Labor welfare in India


Labor welfare has been defined in various ways, though no single definition has found universal acceptance. The Oxford dictionary defines labor welfare as "Efforts to make life worth living for workmen." Chambers dictionary defines welfare as "A state of faring or doing well. Freedom from calamity, enjoyment of health and prosperity.¶¶ The Encyclopedia of Social Science defines it as "the voluntary efforts of the employers to establish, within the existing industrial system, working and sometimes living and cultural conditions of employees beyond what is required by law, the customs of the industry and the condition of market". In the Report II of the ILO Asian Regional conference, it has been stated that worker's welfare may be understood to mean "such services, facilities and amenities, which may be established outside or in the vicinity of undertakings, to enable the persons employed therein to perform their work in healthy and congenial surroundings and to provide them with the amenities conducive to good health and high morale." The Labor Investigation committee (1944-46) includes under labor welfare activities "anything done for the intellectual, physical, moral and economic betterment of the workers, whether by employers, by government or by other agencies, over and above what is laid down by law or what is normally expected as per of the contractual benefits for which the workers may have bargained." The Report of the Committee on Labor welfare (1969) includes under it "such services, facilities and amenities as adequate canteens, rest and recreation facilities, sanitary and medical facilities, arrangements for travel to and from work and for the accommodation of workers employed at a distance from their homes and such other services, amenities and facilities including social security measures as contribute to improve the conditions under which worker are employer." Thus, the whole field of welfare is said to be one "in which much can be done to combat the sense of frustration of the industrial workers, to relieve them of personal and family worries, to improve their health, to afford them means of self expression, to offer them some sphere in which they can excel others and to help them to a wider conception of life". It promotes the well-being of workers in variety of ways.

Indian Scenario
"During the pre-independence period, industrial relations policy of the British Government was one of laissez faire and also of selective intervention. There were hardly any labor welfare schemes. After independence, labor legislations have formed the basis for industrial relations and social security. These legislations have also provided machinery for bipartite and tripartite consultations for settlement of disputes.

the process of economic reforms was set in motion when the government introduced a series of measures to reduce control on industries. Industrial relations and labor laws. Labor and Labor Welfare sub-sector consists of six main programmes viz. 4. such as 1. Several legislations. Craftsmen training programme. Labor reforms: India and WTO. 6. Employment Services and Sanjay Gandhi Swavalamban Yojana. were enacted to maintain industrial peace and harmony: Factories Act. Strengthening of Medical wing of the Directorate of Industrial Safety and Health . Women workers: legislations and empowerment. particularly large industries. Edited extracts from India's Five Year Plans on employment and labor related matters (I plan to X plan including mid-term appraisal of the X Plan). Employees State Insurance Act. 1948. and second to allow a free interplay of the market forces.Soon after independence. 1948 and Minimum Wages Act. 1948. India's Five Year Plans at a glance. 7. the government at a tripartite conference in December 1947 adopted the industrial truce resolution. including the following. Economic reforms. Labor Administration. Labor laws and welfare: India and ILO. The new economic policy has directly affected industrial relations in the country. 2. Restructuring of labor laws: the great debate. one of protecting the interest of the workers. The workers have opposed economic liberalization policy for fear of unemployment while entrepreneurs have welcomed it in the hope of new opportunities to improve Indian industries. Assistance to Labor Cooperatives. Apprenticeship training programme. Employment policies and programmes. Manpower. III. 5. In the early 1990s. employment policy and labor welfare in India: post-independence developments: Many researches has been done in the following themes. Manpower: trends and magnitude. 8. because the government has to play a dual role. 3. Labor welfare: legal framework and initiatives. II. by removing barriers to entry. Fiscal stabilization has resulted in drastic reduction in budgetary support to the public sector commercial enterprises while exposing these enterprises to increased competition from private sector. Rehabilitation of bonded labor. The payment of bonus act was passed in 1965. have created competitive markets.

