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Learner Guide

Table of Content
Table of Content..........................................................1
Introduction................................................................3
1. Introduction .........................................................................................3
2. About this Unit Standard : Receive Stock.............................................3
2.1 Unit Standard Alignment ..........................................................................3
2.2 Learning Units...........................................................................................4
2.3 Learner Support........................................................................................5
3. Assessment .........................................................................................6
3.1 Formative Assessment .............................................................................6
3.2 Summative Assessment ...........................................................................6
4. Navigating the Learner Guide...............................................................7
4.1 Use of Icons ..............................................................................................7
5. Learner Administration ........................................................................8
5.1 Attendance Register..................................................................................8
5.2 Learner Registration Form.........................................................................8
5.3 Programme Evaluation Form ....................................................................8

Module 1: Receiving Goods..........................................9


Receiving Goods.......................................................................................9
Self Assessment...........................................................................................20

Module 2: Prevent Shrinkages and Losses...................22


Prevent Shrinkages and Losses..............................................................22
Self Assessment ...........................................................................................39

Module 3: Maintain Stock Balances.............................41


Supply Chain...........................................................................................41
Stock Flow..............................................................................................44
Stock Records.........................................................................................47
Self Assessment 3........................................................................................48

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Learner Evaluation Form............................................50

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Introduction
1. Introduction

Welcome to the Unit Standard : Receive Stock – this is an NQF registered unit
standard (SAQA Reg. No 114896 ).

The purpose of this unit standard is intended for people who will receive
stock in a wholesale or Retail outlet. Persons credited with this unit standard
operate in a number of contexts, of which some may be non-routine. They
demonstrate the ability to make comparisons and interpret available
information.

These persons are able to receive stock in a wholesale/retail organisation,


implement security procedures to prevent shrinkage and losses and enhance the
efficiency of the supply chain by recording required information on stock being
received.

2. About this Unit Standard : Receive Stock

2.1 Unit Standard Alignment

This Unit Standard has 3 Specific Outcomes with related assessment criteria that
must be achieved by the learner before credits are awarded.

Specific Outcome Assessment Criteria

Receive goods into the wholesale 1. Offloaded stock is sorted according to


or retail outlet. organisational requirements and stock
characteristics

2. The stock received is recorded as per


organisation's procedures.

3. The stock received is checked against


required documentation.

4. All variances between actual stock


received and invoiced/ordered stock are
identified and resolved according to
organisation's procedures.

5. Relevant documentation is completed


according to organisation's procedures.

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Prevent shrinkage and losses in 1. The concept of shrinkage and how it


the Receiving Area. impacts on the organisation is explained.

2. Ways in which shrinkage and losses


occur is explained in relation to the process
of receiving stock.

3. Shrinkage and loss prevention measures


are implemented in the Receiving Area.

4. Breaches in security are reported to the


relevant parties following organisation
policies and procedures.

5. Received stock is moved to storage areas


to prevent shrinkage and losses following
the stock characteristics and the
organisation’s policy and procedures.

6. The work area, stationary and equipment


meet the organisation’s housekeeping
standards.

Maintain stock balances in 1. The impact and functioning of the Supply


Receiving Area in order to Chain on the organisation is explained as it
enhance the efficiency of the is stated the organisation's documents.
supply chain.
2. Stock flow through the
organisation/business is explained.

3. Stock records are maintained to enhance


the supply chain following organisation's
procedures.

2.2 Learning Units

This Programme has four (3) Modules to it:

Receiving Goods

Prevent Shrinkages and Losses

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Maintain Stock Balances

Learner Tip:

The following table illustrates the specific outcome and assessment


criteria alignment in the 3 Modules.

Specific Assessment
Module
Outcome Criteria

Receiving Goods SO 1 AC 1 to 5

Prevent Shrinkages and Losses SO 2 AC 1 to 6

Maintain Stock Balances SO 3 AC 1 to 3

2.3 Learner Support

Please remember that as the programme is outcomes based – this implies the
following:

• You are responsible for your own learning – make sure you manage your
study, practical, workplace and portfolio time responsibly.

• Learning activities are learner driven – make sure you use the Learner
Guide and Portfolio Guide in the manner intended, and are familiar with
the Portfolio requirements.

• The Facilitator is there to reasonably assist you during contact, practical


and workplace time of this programme – make sure that you have his/her
contact details.

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3. Assessment

Learning Outcomes:

Please refer to the beginning of each module for the learning


outcomes that will be covered per module.

3.1 Formative Assessment

In each Learner Guide, several activities are spaced within the content to assist
you in understanding the material through application. Please make sure that
you complete ALL activities in the Learner Guide, whether it was done during
the contact session, or not!

3.2 Summative Assessment

You will be required to complete a Portfolio of Evidence for summative


assessment purposes. A portfolio is a collection of different types of evidence
relating to the work being assessed. It can include a variety of work samples.

Learner Tip:

DO NOT WAIT until the end – the programme is designed to


assist you in evidence preparation as you go along – make use of
the opportunity!

Remember:

If it is not documented, it did not happen!

In some evidence, the process you followed is more important


than actual outcome / end-product.

Therefore …

Please make sure you complete all activities for your Portfolio.

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4. Navigating the Learner Guide

4.1 Use of Icons

Throughout the learning programme icons are used to focus your attention on
important aspects of the learning programme. The following icons are used in
this learning programme to direct your attention in using at as a reference guide.

Group Activity / Pair Activity:

You will be required to complete an activity in your group or in


pairs with fellow colleagues / programme participants, and
provide feedback to the participants in a report back or
presentation session.

Individual Activity:

You will be required to complete an activity on your own that


relates to the outcomes covered in the module.

Self Reflection:

Reflect on the question(s) asked to identify the relevance of


learning outcomes in your own working environment.

Learner Tip:

A useful tip or essential element regarding the concept under


discussion is given as a basis to further discussion.

