITH COMPLEX GEOMETRICAL CONFIGURATION Ş ef lucr. dr. ing.

REZUMAT. Metoda propusă în lucrare a fost dezvoltată cu scopul optimizării structurilor 2D şi 3D formate din bare cu secţiunea obţinută prin sudură. La baza metodei stă metoda de optimizare se află liniarizarea pe subdomenii şi optimizarea cu metoda simplex în conformitate cu varianta de optimizare propusă de L.B.L. Karihaloo. În cazul secţiunii sudate a barelor, stabilirea parametrilor optima de sudare s-a obţinut pe baza metodei forţelor echivalente. Se obţine astfel un sistem de forţe de încărcare echivalente procesului de sudare care generează în urma procesului de optimizare tehnologia de sudare optimă sau care să producă deformaţiile dorite în structura sudată. Rezultatele analizei au fost verificate utilizând metoda elementelor finite şi măsurătorile experimentale. Se urmăreşte împărţirea variabilelor de proiectare în variabile legate de datele geometrice secţionale şi diverse sisteme de încărcări ce echivalează tehnologia de sudare care se adaugă încărcărilor de proiectare, astfel încât să se obţină o structură optimă atât prin prisma tehnologiei de execuţie cât şi prin prisma greutăţii acesteia. Metoda a fost verificată şi pentru structuri care dezvoltă articulaţii plastice înaintea pierderii capacităţii portante iar rezultatele utilizării metodei la proiectarea unui cadru ROPS + FOPS au condus la obţinerea şi omologarea primei structuri sudate care a reuşit să îndeplinească aceste condiţii extreme de restrictive.

Cuvinte cheie: metoda elementelor finite, forţe echivalente, proces de sudare, optimizarea parametrilor.

ABSTRACT. The method proposed is developed for the optimization of the 2D and 3D welded beam structures. The elements of the structures can be welded or laminate profiles. The method is based on the linearization simplex method, according of the variant proposed by L.B.L. Karihaloo. In the case of welded profiles, the establish of welded optimum parameters was based on a first approximation inverse problem in established the welded equivalent loading. The method can be used to establish the deflections of the welded structures, too, or for optimization of welded technology and establishing the optimum welded layers in the joints or even optimum welded joints successions and positions. We try to make a classification of the project variables by their origin, so we use, structure variables, like areas, momentums, material properties, technological variables, like the equivalents loads reduced in the axis of welded structures and condition variables that in this case consist in deflection imposed, or stresses or maximum energy absorbed. The butt of our optimization does not consist in an absolute optimum achieved, but in an optimization between a lot of criteria and get the most realistic solution as possible. The optimization algorithms choose is based on the linearization of restrictions in sub zones and solve the optimization using simplex method.

Keywords: Finite elements method, equivalent forces, welded process, optimum parameters.

1. INTRODUCTION

The dates analyzed method is use for obtain the

expression of development of a powerful method able

to be use in the optimization method of welded

structure based on beam. [5], [6].In this but we propose

to use an equivalent force that may give the defor-

mations of welded girders in agreement with the welded

process and technology. In this way the equivalent force

have the general expression:

F

S

=

ψ

p

S

A

S

k

m

k

S

/

US

b 1

k

l

where: p S is the equivalent pressure of the welding

process; A S – the area of welded joint; k m – the correction

coefficient based on the number of layers and can be

calculate with any relation from the table 2; k S/US b1 – the

correction coefficient for fillet weld joints, symmetrical

and unsymmetrical welded; k l – the correction coefficient

for welded not continues bead; ψ – the correction

coefficient with the degree of deformation.

p

S

= −

5731,318

+

1868, 407

d

e

+

15,06525

R

p 0 , 2

(2)

where: d e – electrode

wire

diameter;

R p0.2

yield

strength (1) of base

material; n

number of layers; t i

CREATIVITATE, INVENTICĂ, ROBOTICĂ

thickness of vertical plate; t t – thickness of horizontal

plate; l S – length of welded bead; l i – length of

stopped bead; I Z1 – momentum of inertia for first sub-

structure; I Z2 – momentum of inertia for second sub-

structure; Y S – distance from weigh point of

structure’s geometry to the weld. And the expressions

of unknowns are:

 

k

m

=

n

0 , 71

1

3 2 ,13 n
3
2 ,13
n
 

k

S

b 1

=

1, 0

3 2 ,13 n
3
2 ,13
n

+ 0, 01

t

i

(

t

i

+

A

S

2

t

t

)

when

t

 

t

*

=

60

 

A

S

1

 

i

i

( t + 2 t ) 3 2 ,13 n i t
(
t
+
2
t
)
3
2
,13
n
i
t
 

and k

S

 

1, 6

b 1

=

 
3 2 ,13 n
3
2 ,13
n
 
 

*

A

S

1

 
 

when

t

i

>

t

i

=

60

( t + 2 t ) 3 2 ,13 n i t
(
t
+
2
t
)
3
2
,13
n
i
t

k

US

b 1

=

1,6

3 2 ,13 n
3
2 ,13
n

+ 0,015

t

i

(

t

i

+

A

S

2

t

t

)

when

t

i

 

t

*

 

