International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279

Ethnic minorities and the Spanish and Catalan educational systems: From exclusion to intercultural education
Jordi Garreta BochacaÃ
`ncies de l’Educacio Complex de la Caparrella s/n, ´, Departament de Geografia i Sociologia, Facultat de Cie Universitat de Lleida, Lleida 25192, Spain

Abstract Since the 1990s, cultural diversity in Spanish classrooms has increased notably with the arrival of immigrant origin students. This fact, together with the European Union discourses about consideration for cultural differences, have contributed to the appearance in Spain, and particularly in Catalonia, of an intercultural discourse. This article analyses the evolution of educational policies up to the current dominant discourse (from exclusion to incorporation in the school and the classroom, passing through segregationist actions) emphasising the difficulty nowadays of putting this into everyday practice, among other things for the lack of references and the absence of resources. This is done through the analysis of different official documents, as well as recouping different pieces of research on this question by both the author and others. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Resumen La diversidad cultural en las aulas espanolas se ha incrementado notablemente a partir de los anos ˜ ˜ noventa por la llegada de alumnado de origen inmigrante y este hecho, junto con los discursos de ´ ´ toma en consideracion de las diferencias culturales que ha realizado la Union Europea, han ´ contribuido a la aparicion en Espana, y particularmente en Cataluna, del discurso intercultural. Este ˜ ˜ ´ ´ artı´ culo analiza la evolucion realizada hasta llegar al discurso dominante actual (de la exclusion a la ´ incorporacion en la escuela y en las aulas, pasando por actuaciones segregacionistas), eso sı´ , ´ enfatizando en la dificultad existente hoy en dı´ a de traducir el mismo a la practica cotidiana, entre ´ otras cosas por la falta de referentes y por la ausencia de recursos. Todo ello se realizara a partir del
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those that have interested teachers and researchers). integration. it can be affirmed that assimilation. centred on some of these Communities. Compensation. Gitanos. partially. Inmigrantes. Although it is true that there is still a long way to go before Spain. among others. This led to compensatory programmes that were applied to ethnic minorities. it is also true that the discourses are leading in this direction. nowadays. and the enrichment of.2 can be referred to as a society where intercultural education has been implanted. the research carried out has been partial. it must be mentioned that our research team has produced a project to analyse the work done comparatively and lines for the future). as well as transmitting the dominant culture. ası´ como de recuperar diferentes investigaciones ajenas y ´ propias realizadas sobre esta cuestion. Tarrow (1990). ˜ ´ ´ Educacion intercultural.ARTICLE IN PRESS 262 J. which would implicitly contain the idea of interaction between. but it has undergone changes in the way it is viewed. cultural pluralism (which.. we must refer more to discourses than to actual practice. the oldest is probably the difference in academic performance between social groups. It has gone1 from models that postulated that integration into a society should be through assimilation into the dominant group of the culturally different. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. but in others this evolution has not occurred or has followed other directions. see. to more modern discourses about recognition and valuing. Other important ‘‘problems’’ are bilingualism in specific Autonomous Communities with their own languages (Catalonia is one of these). through positive discrimination with compensatory programmes and. 3 With respect to these focuses. and the presence of In some places. one of its Autonomous Communities (regions). of the ‘‘other cultures’’ by society and in schools. as well as the arrival of immigrants and their concentration in certain zones and schools. all members of society. Sociology of education ´ ´ ´ Palabras clave: Minorı´ as etnicas. although maintaining distances) do appear to have been put into practice. However. At this level. The administrative division into 17 Autonomous Communities has caused diversification in relation to the theme of this study. Julio Carabana. Keywords: Ethnic minorities.e. takes the minority cultures and languages into consideration. Introduction Cultural diversity is not a new phenomenon inside the walls of the school. considered that ˜ among the multicultural ‘‘problems’’ in education in Spain (i. Intercultural education. The complexity of a comparative study has restricted any step forward in this sense. Spanish and Catalan educational system. and. This has meant that since this structure was created. Sociologı´ a de la educacion 1. Immigrants. specifically Catalonia.3 Nevertheless. this is still not true as far as multicultural education for everyone is concerned (extension of the anterior focus to the minority and majority students) or intercultural education. 2 1 . as does the youth of the sample under consideration for the cultural differences (however. in an 1993 article that had important repercussions. Sistema educativo espanol y catalan. Compensacion. Gypsies. to a greater or lesser extent. The evolution observed in other societies does not differ greatly from the Spanish case. All rights reserved. although the rhythm and the timing do not coincide. that is. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 ´ analisis de diferentes documentos oficiales.

1. and exclusion only appeared as an alternative solution for those who refused to meld into their surroundings. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 263 indigenous minorities in the country. it could be said that more than conscious exclusion. From 1945 on (still very soon after the Nazi genocide) confinement was replaced with inclusion for humanitarian considerations and for the management of an ever more technocratic society. gypsies went through a period of non-compulsory schooling. which in most cases meant ‘‘assimilating them’’ into society and the school. Up to a point. This idea is endorsed by Teresa San Roman (1984). During most of the Franco period (1939–1975). the so-called bridge-schools became a form of segregated non-transitory schooling. for example. segregation and insertion 2. This. but little practice. and their families. we shall base our research on the autonomous community of Catalonia. there was a change to imprisonment for those who ´ resisted. totally or partially renouncing their personal and ´ ´ group identity (Fernandez Enguita. when gypsy affairs came to be viewed within general surveillance and control measures. has led to different ways of understanding and working on cultural diversity. generally up to 1950. in the mid-1990s. at an educational level. the aim was to make gypsies abandon all distinguishing traits and pass unnoticed. this was in function of the steps taken in the process of acculturation into the ‘‘payo4’’ world.ARTICLE IN PRESS J. in contrast with other countries. 2. emanating from Madrid. the above-mentioned evolution coexisted with the transformation from a centralised educational system. For Mariano Fernandez Enguita (1996). In the case of Spain. Exclusion. in most states. 4 In Spain the word payo is used by gypsies to indentify non-gypsies. since the Real Pragma Campo (1499). In a first stage. to a decentralised model where the autonomous communities took on a very important role (some more than others) in questions of education. compensatory programmes coincided with intercultural discourses. historically. three stages can be differentiated in relation to attention to diversity. The third step was the incorporation of these children into the ordinary classroom with the backing of compensatory education programmes. while illiteracy is a sign of ethnic isolation. given that the arrival of a large number of foreign immigrants is relatively recent. A brief resume of each of this evolution is presented below and given the diversity of perspectives and action that there is and the little research done. Moreover. wanted. In Spain. Exclusion and segregation ´tica of Medina del In Spain. 1996). In a second stage. As Liegeois (1987) states. Later. who states that the appearance and relative increase in training and education among the above-mentioned group means higher acculturation. as they were from other institutional and social spheres. Moreover. . the gypsies fall into this latter context. they were simply excluded from the schools. there was a switch from exclusion to segregation given that despite their name. As shown below. among what are nowadays usually denominated ‘‘ethnic’’ minorities. the first actions that we find were aimed especially ´ towards the gypsies. it can be said that they attended school when they. the policy of exclusion lost strength during the 19th century. It has been often stated that something had to be done to integrate them. Simultaneously. the gypsies are the group with the most resistant ethnic identity.

