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1.| Definition of electric welding

Welding is a metal joining process in which metal into one by heat with or without
pressure, or can be defined as a result of metallurgical caused by the attraction force
between atoms. Before the atoms form a bond, surface will be a need to be free from gas
absorbed or oxides.

2.| Electric welding machine

Welding machine is a source of energy that gives the type of electric power required and
sufficient voltage to continue to carry out electrical suatulengkung welding.

Welding machine power source can be obtained from:

| Motor gasoline or diesel

| Substation

The voltage on electric welding machine is usually:

| 110 volts
| 220 volts
| 380 volts

Between networks with a welding machine in there garage breaker switch. Welding
machine is driven by motor, suitable for field work or in the garage that has no electricity
network. Arc flash occurs when made certain distance between the electrodes with the
workpiece and the mass of wires clipped to the workpiece.

The types of electric welding welding machine consists of:

Electric welding machine - transformer alternating current (AC) This machine requires a
source of alternating current with a lower voltage in the electric arc.

Gains - profits AC welding machines, among others:

a.| Small flame arc, thus minimize the possibility of loss on the ridge-ridge las
b.| Less expensive equipment and maintenance
c.| Electric welding machine - Rectifier direct current (DC)

These machines convert alternating electrical current (AC) that comes in, the electrical
current (DC) exit. In an AC machine, the cable and wire electrodes can be exchanged



without affecting the heat changes that occur in the arc flame. The advantages of DC
welding machines, among others:

Can stable arc ignition electrode can be covered and not covered electrode can be covered
and not covered in a thin plate welding in relation DCRP Can be used to weld in damp
places and narrow

3.| Polarity of electrode

Polarity Direct

In direct polarization, the electrode wires attached at the negative terminal and. the mass
of cables on the positive terminal. Polarity is often called sebegai circuits directly electric
welding with electrode negative. (DC-). Polarity To reverse reverse polarization, the
electrode wires mounted on the positive terminal and cable fitted mass on the negative
terminal. Polarity is inverted frequently called electric welding circuits with the positive

4.| Effect of polarization on welding result

Selection of type and polarization currents in pangelasan depend on:

| Type of basic material to be welded

| Types of electrodes used

Effect of polarization on welding result is the penetration lasnya. Polarity Direct will
produce a shallow penetration, while the reverse will happen sebeliknya polarization. In
the alternating current generated penetration between the two.

5.| Voltage and electric current in a welding machine

Volt is a unit of electrical voltage that can be measured by a voltmeter instrument. The
voltage between the electrodes and base material moving electrons across the bow.
Ampere is the amount of electric current that flows that can be measured with ammeters.
Curved long electricity will reduce flow and increase the voltage.



‰.| Las electrical equipment

| Welding Cable

Welding cables are usually made of copper that was twisted and wrapped in the
view so-called rubber insulation welding cable there are three kinds:

a.| Electrode cable

b.| Cable mass
c.| Power cable

7.| Welding basic techniques

Formation of electric arc ignition process in the formation of electrical arcs out of the
negative electrode (cathode) and flowing with great speed to the positive pole (anode).
From the positive pole flow positive particles (positive ions) to the negative pole.
Through this process the air space between the anode and cathode (workpiece and the
electrode) is made to deliver an electrical current (ionized) and the possible formation of
electrical arcs. As the direction of prevailing current direction of movement of positive
ions. If the electrode is for example connected to the negative pole direct current source,
then the current direction of the workpiece to the electrode. After the electrode currents
brought near the location of the connection point touched and reelected in the short-
distance (electrode diameter).

| Core wire
| Electrode sheaths
| Electric arc
| Metal removal
| Protective gas
| Slag
| Seam welds

With a brief touching the metal electrode on the workpiece to be welded, held a brief
relationship in a series of welding current, a high-power electrical currents to flow, which
after removal of electrode from the workpiece through the air gap, forming a light arc
between the electrodes with the workpiece, and thereby keep such a light bow
mengalir.Suhu High will soon melt the tip of the electrode and welding locations. In a
rapid series of electrode particles drip, fill gaps and form a cocoon of weld welding. The
welding process itself consists of a brief relationship that occurs very quickly due to the
continuous electrode melting drips.