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DAYENU

THE GRATEFULNESS HAGGADAH

Rabbi Henry Glazer

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GRATEFUL FOR:

Jacob Lederman, of blessed memory

Loving father, husband and brother; master tailor, blacksmith and soccer player.

With wife Betty at their ninetieth birthday party

Zeide will always be remembered for his humor, strength and love of
grandchildren.The strains of his singing words of Hallel-”mah lecho hayom,” will always
echo in our hearts as we celebrate Passover at our family Seders.

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GRATEFUL FOR:

Eric Joel Tanenbaum, of blessed memory

Scholar, loving father, caring brother, and fun-loving cousin.

Rosanna, daughter, and Eric in Sussex, England, 2004.

He drank deeply from the cup of life, savored the ʻharosetʼ-like sweetness of
family, friends and travel, faced lifeʼs ʻmarorʼ-like bitterness with courage and humility.
We sat together at the Seder table as children, blessed by the presence of our “zeide”
Dovid and our families.

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I AM DEEPLY GRATEFUL FOR...

...the beautiful artistic background of the Haggadah cover that


was the creative result of Maria Costa, author and artist.
...

...the outstanding crew of tutors at the Apple One-To -One


program at the Garden State Plaza, Paramus, NJ, without whose
competent, dedicated and patient assistance this Haggadah
would never have come to fruition...

...Dr. Jacob Lindenthal, friend and mentor, whose ongoing


comments, humor and insights were invaluable, and who
recommended the Apple One-to-One program to me...

...my devoted and loving friend, Abraham Menashe, photographer


and poet, who in moments of darkness showed me the light,
believing in the sacred duty of listening to oneʼs own voice...

...my beautiful son, Jeremiah, a young man of exceptional


creativity and decency, for his technical and emotional support...

...my daughter Jessica, my wife Rose, who together with my son,


constitute the most precious of all human gifts, the gift of a loving
family.

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Table of Contents
THE COLOR OF GRATITUDE pp 1
THE NATURE OF THIS HAGGADAH pp.3
HAGGADAT DAYENU THE GRATEFULNESS HAGGADAH :
INTRODUCTION pp.4

SEARCH FOR THE HAMETZ-‫ביטול חמץ‬ pp.10

KINDLING THE FESTIVAL CANDLES-‫הדלקת נרות‬ pp.11


BLESSING OF THE CHILDREN-‫ברכת הבנים‬ pp.13
THE ORDER OF THE SEDER pp.14
KADESH-KIDDUSH- ‫ַקֵדׁש‬ pp.16
UʼRECHATZ-WASH- ‫ּוְרחַץ‬ pp.21
KARPAS/GREEN VEGETABLE-‫כְַּרפַּס‬ pp.23
YACHATZ / DIVIDE-‫יחץ‬ pp.25
MAGID / NARRATE-‫מגיד‬ pp.27
!MAH NISHTANAH-THE FOUR QUESTIONS - ‫מַה נִּשְּׁתַּנָה‬ pp.34
AVADEEM HAYINU - ‫;עֲבִָדים הָיִינּו‬ pp.37
STORY TELLING-”WE WERE SLAVES...”
THE FOUR CHILDREN - ‫אְַרבָּעָה בָנִים‬ pp.40
IN THE BEGINNING- ‫מִתְּחִלָּה‬ pp.50
E S E R M A K O T - THE TEN PLAGUES-‫עֶׂשֶר מַּכֹות‬ pp.62
DAYENU- ‫ּדַיֵינוּו‬. pp.68
HALLEL-!‫הלל‬ pp.82
KOS SHEINEE -SECOND CUP OF WINE pp.88
RAHTZAH -LAVE / WASHING:‫ַרחַץ‬ pp.90
MOTZEE - MATZAH - ‫ מַּצָה‬,‫מֹוצִיא‬ pp.92
MAROR-‫מָרֹור‬ pp.95
KOREKH / HILLEL SANDWICH - ְ‫ּכֹוֵר‬ pp.97
SHULHAN OREKH/MEAL- ְ‫ׁשֻלְחָן עֹוֵר‬ pp.100
TZAFUN/AFIKOMAN / DESSERT-‫צָפּון‬ pp.102
BAREKH / BIRKAT HAMAZON - ְ‫ּבֵָר‬ pp.106
SHORTER FORM OF GRACE-BIRKAT HAMAZON . pp.118
KOS SHʼLISHEE - THIRD CUP-‫ּכֹוס שְלִישִי‬ pp.126
KOS SHEL ELIYAHU -CUP OF ELIJAH -‫כוס של אליהו‬ pp.127
MiIRIAMʼS CUP pp.129
FOURTH CUP -KOS RʻVEE - EE - ‫ּכֹוס ְרבִיעִי‬ pp.150
NIRTZAH / ACCEPTANCE- ‫נרצה‬ pp.153
SONGS pp.156
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The Color of Gratitude
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As a toddler, my daughterʼs favorite book and movie was titled “Rainbow


Brite.” She loved to have me read about how the villains of the story did everything
in their power to rid the world of color, and leave behind a landscape of drab and
colorless gloom. But Rainbow Brite, the pretty heroine, and her friends, each
representing a different color, always defeated the villains and preserved a beautiful
world saturated with an array of countless colors.
# The metaphor of color as beauty, happiness and hope, is one that is universal.
Color is a powerful vehicle for the communication of moods, feelings and states of
mind and heart. Each culture views color in a different way; individuals associate a
variety of colors to different states of mind which reflect their individuality and
uniqueness as human beings.
# Colors also resonate with a shared, even universal significance and

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association. Black and white are understood as contrasting shades, while yellow,
the color of the sun, suggests brightness, joy and openness. Green reflects fertility,

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and blue the expansiveness and mystery of the seas and skies. Many describe the

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spectrum of passionate emotions in colors of red, with anger and violence often
expressed in hues of bloody red.
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Jewish mysticism understands divine manifestations in terms of colors as well.
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As light is scattered into colors through the prisms of moisture-filled air, so too does
Godʼs light find colorful expression through the Sefirot, the emanations of the divine
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light. For example, within the chromatic schema of the ten sefirot, the sixth
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emanation, Tifʼeret, Splendor, is associated with the colors sapphire-blue and


magenta, in which three colors (white, red, and [yellowish] green) are to be united.
Positioned at the very center of the Tree of Life—and thus connecting the realms of
above and below—Tifʼeret corresponds to the location of the heart, just as this
emanation is associated with the attributes of beauty, glory, harmony, and
compassion.
# Because of colorsʼ powerful role in the unfolding of the human spiritual
experience, I decided that the use of colors could transmit to the reader the broad
spectrum of gratitude as a core component of the Seder experience. By using a wide
variety of colors in the background of my pages of commentary, colors that are
indeterminate and open to individual interpretation, the readerʼs visceral
understanding could be expanded and deepened.
My choice of colors was often unconscious and intuitive, in the hope that
somehow the full scope of gratefulness could be arrived at through the exposure to
this rainbow of color without prior prejudice by way of suggested specific selections.

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# In essence, there is no one color that fully encompasses the richness of the
gratefulness posture in life. As human experience stretches to touch the widest
range of realities, so too does gratefulness offer us a path by which to embrace this
totality of life. # #
.# # My hope is that the colors of this Haggadah will enhance the readerʼs
capacity to brush up against the brilliance of lifeʼs untold blessings and elicit a
response of genuine gratefulness for all the gifts of being alive.

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This Haggadah presents the Seder participant or reader with the following features:

1.The full traditional Hebrew text, transliteration and translation.

2.Commentary recorded against backgrounds of color to enhance our awareness

and cultivation of Gratefulness in our Passover experience.

3.DOING GRATEFULNESS exercises to concretize and emotionalize the dimension

of gratefulness in our telling of the Passover story.

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Doing Gratefulness

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Before you begin the actual Seder, invite all participants to share their “gratitude
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color.”
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Haggadat Dayenu-the Gratefulness Haggadah
Introduction:

As a child growing up in the cold Canadian city of Montreal, I remember the

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first night of Pesach as a magical time. Returning from the synagogue with my zeide,

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my grandfather, we trudged along streets drenched in slush, awaiting the
approaching sunshine of spring that would once again bring warmth and free

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movement to our lives. We would soon shed our ear muffs, mittens and galoshes,

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and rush out into the parks and play grounds for our first toss of the baseball;

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needless to say, we were passionate hockey players but by the time April rolled

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around, another sport beckoned, one we greeted without fur laden coats and itchy
woolen sweaters. The air was saturated with a delightful mixture of chilly briskness
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and a welcome spring thaw.
The first evening of Passover was a culmination of days of preparation-
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shopping for Passover foods, removing year long modern utensils and bringing up
ancient ones for Passover from places of concealment, dinnerware drenched in the
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old-a brass mortar and pestle in which the Haroset,the mixture of apples, wine, nuts
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cinnamon and sugar, was made; knives and forks yellow with age and tipped with
elaborate designs; dishes and bowls offering sumptuous Seder meals for
generations gone by, both in Canada and in shtetls of Poland and Russia.
Tables and counter tops were covered with planks of wood and cardboard, all
taken from discarded boxes and containers. I loved the banging out of nails and the
sawing of thick slabs of wood especially designated for sinks and stove tops. Our
house was transformed, not into a palace of elegance but into a space of special
magic, a place that announced to one and all-Pesach is here!
I could not wait to be home, surrounded by the sights, sounds, smells and
sweetness of the Seder table. My heart would swell with anticipation.
Looking back I ask: What made the night of Passover so different from all other
nights? What did this night teach us about all nights, about all days, about all of life,
for that matter?

On this night the child in all of us-whether or not we consider ourselves among
the wise, the sophisticated or the educated, poses a question that seeks a response
not of our minds as much as of our hearts. The question that we struggle to
recognize is not an academic or factual one. To ask for an explanation-historic,
scientific, even moral –is quite natural. When the youngest asks: Why is this night

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different from all other nights and he/she is shown the symbols and tangible artifacts
of the ritual, the answer is readily available: We were slaves and now we are free.
But the journey from slavery to freedom, from darkness to light, from grief to
gratitude, from enslavement to redemption is more complex. It is not a static or
straightforward one; often we must cross hills and valleys, roads that are rough,
stretches of dry desert and towering mountains demanding arduous ascent. We are

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expected to reenact the journey, to experience it anew in a deeply personal way.
”In each generation we are obligated to see ourselves as if we had actually

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been redeemed from Mitzrayim!” This obligation conveys the challenge to experience
the journey through words, memories, rituals, songs, feelings, wine and food. The

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journey is an internal process of ongoing spiritual growth, one that allows for
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shuttling, taking detours when roads are impassable, and carrying the compass of a
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courageous heart and a compassionate soul.
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Often, however, responses of the heart and soul elude us; we know and
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understand that something is different on this night, but we need to further explore
the why, the mystery of Passover. We need help, we need each other, we need a
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history, generations of our people and their experiences; we cannot discover the
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mystery in isolation. The task is challenging and exciting, an adventure of the human
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spirit.
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Perhaps the following brief statements summarize the experience best:

Instructions for living a life:


Pay attention
Be astonished
Tell about it Mary Oliver, Red Bird.

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# Our tradition informs us that the Seder night is designed not only to arouse
childrenʼs curiosity but to help all of us, the wise and the foolish, the clever and the
simple, the young and the old, to pay attention to this story of liberation and discover
the astonishment in the story.
Thus we are told, in the response to the inability to ask,‫והגדת‬- “Vʼheegadtah”-
you shall tell, relate, recount, tell the story, saying - “Baʼavur zeh…”-‫ בעבור זה‬, “It is
because of this… that the Lord did all the miracles for me when I left Egypt.”

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We are speechless; articulation of feelings is so difficult; we need the
Haggadah, the story, the answer, to help us discover the right question and thereby

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reach our ultimate destination.

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First time events have a powerful and an immediate impact on; the passage of
time and repeated similar circumstances erode the freshness of the experience.

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What remains is the story, the memory, the ritual, words and songs as vehicles for
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the reliving of the original event, so that it preserves its vibrancy and relevance.
# The challenge of every Seder celebration is to “pay attention” so that we “are
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astonished” and then are to “tell it” so that we and our children will be reminded of
our godly images as sources of connection to the divine.
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Every step and component of the Haggadah is a reflection of praise and


gratefulness that undergirds the entire experience. We re-experience the “zeh,” ‫זה‬-
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“this,” the specific and particular reason and nuance for every phase of our Seder
rejoicing and testimony. We begin the Seder with a question born of wonder when
the “child” asks:
#“Mah nishtanah halaylah hazeh”-‫מה נשתנה הלילה הזה‬-“How different is this night!”
The “mah”-‫מה‬-how, why, the not knowing, the mystery of everything is connected to
the last word of the question or exclamation-“zeh”-‫זה‬. The question of the “Tam,”
‫תם‬, the innocent child (of the four children) is summarized in two words- “mah zot?”
‫ ?מה זאת‬What is this? (Exodus 13:14).(zot :‫ = זאת‬fem. zeh: ‫ )זה‬That is, out of a
sense of wholehearted innocence, from a place of trust and faith, this part of us
encounters the wonder, the mystery of the night in the word
The “zeh”-‫ זה‬of the night of Passover suggests the uniqueness and the
miraculous of this night as a time of transition from the darkness of slavery and
death to the morning of redemption and life. This transition, this night becoming day,
this moment of enslavement passing and morphing into redemption is a moment of
miracle for which we praise, urging the exercise of our associations and imaginations
to arrive at the fullness of meaning embedded in the word.

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Between the beginning and end of the narrative, the “zeh”-‫ זה‬helps us
understand the nature of the Midrashic [Rabbinic] explication of Godʼs miracles in the
midst of the narrative.

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Essentially, the “zeh”-‫ זה‬of the Seder is an elaboration of the declaration

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uttered by Moses and Israel at the Sea of Reeds–“zeh eli vʼanvayhu”- ‫זה אלי‬

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‫ואנויהו‬- “ this is my God and I will enshrine Him with my praise.”

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Zeman Herutaynu- ‫זמן חרותנו‬-The Festival of our Freedom
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The focus of this Haggadat Dayenu, this Gratefulness Haggadah, is directed
to the internal process of individual, spiritual freedom, to the achievement of an inner
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sense of being free and living a joyful and fulfilling spiritual life. It is hoped that
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through this inner path of freedom, we will find ourselves closer to bringing about the
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external freedoms so desperately needed by so many as well.


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# It is my belief that a central gateway to inner freedom is that of gratefulness.


The Haggadah in its content and context provides us with many pathways of
awareness that lead us along the road of gratefulness whose ultimate destination is
freedom. Repeatedly, from the opening words of the Kiddush-the Sanctification over
the wine, to Dayenu and beyond, words, songs and rituals all resonate with
resounding echoes of gratefulness, of Halleluyah, of thanksgiving and praise.
Gratitude saturates the Seder experience making it evident that to arrive at a spiritual
posture of freedom the way of gratefulness is essential.
# The Torah makes use of four phrases or languages of redemption/ freedom-
“I will free you…I will deliver you…I will redeem you…I will take you to be My
people.”(Exodus 6:6-7). Each of these languages of freedom can be understood as a
stage in the spiritual journey from the perspective of being separated, of seeing the
world as a place of dual realities between the subject, the ego and the outside world,
the object, to a consciousness of unity, eventually witnessing the world as a place of
integration and unity. Each expression of freedom is a way of realizing the
evolutionary spiritual growth embedded in the human spirit.

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#The Festival of Passover is referred to as zeman herutaynu-‫זמן חרותנו‬- the
season of our freedom; ‫חֵרות‬, the Hebrew for freedom, encompasses the meaning
of harut-‫חָרות‬, inscribed, imprinted, etched into. In other words, what is implied in
this term is the notion that freedom is intrinsic to the human soul. Passover thus
becomes a challenge to reach into the inner soul and rediscover or retrieve the
dimension of freedom that lives deep within our very being.
Freedom is the soulʼs signature; the spiritual journey demands the removal of
barriers that stand in the way of our gaining access to this deeply recessed part of

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our souls.

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Rumi, the Persian poet of the soul, understands the meaning of love in
similar fashion:
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Your task is not to seek love
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But merely to seek and find all the barriers


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That you have built against it.


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The same can be said of freedom; we build barriers against it, barriers born
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of fear-fear of death, fear of not having enough, fear of not being enough, fear of
being happy. An antidote to these fears is gratefulness; when we cultivate our
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awareness of life as a gift freely given, instead of our enslavement to greed we learn
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the liberating power of gratitude; we recognize our thankfulness for who we are
rather than being trapped by the compulsion to be perfect; rather than the fear of
and the fixation on, tomorrow, we feel the joy of the moment; we discover the
capacity to shed the chains of paralyzing guilt and embrace instead the redeeming
possibilities of gratefulness as the impetus for doing the good and the
compassionate in life.

“Gratitude unlocks the fullness of life. It turns what we have into enough, and
more. It turns denial into acceptance, chaos into order, confusion into clarity. It turns
problems into gifts, failures into success, the unexpected into perfect timing, and
mistakes into important events. Gratitude makes sense of our past, brings peace for
today and creates a vision for tomorrow.”
Melodie Beattie, Gratitude.