The ´ above-mentioned Liegeois (1987) affirmed that reality imposed itself and the best in the short term was not to eliminate these classes. At an educational level. the perpetuation of the situation and the fact that the targets were not reached. an agreement was signed between the National Secretariat of Gypsy Apostolate. aimed for insertion. the panorama could be defined as one of important deficiencies. the result was not totally negative given that it also served to enrol those who would otherwise never have gone to school. 1997). This took the form of precocious work. there was still segregationist practice disguised under legal texts that. authoritarian in the taking of decisions within the institutions and the concept of pedagogic interaction. dedicated specifically to them and adaptable to their circumstances. as they are aimed at preparing the gypsies children to enter into the general schools. Of course. This covenant lasted until 1986. As Calero ˜ and Bonal (1999) affirm. pedagogical imbalance. In fact. and those schools carry this name. nor the indispensable flexibility in timetables and discipline. there were 182 Bridge Schools in Spain. 11 in Barcelona and another. with the Union of the Democratic Centre (UCD) in government. in the 1981–1982 school year. 1982).ARTICLE IN PRESS 264 J. and children from marginal minority sectors deprived of schooling. Thus.. as Mariano Fernandez Enguita (1996) states. obsolete in teaching contents and the training of teaching staff.2. was characterised by economic development and social change. It was polarised between a private school that took pupils from the better-off classes. In 1978. The aim of these was to facilitate the access of gypsies to school through centres located near their homes. 16). Insertion and compensation Spanish society in the 1960s and 1970s. but rather that the aim is to incorporate gypsy infants into the common school. although. it was affirmed as follows: The creation of special schools is not a result of discrimination. etc. discrimination in schooling. For example. and a public school very low in quality and quantity. which was aimed to make the educational system function on a fairer basis. when it was finally ´ decided to enrol gypsy children in ordinary centres. The work carried out by the National Gypsy Secretariat in 1982 showed that the educational problematic of the gypsy school population was related to the consequences of their exclusion. there are still exceptional cases of Bridge Schools. and the Ministry of Education and Science which created the Bridge Schools. the last period of Franco’s regime. disadvantage in the educational system and discordance between home and school) and thus an intervention like the Bridge Schools was justified. This positive appraisal of these ‘‘special’’ classes also occurred in other contexts. It is in this context that the compensatory educational policy appeared in the text of the General Law of Education in 1970. the legacy of Franco’s regime in education was a profoundly unequal education system. with effects for both. lack of school places. lack of social habits. without specifying. respect for the culture. in Hospitalet (Secretariado Nacional Gitano. It also gave rise to the ´ appearance of a small sector of teachers concerned about the question (Fernandez Enguita. it is a transitory stage (p. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 2. despite the segregation. . A consequence of this was the great migratory movement from the rural zones to the cities. in theory. dependent on the Catholic Church. given that the ordinary schools offered neither the pedagogic quality. This programme was conceived to compensate for the deficiencies in the education system (Graneras et al. overcrowding and high dropout rates.

the minister in Felipe ´ Gonzalez’s first socialist government.6 repealed by the Constitutional Law regulating the Right to Education. especially British and American. among others. 7 Constitutional Law 8/1985 of 3 July. 6 Constitutional Law of 19 July 1980. etc. the Spanish project. it is necessary to turn to educational sociology and. To understand this programme and its development in Spain. Simultaneously. to the study of social inequalities in education that began in the 1950s in Great Britain and was the centre of attention for more than two decades. incentives for teaching staff assigned to less attractive areas.Ma. In Spain. The main objectives and functions of that programme were the creation of a school support service. Naturally. 1997). Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 265 1996). 1977). in any case. The programme did not envisage the disappearance if inequalities as an immediate target. Maravall. in general lines.). etc. Halsey (see. Bourdieu and Passeron’s theory of reproduction. eradication of illiteracy.5 was directly inspired by the experience of Labour’s ‘‘Educational Priority Areas’’. LODE7). the National Gypsy Secretariat itself. but rather the development of an equal opportunities policy that would gradually lead to educational results not being determined by such variables as living in rural areas or belonging to disfavoured social classes. Halsey. it evolved over time with the appearance of new research. the ˜ development of these programmes happened later than in other Western countries and evolved very differently. a qualitative change in the way of understanding compensation and its practice (Graneras et al. as stated. Rather it mentioned the ‘‘compensatory and integrational’’ projection of educational policy in relation to those disfavoured by their ‘‘economic capacity. 2000).Ma. organisation of professional training courses for 14–15 years old not enrolled in schools. 1992. compensatory education appeared in 1983 (Royal Decree 27 April 1983. after overcoming. and Llevot (2001). creation of grants or help for studies. BOE 11 May) with the creation of a specific programme to benefit the geographic zones or population groups whose special characteristics required preferential educational attention (Centro de ´ ´ Investigacion y Documentacion Educativa. the previous policies of exclusion and segregation and thus backing incorporation into the ordinary classroom. etc. 5 . social It must be mentioned that J. Finally. one of the first actions that arose. although the legal framework is the 1970 General Education Law. Each of these represented a step forward or backwards for these policies and. LOECE. (1972) and the rise of theories that questioned the possibility that education could produce changes in society (the ‘‘new educational sociology’’. was the creation of the compensatory education programme.. despite having a favourable opinion about the work of these also partook of the idea of eliminating them and incorporating gypsy children into ordinary schools especially as the presence of the gypsy children in these former was being perpetuated.ARTICLE IN PRESS J. promoted by J. However. as presented below. The Compensatory Education Programme developed the right of the pupils to receive help to compensate for possible family type deficiencies (recognised in the Constitutional Law of the Statute for Schools. specifically. to a great extent. Garreta. Samper.H. Examples of the latter are the Coleman (1966) report. Maravall had done a doctorate in sociology under the guidance of the prestigious Oxford professor A. The notion of equality of opportunity arose at the same time that compensatory education was considered one of the most important strategies of educational policy. In the Spanish case. its fundaments did not refer to ethnic origin or cultural diversity as factors of inequality in the educational system. the study by Jenks et al.

