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**1/2009 ● ianuarie-martie
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31

OPTIMIZING THE WELDING PROCESS

FOR THE STRUCTURE WITH COMPLEX

GEOMETRICAL CONFIGURATION

Şef lucr. dr. ing. Ioan-Sorin LEOVEANU

Universitatea „Transilvania”, Braşov

Este absolvent al Universităţii „Transilvania” din Braşov, Facultatea de Tehnologia Construcţiilor de Maşini,

Secţia utilajul şi tehnologia sudării. A efectuat stagiul la U. „Tractorul” din Braşov şi la I.P.T. Întorsura

Buzăului, apoi a fost inginer proiectant la Institutul de Cercetare pentru Autovehicule şi Tractoare – Braşov,

la departamentul punţi motoare directoare. Din 1988 este cadru didactic la Universitatea „Transilvania” din

Braşov, la Catedra de ingineria materialelor şi sudării. Este doctor inginer al Universităţii „Politehnica” din

Bucureşti, din 2002. A contribuit la proiectarea punţilor motoare cu mare unghi de virare pentru tractoare

agricole şi industriale, la proiectarea şi omologarea structurilor de rezistenţă sudate pentru tractoare industrial

si agricole. A publicat manuale şi monografii pe plan local, central şi în colaborare cu universităţi din

străinătate, precum şi articole în reviste şi buletinele unor conferinţe de specialitate din ţară şi din străinătate.

REZUMAT. Metoda propusă în lucrare a fost dezvoltată cu scopul optimizării structurilor 2D şi 3D formate din bare cu secţiunea

obţinută prin sudură. La baza metodei stă metoda de optimizare se află liniarizarea pe subdomenii şi optimizarea cu metoda simplex în

conformitate cu varianta de optimizare propusă de L.B.L. Karihaloo. În cazul secţiunii sudate a barelor, stabilirea parametrilor optima

de sudare s-a obţinut pe baza metodei forţelor echivalente. Se obţine astfel un sistem de forţe de încărcare echivalente procesului de

sudare care generează în urma procesului de optimizare tehnologia de sudare optimă sau care să producă deformaţiile dorite în

structura sudată. Rezultatele analizei au fost verificate utilizând metoda elementelor finite şi măsurătorile experimentale. Se urmăreşte

împărţirea variabilelor de proiectare în variabile legate de datele geometrice secţionale şi diverse sisteme de încărcări ce echivalează

tehnologia de sudare care se adaugă încărcărilor de proiectare, astfel încât să se obţină o structură optimă atât prin prisma tehnologiei

de execuţie cât şi prin prisma greutăţii acesteia. Metoda a fost verificată şi pentru structuri care dezvoltă articulaţii plastice înaintea

pierderii capacităţii portante iar rezultatele utilizării metodei la proiectarea unui cadru ROPS + FOPS au condus la obţinerea şi

omologarea primei structuri sudate care a reuşit să îndeplinească aceste condiţii extreme de restrictive.

Cuvinte cheie: metoda elementelor finite, forţe echivalente, proces de sudare, optimizarea parametrilor.

ABSTRACT. The method proposed is developed for the optimization of the 2D and 3D welded beam structures. The elements of the

structures can be welded or laminate profiles. The method is based on the linearization simplex method, according of the variant

proposed by L.B.L. Karihaloo. In the case of welded profiles, the establish of welded optimum parameters was based on a first

approximation inverse problem in established the welded equivalent loading. The method can be used to establish the deflections of

the welded structures, too, or for optimization of welded technology and establishing the optimum welded layers in the joints or

even optimum welded joints successions and positions. We try to make a classification of the project variables by their origin, so we

use, structure variables, like areas, momentums, material properties, technological variables, like the equivalents loads reduced in

the axis of welded structures and condition variables that in this case consist in deflection imposed, or stresses or maximum energy

absorbed. The butt of our optimization does not consist in an absolute optimum achieved, but in an optimization between a lot of

criteria and get the most realistic solution as possible. The optimization algorithms choose is based on the linearization of

restrictions in sub zones and solve the optimization using simplex method.

Keywords: Finite elements method, equivalent forces, welded process, optimum parameters.

1. INTRODUCTION

The dates analyzed method is use for obtain the

expression of development of a powerful method able

to be use in the optimization method of welded

structure based on beam. [5], [6].In this but we propose

to use an equivalent force that may give the defor-

mations of welded girders in agreement with the welded

process and technology. In this way the equivalent force

have the general expression:

l

US S

b m S S S

k k k A p F ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

/

1

ψ

(1)

where: p

S

is the equivalent pressure of the welding

process; A

S

– the area of welded joint; k

m

– the correction

coefficient based on the number of layers and can be

calculate with any relation from the table 2; k

S/US

b1

– the

correction coefficient for fillet weld joints, symmetrical

and unsymmetrical welded; k

l

– the correction coefficient

for welded not continues bead; ψ – the correction

coefficient with the degree of deformation.

