Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems

Page 1 of 17

Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems

Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 - 2008. Steorn Limited, Docklands Innovation Park, East Wall Road, Dublin 3, Republic of Ireland. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited

Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 2 of 17 Table of Contents 1.0 2.0 5. Dublin 3. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited .0 4. East Wall Road. Docklands Innovation Park.2008. Republic of Ireland.0 Overview … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … 03 05 07 12 17 Magnetic Arrangements Tested Test Results … … … Experiments and Tests Conducted Measurement Uncertainty and Results … Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 .0 3. Steorn Limited.

Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 . An asymmetric permanent magnetic arrangement is defined as one in which the relative motion of the magnets is asymmetric with respect to each other’s direction of magnetization as demonstrated in the two Figures below.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 3 of 17 1. Steorn Limited. East Wall Road. including such claims made by Steorn Limited. Dublin 3. Figure 1 – Symmetric Magnetic Arrangement Figure 2 – Asymmetric Magnetic Arrangement Such asymmetric arrangements are a common/unifying feature of companies/individuals claiming to observe energy gains in permanent magnet systems. Docklands Innovation Park. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited . Republic of Ireland.0 Overview This document provides an overview of tests conducted on asymmetric permanent magnetic arrangements in closed loop trajectories.2008. This document sets out to demonstrate that such asymmetry in itself does not lead to unexpected energy results. but that a combination of asymmetry and non-linear MH relationships does indeed lead to unexpected energy results.

Docklands Innovation Park. Steorn Limited. Republic of Ireland. as shown in Figure 4. East Wall Road. An interaction with a non-linear MH relationship is defined as one where the MH operating positions of the materials used are caused to move outside of the linear portion of their MH curves. below. as shown in Figure 3. below.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 4 of 17 An interaction with a linear MH relationship is defined as one where the MH operating positions of the materials used are not caused to move outside of the linear portion of their MH curves. Dublin 3. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited .2008. Figure 3 – Linear MH Movement Figure 4 – Non-linear MH Movement Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 .

Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited . Docklands Innovation Park. Hence the MH relationship of both magnets is always linear.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 5 of 17 2. Republic of Ireland. Figure 5 – Linear MH Arrangement The arrangement is such that neither of the two magnets is forced to saturation during the interactions tested. In the first arrangement. Steorn Limited. Dublin 3. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 . East Wall Road.0 Magnetic Arrangements Tested Two magnetic arrangements are tested. two Neodymium Iron Boron magnets are configured as shown in Figure 5.2008.

Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited . Dublin 3.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 6 of 17 In the second arrangement the Neodymium Iron Boron magnet rotor is supplemented with a soft ferrite magnet as shown in Figure 6. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 .2008. Hence the substantive difference between the two arrangements is that in the first arrangement all the MH movements are linear and in the second arrangement non-linear MH movements can be expected. East Wall Road. at certain parts of the magnetic interactions the strength of the stator’s magnetic field is such as to cause the ferrite to move from saturation to the linear part of its MH curve. Figure 6 – Non-linear MH Arrangement The net effect of this rotor configuration is to cause the ferrite to be saturated in the absence of the stator’s magnetic field. For the purpose of this document the first arrangement is titled linear MH arrangement and the second arrangement is titled non-linear MH arrangement. Steorn Limited. Docklands Innovation Park. Republic of Ireland. Because the stator magnetization is in repulsion to the rotor magnetization.

details of which may be found in the document “Magnetic Torque Measurement System” document number STRN-TMTH-APR-0008-0002. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited . Steorn Limited.2008.0 Experiments and Tests Conducted A test is defined as a rotation of the rotor with the stator magnet in a fixed position during the rotation. The net energy cost of that rotation is the key test result. Republic of Ireland.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 7 of 17 3. East Wall Road. The experimental results shown in this section are produced by the Magnetic Torque Measurement System. Docklands Innovation Park. Dublin 3. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 .

Republic of Ireland. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 .2008. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited . East Wall Road. as shown below. Steorn Limited. Figure 7 – Symmetric Linear MH Experiment This experiment tests the effect of varying the air gap. Docklands Innovation Park.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 8 of 17 Experiment 1: Symmetric Linear MH The first experiment involves various tests of the first arrangement with the stator magnet at a different radial distance from the rotor for each test. Dublin 3. and hence varying field strength on a linear MH arrangement in a symmetrical configuration.

