SEMINAR REPORT

TOPIC: IMPROVEMENT OF BLACK COTTON SOIL USING LIME

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INTRODUCTION Black cotton soil is the Indian name given to the ‘expansive soil’ deposit.these soils are also known as swelling soils . shrinkable soil and regur soil. These soils are well known for cultivation of cotton. These soils seen at a maximum depth of 15m.but normally seen at a small depth(1m-3. 2 . maharashtraAndhraPradesh. But it is a nightmare to the construction engineers due to the inherent high swelling and shrinkage characteristics which causes considerable damage to civil engineering structure built on or with them. volume changing soil.5m)so these soils are highly problematic to the light structures like road. Black cotton soil covers nearly a one fifth of the total area of our country (Karnataka. canals and residential buildings.heaving soils.madhyapradesh and Gujarat) . Expansive soils found in the arid and semi arid regions of the world and are in abundance where the annual evaporation exceeds the precipitation.

The swelling and shrinking is depending upon the nature of the exchangeable cat ions present.magnesium or a combination of both.CAUSE OF SWELLING AND SHRINKABLE SOILS The black cotton soil refers to soils that contain active clay mineral especially montmorrilonite. This mineral is made of sheet like units. The basic structure of each unit is made up of gibbsite sheet sandwiched between to silica sheet. Cat ions which are in soil water are attracted to the negatively charged clay plates and exist in a continuous state of interchange the basic units are started one above the other like the leaves of a book . 3 . in addition .the silicon atoms of tetrahedral may interchange with aluminium atoms and result in a net negative charge on the clay minerals.this is very weak bounding between the successive sheets and water may enter between the sheets causing an mineral to swell. iron . Mont morrilonite has the greatest swelling potential. The gibbsite layer may include atoms of aluminium.

4 . retaining walls. expansive soil expand and contract due to change in moisture content of the soil carrying structured problem through deferential movement of the structure resulting in severe damage to the foundation.roads. buildings . 1.PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH BLACK COTTON SOILS Black cotton soil occurring above water table undergo volumetric change with changes in water content increase in moisture content causes the following effects. canal linings etc… 2.

5 . a number of reactions takes place.bitumen &chemical etc… Lime stabilization It is the improvement of soil properties using lime as admixture. The slow long term reaction resulting in growth of cementatious products known as “puzzalonic reaction”. some of them immediately while other are slow. Stabilization may be grouped under two types: o Modification of a soil property of existing soil without adding mixtures bycompaction and drainage. The stabilization achieved by the formation of cementatious compounds by reaction of lime and clay mineral MECHANISM OF STABILISATION When lime is added to soil in the presence of moisture. Three distinct stages of reaction have been recognised as they are I.incorporates the various method employed for modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance is known as stabilization. so . II.cement.STABILIZATION An expansive soil causes many problems in fields. o Improvement of the properties with help of mixtures Eg : stabilization with lime. To over come all the problem. An early stage that occurs with in a few minutes to an hour and responsible for “amelioration effect”. we have to improve the quality of soils .

The types of cementation products formed depend on the condition of reaction and nature of soil.III. Carbonation Carbon dioxide from air and rain water converts the calcium and magnesium oxides and hydroxides back to their respective carbonates. The increase in the strength during again was correlated to the promotion of calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium silicate hydrate compounds. “Carbonation” leading to the formation of calcium carbonate on reaction of lime with carbon dioxide from atmosphere. 6 . Various polymorphic forms of calcium. This reaction. Amelioration effects When line and moist clayey soil are mixed in a loose condition and almost immediate flocculation effect is observed. raising of plastic and shrinkage limits and lowering of dry density. These carbonates are weak cement and strength gain due to carbonation is minimum. These effects are discussed below.aluminate hydrate and calcium aluminate silicate have been identified in the all the cases together with calcium-silicate hydrate species. This reaction involves any of the three following: a) Ion exchange of calcium with the ion naturally carried by the soil b) A depression of the double layer on the soil colloids because of the increased in cation concentration in pore water c) Expansion of double layer of soil colloids from the high pH of the lime Puzzalonic reaction A second chemical reaction which occurs when lime is added to a moist cohesive soil is the one which results in slow long term cementing together of the soil particles at their point of interaction. possibly commence simultaneously with flocculation process. This is reflected in lowering of the liquid limit of soil.