Resources:

Possible sources for further research and study is listed under this
icon. Resources may include additional reading, handouts, web-
sites, multimedia

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Self Assessment:

You have come to the end of this module – please take the time
to review what you have learnt to date, and conduct a self
assessment against the learning outcomes of this module

5. Learner Administration

Learner Tip:

The following Learner Administration is critical in assisting your


provider in managing this programme effectively.

Please take a moment to familiarize yourself with the


requirements.

5.1 Attendance Register

You are required to sign the Attendance Register every day of attendance.
Please make sure you sign daily!

5.2 Learner Registration Form

Pease refer to the end of the Learner Guide for the Learner Registration Form.
Make sure you complete it using the Key Document, and submit to your
Facilitator before the end of the contact session with a copy of your ID
document.

Learner Tip/Truths:

Without the Learner Registration and ID Documents we will not be


able to register you with Services SETA for certification purposes.

5.3 Programme Evaluation Form

At the end of the Learning Guide is a Learning programme Evaluation Form.


Please complete the form before the end of the contact sessions, as this will
assist us in improving our service and programme material. Your assistance is
highly appreciated!

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Module 1: Receiving Goods


Learning Outcomes:

The following learning outcomes are covered in this module.

The Learner will have knowledge of how to behave in a business


environment

 Offloaded stock is sorted according to organisational


requirements and stock characteristics

 The stock received is recorded as per organisation's


procedures.

 The stock received is checked against required


documentation.

 All variances between actual stock received and


invoiced/ordered stock are identified and resolved according
to organisation's procedures.

 Relevant documentation is completed according to


organisation's procedures

Receiving Goods

When stock arrives at the organisation, it will more than likely arrive in a truck or
in a container, which needs to be off loaded.

Before you start the offloading processing you need to know not only what the
stock consists of but also its characteristics.

Learner Tip:

The less the stock is moved the less chance there is of damage to
the stock

If the stock requires any form of special attention it will have a label on the
outside of the packaging (box, crate, container etc)

Group Activity / Pair Activity 1: Sorting Stock (SO1 AC1)

Your facilitator will divide you into groups of 3 or 4.

Resource 1 : Identify Contents in your Resource guide refers.

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Have a look at each label and answer the questions that follow:

Choose 6 Labels and indicate the type of stock that may carry
that label.

Why would you not keep perishable items with hazardous items?

Which stock would you try and off load first? Why?

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Since you would like to move the stock as little as possible, it is essential that
you off load and sort it at the same time. Keep like items together.

Try and keep any form of chemicals separate from other goods as this could lead
to contamination.

As goods are off loaded and sorted they will then enter into receiving where a
record of the stock is recorded.

Systems for receiving and maintaining stock are important to make sure that
work is not held up or delayed while essential supplies are being ordered and
delivered.

As stock is received in your workplace, checks need to be made so that what is


actually paid for or billed is actually received and is in good condition. Other
considerations include making sure that stock does not have to be thrown out
because it has passed its use by date or has reached the point where it is no
longer able to be used. Foodstuffs, film, medicines and chemicals are examples
of stocks that have to be used by a certain time. Safety is also important, as
some supplies cannot be stored with others – imagine storing poisons with
foodstuffs!

Workplaces have systems in place to ensure that stock is:

• available when it is required


• fit for use
• managed cost effectively and wastage is kept to a minimum.

Every workplace will have differences in how stock is ordered, received and
stored. For each of these the organisation will have a policy.

To make sure the flow of goods through a warehouse is smooth and effective, we
need a method of recording and tracking goods between all groups involved in
the exchange process. We need a way to show that suppliers, purchasers,
carriers and distribution centres have all played their part correctly. This is
necessary to show exactly what goods have been given to whom, and as
evidence of work and receipt of goods on which payments will be based.
Individual warehouses will have different systems for recording the movement
and storage of goods. These systems can be manual or computerised.

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Delivery note : A delivery note is usually supplied with the goods at the time of
delivery. It will state what the supplier has actually delivered to the store. This is
probably the most important receipt document of all. Goods delivered are
checked against the delivery note to confirm the delivery is correct. The delivery
note is used to check the delivery has come to the right place and it contains the
correct goods.

Invoice : Invoices are used for the same purpose as the delivery document.
However, invoices are used in situations where the distribution centre actually
purchases the goods rather than just distributing them for somebody else. Goods
received are checked against the amount and description stated on the invoice.
The invoice may contain: • a single item or • many items. Invoices are normally
sent with the load of goods. Invoices are very important documents as they are
used to bill the receiving company. Great care must be taken to make sure that
goods received are accurately checked against the invoice.

Like the delivery docket, the invoice is used to check that:

• the delivery is at the right place


• the delivery has the right products
• the delivery has the right amount of products.

Manifest : Some warehouses are ‘care takers’ of goods, (that is they do not
actually purchase the goods). These warehouses receive goods using a
document called a manifest. The manifest is similar to an invoice. They are used
mostly when importing or exporting goods. The information on a manifest is used
to check the delivery and make sure all the goods consigned have arrived. A
delivery note, invoice or manifest will be used at different times to check that the
goods delivered are the right goods and the right quantity.

Consignment note : A consignment note is used when the delivery is


contracted out to a private carrier. They show what is to be receipted and are
usually issued by the carrier of the delivery, as a record of what has actually
been sent.

In some cases, the goods on a consignment note may be checked with other
delivery documents (invoice, manifest etc). A consignment note usually does not
give a product description, but will give information like how many boxes,
pallets, bags, bales etc. The important sections are:

• pallet control information


• number of items
• description
• receiver
• signature of receiver.

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Internal packing note : The internal packing note is used to carry out a more
detailed check of the stock delivered, once the outer containers, such as cartons,
drums, boxes and pallets have been broken down and the stock is ready for
inspection and then storage. The packing note lists what is actually within each
unit delivered. It should give specific information regarding quantity, type, size,
specifications, colours, etc.