A

S

1

i

=

60

( t + 2 t ) 3 2 ,13 n i t
(
t
+
2
t
)
3
2
,13
n
i
t
 

US

 

2,5

and k

b 1

=

3 2 ,13 n
3
2 ,13
n
 
 

when

t

i

 

t

*

 

A

S

1

 

>

i

=

60

( t + 2 t ) 3 2 ,13 n i t
(
t
+
2
t
)
3
2
,13
n
i
t
 

( I

Z

1

+

I

Z

2

)Y

S

 

k

 

l

S

 

ψ =

I

Z

Y

Y

;

i

=

l

S

+

l

i

(3)

Table 1. Regressions obtained from specimens with maximum 20 layers

   

Law

   

Regression law

 

coefficients

Error

 

n

c

a = 1,0052197

 

k

m

= a b

n

b = 0,994808 c = -0,70857

0,0002

The

figure

1

presents

the sectional structure

geometry and welded beam type used to statistical

analyze of the free principal deflections.

2. SIMULATION RESULTS OF HEAT-FLOW- METALLURGICAL MODEL FOR GPSAW MODE

Simulation results of heat-flow-metallurgical model

for gpsaw mode are presented below.

CREATIVITATE, INVENTIC Ă , ROBOTIC Ă thickness of vertical plate; t – thickness of horizontal plate;
CREATIVITATE, INVENTIC Ă , ROBOTIC Ă thickness of vertical plate; t – thickness of horizontal plate;

Fig. 1:

a – the geometry of the butt weld type used to establish the

expression of „Tendon Force”; b – the geometry of fillet weld and

the symmetry of welded layers deposition.

CREATIVITATE, INVENTIC Ă , ROBOTIC Ă thickness of vertical plate; t – thickness of horizontal plate;

Fig. 2. The joining geometry and topology.

CREATIVITATE, INVENTIC Ă , ROBOTIC Ă thickness of vertical plate; t – thickness of horizontal plate;

Fig. 3. The macrostructure of welded section.

CREATIVITATE, INVENTIC Ă , ROBOTIC Ă thickness of vertical plate; t – thickness of horizontal plate;

Fig. 4. The HAZ geometry of the joining.

Table 2. Chemichal compozition and transverse residual stresses of the Bas Metal and Layers

ID

C [%]

Mn [%]

Si [%]

Al [%]

S [%]

P [%]

MB.OL52.5kf

0,18

1,39

0.37

0.052

0.011

0.022

Layer 1

0,073

1,57

0,39

0,062

0,009

0,015

Layer 2

0,060

1,59

0,41

0,063

0,007

0,012

Layer 16

0,012

1,86

0,47

0,073

0,0046

0,0085

OPTIMIZING THE WELDING PROCESS

OPTIMIZING THE WELDING PROCESS Zoom on layer 15. Zoom on layer 2. Fig. 5. Compare between
OPTIMIZING THE WELDING PROCESS Zoom on layer 15. Zoom on layer 2. Fig. 5. Compare between

Zoom on layer 15.

OPTIMIZING THE WELDING PROCESS Zoom on layer 15. Zoom on layer 2. Fig. 5. Compare between

Zoom on layer 2.

OPTIMIZING THE WELDING PROCESS Zoom on layer 15. Zoom on layer 2. Fig. 5. Compare between

Zoom on layer 16.

Fig. 5. Compare between the residual transversal stresses obtained by FEM modelling, the experimental equivalent loads modelling and the RX measurement on the exterior faces of welded joint.

3. CASE ANALYZED OF BEAMS LOADING

The opimization of a welding structure are possible

when is considered all the factors that influence this

structure. This factors can bee divided in: design

variables, that include the section area of each element

of structure and the inertia moments of the section,

variables that are freqventlly used in the optimization

with the MEF methode:

a) technological design variables, that include the

equivalent loaded, and from somme casses are presen-

ted in the introduction of this work. In this case this

variables can appear like independents casses of loads.

b) conditional works variables, that include currently

the deflections and deformation maximals or the

maximum accepted stress values of each element of

structure or in somme sections.

OPTIMIZING THE WELDING PROCESS Zoom on layer 15. Zoom on layer 2. Fig. 5. Compare between

Fig. 6

The assambly of all the nodal equation of the

structure give the systhem of deformations ecuation of

the structure. Solving this systhem from each condition

load are the most usual wei to obtine information about

the optimality of the designed structure. If are

introduced the design variables, that are the geometrical

caracteristics of elements {x 0 e } = {A e , I ze , I ye , I xye } the

problem of the optimum geometrical caracteristics can

be solved from evry loading case, so, the case wheh are

used the technological loaded in addition to the work

loaded cases. Using the design variables, the equilibrus

equations becomes nonlinear, the search of linear

approximation can be make using the Taylor series

method, from a initial solution { }

0

x

 

to obtine the next

optimum solutions

{ x

k

} . The matematical

model of

optimization,

in

the

condition

of

 

minimum

weight

structure becomes:

 

To be minimizated the fonction:

 
 

z (X

j

)

;

j

= 1, 2,

 

,

n

with restrictions:

g

i

(X

j

)

= 0 ;

i

= 1, 2,

,

m

and

L

j

X

j

U

j

(4)

where: X j – the design and technological variables;

Z(X j ) – the minimum scop function, initial the wheight

of all the element; g i (x j ) – the equilibrus equations

systhem of the nods; L j the loweres accepted values

from the variables; U j the upperes acceptates values

from the design variables.