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In a real sense, the journey of the Seder is one to our authentic selves, to the
purity of our souls, souls that yearn to be free, to rest in the fullness of everything
and in that way to touch the fringes of the divine.

For many, the purpose of the Passover story is to remind us of our history, foster
group solidarity and Jewish identity, celebrate the strength and unity of the Jewish
family. The Seder is a powerful ethnic experience, with unique foods, its own
language and vocabulary, a range of colorful symbols and an array of intimate
emotional strands of Jewishness that weave themselves together into a mosaic of
being part of a special people and tradition. For others, the Passover story is a
constant reminder to renew efforts in achieving freedom for the oppressed

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everywhere-its message is a universal and political one that touches the aspirations

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of all groups who suffer the pain of enslavement.
These purposes, important as they are, should indeed be incorporated in our

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Seder experience. Yet, I believe that the overriding objective of this annual

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enactment is to tell a story that astonishes, amazes us, and in the midst of this

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experience of wonder, to find in our hearts and voices the desire to sing praises,
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articulate our gratefulness, in the Presence of the divine.
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We now begin our journey.


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SEARCH FOR THE HAMETZ-‫ביטול חמץ‬ Bʼdikat Hametz-
Searching for Hametz:
On the night preceding Passover, each family searches for
On the night before
leaven-hametz-.Customarily,we search by the light of a
the Seder, we place small
candle or flashlight and use a feather to sweep up the hametz morsels of bread in each
into a paper bag. Before the search, small pieces of hametz- room, and with a lit candle and
bread are placed in every room on a napkin and collected feather in our hand, we search
during the search. for the leaven and collect the
‫ אֲשֶׁר 'דְּשָׁנוּ‬,‫ הָעוֹלָם‬1ֶ‫הֵינו מֶל‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫ אַתָּה י‬1‫בָּרוּ‬ pieces of bread for burning the
next morning.
.‫צִוָּנוּ עַל בִּעוּר חָמֵץ‬9‫ ו‬,‫יו‬A‫בְּמִצְוֹת‬ The light of the candle
that is focused in its

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Baruch ata adonai, eloheinu melech haolam, asher kid’shanu
b’mitzvotav v’tzivanu al BI-UR HAMETZ.
illumination helps us pay
attention to the fullness of the
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experience. In a way, this
search is an introduction to the
Praised are You, Adonai our God, Sovereign of the universe, process of careful
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who has taught us theway of holiness through the attentiveness that guides us
commandments and has enjoined us to remove all hametz.
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through our journey from the


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mundane to the holy, from


The following formula in Aramaic is recited after the search slavery to freedom, from
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and again the next morning after the leaven is disposed of, darkness to light. By paying
attention, by focusing our light,
usually by burning, no later than 10:am
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we observe the thinking and


‫י דְּלָא חֲמִתֵּהּ‬D‫שׁוּת‬Eִ‫חֲמִיעָה דְּאִכָּא ב‬H‫א ו‬I‫כָּל חֲמִי‬ feeling that often produce a
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‫ר‬Jְ‫י הֶפ‬L‫לֶהֱו‬9‫א לֵהּ לִבָּטֵל ו‬8‫עְנ‬N9‫לָא י‬O‫תֵּהּ וּ‬Eַ‫לָא בִע‬O‫וּ‬ “puffed-up,” a “hametz”-‫חמץ‬-
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leavened, barrier that thickens


.‫עָא‬Eַ‫א‬O ‫א‬Iְ‫כְּעַפ‬ and blocks our heart. We can
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then free ourselves to engage


Kol chamira vachamiah d’ika virshuti d’la chamiteih ud’lah in the practice of “bedikah,” -
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vi-arteih ud’lah ‫בדיקה‬- of searching for and


Yedana lah l’vateil v’lehavei hefker k’afra d’arah. removing the road blocks that
stand in the way of living with
All the leaven in my possession that I have not seen and not an n open heart, a place of
greater humility, patience and
eradicated is hereby nullified and considered like the dust of compassion.
the earth. Involvement of
children makes this search
particularly joyful.
ERADICATING THE HAMETZ

Repeat above formula after disposing of all leaven.

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Kindling the Festival KINDLING OF FESTIVAL CANDLES-
Lights: ‫הדלקת נרות‬
Closing our eyes,
we recall the darkness in the
world-hunger, disease, poverty, ‫בֳרוך אַתָה יי אֱלהֵינו מֶלֶך הַעוְלָם אֲשֶר קִדְשָנו‬
loneliness, war and the human
causes for this darkness- ‫בְמִצְוותָיו וְצִוָנו לְהַדְלִיק נֵר שֶל )שַבָת ושל( יום‬
greed, envy, hatred and fear.
We quietly resolve to take the .‫טוב‬
gratefulness we feel at the
moment-gratefulness for life, Baruch ata Adonai, elohainu melech haolam, asher
for health, for sustenance, for kid’shanu b’mitzvotav v’tzivanu l’hadlik ner shel (shabbat
the love of family and friends,
I v’)Yom Tov.
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for our home, for the peace we
enjoy, for our freedom, and
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translate these gifts into Praised are You, Adonai our God, Sovereign of the universe,
offerings of chessed, ‫ חסד‬,of who has taught us the way of holiness through the mitzvoth,
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compassionate generosity so
that our light will bring a ray of and enjoined us to kindle the lights of (SABBATH and) the
PASSOVER FESTIVAl.
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hope in the darkness of others.


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A story from the


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Buddhist tradition:
# One day, the King, Add the THANKSGIVING blessing recited on the first
Queen and people of a certain occurrence of any event or celebration
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city wished to honor the


Buddha by lighting thousands
‫'יְּמָנוּ‬9‫נוּ ו‬8‫ שֶׁהֶחֱי‬,‫ הָעוֹלָם‬1ֶ‫הֵינוּ מֶל‬6ֱ‫ א‬,8‫י‬9‫ אַתָּה י‬1‫בָּרוּ‬
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of lamps around the


monastery. An old mendicant
:‫הִגִּיעָנוּ לַזְּמַן הַזֶּה‬9‫ו‬
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woman wanted to make an


offering but after a whole day
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of begging, she had only one


cent. So she decided not to .Baruch ata Adonai, eloheinu melech ha’olam,
eat, and she bought some oil
with the penny and poured it she,heh,cheh,yanu v’keemanu v’hee,gee,anu la’zman hazeh.
into the many lamps displayed
at the gate of the monastery.
# Early in the
morning, the master of the Praise are You. Adonai our God, Sovereign of the universe,
monastery went out to blow out who has kept us alive, sustained us and enabled us to reach
the lamps. All the lamps went
out except the one into which this day.
the beggar lady poured her oil.
As he tried repeatedly to blow
it out, it only grew brighter and
brighter.

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Doing
Gratefulness

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In the silence of the moment, feel deeply that which makes you

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grateful and happy.
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L
U
EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

12
BLESSING OF THE CHILDREN-
‫ברכת הבנים‬

For sons we say:

Yesimcha elohim k’ephrayim v’cheemnasheh


May God make you like Ephraim and Menashe

For daughters we say:


Parental Blessing
Placing our hands on the
tender heads of our child/
children we open our
hearts and extend a Yesimeich elohim k’Sarah,Rivkah, Racheil v’Leah
blessing to them, in love May God make you like Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel
and in hope, reaching into and Leah
the deepest wells of For all children:
gratitude for these gifts of

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our children

AB
R
L
Yevarechecha Adonai v’yish’mrecha
U
Yaeir Adonai panav eilehcha vi’choonehka
EF

Yisa Adonai panav eilehcha v’yaseim lecha


SHALOM
AT
R

May God bless you and protect you


G

May God turn His light toward you so that you


may be gracious and generous
E

May God favor you , your loved ones, Israel and


TH

the human community, with PEACE.

13
THE ORDER OF THE SEDER Grateful for Order
The highlight of Passover
MNEMONIC-KADDESH U’RECHATZ-
is the Seder-the meal of
.‫דֵּשׁ‬$ remembrance, fellowship and
‫וּ(חַץ‬ enhanced awareness of the
Divine.
Seder,‫סדר‬- "order," in
(the outline of the Seder is recited as an aid to the itself is a term that taps into
proper implementation of the Seder’s many diverse the depth of the human
rituals and practices.) psyche and its awareness is
(Recited or chanted) itself reason for gratefulness.
Without the notion of
KADESH UʼRECHATZ-‫דֵּש‬$ׁ order, our physical and
psychic worlds would dissolve
‫וּ(חַץ‬
BI
into places of chaos and
terror. As the human mind
AB
Sanctification and Partial Washing proceeds to discover
dimensions of order in
R

Karpas Yachatz-‫ּכְַרּפַס יַחַץ‬


physical space -- natural
changes in the seasons, the
L
U

ebb and flow of the oceans'


Dipping of green herbs and breaking of tides, laws of gravity and
EF

Matzah magnetism that maintain the


sensitive equilibrium of earth
AT

and the planets around us, the


Magid Rachtzah-‫חְצָה‬0 ‫מַגִּיד‬ cycles of birth, life, decay and
R

death, laws of cause and


Telling the narrative and full washing
G

effect--all phenomena that


lend some predictability to the
E

complexity of the cosmos, we


Motzi Matzah-‫מוֹצִיא מַצָּה‬.
TH

cannot help but feel only


grateful wonder for the
Blessing over the Matzah marvelous fragility of human
existence.
MarorKorech -9:‫מָרוֹר כּוֹ‬ Consider the
mechanisms of the mind.
Eating of bitter herbs and sandwich Perhaps the most basic
definition of psychosis, of
human insanity, is inextricably
Shulchan Orech-9:‫שֻׁלְחָן עוֹ‬. connected to the experience
of psychological chaos and
Festive Meal disorder.Imagine the inability
to perceive the world
around you in terms that are
predictable and

14
Zafun Barech-ְ‫צָפּון ּבֵָר‬ understandable; we can barely
conceive of the sheer panic of
Eating the Hidden Matzah-Afikoman- psychic isolation and its utter
and Grace confusion.
It is the awareness of
order that renders us sane,
H A L L E L N I R T Z A H - ‫הַּלֵל‬ confident, even happy. One
‫(צָה‬A‫נ‬. can succinctly say: "I am,
therefore I thank!"
Sp e cial Ps al ms o f p ra is e a n d
informal singing

am

Therefore

# # # thank
15
1.KADESH-KIDDUSH- ׁ‫קַדֵש‬ KADESH- GRATEFUL
‫ר‬Tֹ‫הִי ב‬9‫י‬H‫ב ו‬Vֶ‫הִי ע‬9‫י‬H‫)לשבת ו‬ FOR –THE GIFT OF-
JOY
‫כַל‬9‫י‬H‫ ו‬:‫צְבָאָם‬-‫כָל‬9‫ץ ו‬Vָ‫הָא‬9‫ם ו‬Y‫כֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַי‬9‫י‬H‫ ו‬,‫יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי‬ “A song of praise is sung only
‫שְׁבֹּת‬Y‫י‬H‫ ו‬,‫ מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה‬,‫הִים בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי‬6ֱ‫א‬ over wine.” (Talmud Berachot
1Vָ‫ב‬9‫י‬H‫ ו‬:‫מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה‬-‫ מִכָּל‬,‫בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי‬ 35a)
Holiness or sanctity
‫ כִּי בוֹ שָׁבַת‬,‫^דֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ‬9‫י‬H‫ ו‬,‫יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי‬-‫הִים אֶת‬6ֱ‫א‬ usually conjures up images of
(:‫הִים לַעֲשׂוֹת‬6ֱ‫א א‬Iָ‫בּ‬-‫ אֲשֶׁר‬,‫מְלַאכְתּוֹ‬-‫מִכָּל‬ the somber and intimidating.
Vayehi erev va’yhi voker yom hashishi. Vayechulu The holy man is typically seen
as the ascetic, disembodied
hashamayim v’ha’aretz v’chol tzeva’am.Vayechal elohim et
from the physical gifts and
bayom hashvi’I melachto asher asah. Va yishbot bayom pleasures of life, demanding
ha’shvi’I mikpl melachto asher asah. Va’yevarech E;ohim et deprivation and suffering. It is
yom hashvi-I va’yekadesh oto,ki vo shavat mikol melachto no wonder therefore that the
asher bara Elohim la-asot. religious term of holiness is

BI
not often greeted with interest

AB
(On Shabbat we add) or appeal.
In Judaism,
R "Kadosh"-‫קדוש‬-holy-is
"And there was evening and there was morning , the sixth understood in a radically
day. Now the heavens and all their host were completed. different way. Needless to say,
L
God completed the work of creation on the seventh day. the notion of holy implies
U

God then blessed the seventh day imbuing it with holiness some process or movement
EF

because on that day God ceased creating.” away from the mundane
toward that which is viewed as
AT

godly. There are indeed


:‫א פְּ_י הַגָּפֶן‬a‫ בּוֹ‬,‫ הָעוֹלָם‬1ֶ‫הֵינוּ מֶל‬6ֱ‫ א‬,8‫י‬9‫ אַתָּה י‬1‫בָּרוּ‬ elements of disciplined
R

behavior, of guidelines that


need to be followed. But
G

.Baruch ata Adonai, Eloheunu melech ha’olam, borei PRI


holiness should not repel us
HAGAFEN. by scary associations of
E

punishment and faultfinding.


TH

Praised are You, Adonai, our God, sovereign of the universe, While "Kadesh" suggests the
who has created the FRUIT OF THE VINE. transcendent, that which is
beyond the mundane,
nonetheless it can be yearned
‫ אֲשֶׁר בָּחַר בָּנוּ‬,‫ הָעוֹלָם‬1ֶ‫הֵינוּ מֶל‬6ֱ‫ א‬,8‫י‬9‫ אַתָּה י‬1‫בָּרוּ‬ for from a perspective of
,‫יו‬A‫'דְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹת‬9‫ ו‬,‫לָשׁוֹן‬-‫רוֹמְמָנוּ מִכָּל‬9‫ ו‬,‫עָם‬-‫מִכָּל‬ intimacy and joy, not fear and
retreat.
‫הֵינוּ בְּאַהֲבָה )לשבת שַׁבָּתוֹת‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫לָנוּ י‬-‫תִּתֶּן‬H‫ו‬ The beginning of the
‫ חַגִּים וּזְמַנִּים לְשָׂשׂוֹן‬,‫ים לְשִׂמְחָה‬dֲ‫לִמְנוּחָה וּ(מוֹע‬ Seder is entered into by
‫יוֹם( חַג הַמַּצוֹת‬-‫אֶת‬9‫יוֹם )לשבת הַשַּׁבָּת הַזֶה ו‬-‫אֶת‬ reciting a blessing over wine
and in this way the occasion is
,‫שׁ‬gh ‫א‬Iiִ‫( מ‬,‫ )לשבת בְּאַהֲבָה‬,‫נוּ‬j‫ זְמַן חֵרוּת‬.‫הַזֶּה‬ marked as a sacred moment.
ָ‫נוּ 'דַּשְׁתּ‬A‫אוֹת‬9‫תָּ ו‬Eַ‫ כִּי בָנוּ בָח‬.‫ם‬Y‫י‬Iְ‫זֵכֶר לִיצִיאַת מִצ‬ The first of four cups of wine is
‫ )לשבת‬kֶ‫שׁ‬Ol ‫י‬mֲ‫שַׁבָּת( וּמוֹע‬9‫ )לשבת ו‬.‫הָעַמִים‬-‫מִכָּל‬ drunk to celebrate the sanctity
of the festival. Holiness is

16
arrived at through the taste of 1‫ בָּרוּ‬:‫חַלְתָּנוּ‬9‫צוֹן( בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְשָׂשׂוֹן הִנ‬Iְ‫בְּאַהֲבָה וּב‬
wine, that "which gladdens the :‫הַזְמַנִּים‬9‫אֵל ו‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫(י‬9‫ מְ^דֵּשׁ )לשבת הַשַׁבָּת ו‬,8‫י‬9‫אַתָּה י‬
human heart." This would
suggest, therefore, that the
psychological and spiritual state Baruch ata Adonai, Elohainu melech haolam, asher
of mind that leads us to bachar banu mikol am v’romemanu mi’kol
holiness and a greater lashon,v’kidshanu b’mitzvotav,vateetein llanu Adonai
awareness of the divine is joy. Elohainub’ahaveh(shabbatot lemnucha u)moadim
The Talmud conveys this l’simcha, chagim uzmanim l’sason et yom (hashabbat
psychological reality quite hazeh v’et yom) chag ha’matzothazeh, zeman cheirutaynu

BI
stunningly when it asserts, "The (b’ahavah) mikra kodesh, zeicher l’yetziat Mitzrayim. Ki
vanu vacharta v’otanu kedashta mikol-ha-amim

AB
Schekhina-‫שכינה‬-the Divine
Presence- does not rest on one (v’shabbat) u’moadei kod’shecha (b’ahavah u’vratzon)
who is immersed in b’simcha uv’sason hinchaltanu.

R
sorrow-ʻatzvutʼ-‫עצבות‬... but Baruch ata Adonai, mekadesh (ha’shabbat v’) yisrael v’
ha’zmanim.