at the end of the 1990s. among others. The programme did. however. these pupils are mainly from the gypsy ethnic group and immigrant origin. This programme was gradually modified. and since then. opened the door for the implantation of intercultural education programmes. in contrast to the 1970 LGE. but in reality. as well as the intercultural discourse that appeared in a confused way at the beginning. This programme was then centred on providing help for the full integration of children with problems of social exclusion. Among other things. in the Catalan case. consult: www. 2001). This was so until the end of 2003 when it disappeared merged with other Services of the Generalitat de Catalonia (the Catalan Autonomous Government). 2002) 8 Autonomous Community this study is centred on given that it is where the intercultural discourse and the interest in dealing with cultural diversity is most highly developed. it became consolidated. . 11 The name of the department in the autonomous administration in Catalonia that looks after all formal education. always within a common legal framework. 10 With respect to the discourse by the Council of Europe. respect ´ for cultures and education in co-operation and the solidarity. the presence of pupils from other cultures.9 underlined as targets of the educational system.gencat. 1997). have continued increasing. That means that it has evolved from a centralised system to one that is decentralised in which the various autonomous governments have the power to manage at an educational level. LOGSE.8 it was first applied in mainly gypsy La Perona neighbourhood in Barcelona before being expanded to other areas. it was applied statewide and its function was to deal with the needs of those pupils who were at risk of social exclusion. Barragan. This is. From 1986 to 1987 on. which we do not have space to deal with here. and especially. consult. It should be borne in mind that from the 1978 Constitution and the 1979 Statute of Autonomy. it was extended to students of Moroccan origin in El Raval in Barcelona. In Catalonia. specifically from the so-called Third World.10 It should be emphasised that. In practice. the agreement was signed with the Departament d’Ensenyament11 of the Generalitat to take over the Compensatory Education programme in Catalonia. this is a result of it being one of the Autonomous Communities with its own language and which has been characterised by the vindication of its different culture and identity. however. except universities. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 level or place of residence’’. In the 1983–84 course. in line with the directives of the Council of Europe.ARTICLE IN PRESS 266 J. For Eduardo Terren (2001). Moreover. For its part. which defines the minimums. influenced by the teaching demands. An example of this confusion is the work of the Laboratory of Intercultural ´ Studies at the University of Granada (Garcı´ a. the ´ regularisation of attendance at class and the avoidance of early dropping out (Terren. Granados. 1997). that set out an educational system with parallel compensatory action. the number of teachers. and its geographical distribution. ˜ At the end of 1990. 1989). the fact of having its own language (as also happens in the Basque Country and Galicia but not in the other autonomous communities) has meant that the teaching language is Catalan (to develop this aspect and that of autonomous education. include ‘‘cultural minorities’’ as a specific area of action orientated to the enrolment of the infant population. 9 Constitutional Law 1/1990 of 3 October. Catalonia has full control of education.. Conseil de l’Europe (1983. The programme came into being with a provisional nature. reaching all over Catalonia ( leaving the regional governments with room for manoeuvre. it was the first Spanish educational law affecting all the country (like the Law of Quality referred to below) that mentions the need to fight ethnic-cultural and sexual discrimination and. & Garcı´ a–Cano. the LOGSE is intended to build an education system that also compensates for inequalities without parallel action (Graneras et al. the 1990 Constitutional Law of General Ordering of the Educational System.

1% from sub-Saharan Africa and 0. 4.ARTICLE IN PRESS J. especially in public centres. The same source provides the geographic origins of these pupils. and in 1998–1999. equality of opportunity for quality) and the right of the pupil to receive help to compensate for family. 2002. 37. Recently a new step was taken at the legislative level in Spain.5% from Asia and Oceania.3% from the European Union. social and cultural shortcomings that impede.7% (Departament d’Ensenyament.5% and in 2002–2003 this had risen to ´ 4.8%. in contrast to pupils of immigrant origin for whom statistics appear every year.8% of total pupil numbers in schools in Catalonia. for example. invisible at a statistical level. the education system.1% are from North Africa. The data from 2001 to 2002 shows the following distribution. Moreover. in 1995–1996 this figure was 1. etc.4% from non-EU European countries. namely the approval in Parliament (31 October 2002) of the Project for the Constitutional Law of Quality in Education. although ‘‘with good intentions’’. duties and opportunities.8% from Central and South America.8% from North America. for example. the Autonomous Community we concentrate on. the vagueness or simplicity of the proposals made. led to important doses of ´ speculation in the discourse. it will promote the creation of learning programmes and specific classrooms with the intention of favouring their integration. an ethnic minority with a long history in Spain. For the Department. among other questions. To this end. They are. first referred to ‘‘interculturality’’. for example. The authors analysed the X Congreso Nacional de Pedagogıa held at the beginning of 1992 under the theme ‘‘Intercultural Education in the Perspective of the United Europe’’. where they are or their degree of academic success or failure.5%. Towards intercultural education: analysis of the contradictions of the Catalan model One of the motives for the development of the intercultural discourse in Spain. 6. 1992b). given that the specific details still remain to be decided despite the time that has elapsed and waiting still to see how these evolve with the new government. the principal of equality (that guarantees. Secretaria per a la Immigracio. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 267 who show how the little conceptual clarity. first section) to foreign students and their specific educational needs. In 2000–2001 they represented 2. this Popular Party law includes significant support for opportunities for quality for everyone as one of its axis (the third). 1. Without going into excessive detail. the corporate interest in taking over a theme that they ‘‘had always’’ worked on. This axis would specify. it dedicates special attention (chapter VII. economic. They draw attention to the little research carried out. it is necessary that the innumerable decisions that are taken every day are coherent with an educational project that tends towards an intercultural society. while in the 1991–1992 course these pupils made up 0. 7. 1992a) and compulsory secondary education (Departament d’Ensenyament. 2003). The 35. according to the document. 3. It was in 1992 when the Department of Education. and permanence in. but especially in Catalonia. it is not known exactly how many of them there are. in the sense that. Another interesting question is the effect of this ‘‘new’’ focus on the gypsies. is the notable increase in the number of pupils of immigrant origin in the classroom. the lack of knowledge about diversity in the classroom in statistical terms. 8. on defining the curriculum for primary (Departament d’Ensenyament. as well as adopting the necessary measures to assess their parents about their rights. without . It is clear that we will need to be watchful over coming years as to how this law is applied in the day to day in the classroom. Thus. or obstruct access to. the lack of theoretical reference points.