Group Activity / Pair Activity 2 : Documentation (SO1 AC2)

Your facilitator will divide you into groups of 3 or 4.

Resource 2 : Document Samples in your Resource guide refers.

Have a look at each document and answer the questions that


follow:

On the delivery note, write down tick the information you think
will show the delivery has come to the right place and contains
the correct goods.

Using the sample invoice write the information you would use to
check three of the points listed above

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Referring to the Manifest, indicate which points are


important/relevant when receiving goods.

Electronic data systems : Many warehouses today use special computer


systems in the receival of goods. This is called an automated system. Automated
systems cut down on paper work and are very quick when it comes to checking
and transferring information. The main features of an automated system are:

• consignment notes sent through a computer as proof of delivery


• barcodes used on consignment notes
• barcoded delivery labels
• speedy pricing.

Sometimes with automated receival systems, computers can be used to provide


extra information. Daily dispatch details can be looked at for numbers of:

• deliveries
• amounts
• weights
• money charged.

Regardless of whether the process is completed manually or electronically, it is


critical to have a record of what was ordered, what was supposed to arrive and
for you to check that the stock actually arrived. Also, the stock must be checked

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to ensure that it is fit for use.

For example, in the paper industry, a roll of paper that will have plastic or foil
laminated onto it, may arrive without any protective layer as the first hundred
meters will be wasted in setting up the machine and getting it running correctly.
The edge may be trimmed in the process. The excess acts as appropriate
packaging for the roll of paper and is allowed for. If the outer layer is marked,
this will not matter as it is trimmed off or wasted.

Individual Activity 1: Checking of stock against documents (SO1


AC3)

Refer to Resource 2 : Sample Documents in your Resource guide.

Which of the documents can be used to check that the stock


given is what was ordered.

In many workplaces, the deliverer cannot leave until the receiver provides a
signature on the suppliers’ documentation. In most enterprises, the signing of
this document indicates that the goods arrived as listed on the consignment
notice. In this case, it should not be signed unless the stock has been checked.

When checking stock, the stock received should be counted and checked to see
that quantities match that listed on the consignment note. At the same time, the
stock should be checked for:

• damage that means stock cannot be used


• fitness to use (spoiled, soiled, dinted, cracked, etc.)
• use by date (freshness, viability, etc.)
• colour, size (stock may be of the correct number but wrong size, colour,
etc.).

Where any variations or problems with supplied stock are identified, check
workplace procedures that apply to this situation. Options include:

• replacement
• credit

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• disposal and credit


• selling off as ‘seconds’
• repair and charging to supplier
• return to supplier.

In most cases, a phone call and discussion with the supplier can sort out the
situation. The relationships between the receiver of the goods, the deliverer and
the supplier are important. Good relationships built up over time, through
patience, being reasonable and using positive communication skills (listening,
questioning, not being aggressive) will mean that when a problem exists, it can
be sorted out more easily.

The option taken when there is a problem with supply of ordered stock will
depend on factors such as the value of stock, urgency of need for stock,
replacement time, whether supplier is internal or external. A common problem
with stock ordering is where the supplier cannot deliver the quantity required
and places a ‘short order’ – in other words, if 500 items are required and only
250 can be supplied, these will be delivered and the remainder of the order
delivered as and when it becomes available. The short fall in the stock received
should be noted and reported according to workplace procedures.

Individual Activity 2: Variances (SO1 AC4)

What variances would you look for?

What process would you follow if a variance does occur?

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When a delivery is incorrect or damaged, a damage or shortage report must be


completed. This includes when:

• goods arrive damaged


• a shortage occurs in delivery
• goods fail to arrive at the stipulated time.

There are also correct procedures for cases of wrong and surplus delivery.

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Once the stock is received and checked against what was ordered and delivered,
the stock must be stored.
It is always recommended that there is documented proof of each check.

Individual Activity 3: Checking Stock (SO1 AC5)

Resource 3 : Checking Form in your resource guide refers.

What other items do you believe you should include on your


checklist?

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Why is it important to complete a checklist?

Once the checklist is completed by yourself, what should happen


to the form?

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6. Conclusion
Congratulations! You have now completed the first module of the initial learning
for Standard : Receive Stock – this is an NQF registered unit standard (SAQA Reg.
No 114896).

You now need to complete the following assessments in your own time.

Self Assessment

Self Assessment 1:

You have come to the end of this module – please take the time to
review what you have learnt to date, and conduct a self
assessment against the learning outcomes of this module by
following the instructions below:

Rate your understanding of each of the outcomes listed below :

Keys :  - no understanding

 - some idea

 - completely comfortable

SELF
RATING
NO OUTCOME
  

SO1 Offloaded stock is sorted according to organisational


AC1 requirements and stock characteristics

SO1 The stock received is recorded as per organisation's


AC2 procedures.

SO1 The stock received is checked against required


AC3 documentation.

SO1 All variances between actual stock received and


invoiced/ordered stock are identified and resolved
AC4 according to organisation's procedures.

SO1 Relevant documentation is completed according to


AC5 organisation's procedures.

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Complete the mind map below by listing the main point you remember from the
module you have just completed.

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Module 2: Prevent Shrinkages


and Losses
Learning Outcomes:

The following learning outcomes are covered in this module.

The Learner is able to interpret body language in a business

 The concept of shrinkage and how it impacts on the


organisation is explained.
 Ways in which shrinkage and losses occur is explained
in relation to the process of receiving stock.
 Shrinkage and loss prevention measures are
implemented in the Receiving Area.
 Breaches in security are reported to the relevant
parties following organisation policies and procedures.
 Received stock is moved to storage areas to prevent
shrinkage and losses following the stock characteristics and
the organisation's policy and procedures.
 The work area, stationary and equipment meet the
organisation's housekeeping standards.