L
only when one is engaged in

U
rejoicing while fulfilling a
Praised are You.Adonai our God, sovereign of the
religious act.”(Shabbat 30b)
EF
The Festival is termed in universe, Who chose us for a unique relationship, raising
us, who know the language of wonder and gratitude
AT

the Bible as a "Mikrah Kodesh"-


‫מקרא קדש‬-a calling to holiness. above those who speak the language of the ordinary, blind
to the miracle of life, enabling us to encounter holiness
R

Thus the Seder summons us to


through Your mitzvoth, giving us in love (Shabbat for rest)
G

embrace all that brings joy in


our life and in this way proceed holidays for joy,festivals and special times for
E

along the path of spiritual celebration,particularly this (Shabbat and this) Passover,
TH

maturity and holiness. this time of freedom(given in love) this sacred gathering,
One sanctifies life, time, this re-enactment of our going out of Mitzrayim. It is You
the occasion of celebration, by who has chosen us,You who jave shared Your holiness
gratefully rejoicing in the totality, with us in amanner different from all other peoples. For
the "allness" of God's gift of life with (Shabbat and) festive revelations of Your holiness,
and the world. happiness and joy You have granted us ( lovingly and
willingly). Praised are You, Adonai, Who imbues
(Shabbat),Israel and the seasons with holiness.
" Know that joy is rarer, more
difficult than sadness.
On Saturday evening, we add the following “havdallah”
Once you make this all-
section into the Kiddush to separate the sanctity of the
important discovery,
Sabbat from the sanctity of Passover
you must embrace joy as a
moral obligation." ‫)כשחל יו"ט במוצאי שבת מוסיפים כאן ברכות‬
- Andre Gide .‫הבדלה‬

‫י‬a‫א מְאוֹ‬a‫ בּוֹ‬,‫ הָעוֹלָם‬1ֶ‫הֵינוּ מֶל‬6ֱ‫ א‬,8‫י‬9‫ אַתָּה י‬1‫בָּרוּ‬


:‫הָאֵשׁ‬

17
Baruch Ata Adonai,Elohaynu melech ha-olam, Boreh
KADESH-
Me oray Ha-eish.
GRATEFUL FOR THE
Praised are You Lord, Sovereign of the Universe, Who GIFT OF MEMORY
creats the lights of fire. At the center of the
Kiddush is the reference to its
‫ הַמַּבְדִּיל בֵּין‬,‫ הָעוֹלָם‬1ֶ‫הֵינוּ מֶל‬6ֱ‫ א‬,8‫י‬9‫ אַתָּה י‬1‫בָּרוּ‬ recitation as –zecher leʼyetziat
‫ בֵּין‬,‫אֵל לָעַמִים‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫ בֵּין י‬,1ֶ‫שׁ לְחֹל בֵּין אוֹר לְחֹשׁ‬gh mitzrayim -‫זכר ליציאת‬
‫מצרים‬-“recalling,” “a
‫דֻּשַּׁת שַׁבָּת‬i ‫ בֵּין‬.‫מֵי הַמַּעֲשֶׂה‬9‫יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי לְשֵׁשֶׁת י‬ remembrance of ,” the Exodus
‫יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִשֵּׁשֶׁת‬-‫אֶת‬9‫ ו‬.ָ‫שַּׁת יוֹם טוֹב הִבְדַּלְתּ‬piִ‫ל‬ from Egypt. An act of
kְ‫עַמּ‬-‫'דַּשְׁתָּ אֶת‬9‫ הִבְדַּלְתָּ ו‬.ָ‫מֵי הַמַּעֲשֶׂה 'דַּשְׁתּ‬9‫י‬ remembering is a sacred one,
‫שׁ‬gh ‫ הַמַּבְדִּיל בֵּין‬,8‫י‬9‫ אַתָּה י‬1‫ בָּרוּ‬.kq‫שָּׁת‬piִ‫אֵל בּ‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫י‬ one which engages both mind
and heart, one which allows
(:‫שׁ‬ghְ‫ל‬ the human being to connect
Baruch Ata Adonai,Elohaynu Melech Haolam, Boreh mindfully to events of the past
Meoray Haesh that anchor oneʼs life to the
deep foundations of human
Baruch ata Adonai,Eloheinu melech ha’olam, hamavdil history. In being mindful of the
bein kodesh l’chol,bein or l’hoshech,bein Yisrael Exodus, the Jew is rooted in
l’amim,bein yom ha’shevi-I l’sheishet yemei ha’maaseh, bein an ancient moment of
kedushat Shabbat l’kedushat Yom Tov hivdalta,v’et Yom redemption that remains
ha’shevi-i mi sheishet yemei ha’maaseh kidashta; hivdalta attached to a moment of
v’kidashta et amcha Yisrael be’kdushatehcha. Baruch ata deliverance yet to be. To
Adonai,hamavdil bein kodesh l’kodesh. remember is to step towards
the dawn of a new beginning,
Praised are You, Adonai our God, Sovereign of the universe, to see the light, the “or,”-‫ אור‬-
who differentiates between the sacred and the profane , that which God declared to be
between light and darkness, between Israel and the other good at the beginning of time.
nations, between the the seventh day and the six days of To forget, to not pay attention,
creating. you made a distinction between the sanctity of the is to retreat into darkness, into
Sabbath and the sanctity of the festivals, and You sanctified the “choshech,”-‫חשך‬- the time
Shabbat more than the other days of the week, of chaos and emptiness, a
distinguishing and hallowing Your people through Your primordial time of terrifying
holiness. Praised are You, Adonai who differentiates nothingness. The Passover
between the sanctity of Shabbat and the sanctity of Yom journey is one that begins in
darkness.and leads toward
light, “meʼafaylah leʼorah”-
‫מאפילה לאורה‬-When we
forget, we stumble in
darkness. If one were to
rearrange the letters of
“choshech,”-‫חשך‬- one would
arrive at the Hebrew word
“shachoach,”-‫שכח‬- to forget.

18
“Zechor, “-‫זכר‬- the Hebrew for ‫נוּ‬8‫ שֶׁהֶחֱי‬,‫ הָעוֹלָם‬1ֶ‫הֵינוּ מֶל‬6ֱ‫ א‬,8‫י‬9‫ אַתָּה י‬1‫בָּרוּ‬
remember,when its letters are re-
arranged spells “rakoz”-‫רכז‬-
:‫הִגִּיעָנוּ לַזְּמַן הַזֶּה‬9‫'יְּמָנוּ ו‬9‫ו‬
concentrate, focus, pay attention.
Thus the ritual is designed to help Baruch ata Adonai Elohainu melech
us be mindful, to shed light on a ha’olam,shehecheyanu,v’kiyemanu,v’heegeanu,
distant reality that bears lazman ha’zeh.
relevance now and for all time,
the story of freedom.
How remarkable that the
Praised are You, Adonai our
human has been given the gift of God, Sovereign of the
being able to step back into

BI
history and recapture the past universe , for giving us life,

AB
and experience the “You are
there” feeling! Human memory is for sustaining us and

R
a gift which elicits gratitude.
enabling us to celebrate this

L
“Remembering is the
festival.

U
source of redemption,while

EF
forgetting leads to exile.”

Baal Shem Tov

AT
Doing Gratefulness: R
G
E

As you sip the wine, close your


TH

eyes and pay attention to its

taste-be a wine “connoisseur” and

let the wine swirl around in your

mouth, allowing the palette to fully

absorb its sweetness and/or

tartness. Feel the liquid flow into

your stomach and warm your

belly.

19
GRATEFUL FOR THE SENSES
#

HAVDALLAH ,‫ הבדלה‬or separation, is the ritual that separates the Sabbath and the Festival
from the other days of the week.
Normally, wine, light and spices are used . Each item speaks to the richness of each of the
human senses to experience the delight of being alive. Wine is tasted, light is seen and spices are
smelled. The senses are indispensable ways by which to experience the world and serve as
gateways to human joy and pleasure.
Havdallah-‫הבדלה‬- reminds us of these gifts for which we can heighten our gratitude and
thanks

BI
AB
R
L
U
EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

20
GRATEFUL FOR –THE
GIFT OF- TRUST
“Rechatz"-‫רחץ‬-the
ritual of washing, in Aramaic
means trust. While washing is
a tangible act, trusting is a
response of the heart. It is only 11. U’RECHATZ-WASH- ‫וּרְחַץ‬
in the aftermath of recognizing
the sacredness of life through
joy that one is able to extend
the heart and hand with a
sense of trust. As the heart
opens to all that is, it is touched
We perform a “partial” washing without the recitation of a
by the capacity to let go and to
love. Washing the hands is blessing normally connected to this symbolic act of

BI
wedded symbolically and “purification” prior to a full meal with a staple food such
AB
spiritually to an act of inner as bread. Either the leader or all participants pour a little
cleansing.
water from a pitcher on to their hands to fulfill this task.
R
As the prophet
Ezekiel states in the segment This is an activity that can engage children who can be
L

read for Parashat Parah,-‫פרשת‬ called upon to pass around the washing bowl and towel.
U

‫פרה‬-the Sabbath on which the


EF

laws of the Red Heifer are


read, only a few weeks before
AT

Passover-"I will sprinkle pure


water upon you...I will purify
R

you from all impurities and all


G

your fetishes.. and I will give


you a new heart-I will remove
E

the heart of stone from your


TH

body and give you a heart of


flesh."(Ez36:25-26)
 

21
What is a heart of stone?
The impurities and fetishes referred to by Ezekiel are the constituent parts of a heart of
stone. Such a heart is impervious to feeling, to empathy, to trust. It is a heart rooted in suspicion
and fear, hardening itself to form artificial barricades of self-protection and emotional distance by
investing meaning in outside objects that are worshipped as fetishes and idols. Behind barriers of
defensiveness and distrust, the world is seen as a place of danger, and life, a burden of blight.
How does one acquire a heart of flesh? Waters of purity, of gentle goodness will wash
away the hardness. Instead of stone, the heart will pulsate with the soft and pliant fleshiness of
feeling and vulnerability. The Targum, the Aramaic translation of the Bible, interestingly renders
heart of flesh as " Lev Dachil-"‫לב דחיל‬- a heart with fear of God, reverence, awe, perhaps
vulnerability.

Doing Gratefulness :

BI
Recite: Water flows over these hands

AB
May I use them skillfully

R
To preserve our precious planet
L
U
EF
(Thich Nhat Hanh-Present Moment ,Wonderful Moment)
AT
R
G
E
TH

22
KARPAS- GRATEFUL III. KARPAS/ GREEN VEGETABLE-‫כַּרְפַּס‬
FOR-THE GIFT OF-
SIMPLICITY
Some vegetable traditionally eaten at this time include
Seder participants
parsley, celery, onion or potato. At growing numbers of
take a small morsel of an
Sedarim a platter of assorted vegetable is presented to the
ordinary vegetable, dip it in
participants to allow for some preliminary satisfying of
salt water, and recite the
one’s hunger.
blessing of thanks. Each of
The vegetable is dipped in salt water as an act of
these elements that grows
from the earth together with he “purification” and seasoning, and as a reminder of the tears
salt water representing the of slavery.
oceans of this planet, embrace
‫א פְּ_י‬a‫ בּוֹ‬,‫ הָעוֹלָם‬1ֶ‫הֵינוּ מֶל‬6ֱ‫ א‬,8‫י‬9‫ אַתָּה י‬1‫בָּרוּ‬

BI
the fundamental totality of all
life. Taking these items :‫מָה‬rֲ‫הָא‬

AB
together and praising the
Source of these essentials of

R
life bring to our attention the
wonder of the ordinary. The
L
Praised are You, Adonai our God, Sovereign of the universe,
obvious becomes mystery,
U
who creates the FRUIT OF THE EARTH.
activating a heightened
EF

sensitivity to the simplicity


inherent in everything.
AT

# Our generation is a
complex one. Technology's
R

intention to simplify has


G

paradoxically, in fact, only


made life more intricate, even
E

confusing. Karpas-‫כרפס‬- and


TH

salt water return us to our


beginnings, to the basics of
human existence. Simple food,
simple drink, simple taste.

23
“The ordinariness of spiritual life comes from a heart that has learned to trust, from a
gratefulness for the gift of human life.. like water which finds its way between the stones or wears
them away a little at a time and gradually lowers itself to the ocean, this ordinariness brings us to
rest."(A Path With Heart, Jack Kornfield,Bantam New Age Books,1993,pp.319).
Salt water has been seen as the tears of suffering and sorrow. Amidst the sadness of
life however, the gift of the simple and ordinary grants us comfort and hope. Salt water incubates
lifelessness. The green vegetable graces our palates with the prospect of renewal and aliveness.
But tears also open the heart. In some mysterious way they wash away the heaviness and the
hardness that make life such a burden.Without tears, it is impossible to touch the deepest parts of
ourselves. The Buddhist monk, Ajahn Chah said it well: “If you havenʼt wept deeply, you havenʼt
begun to meditate.”
“ Simple in actions and in thoughts, you return to the source of being." (The Wisdom
the Tao te Ching)
The simple, ordinary act of karpas in salt water speaks volumes of the power of life to
conquer death. Passover, after all, celebrates the process of redemption from the salty tears of
slavery to the refreshing flowering of freedom, from the confusion of complexity to the clarity of
the simple and ordinary.

BI
AB
Doing Gratefulness
R
L
With eyes closed, pay attention to the feeling of the vegetable in your
U
EF

mouth; be aware of the saltiness, the natural flavor of the green herb.
AT
R
G
E
TH

24
Yachatz-Gratefulness for

BI
the gift of Imperfection
Judaism does not

AB
insist on perfection. In all of
Jewish sacred texts, nowhere

R
do we come across the divine

L
demand: Thou shalt be perfect.

U
Recognizing that perfection

EF
belongs exclusively to God,
pursuing it would be construed
as an act of hubris. Judaism
AT
did, however, hold out the I V. YACHATZ / DIVIDE-‫יחץ‬
expectation that we strive for
R

holiness, to emulate Godʼs


G

deeds of compassion and The middle matzah-‫מצה‬- is divided into two parts,
justice, but never to entertain with the larger part reserved for the Afikomen-
E

the prospect of becoming God. ‫אפיקומן‬. This piece is either “hidden” by the children
TH

Human life is with the expectation that the adults will later search
incomplete, imperfect, in a for it and return it or by the adults so that the children
state of fragmentation and could conduct the search and return it on the
brokenness. condition that a reward is offered in exchange.
We break the However this is carried out, its purpose is to stimulate
Matzah-‫מצה‬, putting one part interest and memory in the minds and hearts of the
aside and hiding it for later,
young people at the Seder table.
with the knowledge that the
divided piece will suffice for
our current celebration.
Wholeness, perfection, the
ideal, is something hidden,
“zafun,”- ‫צפון‬- as yet
undiscovered. The ultimate
transcends our awareness; all
we can do is imagine and
reach for that which we
conceive of as God-the Source
of perfection, unity, “Shalom”-
‫שלום‬.
To engage in the
journey toward greater God
consciousness, we can only
break up the wholeness of life
into understandable segments,
partialize reality and grasp, if
blessed, only momentary
glimpses of God. The matzah

25
over which we conduct our Seder is”Lechem Oni,”-‫לחם עני‬-a broken matzah, the food of humans
whose mortality and creatureliness render us insignificant, almost desperate in our search for the
divine. It is poor manʼs bread, as we emerge spiritually impoverished, a faulty facsimile of Godʼs
Image and likeness.
# Yet, it is precisely by way of a broken heart that we arrive at an awareness of
greater proximity to God. Can we pray when feeling smug about life, perfect and complacent?
The mature heart is not perfectionist; it rests in the compassion of our being
instead of the ideals of the mind. Before we seek the piece that fits the puzzle of our bewilderment,
and restore the hidden piece to our fuller awareness and knowledge of God, we bless, praise God
for the partiality of life, of matzah-‫מצה‬, and discover gratefulness in every bite of this bread of
affliction.
We are left with the shattered pieces of our lives, with the fragments of our
history as a people still struggling to unify Godʼs name in this world. What remains as we continue
our ritual is the broken matzah-‫מצה‬, and the story of lives, unleavened and incomplete.

