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Santha Kumar

In plastic analysis and design of a structure, the ultimate load of the

structure as a whole is regarded as the design criterion. The term plastic has

occurred due to the fact that the ultimate load is found from the strength of steel

in the plastic range. This method is rapid and provides a rational approach for the

analysis of the structure. It also provides striking economy as regards the weight

of steel since the sections required by this method are smaller in size than those

required by the method of elastic analysis. Plastic analysis and design has its

structures.

Plastic analysis is based on the idealization of the stress-strain curve as

plate elements is small so that local buckling does not occur- in other words the

sections will classify as plastic. With these assumptions, it can be said that the

section will reach its plastic moment capacity and then undergo considerable

rotation at this moment. With these assumptions, we will now look at the

span. as shown in Fig. 2.14(a). The elastic bending moment at the ends is w 2/12

and at mid-span is w 2/24, where is the span. The stress distribution across any

moment at every section increases and the stresses also increase. At a section

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

close to the support where the bending moment is maximum, the stresses in the

extreme fibers reach the yield stress. The moment corresponding to this state is

called the first yield moment My, of the cross section. But this does not imply

failure as the beam can continue to take additional load. As the load continues to

increase, more and more fibers reach the yield stress and the stress distribution

is as shown in Fig 2.15(b). Eventually the whole of the cross section reaches the

yield stress and the corresponding stress distribution is as shown in Fig. 2.15(c).

The moment corresponding to this state is known as the plastic moment of the

cross section and is denoted by Mp. In order to find out the fully plastic moment

the total force in compression and the total force in tension over that section are

equal.

w Collapse mechanism

Mp

Mp Mp

Bending Moment Diagram

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

The ratio of the plastic moment to the yield moment is known as the

shape factor since it depends on the shape of the cross section. The cross

section is not capable of resisting any additional moment but may maintain this

moment for some amount of rotation in which case it acts like a plastic hinge. If

this is so, then for further loading, the beam, acts as if it is simply supported with

two additional moments Mp on either side, and continues to carry additional loads

until a third plastic hinge forms at mid-span when the bending moment at that

section reaches Mp. The beam is then said to have developed a collapse

mechanism and will collapse as shown in Fig 2.14(b). If the section is thin-

walled, due to local buckling, it may not be able to sustain the moment for

additional rotations and may collapse either before or soon after attaining the

plastic moment. It may be noted that formation of a single plastic hinge gives a

collapse mechanism for a simply supported beam. The ratio of the ultimate

rotation to the yield rotation is called the rotation capacity of the section. The

yield and the plastic moments together with the rotation capacity of the cross-

Shape factor

As described previously there will be two stress blocks, one in tension, the other

in compression, both of which will be at yield stress. For equilibrium of the cross

section, the areas in compression and tension must be equal. For a rectangular

bd 2

M= fy (2.21a)

6

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

d d bd 2

M p = 2.b. . .f y = fy (2.21b)

2 4 4

Thus, for a rectangular section the plastic moment Mp is about 1.5 times

greater than the elastic moment capacity. For an I-section the value of shape

plastic rotations occur. Thus the length of a plastic hinge is considered as zero.

However, the values of moment, at the adjacent section of the yield zone are

more than the yield moment upto a certain length ∆L, of the structural member.

This length ∆L, is known as the hinged length. The hinged length depends upon

the type of loading and the geometry of the cross-section of the structural

L/2 L/2 b

x

MY MY

Mp

Fig. 2.16

In a simply supported beam (Fig. 2.16) with central concentrated load, the

maximum bending moment occurs at the centre of the beam. As the load is

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

increased gradually, this moment reaches the fully plastic moment of the section

(L-x)Mp=LMy

x=L/3 (2.22)

Wl

Mp =

4

bh 2 ⎛ bh 2 ⎞

= fy . ∵

⎜⎜ pZ = ⎟

4 ⎝ 4 ⎟⎠

bh 2 ⎛ bh 2 ⎞2

My = fy . = ⎜ fy . ⎟⎟

6 ⎜ 4

⎝ ⎠3

2

My = Mp

3

(iii) Plastic moment condition: The bending moment at any section of the

structure should not be more than the fully plastic moment of the section.