Prevent Shrinkages and Losses

In financial accounting the term inventory shrinkage is the loss of products


between point of manufacture or purchase from supplier and point of sale.
Sometimes shrinkage may be as high as 15% to 20% of total volume, having a
major negative effect on profits.

Individual Activity 4 : The concept of Shrinkage and the Impacts


on the organization (SO2 AC1)

Write down (in your own words) what is meant by the concept of
shrinkage.

How will this have an impact on the business, and what can the

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result be?

The four major sources of inventory shrinkage in the retail industry are:
• Employee theft
According to the National Retail Security Survey, the number one source
of shrinkage for a retail business is internal theft. Some of the types of
employee theft include discount abuse, refund abuse and even credit card
abuse. Unfortunately, this is one loss prevention area that generally
doesn't receive as much monitoring as customer theft.
• Shoplifting
Customer theft occurs through concealment, altering or swapping price
tags, or transfer from one container to another. While shoplifting remains
a smaller inventory loss source than employee theft, stealing by shoppers
still costs retailers about R10 billion annually.
• Administrative errors
Administrative and paperwork errors make up approximately 15% of
shrinkage. Simple pricing mistakes due to markups or markdowns can cost
retailers quite a bit.
• Vendor fraud
The smallest percentage of shrink is vendor fraud. Retailers report vendor
fraud occurs most when outside vendors do stock inventory within the
store.

A receiver plays a pivoted role in any retail store. They are the first line of
defense in a store through which every shipment has to pass. If the process and
the individual lack integrity, it will affect the entire store inventory system. When
vendors notice that receivers are ignorant of the merchandise they are receiving,
they exploit the situation by either short supplying or charging for goods
undelivered.

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It is imperative that every retail organisation have trained designated receivers


with knowledge of the products they are expected to receive and technology
they use.

Preventing or reducing backdoor receiving shrinkage will require the


implementation of the following strategies:

 Authorised key control


It goes without saying that leaving the receiving bay open and
unattended is an invitation for shrinkage. Receiving areas when
unattended have to be secured and the keys held by authorised staff.
Strict control of the receiving area is the most important element in
ensuring compliance with laid down policies and procedures. Any
personnel not actively engaged in the process should not be allowed
access to this area.

 Receiver training
Many retailers have still not been able to make the correlation between
quality of staff allowed to receive goods and backdoor receiving
shrinkage. Within numerous organisations there is no trained designated
receiver, any staff member can receive and sign for deliveries. A
receiver like a cashier literally holds the check book of the organisation,
every error they make directly impact on the bottom line. That is why it
is so important that receivers are extensively trained and supported with
expert level of product knowledge. Much of the vendor fraud in retail
stores occur primarily because dishonest vendors realise that the
receivers are not properly clued up.

 Clearly Written Policies & Procedures


Formally written policies and procedures that are implemented by a
motivated and informed workforce will form the fundamentals of an
efficient backdoor receiving shrinkage management system. The
creation of a standardised system of receiving sends a message to
dishonest employees and vendors alike that the organisation considers
shrinkage reduction a priority.
 Technology
The use of advanced technologies have aided the receiving process for
most retailers. Technologies such as Direct Store Delivery receiving
(DSD) or Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Merchandise Security
tagging have changed the receiving process and made it easier for
retailers to track incoming products and increase inventory accuracy.
However, the use of technology is only effective if those using it are
properly trained to get the most out of the device.

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Technological devices used to their full potential can be of enormous


benefit to the retail receiving process. Those retailers who harness
technology to it maximum have succeeded in reducing their shrinkage
level by as much as 9.2% and reduce their accounts payable by 65% and
increase overall store profit by up to 3%.

 Backroom Stock Control


Excess stock in the backrooms is a recipe for inventory shrinkage. It is
imperative that stock kept in the backroom does not exceed 8-10% of
total store inventory. Any losses due to damage, expiration, over-
ordering or theft need to be recorded and properly documented.

 Auditing
Auditing process has to be constantly monitored for integrity and
compliance with organisational operating policies and procedures.
Auditing should be carried out at least once in every quarter, by both
internal and external auditors.

It is clear that backdoor receiving is critical for the success of any retail venture
because it is the first line of defense. Get it right and half of the inventory
problem is solved. Get it wrong and the entire store inventory remains topsy-
turvy for a long time.

Shoplifting (including employee theft and vendor fraud) is widespread in retail


establishments, yet accurate data on its extent are not available. Most retail
theft is established by audit rather than witnessed, hence it is not clear whether
the theft is perpetrated by customers, staff or suppliers.

A 2-3 per cent loss of sales to shoplifting can amount to about 25 per cent loss in
profit. For some smaller establishments or those on otherwise tight margins,
retail theft not only affects their productivity and competitiveness, but also
threatens their economic existence. The costs of this crime are not merely
confined to the “front line”. Consumers become the victims, subsidising losses
through elevated prices. Ultimately, society as a whole suffers when business
viability becomes vulnerable.

Group Activity / Pair Activity 3 : Shrinkage and Losses in Receiving


(SO2 AC2 & 3)

Your facilitator will divide you into groups of three or four


learners.

In your groups discuss the following and write down your findings.

How can shrinkage and loss occur during eth receiving process

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What measures can be implemented in the receiving are to


combat and prevent shrinkage and loss?

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Learner Tip:

It is better to prevent loss than to witness loss and report it.

In the event of an actual or suspected breach of security or other policy you


should revert to your organization’s security policy / whistleblowers1 policy, for
guidelines of what to do. In most cases it will stipulate that if you suspect breach
of security of any nature the following should be done:
 Do make a report regardless of how small you think an issue may be.
 Do write down notes of specific incidents, conversations and
observations (include names, dates, times, locations, etc.). . Only
include facts, not emotions
 Do be patient: sometimes a fraud investigation can be a lengthy
process.
 Do not attempt to obtain absolute proof of any improper conduct
before making a report.
 Do not attempt any investigation yourself.
 Do not interview the suspect or any witnesses.
 Do not make accusations.
 Do not start rumours.
Resources:

Look in your Resource Guide at Resource 4 : Incident/Suspicions


reporting Form

This is an example of the type of form you may be required to


complete, depending on your organization’s policy.