2 , 0

06525 , 15 407 , 1868 318 , 5731

p e S

R d p ⋅ + ⋅ + − = (2)

where: d

e

– electrode wire diameter; R

p0.2

– yield

strength of base material; n – number of layers; t

i

–

CREATIVITATE, INVENTICĂ, ROBOTICĂ

Buletinul AGIR nr. 1/2009 ● ianuarie-martie

32

thickness of vertical plate; t

t

– thickness of horizontal

plate; l

S

– length of welded bead; l

i

– length of

stopped bead; I

Z1

– momentum of inertia for first sub-

structure; I

Z2

– momentum of inertia for second sub-

structure; Y

S

– distance from weigh point of

structure’s geometry to the weld. And the expressions

of unknowns are:

3 13 , 2

71 , 0

1

n

n k

m

≡ =

−

(3)

3 13 , 2

*

3 13 , 2

1

3 13 , 2

*

3 13 , 2

1

1

) 2 (

60 when

6 , 1

and

1

) 2 (

60 when

) 2 (

01 , 0

0 , 1

n

t t

A

t t

n

k

n

t t

A

t t

A

t t t

n

k

t i

S

i i

b

S

t i

S

i i

S

t i i

b

S

+

= >

=

+

= ≤

+

+ =

3 13 , 2

*

3 13 , 2

1

3 13 , 2

*

3 13 , 2

1

1

) 2 (

60 when

5 , 2

and

1

) 2 (

60 when

) 2 (

015 , 0

6 , 1

n

t t

A

t t

n

k

n

t t

A

t t

A

t t t

n

k

t i

S

i i

b

US

t i

S

i i

S

t i i

b

US

+

= >

=

+

= ≤

+

+ =

Y Z

S Z Z

Y I

Y I I ) (

2 1

+

= ψ ;

i S

S

i

l l

l

k

+

=

Table 1. Regressions obtained from specimens

with maximum 20 layers

Regression law

Law

coefficients

Error

c n

m

n b a k ⋅ ⋅ =

a = 1,0052197

b = 0,994808

c = -0,70857

0,0002

The figure 1 presents the sectional structure

geometry and welded beam type used to statistical

analyze of the free principal deflections.

2. SIMULATION RESULTS OF HEAT-FLOW-

METALLURGICAL MODEL FOR GPSAW

MODE

Simulation results of heat-flow-metallurgical model

for gpsaw mode are presented below.

Fig. 1:

a – the geometry of the butt weld type used to establish the

expression of „Tendon Force”; b – the geometry of fillet weld and

the symmetry of welded layers deposition.

Fig. 2. The joining geometry and topology.

Fig. 3. The macrostructure of welded section.

Fig. 4. The HAZ geometry of the joining.

Table 2. Chemichal compozition and transverse residual stresses

of the Bas Metal and Layers

ID C [%] Mn [%] Si [%] Al [%] S [%] P [%]

MB.OL52.5kf 0,18 1,39 0.37 0.052 0.011 0.022

Layer 1 0,073 1,57 0,39 0,062 0,009 0,015

Layer 2 0,060 1,59 0,41 0,063 0,007 0,012

Layer 16 0,012 1,86 0,47 0,073 0,0046 0,0085

OPTIMIZING THE WELDING PROCESS

Buletinul AGIR nr. 1/2009 ● ianuarie-martie

33

Zoom on layer 2.

Zoom on layer 15.

Zoom on layer 16.

Fig. 5. Compare between the residual transversal stresses obtained

by FEM modelling, the experimental equivalent loads modelling

and the RX measurement on the exterior faces of welded joint.

3. CASE ANALYZED OF BEAMS

LOADING

The opimization of a welding structure are possible

when is considered all the factors that influence this

structure. This factors can bee divided in: design

variables, that include the section area of each element

of structure and the inertia moments of the section,

variables that are freqventlly used in the optimization

with the MEF methode:

a) technological design variables, that include the

equivalent loaded, and from somme casses are presen-

ted in the introduction of this work. In this case this

variables can appear like independents casses of loads.

b) conditional works variables, that include currently

the deflections and deformation maximals or the

maximum accepted stress values of each element of

structure or in somme sections.

Fig. 6

The assambly of all the nodal equation of the

structure give the systhem of deformations ecuation of

the structure. Solving this systhem from each condition

load are the most usual wei to obtine information about

the optimality of the designed structure. If are

introduced the design variables, that are the geometrical

caracteristics of elements {x

0

e

} = {A

e

, I

ze

, I

ye

, I

xye

} the

problem of the optimum geometrical caracteristics can

be solved from evry loading case, so, the case wheh are

used the technological loaded in addition to the work

loaded cases. Using the design variables, the equilibrus

equations becomes nonlinear, the search of linear

approximation can be make using the Taylor series

method, from a initial solution { }

0

x to obtine the next

optimum solutions { }

k

x . The matematical model of

optimization, in the condition of minimum weight

structure becomes:

To be minimizated the fonction:

( ) n j X z

j

, ... , 2 , 1 ; =

with restrictions:

( ) m i X g

j i

, ... , 2 , 1 ; 0 = =

∑

and

j j j

U X L ≤ ≤ (4)

where: X

j

– the design and technological variables;

Z(X

j

) – the minimum scop function, initial the wheight

of all the element; g

i

(x

j

) – the equilibrus equations

systhem of the nods; L

j

– the loweres accepted values

from the variables; U

j

– the upperes acceptates values

from the design variables.