Thus. that postulates that it is necessary to prepare the pupils to live in a culturally diverse society. resolve conflicts constructively). to the concretion of the intercultural option. taking cultural differences into consideration and combating racism. in 1993 Inter-departmental Plan for Immigration was approved. If we follow Ouellet (1991). an aim implying developing a set of attitudes and aptitudes in all the pupils with respect to their own culture and cultural diversity in society and the school. tolerance and critical sense.ARTICLE IN PRESS 268 J. adapt the curriculum. etc. overcome prejudices). introduce different cultural elements). the principal objectives of this model coincide: strive for the participation and implication of parents in the educational project. This would lead. adapting them to the necessities when needed. Intercultural education is intended to give all pupils the above-mentioned ‘‘cultural competence’’ in each centre and classroom. According to Salvador Carrasco (1999). play and learn co-operatively. it was in 1996.13 the position taken in this document by the Generalitat de Catalunya would respond.12 In his opinion. during the 1993–1994 and 1995–1996 courses. (3) strengthen coexistence (discover resemblances. However. with the publication of the ‘‘transversal axis on intercultural education’’. and promote the capacity for interpersonal relations and social insertion and action. Thus. promote the implication of the teaching staff and give importance to See Hansen (1998). The document envisaged action by the Department of Education. specifically in the training of trainers. as well as other departments. manifest positive expectations). Thus. and (4) improve the equality of opportunity for all pupils (maximise performance. the basis for the transversal axis to be followed in schools in Catalonia. considers that it should not be a superficial educational practice. various guidelines and resolutions from the Council of the European Union about the response to the problems of racism and xenophobia were published. to a great degree. on the margin of the ordinary curriculum. years later. some of these would corroborate the line of work taken. He would group the efforts for the promotion of intercultural education into three models: promotion of cultural pluralism. empathy and affirmation of one’s own identity. This document (Departament d’Ensenyament. cultural and academic self-conception (look after one’s own cultural identity. On another hand. In this framework. 13 12 . promote awareness of cultural diversity. the teaching staff was invited to introduce these approaches into schools and not to see them as adding to the teaching task a load that generates headaches and stress. in the field of interculturality. (2) improve the personal. This was rooted in the community itself and openness. 1996) affirmed that education has to prepare the new generations for life in Catalan society. when a clearer bid was made to advance towards this model. value. the idea of the plan was to promote a general policy for immigration. coexistence and constructive resolution of conflicts. promoting full integration and facilitating access to existing resources and programmes. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 defining this. nor aimed solely at the culturally different minority pupils. respect and dialogue. tolerate. to the model of ‘‘taking cultural differences into consideration’’. the objectives of this conception of intercultural education would be: (1) cultivate positive intercultural attitudes (respect. sociologist and then in the General Sub-department. The document.

on the practice. in that order. training of teaching staff in intercultural education. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 269 the mother tongue. to adopt their Educational Project (PEC)14 and Curricular Project (PCC)15 to its objectives (at first only a few of these to ensure that they would really ´ be put into practice and advance progressively). For Jordan. some basic criteria are provided to draw up the CEP in the line of inter-culturality. the CEP is made up of the pedagogical and organisational principals and the linguistic project. the studies carried out centre their interest. it must be pointed out that some of these objectives for the priorities and specifications that appear in the document. 15 The curricular project (PCC) is an eminently pedagogical document that is a basic instrument for defining the approaches and options that respect the principals and the prescriptions of the curriculum. 2001b). ensuring the participation of parents. guidelines and intervention. support for the teaching staff (didactic material). that is. slowly. these orientations to define intercultural education passes to the schools the request for them. Castella. although it is little. and the promotion and participation in fields of debate about intercultural education (Castella.ARTICLE IN PRESS J. although important. 2001). the Centre Curricular Project (CCP) and transfer to the areas of knowledge. It must be said that these actions are specially designed for immigrant-origin pupils and would indirectly implicate gypsies given that they are recognised as culturally different. not to be too negative. make them feel accepted in Catalonia. on the discourse. such as the reference to the mother tongues. 4. giving priority to the design of objectives in the field of inter-culturality and debating cultural proposals from different areas. although their incorporation in the school is believed to be difficult (Garreta. Catalonia and cultural diversity during the 1990s and beginning of the new century During recent years. Among others. nowadays the Department of Education’s policy of intercultural education is centred and defined in five wide fields of action. the structural organisation of the educational system and diversity of characteristics of the pupils. could be said not always to be favourable to what the Generalitat of Catalunya has been doing to respond to the recently so-highly valued cultural diversity. are given lower priority than others. These works have often been more critical of the interventions and guidelines. than with 14 For the Department of Education. of Arab language and culture’’ that seeks to promote courses with the aim of conserving their identity and. for the immigrant pupils. To sum up. these include proposing lines of action to eradicate prejudices. In Catalonia. to this respect. . These are the reception of recently arrived pupils in the school. These courses will only be run in some zones and it must be mentioned that they are not yet very well developed ´ (Secretaria per a la Immigracio. 2001a. 2003). support for school enrolment. the process of preparing an intercultural curriculum in the centres consists of these three logical stages—the Centre Educational Project (CEP). To achieve this. ´ 2001. Secretaria per a la Immigracio. If the discourse is analysed in greater depth. These. the Department of Education carries out the programme of ‘‘Learning. This programme is carried out with the school timetable and is voluntary for the families of these pupils. or part of it. But it is also true that. reflecting on the multicultural society and what it represents. and Pinto (1998) (the former played an important role in drawing up the document in the Department of Education).