looking after labor welfare and providing of the necessary support measures for sorting out problems relating to employment of both men and women workers in different sectors has received priority attention. The Central Board of Workers Education through its regional offices is striving to educate the workers to help to avoid wasteful expenditure. adopting cost effectiveness and by enhancing productivity of qualitative nature. During the Ninth Plan period. and aspects such as ensuring workers¶ safety and social security. textile and Electronic Industries. the chemical factories which include heavy chemical complexes or small chemical factories which may produce acute effects on the health of the workers to such an extent that it may result in death. Quick transmission of such messages to the area Factory Inspector and others not only facilitates a prompt inquiry into the mishap and its causes but also enables the concerned authorities to bring into action the various control measures in the case of disaster. ethics and hygiene. Short-term programmes for the unorganised sector to educate them on their rights. petrochemicals. Orientation Courses for Rural Educators. Improvement of communications.00 lakh is provided for Annual Plan 2002-2003. Functional Adult Literacy Classes. Pesticides spilled on the body of the workers are equally dangerous. . pesticides. Participative Management. the Chief Inspector and from C. fires and disasters in the area a broad network of office/ residential telephones is an essential-requisite for the Factory Inspector. heavy and light chemical industries.There are different types of industries in Maharashtra like heavy and light engineering.Chief Inspector of Factories. Tribal sub-plan area Labor and labor welfare Labor sector addresses multi-dimensional socio-economic aspects affecting labor welfare. productivity. efforts are being made for providing the environment for selfemployment both in urban and rural areas. the concerned Dy. Leadership Development Programme for Rural Workers. In this context. fertilizers. All these pose their own potential hazards.150. bonded labor. Manpower development to provide adequate labor force of appropriate skills and quality to different sectors is essential for rapid socioeconomic development. mobility of Factory Inspectors For the quick transmission of messages relating to factory accidents. elimination of undesirable practices such as child labor. An outlay for Tenth Five Year Plan 2002-2007 is Rs. gas leaks. They have been conducting the following programmes: y y y y y y Rural Awareness higher authorities.I.5.F. In Maharashtra. Employment generation in all the productive sectors is one of the basic objectives. Out of that an outlay Rs. living standards of labor force and social security. which may cause acute and chronic side effects on the health of the workers. skill up gradation through suitable training is of utmost importance.00 lakh. To raise living standards of the work force and achieve higher productivity.

it would make a great contribution to the prosperity of the enterprise. The study was completed in four states. viz. CONCLUSION India introduced literal industrial policy which is aimed at stepping up industrial growth promoting modernization and technological up gradation to make industrial competitive in both domestic and global market. health and family care canteens.-29) . Even today's scientific development of modern techno. educational and training facilities. a fully funded autonomous body of the Ministry of Labor.4. Hence steps need to be taken on a larger scale to improve the quality of life of the workers SANJEET KUMAR (ROLL NO. contractual parameters and conditions of construction workers.V. and also to officers dealing with industrial relations. Giri National Labor Institute. conducts action-oriented research and provides training to grass root level workers in the trade union movement.Labor research and training V. Labor laws. In this perspective enterprises have to improve their production and productivity which is possible with the satisfaction of labour. Information on requirements for rural labor. This can be reduced to a great extent by provision of good housing. Women and labor Market.production methods higher productivity depends on workers. This Study was undertaken in pursuance of directions of the Committee of Secretaries at a meeting held on1. The Institute completed the following research projects during 19992000: y y y y y y Dynamics of Labor Market: Kerala. If they are rightly directed and fully used. personal management. provision of welfare activities enables the workers to live a richer and more satisfactory life and contributes to the productivity of labour. Tamil Nadu. etc. labor welfare. both in the urban and rural areas.99 for the purpose of amendment to the Minimum Wages Act. efficiency of the enterprise and helps in maintaining industrial peace. The following study was however of utmost significance??³Study on payment of wages wholly in kind and perceptions regarding Mode of payment: A study in selected States". Maharashtra. 1948. The high rate of labour absenteeism in Indian industries is indicative of the lack of commitment on the part of the workers. Wage determination in rural labor force markets. Adverse sex ratio and female labor force participation. Bihar and Punjab.

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