BI
AB
R
L
U
EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

26
BI
AB
MAGID-GRATEFUL V. MAGID / NARRATE-‫מגיד‬

R
FOR-THE GIFT OF-THE
STORY

L
U
# “To Tell About It”-

EF
The Haggadah-“ the telling.”
The name of the

AT
festival,Pesach, -‫פסח‬- can be
divided into two syllables,
HA LACHMAH ANYA-THIS IS THE
BREAD OF AFFLICTION-
R
each of which spells out a
word; peh=‫פה‬-mouth,
G

sach=‫סח‬-speak. Thus the The matzah is pointed to or raised over the heads of
participants as this segment is recited.
E

very essence of Passover,


TH

inherent in its name, is the


exercise of talking out, of
speaking the story.
# Every story has a
theme, a thread that runs ‫עָא‬Eַ‫א בְּא‬8‫נ‬A‫א דִּי אֲכָלוּ אַבְהָת‬8‫י‬9‫הָא לַחְמָא עַנ‬
through the narrative that
provides the listener with
‫י‬j‫ית‬L‫ י‬1‫ כָּל דִּצְ_י‬,‫כוֹל‬L‫י‬9‫י ו‬j‫ית‬L‫ כָּל דִּכְפִין י‬.‫ם‬Y‫י‬Iְ‫מִצ‬O
something to hold on to, ‫עָא‬Eַ‫ה הַבָּאָה בְּא‬8‫ לְשָׁנ‬,‫ הָשַּׁתָּא הָכָא‬.‫פְסַח‬Y‫י‬9‫ו‬
something that helps organize :‫י חוֹ_ין‬L‫ה הַבָּאָה בְּנ‬8‫ לְשָׁנ‬,‫י‬mְ‫ הָשַּׁתָּא עַב‬.‫אֵל‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫י‬O
and integrate oneʼs life in such
a way that meaning and
purpose are conferred upon
our existence. The word
haggadah- ‫ הגדה‬-telling,
contains the letters gimel-‫ג‬-
and daled-‫ד‬-letters that
constitute the word, “gid” - ‫גיד‬
-vein or artery. As the life force
of our bodies is carried
through our #veins, so too is
the essence of our souls
transmitted through the
ʻstoriesʼ of our spiritual
traditon. (I thank Rabbi David
Ingber, rabbi of Rommemu,
the Center for Mind, Body and
Spirit, NYC. for this insight.)
The Haggadah is a religious-
literary articulation of the
attempt to raise our spiritual
consciousness of the wonder
of life so that we can respond

27
with gratefulness and thereby
know the joy of living.
Referring again to the
mode of interpretation known
as “gematriah”-the numerical
value of the word-we discover
an intriguing connection
between the act of telling and
its unique purpose. The
numerical value of the word -
haggadah - the telling or the
story, is 17.
This is the bread of affliction which our Hay=5; gimel=3; daled=4 ;
ancestors ate in the land hay=5, their total is 17.
Likewise, the word for
Of Mitzrayim, vein, “gid”-‫ גיד‬, is numerically
Let all who are hungry come and eat. equivalent to 17: Gimel=3;
Let all who are in need, come and yod=10 and daled is 4.

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Emerging from this
celebrate the Passover.

AB
connection is the conclusion
Today, we are here. Next year in the land that the spiritual purpose, the

R
theme and bloodline of the
of Israel. L Passover narrative is the
Today, we are slaves. Next year, we will goodness inherent in the
U
be free. universe and in the act of
EF

human liberation. Reading the


history of Jewish liberation is
AT

recognizing the unending


wonder of life. Being
R

astonished and expressing


G

praise are the dual dimensions


of the ancient Hebrew chant,
E

the Biblical melody and song.


TH

. This item of
immediacy, tangible and
indispensable to life, in the
here and now, embraces the
totality of our past and our
future, the past experience of
slavery and freedom and the
future hope and expectation of
redemption. The reader is
presented with the power of
the “now moment,” infusing
the present with the infinity of

28
the past and the future, recognizing eternity in the fleeting moment of life. The morsel of matzah
reminds us that in spite of the ease by which matzah can break into crumbs, in spite of how fragile
our lives, how lonely and frightening, the knowledge of being rooted in a past and connected to the
future, blesses
us with hope and meaning and gives us reason for being grateful.
# #
This grateful awareness engenders generosity as we #continue
to recite:
“Kol dichfin yeitei vʼyeichul ”-‫כל דיכפין ייתי וייכול‬-Let all who are
hungry come and eat…
Having guests at our table, especially the poor, represents the
concretization of gratefulness into acts of hessed, act of compassion and kindness.
As we step up to the starting point of now, of the world as we know it, with
its poverty, hunger and homelessness, we look down the road, beyond the first laps of the race
toward redemption and catch a glimpse of a vision where all will have a roof over their heads and a
table laden with food at which to take a seat as dignified human beings, free from want.
Gratefulness in Hebrew is hakarat hatov-‫הכרת הטוב‬-recognizing the
good, unearthing the gold of gratitude from the dross of downheartedness and despair.

HA LACHMAH ANEEYA-‫הא לחמא עניא‬-GRATEFUL FOR –THE GIFT OF

BI
THE “NOW.”

AB
“ This is the bread of affliction”- “ha”-‫ הא‬in Aramaic is “Zeh”-‫זה‬-this. We
begin the Seder by pointing to an object, as if it is a focus for the meditative experience of
R
recounting the story of freedom in the deepest recesses of our consciousness.
L

“Anneya,”-‫עניא‬- in addition to its standard meaning of “poor” or “afflicted,”


U

has been translated as “response, answer,” from the root #“Anoh“ -‫ענה‬. “Samuel said-The bread of
EF

“Oni”-‫עני‬- Bread over which we respond with many words.” (Pesachim 115 b.) If one is hungry, it is
hard to speak; we preserveoour energy just to breathe, to live. Emptiness and want are saturated
AT

with silence. Human language, speech, communication are all fueled by “ lechem ”-‫לחם‬, by food,
by bread. And so we bless after we have eaten-“You shall eat, feel satisfied and then bless.”
R

Curiously, the verb ”anoh”-‫ענה‬- is associated with a liturgical #response of


G

gratitude and thankfulness . in the Sanctuary, a psalm is recited each morning during daily
prayers. “Enoo Ladonai bʼtodah,” -‫ענו ליי בתודה‬-Lift your voice-respond, in thanks to the Lord;
E

Sing to the Lord a song of praise -JPS translation 1985- (Psalm147:7).


TH

“#

29
To tell a story is an act by which we try to realize our capacity

for wonder, meaning and delight. We understand human experience when we listen

to a story, and its meaning changes as our capacity to understand unfolds and

grows. All of us have stories; all of us are stories in the making, whose value is

appreciated when we pay greater attention to their meaning.

In Jewish thinking, " God, as it were, camouflaged Himself in

stories."(Breslov Haggadah).

# The narrative of the Bible, especially that of the Exodus,

BI
transcends literature, words of entertainment and education. The stories of Scripture

AB
in mystical thinking are the disguises of divinity in the world. God is hidden in every
R
L
word, every episode, and every experience. This is what transforms Scripture into a
U
EF

sacred story.
AT

The Exodus story, a tale of exile and eventual redemption, is


R

the story not only of Israel, but of all humanity, and of God Himself. As Israel and
G
E

humanity are in exile, so too is the Shechinah,‫שכינה‬, the Divine Presence. We tell
TH

the story to rescue ourselves, others, even God.

“ Facts lead us to knowledge, but stories lead to

wisdom." (Rachel Naomi Remen-Kitchen Table Wisdom.)

30
Story telling transcends the social, the psychological. Sharing

stories around the Seder table-Magid-‫מגיד‬-transports us to a place where God's

hand in history and the world becomes evident. In a sense, a story is a renewed

revelation but hidden and discreet, requiring an openness of heart and mind to

perceive the pulse of the divine.

Stories stir our souls, shape memories and connections, stretch

our imaginations and nurture our hearts. Magid-‫מגיד‬-“story-teller”, offers us a

vehicle of invaluable spiritual enrichment, linking us to those who came before and

BI
AB
leading us into the unknowable future with roots out of which we can meet with what

lies ahead with greater wisdom and faith.


R
L
U

"The one who elaborates upon the story of “Yetziat Mitzrayim”-


EF

‫יציאת מצרים‬-the Exodus from Egypt-is considered praiseworthy. "


AT

We are grateful for the story and for the gift of again being able share it in others
R
G

and ourselves.
E

# When the Ba'al Shem Tov had to fulfill a difficult task before him,
TH

he would go to a certain place in the woods, light a fire, and meditate in prayer, and

what he set out to perform was done.

# When a generation later the "Maggid" of Mezeritz was faced with

the same task, he would go to the same place in the woods and say:“ We can no

31
longer light the fire but we can still say the prayers," and what he wanted done

became a reality.

# Again, a generation later, Rabbi Moishe of Sassov had to perform a

task. And he too went into the woods and said:“ We can no longer light a fire, nor do

we know the secret meditations belonging to the prayer, but we do know the place

in the woods to which it all belongs, and that must be sufficient,” and sufficient it

was.

But when another generation had passed, and Rabbi Israel of Rishin

BI
was called upon to perform the task, he sat down on his chair and said: " We cannot

AB
light the fire, we cannot speak the prayers, we do not know the place, but we can
R
L
tell the story of how it was done." And the story that he told had the same effect as
U
EF

the actions of the other three.


AT

#
R

# "In every generation we are obligated to tell the story..." The story will
G
E

enable us to perform the holy task of touching the Holy Presence. The story is all we
TH

have.

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33
MAH NISHTANAH-
REFILL THE WINE CUPS GRATEFUL FOR –THE GIFT
OF-ASKING QUESTIONS
Imagine a world in
which there were no questions, no
sense of curiosity or wonderment!
MAH NISHTANAH-THE FOUR What would the world be like if
QUESTIONS - ‫מַה נִּשְּׁתַּנָה‬ everything were understood, there
was no mystery, all was evident
and known? Childrenʼs eyes would
The youngest child is customarily invited to recite the never sparkle with the light and joy
FOUR QUESTIONS. This practice my be shared among of discovery! Scientists would

BI
all children at the table to again prompt an ongoing sense never experience the thrill and
of interest and involvement of the young in the Passover delight of a “eureka” moment!

AB
proceedings. Parentʼs would never relish their
sense of pride when their child

R
successfully figured out the

L
U answer to a riddle or difficult
question!
How bland and
EF

boring life would be without the gift


of exploration, the adventure of
AT

learning and understanding, even


R

with the many moments of


frustration and false conclusions!
G
E
TH

34
To ask is to be
human, to feel the exhilaration ?‫לָה הַזֶּה מִכָּל הַלֵּילוֹת‬G‫מַ ה נִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַלַּי‬
of the search for truth, and to
reap the deepest reward when
Mah nishtanah halayla hazeh mikol ha-leilot?
catching a glimpse of its
reality.“To ask “what” or “why”
is not to ask scientific Why is this night of Passover different from all other
definitions, but to probe the nights of the year ?
unknown, to insist on depths .‫שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין חָמֵץ וּמַצָּה‬
yet to be plumbed.” (Zornberg, :‫לָה הַזֶּה כֻּלּוֹ מַצָּה‬9‫הַלַּי‬
Aviva,The Particulars of
Sheb'chol ha-leilot anu och'lin chameitz umatzah.
Rapture,p.207.) Jewish
tradition is abundant in Ha-laylah hazeh kulo matzah.
questions; the very sinews of
Talmud are those constituting On all other nights, we eat either leavened or
questions of every unleavened bread, why on this night do we eat only
conceivable type. matzah

BI
The “gematria ,”

AB
the numerical value of the ‫לָה‬9‫קוֹת הַלַּי‬I9‫שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין שְׁאָר י‬
word “geulah,”-‫גאולה‬-
:‫הַזֶּה מָרוֹר‬

R
redemption, is 45 [gimel=3;
aleph=1; vav=6; lamed=30;

L
hay=5] ; this corresponds to Shebechol haleilot anu ochlin shear yerakot,halaylah

U
the numerical value of the hazeh, maror. EF
word “mah”-‫מה‬-what, or why,
the word that initiates all On all other nights, we eat vegetables of all kinds,
AT

questions [mem=40; hay=5]. why on this night must we eat bitter herbs?
The first step toward
R

redemption stretches out of a ‫שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אֵין אָנוּ מַטְבִּילִין אֲפִילוּ פַּעַם‬
G

mind that asks, out of a heart


that hears the mystery of all
:‫לָה הַזֶּה שְׁתֵּי פְעָמִים‬9‫ הַלַּי‬.‫אֶחָת‬
E

things.
TH

Thus the Shebchol hasleylot ayn anu matbilin afilu pa’am


youngest are introduced to echat,halayla hazeh,shtei peamim.
this process at the Seder
table, and we witness with
On all other nights, we do not dip vegetable even once,
gratitude our children stepping
why on this night do we dip greens into salt water and
into the unexplored terrain of
human life armed with
bitter herbs into sweet haroset?
curiosity, and the relent less
desire to know! ‫שֶׁבְּכָל הַלֵּילוֹת אָנוּ אוֹכְלִין בֵּין יוֹשְׁבִין וּבֵין‬
Together with :‫לָה הַזֶּה כֻּלָּנוּ מְסֻבִּין‬9‫ הַלַּי‬.‫מְסֻבִּין‬
them we ask: What is the
spiritual meaning of the
Shebʼkhol ha-leilot anu okhlim bein yoshvin uvein
Exodus, of freedom, of life?
mʼsubin, halailah hazeh kulanu mʼsubin.
Where can we meet with the

35
On all other nights, everyone sits up straight at the wonder, the miraculous, and the
table, why on this night do we recline and eat at mystery? How do we become
leisure? aware of and cultivate a
relationship to, the giftedness of
life, of seeing the hand of the
divine in all things? How do we
incorporate an ongoing
response of gratefulness and
goodness to the totality of
human existence?

BI
AB
R
L
U
EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

36
AVADEEM HAYEENU”- AVADEEM HAYINU - ּ‫עֲבָדִים הָיִינו‬
GRATEFUL FOR –THE
GIFT OF ANSWERS Storytelling: “We were slaves”
A life without
answers is a frightening one, (Read in unison, Hebrew or English, or ask different
one without purpose and individuals at your Seder table moving around, right to
direction. We need answers to left, with the privilege of “passing.”)
serve us and our children as
guidelines by which to make
our way through life with a
‫הֵינוּ‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫יּוֹצִיאֵנוּ י‬H‫ ו‬.‫ם‬Y‫עֹה בְּמִצְרי‬Eַ‫ינוּ לְפ‬Y‫ים הָי‬dָ‫עֲב‬
sense of joy and anticipation, ‫א הוֹצִיא‬6 ‫אִלּוּ‬9‫ ו‬,‫ה‬8‫טוּי‬9‫ה וּבִזְרוֹעַ נ‬lָ‫ד חֲז‬8‫ בְּי‬,‫מִשָּׁם‬
a sense of trust and
predictability, a sense of order.
‫י אָנוּ‬aֲ‫ ה‬,‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫ינוּ מִמִּצ‬j‫ הוּא אֶת־אֲבוֹת‬1‫הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּ‬
We provide answers deeply ‫עֹה‬Eַ‫ינוּ לְפ‬Y‫ים הָי‬dָ‫ מְשֻׁעְבּ‬,‫ינוּ‬L‫י בָנ‬L‫ינוּ וּבְנ‬L‫וּבָנ‬
embedded in the history of ‫ כֻּלָּנוּ‬,‫ים‬Y‫בוֹנ‬9‫ כֻּלָּנוּ נ‬,‫אֲפִילוּ כֻּלָּנוּ חֲכָמִים‬H‫ ו‬.‫ם‬Y‫י‬Iְ‫בְּמִצ‬
our people, a tragic history of
enslavement, persecution and ‫ה עָלֵינוּ‬8‫ מִצְו‬,‫ה‬I‫עִים אֶת־הַתּוֹ‬O‫ כֻּלָּנוּ יוֹ‬,‫ים‬Y‫נ‬Jְ‫ז‬
homelessness, but one ‫בֶּה לְסַפֵּר בִּיצִיאַת‬Eַ‫כָל הַמּ‬9‫ ו‬.‫ם‬Y‫י‬Iְ‫לְסַפֵּר בִּיצִיאַת מִצ‬
suffused with hope and the :‫י זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח‬aֲ‫ ה‬,‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫מִצ‬
messianic expectation of

B
redemption. Thus the process

AB
of answering and the answers Avadim hayinu l'faroh b'mitzrayim. Vayotzi-einu
themselves infuse us with Adonai Eloheinu misham, b'yad chazakah uvizroa

R
gratefulness for the awareness n'tuyah, v'ilu lo hotzi hakadosh Baruch hu et avoteinu
of their indispensable mimitzrayim, harei anu uvaneinu uv'nei vaneinu,

L
significance to our own

U
m'shubadim hayinu l'faroh b'mitzrayim. Va-afilu
personal journeys.
kulanu chachamim, kulanu n'vonim, kulanu z'keinim,
EF
kulanu yod'im et hatorah, mitzvah aleinu l'sapeir bitzi-
AT
at mitzrayim. Vʼchol hamarbeh l'sapeir bitzi-at
mitzrayim, harei zeh m'shubach.
R
G

We were slaves in Egypt and the Lord freed us from


Egypt with a mighty hand. Had not the holy one
E

liberated our people from Egypt, then we, our children


TH

and our children's children would still be enslaved.