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

Collapse mechanisms

When a system of loads is applied to an elastic body, it will deform and will

the other hand if no resistance is set up against deformation in the body, then it is

known as a mechanism.

Fig. 2.17 shows a simply supported and a fixed beam and the

corresponding mechanisms.

Fig. 2.17

Fig. 2.18 (A) shows a panel or sway mechanism for a portal frame fixed at

both ends.

Fig. 2.18

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

Fig. 2.18(B) shows the gable mechanism for a gable structure fixed at

Fig. 2.18(C) shows a joint mechanism. It occurs at a joint where more than

Combined mechanism

depending upon whether the frame is made of strong beam and weak column

combination or strong column and weak beam combination. The one shown in

by formation of hinges at the bases of the columns and the weak beam

developing two hinges. This is illustrated by the right hinge being shown on the

the beam

From the above examples, it is seen that the number of hinges needed to

form a mechanism equals the statical redundancy of the structure plus one.

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

The plastic load factor at rigid plastic collapse (λp) is defined as the lowest

multiple of the design loads which will cause the whole structure, or any part of it

to become a mechanism.

appropriate factored loads the structure will not fail. Thus the rigid plastic load

possible plastic hinge locations (h) and the number of degree of redundancy (r)

n=h–r (2.23)

bending moment diagram which is in equilibrium with the applied loads and

where the fully plastic moment of resistance is nowhere exceeded will always be

less than or at best equal to the load factor at rigid plastic collapse, (λp). In other

mechanism will always be greater than, or at best equal to the load factor at rigid

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

plastic collapse (λp ). In other words, λp is the lowest value of λk which can be

found.

Uniqueness theorem

If both the above criteria are satisfied, then the resulting load factor

Mechanism method

various failure mechanisms are obtained by equating the internal work at the

plastic hinges to the external work by loads during the virtual displacement. This

ones, it is assumed that the frame remains rigid between supports and hinge

midspan, the maximum strain will take place at the centre of the span where a

plastic hinge will be formed at yield of full section. The remainder of the beam

will remain straight, thus the entire energy will be absorbed by the rotation of the

plastic hinge.

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

⎛L ⎞

Workdone by the displacement of the load = W ⎜ . θ ⎟ (2.24b)

⎝2 ⎠

⎛L ⎞

2Mp.θ = W ⎜ .θ ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

WL

Mp = (2.25)

4

similarly worked out from Fig. 2.20. It should be noted that three hinges are

W / unit length

P=0 P=0

Loading

A C B

MA MB

L

MP θ θ MP

Collapse

MP MP 2θ

WL

θ = 4M p θ

4 (2.27)

WL =16 M p

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

WL

Mp = (2.28)

16

V V V

V θ

H H

θ θ H

H

θ 2θ 2θ θ

θ

a

θ θ θ θ

a a

(a) (b (c) (d)

This frame may distort in more than one mode. There are basic

independent modes for the portal frame, the pure sway of Fig. 2.21 (b) and a

beam collapse as indicated in Fig. 2.21 (c). There is now however the possibility

Va / Mp

A B

4

C

2

D

0 2 4 6 Ha

H a/ M

/M

p p

Fig. 2.22

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

The resulting equations, which represent the collapse criteria, are plotted

on the interaction diagram of Fig. 2.22. Since any line radiating from the origin

failure. The failure condition is therefore the line ABCD and any load condition

Stability

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

3. Restraints.

The presence of an axial load implies that the sum of the tension and

compression forces in the section is not zero (Fig. 2.23). This means that the

neutral axis moves away from the equal area axis providing an additional area in

The presence of shear forces will also reduce the moment capacity.

b

fy fy

d/2 C

C

d C

y1

fy

T T

fy fy

Total stresses = Bending + Axial

compression

Fig. 2.23 Effect of axial force on plastic moment capacity

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

perform separate calculations, one for each loading condition, the section being

different loading systems cannot be combined, i.e. the plastic moment calculated

for a given set of loads is only valid for that loading condition. This is because the

yielded.

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