Using the first derivativ from the Taylor series,

arround the current solution {x k } it can be obtined the

liniarizated problem:

(

Z x

k

j

)

+

n

j = 1

z x x

j

j

k + 1

x

j

(

k

) (

k

x

j

)

with the conditions:

n

j = 1

g

i

(

x

k

j

) (x

x

k

j

k + 1

j

k

x

j

)

=

0 ;

i

=

1, 2,

...

,

m

,

and

L

j

X

j

U

j

So, the conditions equations becomes linear equa-

tion:

a

ii

x

j

=

b

i

i

=

1, 2, ...

,

m

n

m

(5)

where c i , a ij , b i are constant coefficients, obtined in the

processus of the assambly of liniarizated nodal equation

for each element of the structure. After determination

the vectors and matrices used to establish the line-

arization algorithm, the method was used to design a

CREATIVITATE, INVENTICĂ, ROBOTICĂ

strong loaded welded structure, with a relative simple

geometry, and low number of beam elements.

The geometry and experimental loads are done in

Figure 7.

CREATIVITATE, INVENTIC Ă , ROBOTIC Ă strong loaded welded structure, with a relative simple geometry, and
CREATIVITATE, INVENTIC Ă , ROBOTIC Ă strong loaded welded structure, with a relative simple geometry, and

Fig. 7. The geometry and finite element topology of the tested structure.

The method was used to the design of a protection

ROSP&FOPS welded structures from a Bulldozer

width 600HP power. The load condition is based on the

minimum horizontal force and a minimum energy that

the structure must absorbed before the crack. The

values of them can be established using the ISO3471-79

norms with the relations:

F

min

=

70000

⎣ ⎢

M

10000

⎦ ⎥

1, 2

E

min

=

13000

⎢ ⎣

M

10000

⎦ ⎥

1, 25

(10)

where : M = 82 000 kg Bulldoser' s Weight;

F

min

= 874,328 N;

E

min

=

180,389 J

vertical load after

horizontal deformation;

In the MAGShortArc (MAGsha) the equivalent pres-

sures are considerate to 7,44; 7,8; 8 kN/mm 2 .p S1 ,p S2 ,p S3 =

= 11; 10; 9.8 kN/mm 2

The welding optimization technology, using the

proposed method, was giving the successful try from an

area of welded layer approximately 18 mm 2 . The result

of this welded variant structure is given in the Figure 9,

and the aspect of the structure after the Horizontal try in

the Figure 8.

CREATIVITATE, INVENTIC Ă , ROBOTIC Ă strong loaded welded structure, with a relative simple geometry, and

Fig. 8. The Force-Deformation of the structure for welding var. 7.

Table 2. The technological loads analyzed

Welding

Nr. of

Layer’s

Correct

Equivalent

Equivalent Load from

Equivalent

Area

Weld

technology

layers.

Area

Coeff Kn

welded load

pressure ps 2

load from

[mm 2 ]

Proc.

considered

[mm 2 ]

from p s1 .

ps 3

1

7

50

0,2733

1032,9

918,206

956,5

 
  • 350 S.E.fpf

               

7*

20

17,5

0,13572

353,42

370,518

380,018

 
  • 350 MAG

4. CONCLUSIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The process of optimization welded structures, from

assuring the maximum load capacity in the statically

case, is a complex process. Only the optimization of the

dimensions of the sectional geometrical characteristics

of the part of the structure can mot assure the success of

the work. The uses of the additional system of loads,

which are given from the welding technology, make the

design process more appropriate from the optimum

solution. The minimum weight, that are the most

needed criteria from the designers, in the condition of

maximum energy absorbed from the structure are not

coincident with the minimum price structure.

[1] Myhr O.,R and Grong O. Acta Metall. Mater. 1990, 38, 449-460 [2] Leoveanu, I.S.,Zgură Gh. Model de calcul cu elemente finite a matricii elasto-plastice în cazul ZITM a cordoanelor de sudură. N.T.U.P.C., nr. VII. Pag. 301-307. [3] Leoveanu, I.S. Determinarea forţelor exercitate de cordoanele de sudură asupra secţiunilor formate din bare sudate. Buletinul AGIR, 1998.

[4] Leoveanu, I.S., Iov ă na ş R,. Establishes of the Equivalent Longitudinal Forces products of the welded joints and use them to the determination of the residual strains of the welded girders.

Welding & Joining 2000 Conference, Tel Aviv. Pag. 170-179.

[5] Leoveanu, I.S., Iovănaş R,. The optimization model from the design and technology of the welded beam structures, in

condition of maximum energy absorbed. Welding & Joining 2000 Conference, Tel Aviv, pag.180-191.