1
“Whistleblower” is a general term which refers to an employee who notifies
management of an activity or event which that person genuinely believes may
be fraudulent, dishonest or clearly violates the law or company policy

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Individual Activity 5: Breaches in Security

Your colleague and yourself have just completed offloading a


truck. As you were offloading you completed the Checklist to find
all is in order, signed acceptance of the goods and sent the truck
drive on his way. Before moving the stock into storage you
decide to break for tea. As you and your colleague are the only
two people in receiving, you never take your breaks together. On
return you start to move the goods to storage when you noticed a
box has been partially opened.

Complete the Incident report below.

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As mentioned earlier, security in receiving is of utmost importance as this is your


first line of defence.

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Once the stock is received and checked against what was ordered and delivered,
the stock must be stored. A number of factors will have been considered in the
design of the storage area:

• people safety when storage area is entered


• available space
• shape of containers or stock (drums, on pallets, cartons, racks or
shelves, etc.)
• maintenance of condition of stock (protection from water, dirt, sunlight,
physical damage)
• security of stock
• cost of storage equipment (shelving, racks, trays, other)
• availability of mechanical aids for moving stock (forklift, hand trolleys,
carts, etc.)
• minimising distance and number of times that stock is moved
• stock rotation to ensure older stock is used first and before use by date
• whether stock is itself hazardous (separation of some chemicals from
other chemicals that could cause ignition or explosion; radiation;
flammability and flash point; biological material that is potentially or
actually harmful to humans; other dangerous goods classifications)
• other issues such as those faced where living material is stored or where
refrigeration is required.

When storing stock, your aim should be to complete the process of storage as
quickly as possible and in a safe manner. Associated with this task is the need
for accuracy in placing stock in locations that follow the stock storage system,
and accuracy in recording what you have stored.

Resources:

Look in your Resource guide at Resource 5 : Stock Storage.

This form will help you keep track of how items of a specific
nature are stored and where they are stored.

Safety is the primary concern of all enterprises and applies to stock storage.
Safety issues are relevant to:

• yourself and other team members involved in stock storage


• team members passing through the storage area
• team members accessing stock from storage.

When storing stock, you may be required to make use of Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE) to ensure that you do not injure or harm yourself or others. This
would be detailed in your organization’s policies.

When moving stock it is important to know the characteristics of the stock and
any special requirements in its handling.

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Resources:

Look in your Resource guide at Resource 6 : Stock Labelling

These are some labels you may come into contact with, which will
guide you on how to handle the stock.

Some goods move faster through the system than others and must therefore be
stored where easily accessible.

To assist in deciding where to move stock, and how to move it, it is


recommended that you ask the following questions:

• What type of stock is it?

• How fast does it move?

• Is it dangerous?

• Is it large or small?

• Is it easy to stack?

• Does it require cold storage?

Sometimes in more advanced warehouse systems, the computer system


automatically slots new goods into storage based on the criteria above and gives
instructions on how it is to be moved.

Resources:

Refer to Resource 7: Moving Equipment in your Resource Guide.

Using the correct equipment to move stock is of the essence to prevent


shrinkage and losses. If you use the incorrect equipment, not only could it result
in injury to yourself and others but may also damage the stock.

Group Activity / Pair Activity 4: Moving Stock (SO2 AC5)

Your facilitator will divide you into groups of 3 or 4.

Write down what :

 Labels you will find on each of the items listed

 How you will move them

 How you will pack & store them

Parafin:

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T-Shirts:

Frozen Chickens:

Upright Fridge / Freezers

Efficient production and a good working environment are complementary. The


elimination of inefficiencies and accident hazards caused by unfavourable
conditions in and about the workplace is essential in getting the job done
properly and safely. The attention to these important details—which may be
overlooked when management’s attention is concentrated upon such amenities
as good cloakrooms, canteens, rest rooms, recreational facilities, etc.—is widely
referred to as “good housekeeping”. Good housekeeping involves every phase of
industrial operations and should apply throughout the entire premises, indoors
and out. It is more than mere cleanliness. It requires orderly conditions, the
avoidance of congestion, and attention to such details as an orderly layout of the
whole workplace, the marking of aisles, adequate storage arrangements, and
suitable provision for cleaning and maintenance.

A clean, well-ordered, attractive work environment sets the tone of your


establishment. It encourages tidy work habits in employees. It helps reduce
fatigue. It promotes good worker-management relations. It also gives a lift to

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morale, which is reflected in the quality of production and overall efficiency.


Good housekeeping is also a good advertisement for your company. Customers
and clients have more confidence in an organisation when they we work being
carried out efficiently in clean, pleasant, well ordered surroundings. There’s an
even more important reason why good housekeeping matters — it makes the
undertaking a safer place to work in.

It is a vital factor in preventing accidents. The great majority of all work


accidents are caused during the handling of goods or materials, and by people
falling, being hit by falling objects, or striking against objects in the workplace.
All these causes can be reduced by good housekeeping practices—in fact, good
housekeeping is the only cure for hundreds of accidents that occur. Here are
some kinds of accidents commonly caused by bad housekeeping:

• Tripping over loose objects on floors, stairs and platforms.


• Articles dropping from above.
• Slipping on greasy, wet or dirty surfaces.
• Striking against projecting, poorly stacked, or misplaced material.
• Tearing the hands or other parts of the body on projecting nails, wire,
steel strapping on bales or crates, etc.

Typical examples of poor housekeeping that lead to these accidents are:

• Excessive material, waste or chips in the working area.