Specifically. have a lower level than the majority of the native children of their age and when the school becomes. a ghetto-school.16 both at a practical and an ideological level. the result of the growing sensitivity to cultural differences. With respect to the centres. At the second level. the only response being the reinforcing of schooling for those who arrive half-way through a course or cycle. normative and compensatory of inequalities. that has worked for years. the various experiences. . is an assimilating posture. essentially assimilatory. he considered that the Administration and the educational services had generated a discourse in which the concepts of inter-culturality and intercultural education filled the vacuum created by the non-existence of guidelines. In each centre. the author considered that although no specific normative had 16 His work was centred on Moroccans in Catalonia and the Autonomous Community of Madrid. For the Colectivo IOE. despite the criticisms they have and can receive. but rather to work simultaneously in both directions.ARTICLE IN PRESS 270 J. whether there were minority pupils or not. associations and institutions. But it is also true that the Colectivo IOE (1996) concluded in its work that the dominant tendency in the Spanish school. We would also add the programme of training trainers carried out by the Autonomous University of Barcelona and the Department of Education (see Carrasco. ´ For Bartolome (1997). 1997). 17 In some occasions taking and adapting previous legislation and the practices. the normative. which. the admission of immigrant-origin children is often perceived as a problem. In third place. which has the highest number of immigrant origin pupils. international agreements and support. From the discursive point of view. among other things. ` In 1998. Pascual analysed the response given by the Catalan administration to cultural diversity confirming that the school system had maintained the official curriculum practically intact. This meant. the training courses on this theme and the support of various movements. that the teaching staff had promoted few new and really intercultural practices and guidelines and that when they had done so these fell into the promotion in schools of action about ‘‘other cultures’’ without too much prior reflection. a profound reappraisal is needed of the conceptions the school institutions and the majority of its agents and implicate the educators seriously in the proposal of intercultural education to abandon the assimilatory approaches. often falling into the folkloric. Soto. with reference to the teaching staff. or is thought to be becoming. However. which Banks (1986) called addition. Palaudarias considered that understanding the discourse was difficult given that it had to articulate the previous. the educational offer was mono-cultural and uniform. & Tovı´ as. strategies and school practices for ` dealing with cultural diversity. the approach by Pascual should be modified and take into account the contribution of the Compensatory Education Programme. and the materials and resources prepared for use by the teaching staff. and the changes that supposed the transfer to the praxis of the intercultural discourse. in particular. In 1992. Palaudarias differentiated three levels of action and intervention carried out with regard to the presence of the cultural diversity generated by foreign-origin pupils17: discursive. practices. to each centre’s educational plan. the pedagogical practice of the teachers was limited to the curricular lines that the school imposed and. have been adapted to the dominant intercultural current. especially when they arrive halfschooled. it is believed necessary not to polarise efforts on the attitudes of the teaching staff or the contents. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 the discourses.

with the intention of providing a legal framework for the recognition and defence of the educational rights of the immigrants and their families. from a comparative point of view. that the educational practice is more assimilatory and compensatory than really intercultural. the studies cited present a certain evolution during the 1990s but continue indicating. and which carried out by Akkari and Ferrer (2000). is generally assimilatory. Another study that should be mentioned is the one that. Thus the sample was 740 teaching staff from all over Catalonia. and ` unable to face the challenges of a multi-cultural society.5% confidence. having been applied for some time without obtaining the expected results. He considered that there was a policy to orientate the schooling of the children of non-Community immigrants. For this. he still considers an effort in this direction necessary given that little has yet been done. both in the schools. Our interest was to analyse the opinion and the attitudes of the teaching staff from the public.18 of the phenomena of intercultural education and.19 This also indicated that the dynamic of implanting intercultural education is slow (although we also give it a certain leeway) and that until now. The fieldwork was done through personal interviews in the centres. The dominant assimilatory and compensatory models in the educational administration in Catalonia respond to the affirmation of the culture of the host society. being Spanish citizens. that aimed at integration. A total of 211 schools scattered around all the districts of Catalonia were visited. The Arab language and culture classes would be indicators of this. We wished to verify this fact by carrying out an extensive in-depth study into the situation of the attitudes and opposition. applied through the really compensatory Compensatory Education Programme. especially in Catalonia. This. in some aspects. is closely related to the process of strengthening cultural identity in Catalonia and the implicit belief that diversity. in turn. This work. more or less conclusively. specifically compared intercultural education in Switzerland and Spain. but he found it to be seriously damaged. Palaudarias (2002) recognised that. rather than enriching this process. was defined by the compensatory focus that it had taken on in Catalonia. 2003). some professionals have progressed closer to intercultural action than the really compensatory education. As far as the gypsies were concerned. private and grant-aided private primary and compulsory secondary education centres (pupils from 6 to 16 years old) in Catalonia. obstructs it. the teaching staff have not received adequate orientation and resources and nor are they obliged to define themselves on this question and thus act. in the most unfavourable case (p ¼ q ¼ 50%) and with 95. was not well adapted to school practices. more than the official programmes. which. This situation is not seen as contradictory to the compensatory vision. The third level. the public administration and society. However. the compensation for inequalities. according to their opinion. It then affirmed that the current theoretical and practical position with respect to intercultural education. specific legislation would be unnecessary. gives a degree of error of 73. signs are seen of an opening towards more advanced models. analysed the distribution policy and the reception and support programmes for these pupils.6. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 271 been generated. the existing one had been adapted. and intercultural practice in schools in Catalonia (see Garreta & Llevot. using the Department of Education census of teaching staff. Years later. 19 18 .ARTICLE IN PRESS J. Inducing and disseminating this focus among the teaching professionals. This policy. after presenting the statistics about students belonging to the cultural minorities. To sum up. the sample was calculated to give an optimum degree of error. endorsed by the Administration. and the linguistic Catalan Teaching Service. due to the lack of a general proposal or one from a specific centre.