37
GRATEFUL FOR THE
A Moment from a Seder of our Sages:
“ALLNESS” OF LIFE
‫בִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־‬u9‫ ו‬,ַ‫הוֹשֻׁע‬9‫בִּי י‬u9‫ ו‬,‫בִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר‬uְ‫מַעֲשֶׂה בּ‬
‫ שֶׁהָיוּ מְסֻבִּין‬,‫פוֹן‬Eַ‫בִּי ט‬u9‫ ו‬,‫בִּי עֲ'יבָא‬u9‫ ו‬,‫ה‬8‫י‬Eַ‫עֲז‬ The Midrash presented
by Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah
‫ כָּל־אוֹתוֹ‬,‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫הָיוּ מְסַפְּ_ים בִּיצִיאַת מִצ‬9‫ ו‬,‫ק‬uְ‫י־ב‬L‫בִּבְנ‬ is perplexing; all his life he
,‫ינוּ‬j‫בּוֹת‬u :‫אָמְרוּ לָהֶם‬9‫יהֶם ו‬m‫לְמִי‬w‫ עַד שֶׁבָּאוּ ת‬,‫לָה‬9‫הַלַּי‬ failed to understand the

BI
:‫ שֶׁל שַׁחֲ_ית‬,‫_יאַת שְׁמַע‬i ‫הִגִּיעַ זְמַן‬ meaning of the practice to
mention the Exodus in the

AB
night time until Ben Zoma
Ma-aseh b'rabi Eli-ezer, v'rabi Y'hoshua, v'rabi Elazar interpreted the one ostensibly
ben azaryah, v'rabi Akiva, v'rabi Tarfon, she-hayu

R
insignificant word of the
m'subin bivnei vrak, v'hayu m'sap'rim bitzi-at Torah-”kol”--‫כל‬-”all,“ in the

L
mitzrayim, kol oto halaylah, ad sheba-u talmideihem passage “all the days of your

U
v'am'ru lahem. Raboteinu, higi-a z'man k'ri-at sh'ma, life” to suggest that the word

EF
shel shacharit. “all “refers to the night time. To
me this word-”all”-carries with

AT
It once happened that Rabbis Eliezer, Joshua, Elazar it a fundamental implication
regarding our relationship to
ben Azaryah, Akiva and Tarfon were reclining at the

R
the world and to God. We
seder table in Bnei Brak. They spent the whole night
discussing the Exodus until their students came and G remember the Exodus-the
capacity for freedom even
E
said to them: "Rabbis, it is time for us to recite the when our lives are darkened
TH

Shema” by slavery, in the night time of


our lives.
‫י כְּבֶן שִׁבְעִים‬Y‫י אֲנ‬aֲ‫ ה‬.‫ה‬8‫י‬Eַ‫בִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־עֲז‬u ‫אָמַר‬ The comprehensiveness
and totality of life ever allows
.‫ם בַּלֵּילוֹת‬Y‫י‬uְ‫צִיאַת מִצ‬9‫ שֶׁתֵּאָמֵר י‬,‫י‬D‫א זָכִית‬69‫ ו‬,‫ה‬8‫שָׁנ‬ us to gain a glimpse of light
‫ אֶת יוֹם‬,‫ לְמַעַן תִּזְכֹּר‬:‫ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫שָׁהּ בֶּן זוֹמָא‬Iְ‫עַד שֶּׁדּ‬ amidst darkness, to hold in our
k‫מֵי חַיֶּי‬9‫ י‬.k‫מֵי חַיֶּי‬9‫ כֹּל י‬,‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫ץ מִצ‬Vֶ‫ מֵא‬kx‫צֵאת‬ memory and hope the
possibility of freedom when
:‫חֲכָמִים אוֹמְ_ים‬H‫ ו‬.‫ הַלֵּילוֹת‬k‫מֵי חַיֶּי‬9‫ כֹּל י‬.‫הַיָּמִים‬ engulfed by external or internal
‫ לְהָבִיא לִימוֹת‬k‫מֵי חַיֶּי‬9‫ כֹּל י‬.‫ הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה‬k‫מֵי חַיֶּי‬9‫י‬ forces that enslave us. Thus
:ַ‫הַמָּשִׁיח‬ we remain grateful for this gift
of hopeful memory and recite
the Exodus in the night time of
Amar rabi Elazar ben Azaryah. Harei ani k'ven shivim our daily experiences as well.
shanah, v'lo zachiti, shetei-ameir y'tzi-at mitzrayim
baleilot. Ad shed'rashah ben zoma. Shene-emar: l'ma-
an tizkor, et yom tzeitcha mei-eretz mitzrayim, kol
y'mei chayecha. Y'mei chayecha hayamim. Kol y'mei
chayecha haleilot. Vachachamim om'rim. Y'mei
chayecha ha-olam hazeh. Kol y'mei chayecha l'havi
limot hamashi-ach.

38
Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah said: "I am like a seventy-year old man and I have not
succeeded in understanding why the Exodus from Egypt should be mentioned at
night, until Ben Zoma explained it by quoting: "In order that you may remember the
day you left Egypt all the days of your life." The Torah adds the world all to the phrase
the days of your life to indicate that the nights are meant as well. The sages declare
that "the days of your life" means the present world and "all " includes the messianic
era.

BI
AB
R
L
U
EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

39
The Four Children - ‫אְַרבָּעָה בָנִים‬ THE FOUR CHILDREN-
GRATEFUL FOR –THE

BI
‫ בָּרּוְ שֶׁנָּתַן ּתֹוָרה‬.‫ בָּרּוְ הּוא‬,‫בָּרּוְ הַמָּקֹום‬ GIFT OF-CHILDREN

AB
‫ כְּנֶגֶד אְַרבָּעָה בָנִים‬.‫ בָּרּוְ הּוא‬,‫לְעַּמֹו יִשְָׂראֵל‬ Children are
sources of spiritual repair in
‫ וְאֶחָד‬,‫ וְאֶחָד ָרשָׁע‬,‫ אֶחָד חָכָם‬. ‫ִדּבְָּרה ּתֹוָרה‬
R
this world; the ARI-Isaac Luria,
‫ וְאֶחָד שֶׁאֵינֹו יֹוֵדעַ לִשְׁאֹול‬,‫תָּם‬ the great mystic of Safed in
L
U
the sixteenth century, pointed
out that the Hebrew letters for
EF

repair and mending, “tikun,”-


Baruch hamakom, baruch hu. Baruch shenatan torah
‫תקון‬- are the same as those
AT

l'amo yisra-eil, baruch hu. K'neged arba-ah vanim that spell the Hebrew for baby
dib'rah torah. Echad chacham, v'echad rasha, v'echad or infant-”tinok”- ‫תנוק‬. It is no
R

tam, v'echad she-eino yodei-a lishol. accident that the Seder


G

. incorporates and embraces


the presence and participation
E

of children whose presence at


The Torah speaks of four types of children: one is the Seder in whatever way is a
wise, one is wicked, one is simple, and one does not vital animus in the process of
know how to ask. spiritual liberation.
Children, the
targeted audience of the
‫הַחֻקִּים‬9‫ת ו‬yֵ‫חָכָם מַה הוּא אוֹמֵר? מָה הָע‬ Seder story, cover a range of
‫אַף אַתָּה‬9‫כֶם? ו‬x‫הֵינוּ אֶת‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה י‬,‫הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים‬9‫ו‬ character types-the wise, the
wicked, the simple, the one
‫ אֵין מַפְטִי_ין אַחַר הַפֶּסַח‬:‫אֱמָר־לוֹ כְּהִלְכוֹת הַפֶּסַח‬ who is not able to formulate
:‫אֲפִיקוֹמָן‬ the question. The Haggadah
is not selective; of course
1. Chacham mah hu omeir? Mah ha-eidot v'hachukim there is admiration for children
v'hamishpatim, asher tzivah Adonai Eloheinu etchem? who meet the higher
V'af atah emor lo k'hilchot hapesach. Ein maftirin standards of adult expectation;
yet no child is “left behind,”
achar hapesach afikoman.
ignored or excluded from the
spiritual process. Approaches
The Wise One asks: "What is the meaning of the laws toward the diversity of children
and traditions God has commanded?" (Deuteronomy vary, adjusted to each level of
6:20) You should teach him all the traditions of the childʼs uniqueness. The
Passover, even to the last detail. parentʼs task is to customize
the response recognizing each
‫ה הַזֹּאת לָכֶם? לָכֶם‬rֹ‫שָׁע מַה הוּא אוֹמֵר? מָה הָעֲב‬I childʼs singularity and
individuality.
‫ כָּפַר‬,‫ וּלְפִי שֶׁהוֹצִיא אֶת־עַצְמוֹ מִן הַכְּלָל‬.‫א לוֹ‬6‫ו‬ Underlying these
‫ בַּעֲבוּר‬:‫ ו{אֱמָר־לוֹ‬,‫הֵה אֶת־שִׁנָּיו‬iַ‫אַף אַתָּה ה‬9‫ ו‬.‫בָּעִקָּר‬ diverse responses is the
awareness that gratefulness
can and should inform and

40
inspire our relationship with our ‫ אִלּוּ‬.‫א־לוֹ‬69‫ לִי ו‬,‫ם‬Y‫י‬Iְ‫י מִמִּצ‬D‫ בְּצֵאת‬,‫ לִי‬8‫י‬9‫ עָשָׂה י‬,‫זֶה‬
children, simply because they :‫גְאָל‬Y‫ה נ‬8‫א הָי‬6 ,‫ה שָׁם‬8‫הָי‬
are our children. Our love is
defined largely by our sense of
2. Rasha, mah hu omer? Mah ha-avodah ha-zot
gratefulness for having the
lachem? Lachem vʼlo lo. Ul'fi shehotzi et atzmo min
child/children that we do. Every
question, no matter how
hak'lal, kafar ba-ikar. V'af atah hakheih et shinav, ve-
agreeable or oppositional, emor lo. Ba-avur zeh, asah Adonai li, b'tzeiti
warrants an appropriate and mimitzrayim, li v'lo lo. Ilu hayah sham, lo hayah nigal.
grateful response. In this way,
there is every possibility that The Wicked One asks: "What does this ritual mean to
the child will hear our message you?" (Exodus 12:26) By using the expression "to
and take to heart the story in you" he excludes himself from his people and denies
all its grandeur and hope. God. Shake his arrogance and say to him: "It is
The “four children”
because of what the Lord did for me when I came out
is also a metaphor for the four
of Egypt..." (Exodus 13:8) "For me" and not for him --
parts of the human personality.
We all are constituted by a for had he been in Egypt, he would not have been
capacity for wisdom; we do freed.
not lack for inclinations toward
that which is detrimental, even ‫ בְּחֹזֶק יָד‬:‫תָּם מָה הוּא אוֹמֵר? מַה זֹּאת? וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו‬
destructive, of ourselves and
others; there persists an BI .‫ מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים‬,‫הוֹצִיאָנוּ יי מִמִּצְרָיִם‬
AB
aspect of our identity that
remains fixed on our being 3. Tam mah hu omeir? Mah zot? V'amarta eilav.
R

childlike, simple and innocent; B'chozek yad hotzi-anu Adonai mimitzrayim mibeit
and all of us share a level of
L

avadim.
bewilderment and confusion
U

that often makes it impossible


EF

to know even how to frame


The Simple One asks: "What is all this?" You should
the question that will help us tell him: "It was with a mighty hand that the Lord took
AT

find an answer, find a clarity in us out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage."
the midst of our ignorance.
R

We are ‫ וְהִגַּדְתָּ לְבִנְ ָך‬:‫ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר‬,ֹ‫ אַתְּ פְּתַח לו‬- ‫וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לִשְׁאוֹל‬
G

imperfect, a mosaic of various


shades and strands of
.‫ בַּעֲבוּר זֶה עָשָׂה יי לִי בְּצֵאתִי מִמִּצְרָיִם‬,‫בַּיוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר‬
E

inconsistencies and
TH

contradictions, seeking 4. V'she-eino yodei-a lishol, at p'tach lo. Shene-emar.


wholeness, equilibrium and V'higadta l'vincha, bayom hahu leimor. Ba-avur zeh
integration. The Seder invites asah Adonai li, b'tzeiti mimitzrayim.
us to recognize and embrace
all parts of who we are and
through this compassionate
As for the One Who Does Not Know How To Ask, you
awareness arrive at the portal should open the discussion for him, as it is written:
of greater wisdom and "And you shall explain to your child on that day, 'It is
kindness in the choices that we because of what the Lord did for me when I came out
of Egypt." (Exodus 13:8)
41
make. The totality of our
identity is to be acknowledged
and celebrated gratefully. Thus
we address each of our own
“inner children” and pay
attention to each question
sympathetically and earnestly.

BI
AB
R
L
U
EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

42
The Four Children from the perspective of Gratefulness:

Popular interpretation of the nature of the four children has

established a particular level of priority beginning with the “wise” child as the most

desirable and the “wicked” as the least. The other two, the “simple one” and the “one

who doesnʼt know how to ask” fall into the category of blameless children who

require the assistance of the adults.

Except for the “wicked” one, it appears that each child is

BI
defined according to her/his intellectual capacity.

AB
If we apply the criterion of gratefulness as a spiritual
R
L
standard by which to understand the four children, a different set of priorities is
U
EF

called for, and each of the childrenʼs descriptions demands a new interpretation. The
AT

following represents such a categorization:


R
G
E
TH

43
1. CHACHAM-‫חכם‬-The WISE ONE: What motivates the wise

child in her approach to the Seder and to life is the need to know the “how” of

everything, to investigate the scientific understanding of everything, to be able to

objectively grasp the meaning of all things before she can be satisfied, even

grateful. Therefore, her question is a demand for proof-”what are the exact

testimonies and principles and decisions connected to Passover without which I can

BI
never master all the necessary requirements.” The wise one takes nothing on faith;

AB
knowledge is the ultimate good in her life.

R
L
# The answer of the haggadah is straightforward, an answer that
U
EF
is comprehensive and structured, leaving nothing to chance. Once the established
AT

rituals are completed according to the organized patterns of Jewish tradition, we do


R

not engage in any extraneous activity beyond the given parameters of a fixed text.
G

The Seder experience is quantified and measured ; gratitude is the product of


E
TH

intellectual certainty and predictability.

44
2. RASHA-‫רשע‬-The WICKED ONE: This individual sees the

world and the Seder experience through the lens of ingratitude. He asks: What is

this service, which is just so much work, a form of servitude, that you perform it and

somehow find meaning in it? The journry toward freedom, life lived with purpose and

for the sake of others is simply a burden, its demands unfair, thus cynically rejecting

any value to its spiritual dimensions. #

BI
AB
He stands outside of the spiritual orbit of life, and looking in

R
angrily and critically, declares emphatically:”Leave me alone! Donʼt bother me with
L
U
any intimations of lifeʼs giftedness and blessing for which we can be grateful! Life
EF

sucks!”
AT

The RASHA is so cynical preferring to be a critic rather than a


R
G

companion to the spiritual enterprise the best one can do as a response is to try and
E

blunt the sharpness of his assaults, expressing oneʼs disappointment:”How sad, but
TH

had you been present at the original event of the Exodus you would not have

recognized the wonder of the event and would have remained behind,” but never

closing the door to even the slightest gratitude that may seep through the walls of his

anger and fear.

45
" 3. THE ONE WHO DOESNʼT KNOW HOW TO ASK -‫ושאינו‬

‫יודע לשאול‬:

Like most of us, we recognize the centrality of gratefulness in

the unfolding of the full spiritual life, yet we fail to find the right ways by which to

express such levels of awareness and maintain them. Thus the need for a

BI
conscious discipline and ritual as the Seder which we celebrate tonight.

AB
R
L
U
EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

46
# 4 .TAM-‫תם‬-The SIMPLE ONE-The model child for the pursuit of

gratefulness is the Tam-the simple one. To be simple in this context is not related to

ignorance, foolishness or stupidity. Rather, simplicity evokes the capacity to

genuinely and sincerely relate to the Seder, to life, to God with the innocence of

profound faith grounded in the ability to experience all of life gratefully and thankfully.

Consider the following enjoining statement in the book of Deuteronomy-”Tamim

teeyeh eem adonai elohehcha”-‫תמים תהיה עם יי אלהך‬-You must be wholehearted

with the Lord your God (Chpt.18:13) In other words, the spiritual quest is directed

toward the ability to achieve openheartedness and love, to embrace the totality of life

in the awareness of lifeʼs giftedness and blessing, and thus respond in deed, word

and feeling with an outpouring of gratefulness.

The Tam interestingly simply asks: “MAH ZOT?”-‫מה זאת‬-

Whatʼs this? The “zot,” -‫זאת‬- this, as pointed out in my introduction, is a direct

exclamation of wonder, an open hearted outpouring of praise upon witnessing the


-
L
U

grandeur, beauty and the miraculous of life.


EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

47
Essentially all of us encompass these “four children” within our

own lives. Like the “wise” one, we wish to understand to better grasp the fullness of

life; like the “wicked,” often we are cynical and angry, and find it near impossible to

feel grateful especially when stricken with pain, loss or sorrow.

Who of us can always find the right words by which to properly express our

BI
AB
gratitude? So we feel like the “one who cannot ask” the right question; and all of us

R
are blessed with the purity of soul that yearns to connect itself to the essential beauty
L
U
and blessing of life and live in the embrace of wholeheartedness and simplicity, of a
EF

gratefulness which can bring endless joy, strength and peace.