• Congested aisles.
• Tools left on machines.
• Waste containers overflowing.
• Lockers and workrooms in disorder.
• Acids in open containers.
• Broken glass.
• Electric leads or air lines across aisles.
• Dirty light fittings, windows and skylights.

Where housekeeping is bad, fire is a constant hazard. It can be caused by many


housekeeping problems—such as oil-soaked rags and clothing igniting from
spontaneous combustion; dust collectors not being properly or frequently
cleaned; or piles of paper and other packing materials being allowed to
accumulate. Poor housekeeping can also lead to infestation by pests such as
rodents and cockroaches and create serious health risks. The following are the
basic elements of a good housekeeping campaign that need attention:

Aisles—Wide enough for traffic movements, marked off by floor lines from work
positions and storage areas.

Space—Sufficient room for the individual to work.

Storage—Adequate and convenient space for materials and tools.

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Materials Handling—Layout planned for materials flow, with efficient methods


and equipment.

Ventilation—Good general ventilation plus local exhaust ventilation to remove


air contaminants at the source.

Floors and Walls—Of construction and materials that are easy to keep clean
and in good repair.

Lighting—Well-distributed artificial light and effective use of available daylight.

Amenities—Clean, up-to-date washrooms and lockers for clothing. A clean,


inviting lunch room for employees to eat their meals.

Waste Removal—Adequate facilities to prevent congestion and disorder. Let us


look at some of these elements in detail.

KEEP AISLES CLEAR: Aisle space should be reserved for the movement of
personnel, products and materials. It should be kept clean and clear and should
never be used for “bottleneck” or “overflow’’ storage. This also applies to
passageways and emergency exits. Blind corners should be eliminated or be
adequately protected by warning signs. Aisle boundary markings should be
drawn to show clearly the space which has been reserved for traffic. Markings
should be sufficiently wide (say a minimum of 30 mm) and of a colour to make
them clearly visible. Paint or durable plastic strips can be used.

IMPROVE STORAGE FACILITIES: Tidiness and order are essential in


overcoming storage problems, both in storerooms and in the yard. Good storage
utilises air space instead of floor space, and also saves time-wasting delays. It’s
important to prevent stores and scraps accumulating on the floor and around
machines. Never keep more stores and materials than necessary near machines
and provide proper facilities (such as bins, shelves, boxes, racks, etc.) in which to
store them.

KEEP FLOORS CLEAN: Every year thousands of work injuries are caused by
people falling. Floor conditions are responsible for many of these accidents.
When floors are given the right treatment they are much easier to keep clean
and hygienic. Spilt oil and other liquids should be cleaned up at once. Chips,
shavings, dust, and similar wastes should never be allowed to accumulate. They
should be removed frequently, or better still, be suitably trapped before they
reach the floor.

PAINT THE WALLS: Paint is one of the cheapest means of renovating walls, and
a fresh coat of paint can give a boost to morale. Light-coloured walls reflect light.
Dirty or dark-coloured walls absorb light. Dirty walls have a depressing effect and
encourage dirty habits and sloppy attitudes. Choose suitable colours to paint
walls, ceilings and working surfaces. See that the paintwork is cleaned down

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periodically. Colour can be harnessed to assist with safety. For example it can be
used to warn of physical hazards and to mark obstructions such as pillars.

Painting handrails, machine guards and other safety equipment renders them
distinctive and also prevents rust. Colour can be used to highlight the hazardous
parts of machinery but it can never substitute for a needed guard.

MAINTAIN THE LIGHT FITTINGS: Attention to light fittings should be an


integral part of any good housekeeping programme. Dirty lamps and shades, and
lamps whose output has deteriorated with use, deprive employees of essential
light. It’s been found that lighting efficiency may be improved by 20 to 30
percent simply by cleaning the lamps and reflectors.

CLEAN THE WINDOWS: Clean windows let in light; dirty ones keep it out.
Insufficient light causes eye strain and leads to accidents because employees are
unable to see properly. Ensure that windows are not blocked by stacked
materials, equipment or articles on the ledges.

DISPOSE OF SCRAP AND PREVENT SPILLAGE: It’s a common practice to let


the floor catch all the waste and then spend time and energy cleaning it up. It is
obviously better to provide convenient containers for scrap and waste and
educate employees to use them. Safety will benefit, expense will be saved, and
the factory will be a better place in which to work. Oily floors are a common
accident and fire hazard. Splash guards and drip pans should be installed
wherever oil spills or drips may occur. Prevent accidents by keeping oil and
grease off the floor.

GET RID OF DUST AND DIRT: In some jobs, dust, dirt, chips, etc., are
unavoidable. If they can’t be collected as part of the process (e.g. by enclosure
and exhaust methods) you need a way to clean them up. Vacuum cleaners are
suitable for removing light dust and dirt. Industrial models have special fittings
for cleaning walls, ceilings, ledges, machinery, and other hard-to-reach places
where dust and dirt collect. If light dust is removed by sweeping, floors should be
dampened first rather than swept dry. Oiling floors occasionally with a light oil
helps to lay the dust but take care that slipping hazards do not occur.
Remember, it is not only floors that need sweeping. Dust and grime also collect
on ledges, shelves, piping, conduits, lamps, reflectors, windows, cupboards,
lockers, and so on—and all these places need attention.

MAINTAIN A HIGH STANDARD IN MEAL ROOMS, REST ROOMS, ETC: No


housekeeping programme should ignore the facilities provided for meals, rest
and sanitation, where cleanliness is essential for walls, floors, and fixtures. A
light-coloured paint can work wonders in these places and set a standard to
which employees will try to conform. Soap and towels should be renewed
regularly and wash basins properly cleaned.

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KEEP TOOLS TIDY: Tool housekeeping is very important, whether in the tool
room, on the rack, out in the yard, or on the bench. Suitable fixtures for tools are
required to provide orderly arrangement, both in the tool room and near the
work bench, and a regular system of inspecting, cleaning, and repairing is an
essential part of any programme.