intercultural education (7. as do other authors. The circumstances that the teaching staff find themselves in condition the choice of on-going training. it seems that the crystallisation of the aims of interculturality will not fail as a result of opposition from the teaching staff. adaptation of the curriculum to cultural diversity (4%) and practical strategies for working with it in the classroom (2%). homogeneity was valued. The results obtained are presented graphically in Graph 2. The differentiation was relatively easy given that. many teachers have other training priorities or preferences. 90% of the interviewees stated that they had none. the concern to maintain and respect cultural diversity did not dominate. Apart from this. the teaching staff in compulsory education in Catalonia believe that all. Arab language. which can be found in greater detail in Garreta and Llevot (2003). Thus. although 64% have none. indicating that there have been changes in teacher training institutions and that they are gradually incorporating training options in this field. 20 For a basic explanation of what is done and who does it in initial and on-going training in Spain. for example. not all the responsibility should be placed on the teaching staff. as the presence of gypsy and immigrant-origin pupils increases. also have responsibility.e. This lack of specific training is related to the age of the interviewee.3% have a basic level (from the mentioned criteria. coexistence. The educational administration and the University Schools for Teachers. On the contrary. as among the under 30s. however. those that had done some training course or courses. and we consider it no more than insufficient and poor. 40. so does the index of on-going training related to cultural diversity received by the teacher. etc.ARTICLE IN PRESS 272 J. Continuing with more data. consult: ´ ´ Centro de Investigacion y Documentacion Educativa (2000). this response fell to 68%. nowadays Faculties of Educational Sciences. there were those without any kind of training and. The remaining 2% were considered to have specialised training (Graph 1). . it is also true that this is owing to the current situation. intercultural education. Among those who state that they have done on-going training in cultural diversity. there is a small minority who do not believe that intercultural education must be a reference for all centres (2. given that until a few years ago. the most usual is courses on diversity (17%). Based on these results. but in this case in the opposite sense: the younger the teacher the more they affirm not having done any (73%).5% are ‘‘little in agreement’’ and 0. in comparison with initial training. those who had specialised. whether this is on general or more specific themes. 21 It must be stated that age is a conditioning factor.20 Referring to initial training in cultural diversity. To give an overall vision.22 conflict resolution (8%). on the other. 15 or 20 h). This percentage again varies in function of age.1% ‘‘not at all’’)..7% of the teaching staff have no training in this field. It appears from this classification that 57. which is the responsibility of the university. those that had done third cycle studies. the results show firstly an improvement in the level. centres should have intercultural education as a reference. on one hand. etc. we were able to establish the extent of training in this field among teaching staff in compulsory education in Catalonia. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 Through our empirical study. Nevertheless. with a duration of 10. and we repeat all.5%). However.21 against 57% for the over-50s. 22 The courses mentioned (antiracist education. that it was opted to group everything that cannot be placed in the following categories under this label. Evidently.. teachers were divided into three groups in function of their training in the field of cultural diversity in the school. i. for example.) are so varied. As far as on-going training is concerned.

on the other hand.5% ‘‘enough’’. is a warning. and which is not always the best possible. 2. Level of training in the field of cultural diversity among teaching staff in compulsory education. the day to day question is to see who looks after these pupils. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 273 2 40. the answers differ significantly depending on whether it is from teaching staff trained in this field. without much orientation.9 0.5 0. they are suspicious. there are difficulties with putting the pedagogic aims into practice in schools.3 57. despite the training received. the proposition. Another question that continues to indicate the existing situation is the answer to the phrase ‘‘the increase in cultural diversity in the classroom represents adding to the load that the teaching staff already have to bear’’.23 Again.5 Without training Basic Specialised Graph 1.5 58 A lot Enough Little Nothing Not respond Graph 2.ARTICLE IN PRESS J. The opinion that this is difficult is more common among those teachers who have no training in the field of cultural diversity. 10% ‘‘little’’ and 3% ‘‘nothing’’. Although it is believed that it has to go in a specific direction. than those who have no training. 23 . with a higher level of agreement. ‘‘the discourse of intercultural education is difficult to put into daily practice’’. To sum up. This also means falling back on elements of professional and personal baggage (from resources Specifically.. 42. 43. only that which some received in the initial and on-going training. etc. It is also true that. However. how to put it on the road and how this discourse can become a reality is not clearly seen (Graph 3).1 38. whether it is the teaching staff in the classroom or a specialist. the others did not respond. intercultural education. Level of training in the field of cultural diversity among teaching staff in compulsory education in Catalonia. who are less in agreement. Thus. and less so for those who the training received has given more confidence that it can be put into practice.5% would be ‘‘a lot’’.

There is no doubt that training is linked to the experience of cultural diversity in the school and the classroom. Thus the Departament d’Ensenyament (1996) gives a set of guidelines for taking inter-culturality into consideration in the cited documents so that it impregnates the day-to-day practice in the schools.5 3. The answers given were mainly ‘‘little’’ (27. Adaptation is higher among those centres with pupils of EU. As an example of this. it was whether they had stated that adequate attention was necessary. To what extent have the CEP.ARTICLE IN PRESS 274 J. while in the previous project we were interested in knowing if common criteria had been established.5% of the teaching staff believe that it has been adapted ‘‘a lot’’ and 35% ‘‘enough’’. as the presence of foreigners in the centre increases. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 12. in this case. As mentioned. Degree of agreement with: ‘‘The intercultural education discourse is difficult to put into daily practice’’. but also for the multi-linguistic and multi-national composition of the Spanish state. Moreover. we asked our interlocutors to tell us the degree to which they believe that ‘‘common criteria for working on cultural diversity [have been] established’’. Concentrating on the CEP. from previous situations to notions of common sense.5 43. not gypsies. for example human rights. the deployment and the concretion of the curriculum is a process that requires a set of decisions based on the characteristics of each centre. However. certain origins influence more than others. the PEC is more adapted in the centres where the teaching staff has more training in cultural diversity. the CCP and the curricular areas taken into account that we live in a multicultural society and adapted to this reality? These are some of the questions posed and which we try to answer from the results obtained. this data can be differentiated to indicate who have adapted the PEC of their centre more to the cultural diversity of society.5 1 32. sub-Saharan and Maghreb origin (in that order) while it is significantly lower when the pupils are gypsies.5 Alot Enough Little Nothing Not respond Graph 3. the CCP and in the programming of the cycle (Department of Education. This way.5% consider it ‘‘little’’ or ‘‘not at all’’. As on other occasions. The answers indicate that 15. in Catalonia. so does the degree of adaptation of the CEP to cultural diversity.5%) and . while in centres without foreigners ‘‘little adaptation’’ occurs. not to mention the cultural pluralism which is characteristic of advanced societies. as well as the ethnocentric prejudices). A similar degree of adaptation appears in the CCPs. These are specified in the CEP. and that it awakens the interest of the teaching staff beyond the ‘‘credential pressure’’. and here one finds action based both on ethics. 1995). This is not only from the fact that there are ethnic minority groups. it should be asked if these guidelines and documents have had any effect on the centres. This is in function of the presence of immigrants. Following this logic. about which the interviewees were asked if they believed ‘‘the CCP had adequately detailed the need to attend to cultural diversity’’. while 32.