Steorn Limited. Figure 8 – Asymmetric Linear MH Experiment This experiment tests the effect of varying the air gap and varying asymmetry on a linear MH arrangement. as shown below. East Wall Road.2008. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 . Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited . Republic of Ireland. Dublin 3. Docklands Innovation Park.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 9 of 17 Experiment 2: Asymmetric Linear MH The second experiment involves various tests of the first arrangement with the stator at different tangential positions.

and hence varying field strength on a non-linear MH arrangement in a symmetrical configuration.2008. as shown below. East Wall Road. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 . Figure 9 – Symmetric Non-linear MH Experiment This experiment tests the effect of varying the air gap. Republic of Ireland. Steorn Limited. Dublin 3. Docklands Innovation Park.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 10 of 17 Experiment 3: Symmetric Non-linear MH The third experiment involves various tests of the second arrangement with the stator magnet at a different radial distance from the rotor for each test. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited .

Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 11 of 17 Experiment 4: Asymmetric Non-linear MH The fourth experiment involves various tests of the second arrangement with the stator at different tangential positions. as shown below. Figure 10 – Asymmetric Non-linear MH Experiment This experiment tests the effect of varying the air gap and varying asymmetry on a nonlinear MH arrangement. Docklands Innovation Park. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited .2008. Dublin 3. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 . Steorn Limited. East Wall Road. Republic of Ireland.

2008. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 . Steorn Limited.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 12 of 17 4. Experiment 1: Symmetric Linear MH The tests performed demonstrate that a symmetrical magnetic arrangement with a linear material MH response shows a zero energy result regardless of the level of the air gap. East Wall Road.09 mJ. Dublin 3. Republic of Ireland.0 Test Results The calibrated uncertainty of the test system used to produce the results shown in this section is 0. Docklands Innovation Park. further details on this uncertainty figure may be found in Section 5 of this document. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited .

Steorn Limited.2008. East Wall Road. Docklands Innovation Park. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 . Dublin 3. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited .Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 13 of 17 Experiment 2: Asymmetric Linear MH The tests performed demonstrate that an asymmetrical magnetic arrangement with a linear material MH response shows a zero energy result regardless of the level of asymmetry. Republic of Ireland.

Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 14 of 17 Experiment 3: Symmetric Non-linear MH The tests performed demonstrate that a symmetrical magnetic arrangement with nonlinear material MH response shows a zero energy result regardless of the air gap. Dublin 3.2008. Steorn Limited. Republic of Ireland. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 . East Wall Road. Docklands Innovation Park. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited .

East Wall Road. Dublin 3. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 . Steorn Limited.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 15 of 17 Experiment 4: Asymmetric Non-linear MH The tests performed demonstrate that an asymmetrical magnetic arrangement with a non-linear material MH response produces a net energy result that is a clear function of the level of asymmetry. Republic of Ireland. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited . Docklands Innovation Park.2008.

Symmetry with a non-linear MH relationship always produces a zero energy result. the key principle demonstrated in these experiments is that asymmetry with a non-linear MH relationship can produce energy results that are non-zero. Note that comparable results are obtained for the same experiments using a dynamic test system and simulations produced by Flux3D.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 16 of 17 The test results documented in this section demonstrate that asymmetry with a linear MH relationship always produces a zero energy result. The results also show that there is a clear relationship between the level of asymmetry and the energy result. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited . Dublin 3. Republic of Ireland. Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 . East Wall Road. Steorn Limited. However. Docklands Innovation Park.2008.

These tests are summarized as 0% Load Calibration Tests. The test data for these tests may be found in the Excel spreadsheets of the same name. 50% Load Calibration Tests.0866 mJ. Docklands Innovation Park. The maximum deviation from standard recorded by the system was 0.0 Measurement Uncertainty and Results Eighty calibration tests were performed on the Magnetic Torque Measurement system as defined in the document “Magnetic Torque Measurement System” document number STRN-TMTH-APR-0008-0002. Steorn Limited.2 times the maximum measurement uncertainty. Republic of Ireland. The maximum energy result recorded during the experiments was 0. 90% Load Calibration Tests and Axial Load Calibration Tests. Dublin 3.091 mJ. with a two sigma of 0. This result a factor of 6. Tel: +353-1-4871000 Fax: +353-1-4871001 Document Number: STRN-TRST-APR-0010-0001 October 31 2008 ©Steorn Limited . Proprietary and Confidential Information of Steorn Limited 2000 . East Wall Road.Asymmetry and Energy in Magnetic Systems Page 17 of 17 5.564 mJ.2008.