LOOK AFTER YOUR FIRST AID GEAR: First aid facilities and equipment should
be kept under spotlessly clean conditions and fully stocked so that they are
always ready in the event of accidents or illness.

INSPECT FIRE-CONTROL EQUIPMENT: It is essential to ensure that all fire-


fighting equipment such as extinguishers and fire hoses is regularly inspected
and kept in good working order. Fire protection facilities — fire doors and exits,
automatic alarms, etc.— should be in good working order. Doors and exits should
always be kept clear of obstructions.

ATTEND REGULARLY TO MAINTENANCE: Perhaps the most important


element of good housekeeping is the attention paid to maintenance of buildings
and equipment. If something gets broken or damaged it should be replaced or
fixed as quickly as possible (e.g., defective ladders, broken handrails, steps,
etc.). Apart from the possibility of causing accidents, a workplace can take on a
very neglected appearance if broken windows, damaged doors, defective
plumbing, leaking gutters, broken floor surfaces and the like are allowed to
remain in that condition. Employees may take the hint in a neglectful attitude to
their jobs. A good maintenance programme will make provision for the
inspection, lubrication, upkeep and repair of tools, equipment, machines and
processes.

ASSIGN RESPONSIBILITY FOR CLEANING: Where practicable, the cleaning of


the workplace should be the responsibility of a special cleaning staff and not an
additional job for employees engaged in production. Where this is not possible,
adequate time during working hours should be allowed for cleaning up to be
done. Responsibility should be clearly assigned as to who is to do the cleaning
and what area is to be cleaned. If this is not done, out-of-theway places such as
shelves, yards, small buildings, sheds, cellars, basements, and boiler rooms are
overlooked until they get into a deplorable state.

PREPARE A CHECK LIST: A sound method to ensure that housekeeping is done


is for management to prepare a check list to suit the requirements of the
workplace.

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Learner Tip:

Housekeeping does not happen on its own, it requires Human


Intervention!

Individual Activity 6: Housekeeping (SO2 AC6)

What will be the impact if there is poor housekeeping?

What documentation is available within the organisation to advise


on good housekeeping?

How can you maintain and ensure your work area, stationary and
equipment meet the organisation’s standards

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6. Conclusion
Congratulations! You have now completed the second module of the initial
learning for Standard : Receive Stock – this is an NQF registered unit
standard (SAQA Reg. No 114896).

You now need to complete the following assessments in your own time.

Self Assessment

Self Assessment 2:

You have come to the end of this module – please take the time to
review what you have learnt to date, and conduct a self
assessment against the learning outcomes of this module by
following the instructions below:

Rate your understanding of each of the outcomes listed below :

Keys :  - no understanding

 - some idea

 - completely comfortable

SELF
NO OUTCOME RATING

  

SO2 The concept of shrinkage and how it impacts on the


AC1 organisation is explained.

SO2 Ways in which shrinkage and losses occur is explained in


AC2 relation to the process of receiving stock.

SO2 Shrinkage and loss prevention measures are implemented


AC3 in the Receiving Area.

SO2 Breaches in security are reported to the relevant parties


AC4 following organisation policies and procedures.

SO2 Received stock is moved to storage areas to prevent


AC5 shrinkage and losses following the stock characteristics
and the organisation's policy and procedures.

SO2 The work area, stationary and equipment meet the


AC6 organisation's housekeeping standards.

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Complete the mind map below by listing the main point you remember from the
module you have just completed.

__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
____
______________________
______________________ __________________________
______________________ __________________________
______________________ __
______________________
__________________________
_____
__________________________
__

_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____

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Module 3: Maintain Stock


Balances
Learning Outcomes:

The following learning outcomes are covered in this module.

The Learner will be able to meet people in a business setting

 The impact and functioning of the Supply Chain on the


organisation is explained as it is stated the organisation's
documents.

 Stock flow through the organisation/business is


explained.

 Stock records are maintained to enhance the supply


chain following organisation's procedures.

Supply Chain

A supply chain is a network of facilities and distribution options that performs the
functions of procurement of materials, transformation of these materials into
intermediate and finished products, and the distribution of these finished
products to customers. Supply chains exist in both service and manufacturing
organizations, although the complexity of the chain may vary greatly from
industry to industry and firm to firm.

Resources:

Refer to Resource 9 : Typical Supply Chain in your resource guide.

This is an example of a very simple supply chain for a single


product, where raw material is procured from vendors,
transformed into finished goods in a single step, and then
transported to distribution centres, and ultimately, customers.

Each organization will also have its own internal supply chain.

Resources:

Refer to Resource 10 : Internal Supply Chain in your resource


guide.

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This example shows how various departments complete the


Supply Chain. It is important to note that each organization is
different.

The purpose of the supply chain is to have the right products, in the right
quantities, at the right place, at the right time, at minimal cost and in the most
efficient way.

This therefore requires a great deal of flexibility, dependence and reliance on all
components of the supply chain.

Example:

A product needs to be manufactured and then exported to a client in the


UK.

What if:

 Supplier of raw materials is short of supplies or is delayed in delivering


them?

 The finance department has not paid a supplier on a previous invoice so


they will not deliver?

 Eskom reintroduces load shedding which interferes with the


manufacturing of the product?

 Product is produced but the Road & Shipping Freight industry goes on
strike?

On each of these the impact will be disastrous, and could ultimately result in loss
of business.

Group Activity / Pair Activity 5 : Supply Chain (SO3 AC1)

Your facilitator will divide you into groups of 3 or 4.

In your groups have a look at each of the above and write down
the impact each of them will have on the organisation.

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Stock Flow

Wikipedia2 defines stock as being a variable that is measured at one specific


time, and represents a quantity existing at that point in time (say, December 31,
2004), which may have accumulated in the past. A flow variable is measured
over an interval of time. Therefore a flow would be measured per unit of time
(say a year).