AT
R
G
E
TH

48
TH
E
G
R
AT
EF

49
U
L
R
AB
BI
In The Beginning - ‫מִתְּחִלָּה‬
‫עַכְשָׁו‬9‫ ו‬.‫ינוּ‬j‫ה הָיוּ אֲבוֹת‬Iָ‫ה ז‬r‫י עֲבוֹ‬mְ‫מִתְּחִלָּה עוֹב‬
ַ‫הוֹשֻׁע‬9‫יֹּאמֶר י‬H‫ ו‬:‫ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫תוֹ‬r‫בָנוּ הַמָּקוֹם לַעֲבוֹ‬EJ
‫ בְּעֵבֶר‬,‫אֵל‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫הֵי י‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫ כֹּה אָמַר י‬.‫אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם‬
‫הָם‬Iְ‫ח אֲבִי אַב‬uֶ‫ תּ‬,‫יכֶם מֵעוֹלָם‬j‫שְׁבוּ אֲבוֹת‬8‫הַנָּהָר י‬
‫אֶקַּח אֶת־‬8‫ ו‬:‫הִים אֲחֵ_ים‬6ֱ‫יַּעַבְדוּ א‬H‫ ו‬.‫חוֹר‬8‫אֲבִי נ‬H‫ו‬
‫ אוֹתוֹ‬1ֵ‫אוֹל‬8‫ ו‬,‫הָם מֵעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר‬Iְ‫אֲבִיכֶם אֶת־אַב‬
‫אֶתֶּן לוֹ אֶת־‬8‫ ו‬,‫עוֹ‬Eַ‫בֶּה אֶת־ז‬Eַ‫א‬8‫ ו‬.‫עַן‬8‫ץ כְּנ‬Vֶ‫בְּכָל־א‬
‫אֶתֵּן‬8‫ ו‬.‫אֶת־עֵשָׂו‬9‫ב ו‬hֲ‫ע‬H‫צְחָק אֶת־י‬Y‫אֶתֵּן לְי‬8‫ ו‬:‫צְחָק‬Y‫י‬
‫יו‬8‫ב וּבָנ‬hֲ‫ע‬H‫י‬9‫ ו‬.‫שֶׁת אוֹתוֹ‬Vָ‫ ל‬,‫לְעֵשָׂו אֶת־הַר שֵׂעִיר‬
:‫ם‬Y‫י‬Iְ‫דוּ מִצ‬E8‫י‬

BI
AB
Mit'chilah ov'dei avodah zarah hayu avoteinu.
V'achshav keir'vanu hamakom la-avodato. Shene-
emar: Vayomer Y'hoshua el kol ha-am. Koh amar R
Adonai Elohei yisra-eil, b'eiver hanahar yash'vu
L
avoteichem mei-olam, Terach avi avraham va-avi
U

nachor. Vaya-avdu Elohim acheirim. Va-ekach et


EF

avichem et avraham mei-eiver ha-nahar, va-oleich


oto b'chol eretz k'na-an. Va-arbeh et zaro, va-eten
AT

lo et Yitzchak. Va-etein l'yitzchak et Ya-akov v'et


R

Eisav. Va-etein l'eisav et har sei-ir, lareshet oto.


G

V'ya-akov uva-nav yar'du mitzrayim.


E

At first our forebears worshiped idols, but then the


TH

Omnipresent brought us near to divine service, as


it is written: "Joshua said to all the people: so says
the Lord God of Israel--your fathers have always
lived beyond the Euphrates River, Terah the father
of Abraham and Nahor; they worshipped other
gods. I took your father Abraham from the other
side of the river and led him through all the land of
Canaan. I multiplied his family and gave him Isaac.
To Isaac I gave Jacob and Esau; to Esau I gave
Mount Seir to inherit, however Jacob and
his children went down to Egypt."

50
ׁ‫ שֶׁהַקָּדוֹש‬.‫ בָּרוּךְ הוּא‬,‫̈בָּרוּךְ שׁוֹמֵר הַבְטָחָתוֹ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל‬
‫בָּרוּךְ הוּא חִשַּׁב אֶת הַקֵץ ּלַעֲשׂוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶּׁאָמַר‬
‫ וַיֹּאמֶר‬:‫ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר‬,‫לְאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ בִּבְרִית בֵּין הַבְּתָרִים‬
,‫ יָדֹע תֵּדַע כִּי גֵר יִהְיֶה זַרְעֲךָ בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא לָהֶם‬,‫לְאַבְרָם‬
‫ וְגם אֶת הַגּוֹי‬.‫וַעֲבָדוּם וְעִנּוּ אֹתָם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שנה‬
.‫אֲשֶׁר יַעֲבֹדוּ דָּן אָנֹכִי וְאַחֲרֵי כֵן יֵצְאוּ בִּרְכֻשׁ גָּדוֹל‬

Baruch shomeir havtachato l'yisra-eil. Baruch hu.


Shehakadosh Baruch hu chishav et hakeitz, la-
asot k'mah she-amar l'avraham avinu bivrit bein

BI
hab'tarim. Shene-emar: vayomer l'avram yadoa

AB
teida, ki geir yihyeh zaracha, b'eretz lo lahem,
va-avadum v'inu otam arba meiot shanah. V'gam

R
et hagoy asher ya-avodu dan anochi. V'acharei
chein yeitz'u, birchush gadol.

L
U
Praised be He who keeps His promise to Israel;
praised be He. The holy one, blessed be he,
EF
predetermined the time for our final deliverance
AT

in order to fulfill what He had pledged to our


father Abraham in a covenant, as it is written:
R

"He said to Abram, your descendants will surely


G

sojourn in a land that is not their own, and they


will be enslaved and afflicted for four hundred
E

years; however, I will punish the nation that


TH

enslaved them, and afterwards they shall leave


with great wealth."
‫וְהִיא שֶׁעָמְדָה לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ וְלָנוּ? שֶׁלֹּא אֶחָד בִּלְבָד עָמַד‬
ּ‫ אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּכָל דּוֹר וָדוֹר עוֹמְדִים עָלֵינו‬,ּ‫עָלֵינוּ לְכַלּוֹתֵנו‬
‫לְכַלוֹתֵנוּ וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַצִּילֵנוּ מִיָּדָם‬

V'hi she-am'dah la-avoteinu v'lanu. Shelo echad


bilvad, amad aleinu l'chaloteinu. Ela sheb'chol
dor vador, om'dim aleinu l'chaloteinu, v'hakadosh
Baruch hu matzileinu mi-yadam.
This covenant that remained constant for our
ancestors and for us has saved us against any
who arose to destroy us in every generation, and
throughout history when any stood against us to
annihilate us, the Kadosh Barukh Hu kept saving
us from them.
51
Aramee Oved Avi -“My Ancestor Was MIDRASH-GRATEFUL
A Wandering Aramean”- ‫אֲ רַ מִ ּי אֹבֵד אָבִי‬ FOR-THE GIFT OF-
EXEGESIS
(We lower the wine cup and continue with the # Midrash -‫מדרש‬- plays
recitation of the traditional Midrash or Rabbinic a central role in the unfolding
discussion of the Passover Exodus story as of the Passover story.
# What is Midrash-
recorded in the Torah, beginning first with the threat
‫ ?מדרש‬Derived from the
to Israel from Lavan and then the threat from
root,”darosh,”-‫דרש‬- meaning
Pharaoh.)
seeking, interpreting, studying,
explicating, when we exercise
Go and Learn our creativity and imagination,
as we encounter a sacred text,
.ּ‫צֵא וּלְמַד מַה בִּקֵּש לָבָן הָאֲרַמִי לַעֲשׂוֹת לְיַעֲקֹב אָבִינו‬ we compose midrash-‫מדרש‬.
‫שֶׁפַּרְעֹה לֹא גָזַר אֶלָּא עַל הַזְּכָרִים וְלָבָן בִּקֵּשׁ לַעֲקוֹר אֶת‬ When we allow our thinking to
soar to heights of freedom and
‫ וַיֵרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם‬,‫ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי‬:‫ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר‬,‫הַכֹּל‬ poetry, we become Midrash-

BI
‫ עָצוּם וָרָב‬,‫ וַיְהִי שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל‬,‫בִּמְתֵי מְעָט‬ makers. When we recognize

AB
the indeterminate richness of
human language, especially
Tzei ul'mad, mah bikeish lavan ha-arami la-asot Hebrew-the language of the

R
l'ya-akov avinu. She-paroh lo gazar ela al Bible, we step into the

L
haz'charim, v'lavan bikeish la-akor et hakol, shene- refreshing waters of Midrash-
emar:
U ‫מדרש‬.
EF
# Midrash-‫מדרש‬- helps us pay
Go and learn: Note well that Lavan the Aramean attention so that we can gain
AT

astonishment and discover the


intended ultimately to kill our ancestor Jacob, after
miracle and wonder of life.
he trapped him into working for his wives and flocks
R

Certain common words or


for 20 years. Even Pharaoh only intended to kill the
G

terms act as focal points


male children, while Lavan intended to annihilate all around which basic ideas
E

of Jacobʼs family, bringing the Jewish People to an revolve, words that act as
TH

end. signposts guiding us on the


journey of greater
attentiveness to the holy.
The Torah Story of Slavery and
Redemption
‫ אָנוּס עַל פִּי הַדִּבּוּר‬,‫מָה‬9‫י‬uְ‫ד מִצ‬Vֵ‫יּ‬H‫ו‬
Vayeired mitzraymah. Anus al pi hadibur.

He went down to Egypt, compelled by divine


decree.

52
Robert Alter
brilliantly explicated the use in
the Bible of what he has called: ‫ב אָבִינוּ‬hֲ‫ע‬H‫ד י‬u8‫ מְלַמֵּד שֶׁ|א י‬.‫יָּגָר שָׁם‬H‫ו‬
“ leitworter,” thematic key words, :‫ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר‬,‫ אֶלָּא לָגוּר שָׁם‬,‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫עַ בְּמִצ‬Jַ‫לְהִשְׁתּ‬
which play a central role in
conveying core concepts to the ‫ כִּי אֵין‬,‫ץ בָּאנוּ‬Vָ‫ לָגוּר בָּא‬,‫עֹה‬Eַ‫יֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־פּ‬H‫ו‬
reader. (The Art of Biblical Poetry, ‫עָב‬Iָ‫ כִּי כָבֵד ה‬,k‫י‬gָ‫עֶה לַצֹּאן אֲשֶׁר לַעֲב‬Eִ‫מ‬
Robert Alter)
:‫ן‬q‫ץ גֹּש‬Vֶ‫ בְּא‬k‫י‬gָ‫א עֲב‬8‫שְׁבוּ־נ‬L‫ י‬,‫עַתָּה‬9‫ ו‬.‫עַן‬8‫ץ כְּנ‬Vֶ‫בְּא‬

BI
Furthermore, the
Rabbis recognized the

AB
indispensable function of the Vayagor sham. M'lameid shelo yarad ya-akov
word itself and its association avinu l'hishtakei-a b'mitzrayim, ela lagur sham,

R
with its repetition in other shene-emar: vayomru el paroh, lagur ba-aretz
locations of the text as a means

L
banu, ki ein mireh latzon asher la-a-vadecha, ki
of arriving at sacred exegesis

U
chaveid hara-av b'eretz k'na-an. V'atah, yeish'vu
and understanding. God is

EF
encountered within sacred texts na avadecha b'eretz goshen.
rather than sacred spaces.

AT
Rabbinic commentators were He sojourned there implies that he didnʼt come to
called upon to capture the settle in Egypt - only to dwell temporarily, as it is
R
resonances and nuances written: "They said to Pharaoh: 'We have come
G
dormant in the canonical texts. to sojourn in this land because there is no
In the response of pasture for your servants' flocks; the famine is
E

the Haggadah to the one who is severe in Canaan. For now, though, let your
TH

unable to articulate a question


servants dwell in the land of Goshen.' "
about Passover and the
experience of its narration and
(Deut. 26:5)
celebration, the author quotes a
verse from the Torah, Exodus ‫דוּ‬E8‫ י‬,‫ בְּשִׁבְעִים נ{פֶשׁ‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫י מְעָט‬j‫בִּמְת‬
13:8: ,k‫הֶי‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫ י‬kְ‫ שָׂמ‬,‫עַתָּה‬9‫ ו‬.‫מָה‬9‫י‬Iְ‫ מִצ‬k‫י‬q‫אֲבֹת‬
“You shall tell your children on .‫ם לָ}ב‬Y‫כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַי‬
that day. It is because of this…
that the Lord did for me when I
left Egypt.” Freely translated, the Bimtei m'at. K'mah shene-emar: b'shivim nefesh,
reference to “this”-“zeh,”-‫זה‬- is yar'du avotecha mitzray'mah. V'atah, sam'cha
expanded to mean “ for the sake Adonai elohecha, k'choch'vei hashamayim larov.
of “- what the Lord did for me
when I went out of Egypt.” Thus
Few in number, as it is written: "With seventy
the pivotal word by which one
can grasp the ability to ask out of souls your ancestors went down to Egypt, and
a sense of mystery and wonder now the Lord your God has made you as
and with a feeling of profound numerous as the stars in the sky."
gratefulness, is the word Zeh”-
‫זה‬-“this.” Because of “this” one ‫ים‬Y‫אֵל מְצֻיָּנ‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫ מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיוּ י‬.‫הִי שָׁם לְגוֹי‬9‫י‬H‫ו‬
:‫שָׁם‬

53
can begin to sense the miracle
of the Exodus.

BI
Obviously, as the
normative reading explains, the

AB
Vay'hi sham l'goy. M'lameid shehayu yisra-eil
“zeh”-‫זה‬-this, refers to the
m'tzuyanim sham.
Exodus from Egypt. Yet, the

R
word by itself conveys a
There he became a nation means that they

L
vagueness that evokes spiritual
became a distinct people in Egypt.
U speculation and association to
other references as well. What
EF
‫ פָּרוּ‬,‫אֵל‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫י י‬L‫ וּבְנ‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬,‫גָּדוֹל עָצוּם‬ are the implications of the “zeh-
‫תִּמָּלֵא‬H‫ ו‬,‫ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד‬,‫יַּעַצְמוּ‬H‫בּוּ ו‬Eִ‫יּ‬H‫ ו‬,‫צוּ‬Eְ‫יִּשׁ‬H‫ו‬ ‫ ”?זה‬Is it merely a generalized
AT

reference or does it convey a


:‫ם‬A‫ץ אֹת‬Vָ‫הָא‬ specificity and depth that helps
R

us connect to dimensions of
G

divinity and wonder?


Gadol atzum. K'mah shene-emar: uv'nei yisra-eil,
E

In its broadest
paru vayishr'tzu, vayirbu vaya - atzmu, bimod sense, “zeh”-‫זה‬- points to a
TH

m'od, vatimalei ha-aretz otam. specific item in a particular


context. As a demonstrative
pronoun, it designates a thing
Great, mighty, as it is written. "The children of that is nearer than something
Israel were fruitful and increased greatly; they else or something less remote in
multiplied and became mighty, and the land was thought or idea. At the same
full of them." time, to recognize the content or
meaning of “this,” context is all-
important. In examining the
,1‫תִּי‬w‫ת‬9‫ה נ‬gָ‫בָבָה כְּצֶמַח הַשּׂ‬E :‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫ב‬I8‫ו‬ associations of “zeh”-‫( זה‬masc.)
,‫כֹנוּ‬8‫ם נ‬Y‫י‬Nָ‫ שׁ‬:‫ים‬Y‫י‬rֲ‫י ע‬dֲ‫תָּבֹאִי בַּע‬H‫ ו‬,‫תִּגְדְּלִי‬H‫ ו‬,‫בִּי‬Eִ‫תּ‬H‫ו‬ or “Zo”,- ‫זו‬-“Zot”-‫זאת‬-(fem.) in
other places in the scriptural
:‫ה‬8‫י‬Eֶ‫ע‬9‫אַתְּ עֵ}ם ו‬9‫ ו‬,ַ‫ צִמֵּח‬1aָ‫וּשְׂע‬ narrative, the term unmistakably
highlights the intimate
Varav. K'mah shene-emar: R'vavah k'tzemach ha- experience of wonder and
miracle that is embedded in the
sadeh n'tatich, vatirbi, vatigd'li, vatavo-i ba-adi very soul of the Exodus event.
adayim. Shadayim nachonu, us'areich tzimei-ach, # “The zeh-‫זה‬- in Midrashic
v'at eirom v'eryah. code language signifies the
“pointing finger,” the visual,
And numerous, as it is written: "I made you as concrete apprehension of the
populous as the plants of the field; you grew up object.”( Zornberg, Avivah
and wore choice adornments; your breasts were Gottlieb, “The Particulars of
firm and your hair grew long; yet, you were bare Rapture-Reflections on Exodus,”
and naked." Doubleday, 2001,p.222-223)
Thus the occurrence of “zeh”-
‫זה‬- in the Haggadah is a means
by which to make the