4. SOIL It is suggested that soils for soil lime stabilization should contain 15% material passing 424 microns sieve and should have plasticity index of at least 8. the maximum limits for these are 2% and . Compaction also increases the strength greatly. Below 50 degree farad temperature the lime soil stabilization is not desirable. LIME Lime stabilization achieved with calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide. Quick lime added in slurry form are found to give greater strengths. All types of limes produce almost same effect. However quick lime is found to be more effective than hydrated lime. than when added in powder. But the delaying compaction after ending moist mixing result in lowering of the quality of soil lime mixtures . CURING TIME AND TEMPERATURE Strength is increases with curing period and it is highly recommended that any soil lime stabilization work should be done in earlier part of summer. When it is present. 7 . MOISTURE CONTENT AND COMPACTIVE EFFORT The addition of lime resulted in the decrease of maximum dry density by several gram per cc with an increase in the optimum moisture content. Other factor that inhibit lime soil reactions are organic content and sulphate content of the soil.2% respectively 2.IRC stipulates that the maximum time lag between mixing compaction should not exceed 3 hr. Hydraulic lime give approximately the same strength used either in powder or slurry form 3.FACTORS EFFECTING SOIL LIME STABILIZATION 1. But quick lime has a tendency to cause skin burns of unprotected workman and hence need careful handling and protection.

8 . in this method .lime slurry injection is another popular technique. Lime diffuse from the bore holes into surrounding soil improve its properties . water is added and lime soil mixture compacted thouroghly. which act as moisture barriers . lime slurry is pumped into the soil under pressure forming a net work of inter connecting sheet like seams.METHODS OF APPLICATION OF LIME Normally for road construction lime is intimately mixed to the pulverised soil. lime slurry could be back filled in pre drilled bore holes.

1) Liquid limits. Pulverized soil was air dried and added with different percentages of lime (2. The following test were conducting during the course of investigation. ranga ready district of andrapradesh. the soil used for investigation satisfies the requirement. n professor navignane jyothi institute of engineering and technology Hyderabad to observe the change in properties of black soils and added with lime METERIALS AND METHODOLOGY The black cotton soil use for the study obtain from bachupally lake. soil time mixture were caked in desiccators at room temperature. The lime powder preserved in polythene bags and stored in an air tight room to prevent it from absorbing moisture from atmosphere.Laboratory test The lab test was conducted by pavan kumar p v s. plastic limits 2) Free swelling index 3) Unconfined compression strength 4) California bearing ratio 9 . The soil was collected from open excavation from a depth of 1meter below natural ground surface.4. Table 1 represent the property of soil Black cotton soil used has minimum pi and particle shape. in pulverised form.6&8). Freshly burnt quick lime was used in the experimental work. To consider the periods.

soil shifts from clay of high compressibility tone to silt of medium compressibility.problem of ultarnate swell and shrinkage due to moisture variation is eliminated as the gap between P.RESULTS AND DISCCUSIONS  Increase in lime content reduces liquid limit and plasticity index. whereas shrinkage limit is increased(fig . 10 .I.2).L shrinkage limit is reduced due to addition of lime .

expansive soil with free swelling index prefer that 50% should not be used for construction of embankments. From fig:3 it can be noted that with increase in lime content free swelling index is reduced to 40%.  CBR value where observed to increase to 32% due to addition of lime (hgh). Due to increase CBR value total thickens of payment greatly reduced.ie the black cotton soil used in the investigation cannot be directly used for filling but it should be treated with at least 5% lime. according to morth . 11 .

that produce the maximum strength.  From fig(5&4) it can be inferred that period of 7 days has a significant impact on CBN. Unconfined compressive strength is enhanced with addition of lime to black cotton soil (fig. improvement is observed  Other advantage of lime treatment is it a water resistant barrier which impedes surface water from above and capillary moisture from below. Strength of lime soil mixture with increase3 in period 28 day. If the soil is lime treated it will improve bearing capacity.5). There is an optimum lime content of about 6% by weight. that helping to maintain foundation strength 12 . Indicating the increase in bearing capacity and reduction of different deferential settlements of the super structure.

resistance and reducing the swelling and shrinkage behaviour . lime can be successfully used for treatment of black cotton soil.CONCLUSION From the above results and studies it can be concluded that addition of 6% of lime to a high expansive black cotton soil used in the prevailing conditions in laboratory made the soil friable by enhancing the strength . penetration . which can be cost effective with other admixtures like cement and asphalt providing long life to the structures built on such soil with least maintenance 13 .

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