it is deduced in general terms that. To continue getting closer to the practices we wished to know. In this occasion we were interested in knowing if ‘‘how to work on interculturality in the different areas’’ had been specified and the results showed that less progress has been made than in the previous questions. As the number of foreigners in the centres increases. for A. This increase is more important when there are pupils of EU. the CCP is mentioned more often. Jordan.ARTICLE IN PRESS J. but not in others. as mentioned above. it can always be added that more time is needed and that a start has been made where the needs are more urgent. It can be said that the first two have been started and carried out in some centres. that is to the extrapolation of the approach ´ devised to the areas of knowledge. and there is a direct relation between training and higher assertion of the need for adequate attention. Pinto. Moreover.5 27.89 Specify how to work on cultural diversity in the areas of knowledge 9 35 39 12 5 2. we continue noting that the responses change in function of the training the teaching staff has in the field of cultural diversity. if the teaching staff had done anything in the Table 1 Adaptation to diversity in educational centres Establish common criteria in the PEC for working on cultural diversity A lot Enough Little None No answer Mean Deviation 15. and most specific.5 9 8 2. when we refer to pedagogical and organisational principals (CEP) and there curricular concretion (CCP). However.7 0. as well as the previous action done in the field of the centres.5%). level is not as far forward as it is more difficult and requires more involvement (Table 1). Leaving aside the few who did not answer. 17% answered ‘‘a lot’’. At the extremes. another trigger sentence allowed insight into the work done. the process of preparing an intercultural curriculum in the centre consists of three steps. These results perpetuate our opinion that action is taken in specific contexts and situations. As above. The answers were again concentrated in ‘‘little’’ (39%) and ‘‘enough’’ (35%).83 . 12% say ‘‘nothing’’ and 9% that ‘‘a lot’’ has been done.5 10 7 2. as the number of foreigners in the centres rises.6 0. the points mentioned when referring to the CEP also appear. Castella and C. and this is not what the intercultural model advocates. From the above. E.88 Detail the need to attend to cultural diversity in the PCC 17 38. Thus. we do not consider to be notable. With reference to the third of the steps necessary to draw up an intercultural curriculum.4 0. On this occasion. while 10% say ‘‘not at all’’. while the centres that have gypsy pupils are the ones that make the fewest changes.5 35 32. the last. the affirmative responses increase while those schools that have gypsy pupils continue to adapt to a lesser degree. which in turn. subSaharan and Maghreb origin (in this order). more has been done the closer we go to the more concrete. Naturally. specifying the way in which interculturalism can be worked on in the different curricular areas. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 275 ‘‘enough’’ (38.

organised tutorials (5%) and informative sessions for the parents of the gypsy or immigrant origin students (4%). dedicated sessions to tolerance (10.7 Understood as the presence of gypsy and/or from immigrant origin students.3 0. teachers tend to consider that the rest of the students need not prepare themselves to live in a culturally diverse society. classroom. carried out specific curricular changes (14%). This being an open question allows us to see the definition that is made of adaptation to cultural diversity. adapted linguistically (3%) and explained the host society to the minorities (0. It is curious and symptomatic to see that 29% of the teaching staff who have more than 5% of foreign-origin students. there is no cultural diversity None. 24 . or 27% of those who have gypsies. On their part.5%).5 7 3 1 7. how they justify this decision.5 4 7.6 None. The answers obtained still show that there is the perception that these questions belong to the centres and classrooms where there is cultural diversity and. in case of not having done anything.5%) of those interviewed had done nothing.5 4 14 15 0. This not only means if the teaching staff in the school as a whole are more or less interested in this question.5 Classroom without ethnic minorities 58.5 19 18 0. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 Table 2 Action to attend to the cultural diversity in the classroom in function of the presence of ethnic minorities Action Total Classroom with ethnic minoritiesa 27 13.2 11 6. other more specific questions on this theme were asked in the cited text by Garreta and Llevot (2003) and Garreta (2004). they mention that they have given specific explanations about the culture of some students (15%).5%).ARTICLE IN PRESS 276 J.5 0.5 11. The first point to emphasise is that over half (51. apparently. but rather whether the interviewee had done anything personally and. The data.5 2. almost the only answer from those who had not adapted was that ‘‘it was not necessary’’ (90%).3 10 3 2 2.5 10.5 0. organised intercultural conferences (2.5%). an omission justified because there was no diversity (41%) or because they did not believe it was necessary to do anything (10. as well as indicating that there is a part of the teaching Although we will not develop this further here. it is not necessary to do anything Intercultural conferences Informative sessions with the families Specific curricular changes Specific explanation about their culture Explanation about the host society for the minorities Dedicate sessions to talking about tolerance Tutorials Linguistic adaptation Other Don’t know/no answer a 41 10.2 2.5 6. often interpreted as an addition and not necessarily transversally (impregnating all the subjects over the whole course24) (Table 2).5 5 3 5.5%). argue that it is not necessary to do anything. Among those who had done something to take the cultural diversity into consideration.2 0. given that ‘‘there is no diversity in the class’’.