Thus, a stock refers to the value of an asset at a balance date (or point in time),
while a flow refers to the total value of transactions (sales or purchases, incomes
or expenditures) during an accounting period. If the flow value of an economic
activity is divided by the average stock value during an accounting period, we
obtain a measure of the number of turnovers (or rotations) of a stock in that
accounting period. Some accounting entries are normally always represented as
a flow (e.g. profit or income), while others may be represented both as a stock or
as a flow (e.g. capital).

The above can be clearly understood in the tables below.

Accounting, finance, etc.

Possible units Possible units


"Stock" "Inflow(s)" "Outflow(s)"
of stock of flow

deposits
bank balance euros withdrawals euros per month
interest

inventory of incoming board feet per


board feet outgoing lumber
lumber lumber week

housing housing
housing stock dollars dollars per year
investment depreciation

equity shares (of purchases of shares per


sales of shares
shareholdings 'stock') shares month

Other contexts

2
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stock_and_flow

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Possible units of Possible units of


"Stock" "Inflow(s)" "Outflow(s)"
stock flow

CO2 in tons
tons tons emitted tons per day
atmosphere sequestered

guests
guests in a hotel persons guests leaving persons per day
arriving

births deaths
population persons persons per year
immigration emigration

water water draining


water in bathtub liters liters per second
pouring in out

waste in disposal dumping


tons decay of waste tons per week
site waste

fuel gallons per


fuel tank gallons refueling
consumption month

Stock Flow can also refer to the “travel” or “process” that stock follows from
start to finish.

Group Activity / Pair Activity 6 : Stock Flow

Resource 10 : Stock Flow Process in your resource guide refers.


(SO3 AC2 &3)

Write down the process stock goes through from the time the
delivery truck arrives to the time stock is despatched from
Storage.

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Draw a flow diagram of the above, including documentation that


is involved.

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Stock Records

To enhance the supply chain detailed records of all movements, checks, stock
control & count must be kept. Maintaining stock records can be done in two
ways, namely manually or electronically.

Manual systems, require all paperwork to follow the stock. Generally this is done
by scanning in the documentation and saving it at a central point on the
computer network for all to see and access.

Electronic systems are a more reliable and valuable way to main records, as it
requires little human intervention thus leading to less mistakes with manual
counts, administrative errors.

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6. Conclusion

Congratulations! You have now completed the third module of the initial learning
for Standard : Receive Stock – this is an NQF registered unit standard (SAQA Reg.
No 114896).

You now need to complete the following assessments in your own time.

Self Assessment 3

Self Assessment:

You have come to the end of this module – please take the time to
review what you have learnt to date, and conduct a self
assessment against the learning outcomes of this module by
following the instructions below:

Rate your understanding of each of the outcomes listed below :

Keys :  - no understanding

 - some idea

 - completely comfortable

SELF
NO OUTCOME RATING

  

SO 3 The impact and functioning of the Supply Chain on the


organisation is explained as it is stated the organisation's
AC 1
documents.

SO 3
Stock flow through the organisation/business is explained.
AC 2

SO 3 Stock records are maintained to enhance the supply chain


AC 3 following organisation's procedures.

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Complete the mind map below by listing the main point you remember from the
module you have just completed.

__________________________
__________________________
______________________ __________________________
______________________ __________________________
______________________ ____
______________________
______________________ __________________________
_____ __________________________
__

__________________________
__________________________
__

_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____

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Learner Evaluation Form


Learning Facilitator Name
Programme
Name

Learner name Dates of


(Optional) Facilitation

Employer / Work Date of


site Evaluation

Learner Tip:

Please complete the Evaluation Form as thoroughly as you are


able to, in order for us to continuously improve our training
quality!

The purpose of the Evaluation Form is to evaluate the following:

• Logistics and Support

• Facilitation

• Training Material

• Assessment

Your honest and detailed input is therefore of great value to us,


and we appreciate your assistance in completing this evaluation
form!

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A Logistics and Support Evaluation

No Criteria / Question

Poor

Sufficient

Excellent
Below Standard

Above Standard
1 Was communication regarding attendance of
the programme efficient and effective?

2 Was the Programme Coordinator helpful and


efficient?

3 Was the training equipment and material used


effective and prepared?

4 Was the training venue conducive to learning


(set-up for convenience of learners,
comfortable in terms of temperature, etc.)?

Additional Comments on Logistics and Support

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B Facilitator Evaluation

Poor
No Criteria / Question

Sufficient

Excellent
Below Standard

Above Standard
1 The Facilitator was prepared and knowledgeable
on the subject of the programme

2 The Facilitator encouraged learner participation


and input

3 The Facilitator made use of a variety of methods,


exercises, activities and discussions

4 The Facilitator used the material in a structured


and effective manner

5 The Facilitator was understandable, approachable


and respectful of the learners

6 The Facilitator was punctual and kept to the


schedule

Additional Comments on Facilitation

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C Learning Programme Evaluation

Poor
No Criteria / Question

Sufficient

Excellent
Standard

Standard
Above
Below
1 2 3 4 5

1 The learning outcomes of the


programme are relevant and suitable.

2 The content of the programme was


relevant and suitable for the target
group.

3 The length of the facilitation was


suitable for the programme.

4 The learning material assisted in


learning new knowledge and skills to
apply in a practical manner.

5 The Learning Material was free from


spelling and grammar errors

6 Handouts and Exercises are clear,


concise and relevant to the outcomes
and content.

7 Learning material is generally of a high


standard, and user friendly

Additional Comments on Learning Programme

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D Assessment Evaluation

Poor
No Criteria / Question

Below Standard

Sufficient

Above Standard

Excellent
1 2 3 4 5

1 A clear overview provided of the assessment


requirements of the programme was provided

2 The assessment process and time lines were


clearly explained

3 All assessment activities and activities were


discussed

Additional Comments on Assessment

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