54
experience of liberation a more ‫ה‬rֹ‫יִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲב‬H‫ ו‬.‫עַנּוּנוּ‬9‫י‬H‫נוּ הַמִּצְ_ים ו‬A‫עוּ אֹת‬aָ‫יּ‬H‫ו‬
concrete and visceral on. The :‫שָׁה‬l
“pointing finger” of zeh -‫זה‬- is the
spiritual stratum of gratefulness Vayarei-u otanu hamitzrim vay'anunu, Vayit'nu
which underpins the Exodus aleinu avodah kashah
enterprise. The “zeh”-‫זה‬- of the
Haggadah points to the here and The Egyptians treat us badly. They persecuted us
now, the immediate, the obvious, and imposed hard labor on us.”
as dimensions of divinity. (Deut. 26:6)
Every stage of the
‫הָבָה‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫נוּ הַמִּצְ_ים‬A‫עוּ אֹת‬aָ‫יּ‬H‫ו‬

BI
Seder is the articulation and

‫ה‬8‫אנ‬ViD‫ה כִּי־ת‬8‫הָי‬9‫ ו‬,‫בֶּה‬EY‫ פֶּן־י‬.‫חַכְּמָה לוֹ‬x‫ת‬Y‫נ‬


enactment of many “zehs,” a

AB
series of steps on the journey to
redemption, each step another ‫לְחַם־בָּנוּ‬Y‫נ‬9‫ ו‬,‫אֵינוּ‬9‫נוֹסַף גַּם הוּא עַל־שׂנ‬9‫ ו‬,‫מִלְחָמָה‬

R
“Zeh”-‫זה‬- or “Zot”-‫זאת‬- each one
:‫ץ‬Vָ‫עָלָה מִן־הָא‬9‫ו‬
inviting us to the awareness of
L
U
wonder for which we can only be
Vayarei-u otanu hamitzrim. Kʼmah shene-emar:
EF

grateful. Each “zeh”-‫זה‬- or “zot”-


‫זאת‬- is an invitation to pay havah nitchak'mah lo, pen yirbeh, v'hayah ki
tikrenah milchamah, v'nosaf gam hu al soneinu,
AT

attention.
# In the unfolding of the v'nilcham banu v'alah min ha-aretz.
R

rabbinic Midrash-‫מדרש‬- as a way


And the Egyptians mistreated us as it is written:"Come
G

of glorifying and praising God for


the deliverance of the Exodus, let us deal wisely with them, lest they should multiply
E

the Haggadah provides an and it come to pass that when a war should happen, they
might join our enemies, fight against us and then depart
TH

extensive exegesis on selected


passages from the book of from us."
Exodus. The following are some ,‫י מִסִּים‬aָ‫יָּשִׂימוּ עָלָיו שׂ‬H‫ ו‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫עַנּוּנוּ‬9‫י‬H‫ו‬
examples:
,‫עֹה‬Eַ‫י מִסְכְּנוֹת לְפ‬aָ‫יִּבֶן ע‬H‫ ו‬:‫ם‬A‫ת‬6ְ‫לְמַעַן עַנֹּתוֹ בְּסִב‬
“Bʼyad hazakah-zo ‫עַמְסֵס‬u‫אֶת־‬9‫אֶת־פִּתֹם ו‬
hadever”- “With a mighty : And afflicted us, as it is written: "They set taskmasters
hand”-“zo,”-‫זו‬- this, refers to the
over them in order to oppress them with their burdens;
plague of pestilence.
the people of Israel built Pithom and Raamses as
“ Bʼzroa netuya-zo storecities for Pharaoh."
haherev”- “And with an ‫עֲבִדוּ‬H‫י‬H‫ ו‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫שָׁה‬l ‫ה‬rֹ‫יִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲב‬H‫ו‬
:1Vָ‫אֵל בְּפ‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫י י‬L‫ם אֶת־בְּנ‬Y‫י‬uְ‫מִצ‬
outstretched arm”-“zo,”-‫זו‬- this,
refers to the sword.
Vayit'nu aleinu avodah kashah. K'mah shene-
“Uvʼmorah gadol- emar: vaya-avidu mitzrayim et b'nei yisra-eil
zeh haʼSchechinah” -“And with b'farech.
great awe”-“zeh,”-‫זה‬- this . refers
to the revelation of the

55
They imposed hard labor upon us, as it is written:
"They imposed back-breaking labor upon the Shechinah,-‫שכינה‬- the Divine
Presence.
people of Israel."
,‫לֵנוּ‬h‫ אֶת־‬8‫י‬9‫יִּשְׁמַע י‬H‫ ו‬,‫ינוּ‬j‫הֵי אֲבֹת‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫נִּצְעַק אֶל־י‬H‫ו‬ “Uvʼotot”- zeh
:‫אֶת לַחֲצֵנוּ‬9‫ ו‬,‫אֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ‬9‫ ו‬,‫נוּ‬L‫י‬9‫א אֶת־עָנ‬Eַ‫יּ‬H‫ו‬ hamateh”- “And with
signs”-“zeh”,-‫זה‬- this, refers to
the staff.
Vanitzak el Adonai elohei avoteinu, vayishma
Adonai et koleinu, vayar eton'yeinu, v'et amaleinu,

BI
v'et lachatzeinu.

AB
When we cried out to Adonai, the God of our All the above

R
ancestors,Adonai heard our voice, saw our indications introduced by the
affliction, saw our toil and our oppression. word “zeh-‫זה‬- or “zo”-‫זו‬-clearly

L
highlight the intervention of the

U
divine in the Exodus process
‫הִי‬9‫י‬H‫ ו‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬,‫ינוּ‬j‫הֵי אֲבֹת‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫נִּצְעַק אֶל־י‬H‫ו‬
EF
reinforcing and crystallizing the
‫חוּ‬9‫יֵּאָנ‬H‫ ו‬,‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫ מִצ‬1ֶ‫יָּמָת מֶל‬H‫ ו‬,‫בִּים הָהֵם‬uָ‫בַיָּמִים ה‬ religious notion of the
AT
miraculous and amazing in the
‫ם‬A‫עָת‬9‫תַּעַל שַׁו‬H‫ ו‬.‫יִּזְעָקוּ‬H‫ה ו‬rֹ‫אֵל מִן־הָעֲב‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫י־י‬L‫בְנ‬ experience of liberation. The
:‫ה‬rֹ‫הִים מִן־הַעֲב‬6ֱ‫אֶל־הָא‬
R

Haggadahʼs intention therefore


G

is to provide a vehicle by which


a sense of wonder can be
Vanitzak el Adonai elohei avoteinu. K'mah shene-
E

evoked and a spiritual


emar: vay'hi va-yamim harabim ha-heim, va-yamot
TH

response of grateful praise can


melech mitzrayim, va-yei-an'chu v'nei yisra-eil min be forthcoming.
ha-avodah vayizaku. Vata-al shavatam el ha-
Elohim min ha-avoda.

We cried to the Lord, the God of our fathers, as it is


written: "It happened in the course of those many
days that the king of Egypt died; the children of
Israel sighed because of their labor and cried; their
cry of servitude reached God."

‫הִים‬6ֱ‫יִּשְׁמַע א‬H‫ ו‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫לֵנוּ‬h‫ אֶת־‬8‫י‬9‫יִּשְׁמַע י‬H‫ו‬


‫ אֶת־‬,‫הִים אֶת־בְּ_יתוֹ‬6ֱ‫יִּזְכֹּר א‬H‫ ו‬,‫ם‬A‫ת‬lֲ‫א‬H‫אֶת־נ‬
:‫ב‬hֲ‫ע‬H‫אֶת י‬9‫ ו‬,‫צְחָק‬Y‫ אֶת־י‬,‫הָם‬Iְ‫אַב‬
Vayishma Adonai et koleinu,k'mah shene'emar-
Vayishma Elohim et na'akatam vayizkor Elohim et
berito et Avraham,et Yitzchak v'et Yaakov.

56
On an ordinary
night, our attention is diffuse; And God heard our voice as it is written-"And God
we are tired from a full dayʼs heard their groaning and He remembered His
work, preoccupied with the covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob."
everyday challenges of daily
living. We canʼt pay sufficient
attention. On Passover night, ‫ כְּמָה‬.‫ץ‬Vֶ‫ א‬1Vֶ‫ זוֹ פְּ_ישׁוּת דּ‬:‫נוּ‬L‫י‬9‫א אֶת־עָנ‬Eַ‫יּ‬H‫ו‬
we pause, we pay attention, we
ask, we praise, we tell the story. ‫ע‬Nֵ‫יּ‬H‫ ו‬.‫אֵל‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫י י‬L‫הִים אֶת־בְּנ‬6ֱ‫א א‬Eַ‫יּ‬H‫ ו‬:‫שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬
We touch the :‫הִים‬6ֱ‫א‬
magic, the remarkable, and we
share “ it” with our children

I
Vayar et on'yeinu. Zo p'rishut derech eretz. K'mah

B
#
shene-emar: vayar Elohim et b'nei yisra-eil. vayeida

AB
The “it” we tell about Elohim.

R
is the “zeh”-‫זה‬-referred to
above. The “zeh”-‫זה‬-helps us And saw our affliction, that is, the conjugal
focus, pay attention, rediscover L
separation of husband and wife, as it is written:
U
the shower of blessing that "God saw the children of Israel and God knew."
EF

enfolds us.
‫ כָּל הַבֵּן הַיִּלּוֹד‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫ אֵלוּ הַבָּנִים‬- ּ‫וְאֶת עֲמָלֵנו‬
AT

“ In each generation we are


obligated to see ourselves as if .‫הַיְאֹרָה תַּשְׁלִיכֻהוּ וְכָל הַבַּת תְּחַיּוּן‬
R

we went out from Egypt.”


G

V'et amaleinu. Eilu ha-banim. Kmah shene-emar:


Our story is rooted
kol habein hayilod hayʼorah tashlichu-hu, vʼchol-
E

in pain. A lengthy period of


habat t'chayun.
TH

oppression, harshness, hard


labor, the dissolution of family
togetherness, the drowning of Our toil refers to the drowning of the sons, as it is
children, the utter sense of written: "Every son that is born you shall cast into
abandonment and the river, but you shall let every daughter live"
powerlessness-all sources of
unspeakable pain. The
narrative moves on to ways of
‫י‬D‫אִית‬I‫גַם־‬9‫ ו‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫ זֶה הַדְּחַק‬.‫אֶת לַחֲצֵנוּ‬9‫ו‬
eventual release and :‫ם‬A‫חֲצִים אֹת‬6 ‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫ אֲשֶׁר מִצ‬,‫אֶת־הַלַּחַץ‬
redemption. Israel cries
heavenward-cries of anguish,
cries of confrontation and
V'et lachatzeinu. Zeh had'chak. K'mah shene-emar:
protest; what else could they
do? And “God heard their cry v'gam ra-iti et ha-lachatz, asher mitzrayim
and their voice and saw their lochatzim otam
affliction” and was moved to
tears, and to action, and “He
brought us out of Egypt.”

57
Our oppression means the pressure used upothem, a. Grateful for
as it is written: "I have also seen how the Egyptians Tears: It is said that God
are oppressing them creates the healing before the
affliction. One source of relief
‫ וּבְמֹרָא‬,‫וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יי מִמִצְרַים בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה‬ as we experience suffering is
.‫וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים‬,‫גָּדֹל‬ our capacity to cry, to weep.
Tears soften our hearts, open
Vayotzi-einu Adonai mimitzrayim, b'yad chazakah, our eyes to the fullness and

BI
uvizroa n'tuyah, uv'moragadol uv'otot uv'mof'tim. goodness of the universe,
" make our pain more tolerable,

AB
even instructive.
The Lord brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand
and outstretched arm, with great awe, miraculous

R
signs and wonders." b.Grateful for

L
(Deut. 26:8) prayer:Prayer is the human

U
voice to God. Whether in

EF
‫א עַל־‬69‫ ו‬,1ָ‫י מַלְא‬m9‫א עַל־י‬6 .‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫ מִמִּצ‬8‫י‬9‫יּוֹצִאֵנוּ י‬H‫ו‬ words or mere sounds, even
silent cries of the heart, it is
1‫ אֶלָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּ‬.ַ‫י שָׁלִיח‬m9‫א עַל־י‬69‫ ו‬.‫ף‬Iָ‫י שׂ‬m9‫י‬

AT
our gift of speech in the
‫ץ‬Vֶ‫תִּי בְא‬Eַ‫עָב‬9‫ ו‬:‫ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫הוּא בִּכְבוֹדוֹ וּבְעַצְמוֹ‬ Presence of the Source of

R
Compassion and Love. Prayer
‫ץ‬Vֶ‫י כָל־בְּכוֹר בְּא‬D‫הִכֵּית‬9‫ ו‬,‫לָה הַזֶּה‬9‫ם בַּלַּי‬Y‫י‬uְ‫מִצ‬ G assures us that the universe
‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫הֵי מִצ‬6ֱ‫ וּבְכָל־א‬,‫עַד בְּהֵמָה‬9‫ם ו‬rָ‫ מֵא‬,‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫מִצ‬ cannot be cold and callous;
E
prayer is the heart beat of a
:8‫י‬9‫י י‬Y‫אֶעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים אֲנ‬
TH

world suffused with kindness.

Vayotzi-einu Adonai mimitzrayim. Lo al ydei malach,


v'lo al yʼdei saraf. V'lo al yʼdei shali-ach. Ela
hakadosh Baruch hu bichvodo uv'atzmo. Shene-
emar: v'avarti v'eretz mitzrayim ba-laylah hazeh,
v'hikeiti chol b'chor b'eretz mitzrayim, mei-adam v'ad
b'heimah, uvʼchol elohei mitzrayim e-eseh sh'fatim
ani Adonai.

The Lord brought us out of Egypt not by an angel,


not by a seraph, not by a messenger, but by the holy
one, blessed be He, Himself, as it is written: "I will
pass through the land of Egypt on that night; I will
smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt from man
unto beast; on all the gods of Egypt I will execute
judgments; I am the Lord." (Deut. 26:8)

58
‫א‬69‫י ו‬Y‫ אֲנ‬,‫לָה הַזֶּה‬9‫ם בַּלַּי‬Y‫י‬uְ‫ץ־מִצ‬Vֶ‫תִּי בְא‬Eַ‫עָב‬9‫ו‬
Doing 1ָ‫מַלְא‬
Gratefulness

BI
V'avarti v'eretz mitzrayim balaylah hazeh, ani v'lo

AB
malach
Compose your own

R
Midrash -‫מדרש‬-based on the I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night,
passage-“My father was a myself and not an angel

L
wandering Aramean”-consider

U
your personal ancestry and
.‫ף‬Iָ‫א שׂ‬69‫י ו‬Y‫ אֲנ‬.‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫ץ־מִצ‬Vֶ‫י כָל בְּכוֹר בְּא‬D‫הִכֵּית‬9‫ו‬

EF
how your forebears wandered
and experienced their AT
homelessness and the V'hikeiti cholb'chor b'eretz mitzrayim. ani v'lo saraf.
eventual miracle of settling
R
down, in America, Israel or I will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt,
G

elsewhere.
myself and not a seraph
‫א‬69‫י ו‬Y‫ אֲנ‬,‫ם אֶעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים‬Y‫י‬uְ‫הֵי מִצ‬6ֱ‫וּבְכָל־א‬
E
TH

.ַ‫הַשָּׁלִיח‬
Uv’chol elohei mitzrayim e-eseh sh'fatim, ani
v'lo hashali-ach.
On all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments,
myself and not a messenger

:‫א אַחֵר‬69‫י הוּא ו‬Y‫ אֲנ‬.8‫י‬9‫י י‬Y‫אֲנ‬


Ani Adonai. Ani hu v'lo acheir.

I am the Lord, I and none other.

8‫י‬9‫ד־י‬H‫ הִנֵּה י‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫ זוֹ הַדֶּבֶר‬.‫ה‬lָ‫ד חֲז‬8‫בְּי‬


‫ בַּסּוּסִים בַּחֲמֹ_ים‬,‫ה‬gָ‫ אֲשֶׁר בַּשּׂ‬k9‫נ‬iִ‫ בְּמ‬,‫ה‬8‫הוֹי‬
:‫ דֶּבֶר כָּבֵד מְאֹד‬,‫ר וּבַצֹּאן‬lָ‫ בַּבּ‬,‫בַּגְּמַלִּים‬
B'yad chazakah. Zo ha-dever. Kʼmah shene-emar:
hineih yad Adonai hoyah, b'mikn'cha asher basadeh,
basusim bachamorim bag'malim, babakar uvatzon,
dever kaveid m'od.

59
Mighty hand refers to the disease among the
cattle, as it is written: "Behold the hand of the Lord
strikes your cattle which are in the field, the
horses, the donkeys, the camels, the herds, and
the flocks--a very severe pestilence."

‫בּוֹ‬Eַ‫ח‬9‫ ו‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫ב‬Vֶ‫ זוֹ הַח‬.‫ה‬8‫טוּי‬9‫וּבִזְ}עַ נ‬


:‫ם‬Y‫רוּשָׁלָי‬9‫ה עַל־י‬8‫טוּי‬9‫ נ‬,‫דוֹ‬8‫שְׁלוּפָה בְּי‬
Uvizroa n'tuyah. Zo ha-cherev. K'mah shene-emar:

IB
v'charbo sh'lufah b'yado, n'tuyah al yʼrushalayim.

