In the history there has been always a conflict between two or more groups everywhere.

Those problems could be religious, cultural, economical, political, racial, or of any kind of ideology. Australia isn’t the exception, and there have been problems since the British arrived. The first and maybe the most important is a racial problem between two groups that should be tied,it’s the problem between ‘British’-Australians and aboriginal Australians Prior to the freedom rides the Indigenous Australians experienced many things. They were not counted as citizens and they were dispossessed of their land. They were forced to all live together on small parts of land on the edge of towns. These places were called reserves and missions. The living conditions of these places were atrocious. There was sub-standard housing, with people living in shanties. There was no plumbing, no electricity and no amenities. Things were extremely hard for Aboriginals on these reserves, and even harder in the towns there was unbearable racism. Aboriginals did not have access to amenities, such as cafes, cinemas, theatres, hotels and swimming pools; things we taken for granted today. Under the law Aborigines living on reserves could not invite any non-resident, even a family member, into their home. Not only that, but there was a lot of verbal, and sometimes physical, abuse, just because they were Aboriginal. Charles Perkins was born at the Alice Springs Telegraph Station Aboriginal Reserve in the Northern Territory in 1936. His parents were Arrente and Kalkadoon people. He was removed from the reserve when he was 10 and educated at St Francis House, a school established by a priest in Adelaide to educate Aboriginal boys. He was away from his family, his heritage and his culture. During his adolescence he suffered racial vilification, was ostracised and alienated socially and generally was treated as a second-class citizen by his peers. Perkins' skill as a soccer player took him out of this environment – but he still faced racial discrimination. One significant event that influenced Charles Perkins to take his role in the freedom rides was he was not allowed to drink in pubs with his soccer mates, he had to stand outside with his drink because he was aboriginal. Originated from the The freedom rides for civil rides in Washington D.C May 1961. In Sydney University Charles Perkins helped to form Student Action for Aborigines in 1964, and was elected President. In February 1965, he led 29 students into the outback of New South Wales. Their objective was similar to that of the American Freedom Riders: to expose embedded and entrenched racism against Indigenous Australians, and to draw attention throughout Australia to their poor living conditions. The students protested and demonstrated against racial segregation and discrimination taking place in various locations such as town hotels, shops, cinemas, swimming pools, RSL clubs and public parks. They often encountered hostile reactions from the local citizens, and there were violent incidents. The 1964 and 1965 freedom rides were a significant event in the history of civil rights for Indigenous Australians. Led by Charles Perkins and students ;The aim was to raise the issues of Indigenous Affairs , give them the same rights as the 'white people' and for them to be treated fairly. The Freedom Riders gained wide media publicity throughout Australia and internationally, arousing awareness of the plight of Indigenous Australians. Thanks to successful leadership by Charles Perkins it was a triumphant movement. Two years later, in the national referendum of 1967, the Australian people voted overwhelmingly in favour of removing individual state control over the way Indigenous people were governed and treated, gradually leading to many much-needed reforms at federal level. It really helped aboriginal people gain control of how they should be living, not how the white man wants him to live.

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