Using the first derivativ from the Taylor series,

arround the current solution {x

k

} it can be obtined the

liniarizated problem:

( )

( )

( )

∑

=

+

−

∂

∂

+

n

j

k

j

k

j

j

k

j k

j

x x

x

x z

x Z

1

1

with the conditions:

( )

( ) m i x x

x

x g

k

j

k

j

n

j

k

j

k

j i

, ... , 2 , 1 ; 0

1

1

= = −

∂

∂

+

=

∑

,

and

j j j

U X L ≤ ≤

So, the conditions equations becomes linear equa-

tion:

m n m i b x a

i j ii

≥ = =

∑

..., , 2 , 1 (5)

where c

i

, a

ij

, b

i

are constant coefficients, obtined in the

processus of the assambly of liniarizated nodal equation

for each element of the structure. After determination

the vectors and matrices used to establish the line-

arization algorithm, the method was used to design a

CREATIVITATE, INVENTICĂ, ROBOTICĂ

Buletinul AGIR nr. 1/2009 ● ianuarie-martie

34

strong loaded welded structure, with a relative simple

geometry, and low number of beam elements.

The geometry and experimental loads are done in

Figure 7.

Fig. 7. The geometry and finite element topology

of the tested structure.

The method was used to the design of a protection

ROSP&FOPS welded structures from a Bulldozer

width 600HP power. The load condition is based on the

minimum horizontal force and a minimum energy that

the structure must absorbed before the crack. The

values of them can be established using the ISO3471-79

norms with the relations:

25 , 1

min

2 , 1

min

10000

13000

10000

70000

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⋅ =

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⋅ =

M

E

M

F

(10)

Weight; s Bulldoser' kg 000 82 : where − = M

N; 28 3 , 874

min

= F after load vertical J 9 38 , 180

min

− = E

n; deformatio horizontal

In the MAGShortArc (MAGsha) the equivalent pres-

sures are considerate to 7,44; 7,8; 8 kN/mm

2

.p

S1

,p

S2

,p

S3

=

= 11; 10; 9.8 kN/mm

2

The welding optimization technology, using the

proposed method, was giving the successful try from an

area of welded layer approximately 18 mm

2

. The result

of this welded variant structure is given in the Figure 9,

and the aspect of the structure after the Horizontal try in

the Figure 8.

Fig. 8. The Force-Deformation of the structure for welding var. 7.

Table 2. The technological loads analyzed

Welding

technology

considered

Nr. of

layers.

Layer’s

Area

[mm

2

]

Correct

Coeff Kn

Equivalent

welded load

from p

s1

.

Equivalent Load from

pressure ps

2

Equivalent

load from

ps

3

Area

[mm

2

]

Weld

Proc.

1 7 50 0,2733 1032,9 918,206 956,5 350 S.E.fpf

…

7* 20 17,5 0,13572 353,42 370,518 380,018 350 MAG

4. CONCLUSIONS

The process of optimization welded structures, from

assuring the maximum load capacity in the statically

case, is a complex process. Only the optimization of the

dimensions of the sectional geometrical characteristics

of the part of the structure can mot assure the success of

the work. The uses of the additional system of loads,

which are given from the welding technology, make the

design process more appropriate from the optimum

solution. The minimum weight, that are the most

needed criteria from the designers, in the condition of

maximum energy absorbed from the structure are not

coincident with the minimum price structure.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] Myhr O.,R and Grong O. Acta Metall. Mater. 1990, 38, 449-460

[2] Leoveanu, I.S.,Zgură Gh. Model de calcul cu elemente finite a

matricii elasto-plastice în cazul ZITM a cordoanelor de sudură.

N.T.U.P.C., nr. VII. Pag. 301-307.

[3] Leoveanu, I.S. Determinarea forţelor exercitate de cordoanele

de sudură asupra secţiunilor formate din bare sudate. Buletinul

AGIR, 1998.

[4] Leoveanu, I.S., Iovănaş R,. Establishes of the Equivalent

Longitudinal Forces products of the welded joints and use them to

the determination of the residual strains of the welded girders.

Welding & Joining 2000 Conference, Tel Aviv. Pag. 170-179.

[5] Leoveanu, I.S., Iovănaş R,. The optimization model from the

design and technology of the welded beam structures, in

condition of maximum energy absorbed. Welding & Joining

2000 Conference, Tel Aviv, pag.180-191.

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Welding optimization of sectional beams involved in ROPS/FOPS design of structures that work over the last capacity of loads

Welding optimization of sectional beams involved in ROPS/FOPS design of structures that work over the last capacity of loads

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