Most teachers already feel overloaded with responsibilities (in line with the well-known text by Hargreaves. 25 . although it is true that some action has been carried out. those who do act. or do not dare to say that it is necessary. equal to assimilation for most of the authors cited. in last place. do so depending on whether they are dealing with immigrants or gypsies. most do not know how to put it into practice. was scorned. This is the fact that teachers who do not have ethnic minorities in their centres and classrooms do not feel implicated and believe that it is not up to them to prepare the new generations to live in a culturally diverse society. the most common was a lack of concern about their schooling. It is logical that a phrase that does not carry any blame for the interlocutor gathers more answers in this sense than a spontaneous one where they must recognise their own limitations. Other answers mention that they believe that something should be done. where cultural diversity. 5. as well as in the day-to-day practice by teachers. real or ficticious. The justified ‘‘buts’’ range from there being ‘‘too much work and time cannot be dedicated to it’’ (5%). It must be asked whether there is really a desire to put the intercultural model into practice. It is curious that this last argument appears with so infrequently when they have previously acknowledged not knowing how to work on the theme. those who ‘‘do not know how to do it’’ (0. This is another basic question that is being studied through interviews with political and technical representatives from the administration. also showed that this perception is still higher in the classrooms without gypsy or immigrant-origin students.. it seems (as the 1996 document implied) to be left excessively as a responsibility for the teaching staff. to a decentralised system of autonomous communities. 1996) and although pedagogic programme has been accepted. However. previously passing through segregationist experiences. and in particular Catalonia. focused on the gypsies. with the support of the compensatory programmes. Spain has evolved in a short time from a centralised educational system. with the aim of improving opportunities and facilitating the process of integration. Conclusions As shown above.25 to ‘‘it is not necessary to do it in my subject’’ (3%). ‘‘others have done it so I do not need to’’ (1%) and. which is nothing The excuse. More specifically.ARTICLE IN PRESS J. In the mid-1990s. there is another great problem in the implementation of the model. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 277 staff who believe it unnecessary to do anything in this field. Moreover. but. especially designed for immigrant origin pupils. has taken steps towards recognising the presence and valuing cultural diversity in the classroom. much closer to a multicultural pedagogic model. The 1980s and 1990s would be years of school enrolment. the increase in the number of immigrant-origin students and the guidelines from the Council of Europe. It appears very necessary to make a clearer commitment to the development of the proposed model. this evolved until reaching the inclusion of these students in the ordinary classroom. If initially.. We continue to see that it is the gypsies who still are mainly forgotten continue in the rhetoric of interculturality that has been constructed. Spain. as well as the internal dynamic followed by the Catalan Administration led to the commitment to intercultural education.5%). and in which the cultural pluralism of the state is accentuated. with respect to the gypsies. of too much work is more prevalent among those teachers who have minorities in their classroom (7%).

ARTICLE IN PRESS 278 J. In M. orientations and designs of the specific practices in the classrooms to the day-to-day reality. 27–81). this would lead us to conclude that interculturality as a mirage that hides a reality far removed from these approaches. ˜ol. E. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya. Samper. & Llevot. R.. Departament d’Ensenyament. El estado de la cuestion en ´stico a la escuela multicultural (pp. Boletın del Centro de Documentacio de la Asociacio de ˜ Ensen ˜antes con Gitanos. Una experiencia ´ ´n ´n ´ desde la Administracion Educativa de Cataluna. Madrid. can be very useful for protecting a culture and identity that feels threatened by Spain and by the arrival of a large number of immigrants. ´ ´n ´ Colectivo IOE (1996). Encuentro de Trabajo Cataluna-Quebec 24. Ministerio de ´ Educacion y Ciencia. (1997). as in other divided societies or with the ambiguity of ethnic domination given a double majority (see. Castella. Barcelona: Diputacio de Barcelona. F. 2001. J. M. Polıtica educativa y gasto pu caso espan Barcelona: Pomares-Corredor. & Tovı´ as. Thus. Soto. 285–316. etc.). Diagno ˜ ´ ´blico en educacio aspectos teo ´n: ´ricos y una aplicacio al ´n Calero. Barcelona. To sum up. Madrid. Revista de Educacio ˜ 302. Coleman. unpublished. P. Multicultural education in western societies (pp. inspire the laws. Equality of educational opportunity. 25 and 26 April. & Ferrer. (1999). ´ducation interculturelle.. the Catalan. S. A. ´ducation des enfants migrants.. ethnicity and shooling in the United States: Past. & J. it is a question of one the hidden functions of the educational system to correct and adapt the great words that. strategies for intervention. J. 2001. Educacio prima . Ministerio de ´ Educacion y Ciencia. 47–58. New York: Praeger. ´n ´ ´ Crespo. there is resistance to the real recognition of other cultures. S. 61–82. A. Conseil de la Cooperation Culturelle. Banks. McAndrew & Gagnon. (1966). Les polı´ tiques escolars adrecades a l’alumnat d’origen immigrant. Bartolome (Ed. present and future. (1997). at least in theory. DC: US Office of Education. Cuadernos de Pedagogıa. J. inmigracion y educacion multicultural. Washington. curricular designsy and the reality in the school. Inmigracion y escuela.). Carabana. 264. A favor del individualismo y contra las ideologı´ as multiculturalistas. ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Bartolome. El sistema educativo espan ˜ol. S. McAndrew. ´ ´ `ria. La educacion intercultural en Espana y Suiza: un enfoque comparativo. 30–50). 16– 17. if its application is not reinforced. L’e ´ interculturelle en Europe. without resources. 2000. ˜ ´ ´ Centro de Investigacion y Documentacion Educativa (1992). in a wider context. Laboratorio de Estudios Interculturales. ´ Carrasco. Minorı´ as etnicas. But. Formacion de formadores y formadoras en el campo de la interculturalidad. Although it is also true that the existence of a pedagogic rhetoric in itself. 44–47. Concept. L’e Culturelle. (1999). (1986). (1993).). S. ´ ´ Centro de Investigacion y Documentacion Educativa (2000). 6. 625–663). References ´ Akkari. El sistema educativo espan ˜ol. X. (2000). Lynch (Eds. Strasbourg. ´ Carrasco. among others. Strasbourg. La educacio intercultural a prueba. is this specific to the Spanish case or the Catalan case? Perhaps as Catalonia perceives a threat from a double risk (the linguistic hegemony of Castilian over Catalan and the erosion of Catalan culture and identity that the presence of foreign-origin immigrants could represent) we could believe that. (1992a). Revista ˜ ´n Espan ˜ola de Educacio Comparada. Spain and Europe. (1997). & Bonal. II Informe sobre inmigracio y trabajo ´ social (pp. Un programa interdisciplinar. J. Barcelona: Cedecs.. A. ´n. ´ Cataluna. contexte et programme.. pedagogic orientations. Conseil de la Cooperation ´ Conseil de l’Europe (1989). 2003). But maybe not. Banks. In Diputacio de Barcelona (Ed. Hijos de inmigrantes marroquıes en la escuela. Currıculum. Garreta. Recueil d’informations sur les ope ´rations d’e ´ducation Conseil de l’Europe (1983). Race. Granada. In J. and it is more likely the universal phenomenum of the contradictions between legal texts.. Garreta Bochaca / International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30 (2006) 261–279 more than coherent when it reflects a reclamation of a cultural difference.

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