AB
Outstretched arm means the sword, as it is written:

R
"His drawn sword in his hand, outstretched over

L
Jerusalem."

U
EF
‫ אוֹ‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫ה‬8‫ זֶה גִּלּוּי שְׁכִינ‬,‫א גָּדוֹל‬I‫וּבְמוֹ‬
,‫ב גּוֹי‬Vֶ‫ לָבוֹא לָ^חַת לוֹ גוֹי מִקּ‬,‫הִים‬6ֱ‫סָּה א‬Y‫הֲנ‬
AT
‫ה‬lָ‫ד חֲז‬8‫ וּבְי‬,‫ים וּבְמִלְחָמָה‬D‫בְּמַסֹּת בְּאֹתֹת וּבְמוֹפְת‬
‫ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־‬.‫לִים‬yְ‫אִים גּ‬I‫ וּבְמוֹ‬,‫ה‬8‫טוּי‬9‫וּבִזְרוֹעַ נ‬
R
G

:k‫ לְעֵינ{י‬,‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫הֵיכֶם בְּמִצ‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫עָשָׂה לָכֶם י‬


E

Uv'mora gadol. Zeh giluy sh'chinah. K'mah shene-


TH

emar: o hanisah Elohim, lavo lakachat lo goy


mikerev goy, b'masot b'otot uv'mof'tim
uv'milchamah, uv'yad chazakah uvizroa n'tuyah,
uv'moraim g'dolim. K'chol asher asah lachem
Adonai eloheichem b'mitzrayim, l'einecha.

Great awe alludes to the divine revelation, as it is


written: "Has God ever attempted to take unto
Himself, a nation from the midst of another nation
by trials, miraculous signs and wonders, by war
and with a mighty hand and outstretched arm and
by awesome revelations, just as you saw the Lord
your God do for you in Egypt, before your eyes?"

60
‫ אֲשֶׁר‬,ָ‫ וְאֶת הַמַּטֶּה הַזֶּה תִַּקּח בְּיְָד‬:‫ כְּמָה ֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר‬,‫ זֶה הַמַּטֶה‬- ‫ּובְאֹתֹות‬
.‫תַּעֲשֶׂה ּבֹו אֶת הָאֹתֹת‬
Uv'otot. Zeh hamateh, k'mah shene-emar: v'et hamateh hazeh tikach b'yadecha,
asher ta-aseh bo et ha-otot.

Miraculous signs refers to the miracles performed with the staff of Moses, as it is
written: "Take this staff in your hand, that you may perform the miraculous signs with
it."

‫ץ‬Vָ‫ם וּבָא‬Y‫ בַּשָּׁמַי‬,‫ים‬D‫תִּי מוֹפְת‬w‫ת‬8‫נ‬9‫ ו‬:‫ כְּמָה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר‬.‫ זֶה הַדָּם‬.‫ים‬D‫וּבְמוֹפְת‬


uʼvemoftim,zeh hadam,kemah shene-emar: vʼnatati moftim bashamayim uʼva-aretz.

“Wonders”:This refers to the miracle where the waters of Egypt turned into blood as
we see from the verse:” I will show wonders in the heaven and on the earth.”

61
E S E R M A K O T -The Ten ESSER HAMAKOT-THE
Plagues-‫עֶׂשֶר מַּכֹות‬ TEN AFFLICTIONS-
MEASURED
A. Should We Rejoice For The Plagues? GRATEFULNESS
The Passover story
( There is a custom of removing 16 drops oneʼs cup contains suffering, violence and
death; the suffering of victims,
of wine, They are (1) the three plagues stated by the
and the death of oppressors. it
prophet Joel that follow now: “blood, fire and
is understandable to experience
smoke,” - “ (2) next, the more familiar Ten Plagues” gratefulness when delivered
and (3) then the three terms which comprise the from the hands of enemies,
Rabbinic acronymn for the Ten Plagues). especially when those who lose

BI
These are the Plagues that the holy one, blessed be their lives wish to take ours. It

AB
he, brought upon Egypt. seems just; it feels as if there is
1.This is the first recitation of three terms. a moral rightness in the world

R
when the wicked are punished
and no longer pose a threat to
‫ּדָם וָאֵׁש וְתִימְרֹות עָׁשָן‬

L
the innocent.
U Yet the Rabbis remind
EF
Dam Vʼeish Vʼtimʼro ashan us that when the Egyptians
were drowning in the Sea of
AT

"Blood, and fire and pillars of smoke. . . .” Reeds and the ministering
angels embarked on singing
R

Godʼs praises, they were


Before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes,
G

silenced and God reprimanded


I will set wonders in the sky and on the earth. . . them with these words:
E

blood, fire and pillars of smoke: The sun shall turn to #


TH

darkness and the moon into blood.” Joel 3:3 “The creations of My
2. Another Way Of Counting “Ten” Plagues hands are drowning and you
‫ ּובִזְֹרעַ נְטּויָה‬,‫ ׁשְּתַיִם‬- ‫ ּבְיָד חֲזָָקה‬:‫ָדבָר אַחֵר‬ wish to sing praises, to express
thankfulness?” # (Megillah
- ‫ ּובְאֹתֹות‬,‫ ׁשְּתַיִם‬- ‫ ּובְמָֹרא ּגָֹדל‬,‫ ׁשְּתַיִם‬- 10b) #
‫ ׁשְּתַיִם‬- ‫ ּובְמֹפְתִים‬,‫ׁשְּתַיִם‬
Davar acheir. B'yad chazakah sh'tayim. Uvizroa
n'tuyah sh'tayim. Uv'mora gadol sh'tayim.
Uv'otot
sh'tayim. Uv'mof'tim sh'tayim.
Another interpretation of Deuteronomy 26:8 is:
“strong hand” indicates two plagues; “out-stretched
arm” indicates two more plagues; “great awe”
indicates two plagues; “signs” indicates two more
plagues because it is plural; and “wonders” two more
plagues because it is in the plural. This then is a
total of Ten Plagues.
62
# 3. ESER MAKOT / Ten Plagues- ‫עֶׂשֶר‬
Thus our gratefulness is
restrained as we are instructed ‫מַּכֹות‬
to empty a drop of wine from
our cup when we recite each of ( This is the traditional listing and counting of the
the plagues; our sense of Ten Plagues.)
complete gratefulness is
decreased as is the full
measure of wine in our cups.
‫אֵּלּו עֶׂשֶר מַּכֹות ׁשֶהֵבִיא הַּקָדֹוׁש ּבָרּוְ הּוא‬
We dare not allow our ‫ וְאֵלּו הֵן‬, ‫עַל הַּמִצְִרים ּבְמִצְַרים‬
cups to run over with gladness
and gratitude when life Eilu eser makot sheheivi hakadosh baruch hu al
anywhere is lost or threatened hamitzrim b'mitzrayim, v'eilu hein:

Doing These are the Plagues that the holy one, blessed
Gratefulness. be he, brought upon Egypt:

BI
#
Empathy is the quality

AB
of humanization for which we
are grateful. Share examples of ‫ּכִנִים‬ " ַ‫צְפְֵרּדֵע‬ ‫ּדָם‬
empathy for those whom we " ‫עָרֹוב‬ R
donʼt like and would prefer that
L
they not enjoy any of lifeʼs
U

successes; discuss how difficult


EF

it is to arrive at such a place in


our hearts. Consider how
" ‫ּדֶבֶר‬
‫ׁשְחִין‬
AT

compassionate we can grow ""


even for those whom we dislike,
R

those who have harmed us or


‫ּבָרד‬
G

wish our failure.


# Perhaps a silent "‫אְַרּבֶה‬
E

“meta,” compassion, meditation,


"" ְֶ‫חׁש‬
TH

would be appropriate for a few


minutes in which we silently
wish that those whom we
consider our enemies “be
blessed with happiness, well- ‫מַּכַת ּבְכֹורת‬
being and peace.” ,

63
The recitation of the
Ten Plagues is a place in our
journey that is especially
troublesome. Perhaps the
following activity, which is
Dam Blood, playful in nature, can help us
neutralize the harshness that
often accompanies the unfolding
Tzfardeah Frogs, of freedom. This exercise is
particularly delightful for
Kinim Lice, children, and helps remove the
sharpness of this segment of
the narrative. Miniature toys and
symbolic objects are used to re-
enact the plagues. Kits
Arov Beasts,

BI
containing these simple items
are readily available. For

AB
example, the plague of
Dever Cattle Plague, darkness is enacted when a
R pair of sun glasses is worn for
Shʼhin Boils, several seconds by a younger
L
member of the group.
U

Again, a special
EF

source of gratefulness is the


presence of participating
Barad Hail,
AT

children, their laughter and


pleasure.
R

Arbeh Locusts,
G

#
E

Hoshekh Darkness,
TH

Makat Bʼkhorot

Slaying of First Born.

64
Grateful for Jewish .
Sensitivity
Why did Rabbi
Yehudah assign to the plagues
three mnemonic A Final Way To Count and Recall The Ten Plagues.
signs? ‫ַרּבִי יְהּוָדה הָיָה נֹותֵן ּבָהֶם סִּמָנִים‬
, Conventionally, this
device is designed to help us
remember. Perhaps that was .‫ּדְצַ"ְ עַַד"ׁש ּבְאַחַ"ב‬
Rabbi Yehudahʼs intention. But
why? Is it so difficult to
remember the ten plagues? Rabbi Y'hudah hayah notein bahem simanim.
After all, there are other lists of
items or events that could be
associated with a mnemonic
and yet there is none! The Ten
Rabbi Yehuda would assign the plagues three

BI
Commandments come to mind,
mnenomic signs:
as an example.

AB
# I believe that it was Rabbi :
Yehudahʼs intention to
minimize the harshness and
R
DʼTZ”KH A-Da”SH BʼAH”V
brutality associated with these
L
U

disasters and soften the


psychological affect on the
EF

participant. Again, the


recitation of this mnemonic
AT

resonates with the Midrash-


‫מדרש‬- read above in which
R

our capacity to praise is


G

curtailed by the reality of death,


no matter how justified. We are
E

grateful for our ability to remain


TH

compassionate and not sink


into the violence and the
gloating that often accompany
acts of vengeance, no matter
how objectively justified. The
mnemonic lessens the
elaboration of the plagues and
in someway disguises its
severity.
#
By contrast, the
rabbinic enhancement of the
nature of the plagues seems to

65
suggest a glorification of this
A. There Were 10 Plagues in Egypt and 50 at the
violence. In fact , it is the
Sea of Reeds
rabbinic way to heap praise
upon God for His act of
‫ מִּנַיִן אַּתָה אֹומֵר‬:‫ַרּבִי יֹוסֵי הַּגְלִילִי אֹומֵר‬ deliverance. Yet, the tendency
‫ׁשֶלָקּו הַּמִצְִרים ּבְמִצְַרים עֶׂשֶר מַּכֹות וְעַל‬ toward hyperbole could raise the
prospect of untoward relishing of
‫הַיָם לָקּו חֲמִּׁשִים מַּכֹות ? ּבְמִצְַרים מַה‬ this event of destruction and

BI
:‫הּוא אֹומֵר? וַיֹאמְרּו הַחְַרטֻּמִים אֶל ּפְַרעֹה‬ loss of life?
# Perhaps it was the
‫ וְעַל הַּיָם מה הּוא‬,‫אֶצְּבַע אֱֹלהִים הִוא‬

AB
rabbisʼ way of recognizing the
‫אֹומֵר? וַּיְַרא יִׂשְָראֵל אֶת הַיָד הַּגְֹדלָה אֲׁשֶר‬ limitless source of wonder

R
embedded in these plagues,
,‫ וַּיִיְראּו הָעָם אֶת יי‬, ‫עָׂשָה יי ּבְמִצְַרים‬ and in perceiving this event

L
‫ ּכַמָה לָקּו‬.‫וַּיַאֲמִינּו ּבַיי ּובְמׁשֶה עַבְדֹו‬

U
midrashically, gave expression
: ‫ אֱמֹור מֵעַּתָה‬. ‫בְאֶצְּבַע? עֶׂשֶר מַּכֹות‬ to their boundless sense of

EF
‫ּבְמִצְַרים לָקּו עֶׂשֶר מַּכֹות וְעַל הַּיָם לָקּו‬
gratefulness which they felt was
inadequate to the to the
AT
. ‫חֲמִּׁשִים מַּכֹות‬ magnitude of the miracle.
R

Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: How does one


G

derive that, after the ten plagues in Egypt, the


E

Egyptians suffered fifty plagues at the Sea?


TH

Concerning the plagues in Egypt the Torah states


that "the magicians said to Pharaoh, it is the finger
of God." However, at the Sea, the Torah relates
that "Israel saw the great hand which the Lord laid
upon the Egyptians, and the people revered the
Lord and they believed in the Lord and in His
servant Moses." It reasons that if they suffered ten
plagues in Egypt, they must have been made to
suffer fifty plagues at the Sea.

B. There Were 40 Plagues in Egypt and 200 at the


Sea of Reeds

‫ מִּנַיִן ׁשֶּכָל מַּכָה ּומַּכָה‬:‫ַרּבִי אֱלִיעֶזֲר אֹומֵר‬


‫ׁשֶהֵבִיא הַּקָדֹוׁש ּבָרּוְ הּוא עַל הַּמִצְִרים‬
:‫ּבְמִצְַריִם הָיְתָה ׁשֶל אְַרּבַע מַּכֹות? ׁשֶּנֶאֱמַר‬
,‫ עֶבְָרה וָזַעַם וְצָָרה‬,‫יְׁשַּלַח ּבָם חֲרֹון אַּפֹו‬
‫ וָזַעַם‬,‫ אַחַת‬- ‫ עֶבְָרה‬.‫מִׁשְלַחַת מַלְאֲכֵי ָרעִים‬

66
: ‫ אֱמֹור מֵעַּתָה‬.‫ אְַרּבַע‬- ‫ מִׁשְלַחַת מַלְאֲכֵי ָרעִים‬,‫ ׁשָלׁש‬- ‫ וְִצָָרה‬,‫ ׁשְּתַיִם‬-
. ‫ּבְמִצְַרים לָקּו אְַרּבָעִים מַּכֹות וְעַל הַּיָם לָקּו מָאתַיִם מַּכֹות‬

Rabbi Eliezer says: How does one derive that every plague that God inflicted upon the
Egyptians in Egypt was equal in intensity to four plagues? It is written: "He sent upon

BI
them his fierce anger, wrath, fury and trouble, a band of evil messengers." Since each
plague was comprised of 1)wrath, 2)fury, 3)trouble and 4)a band of evil messengers,

AB
they must have suffered forty plagues in Egypt and two hundred at the Sea.

R
L
C. There were 50 plagues in Egypt and 250

U
at the Sea of Reeds.
EF
AT
‫ מִּנַיִן ׁשֶּכָל מַּכָה ומַּכָה שהֵביִא הַּקָדֹוׁש ּבָרּוְ הּוא על‬:‫ַרּבִי עֲִקיבֶא אֹומֵר‬
R

,‫ יְִׁשַּלַח ּבָם חֲרֹון אַּפֹו‬:‫הַּמִצְִרים ּבְמִצְַרים הָיְתָה ׁשֶל חָמֵׁש מַּכֹות ? ׁשֶּנֶאֱמַר‬
G

- ‫ עֶבְָרה‬,,‫ אַחַת‬-‫ חֲרֹון אַּפֹו‬. ‫ מִׁשְלַחַת מַלְאֲכֵי ָרעִים‬,‫עֶבְָרה וָזַעַם וְצַָָרה‬


E

‫ אֱמֹור‬.‫ חָמֵׁש‬- ‫ מִׁשְלַחַת מַלְאֲכֵי ָרעִים‬,‫ אְַרּבַע‬- ‫ וְצָָרה‬,‫ ׁשָלוׁש‬- ‫ וָזַעַם‬,‫ׁשְּתַיִם‬


TH

‫ ּבְמִצְַרים לָקּו חֲמִּׁשִים מַּכֹות וְעַל הַּיָם לָקּו חֲמִּׁשִים ּומָאתַיִם‬: ‫מֵעַּתָה‬
. ‫מַּכֹות‬

Rabbi Akiva says: How does one derive that every plague that God inflicted upon the
Egyptians in Egypt was equal in intensity to five plagues? It is written: "He sent upon
them his fierce anger, wrath, fury and trouble, a band of evil messengers." Since each
plague was comprised of 1)fierce anger 2)wrath 3)fury 4)trouble and 5) a band of evil
messengers, they must have suffered fifty plagues in Egypt and two hundred and fifty
at the Sea.

67
DAYENU- ‫ינו‬%‫דַּי‬. DAYENU-
GRATEFULNESS AT ITS
“It Would Have Been Sufficient” PEAK.
‫ו‬ The heart of the
Seder is the Dayenu-‫דיינו‬- ditty.
:‫כַּמָּה מַעֲלוֹת טוֹבוֹת לַמָּקוֹם עָלֵינוּ‬ It is located immediately
following the history and rescue
,‫ם‬Y‫י‬uְ‫אִלּוּ הוֹצִיאָנוּ מִמִּצ‬ of Israel and precedes the
,‫א עָשָׂה בָהֶם שְׁפָטִים‬69‫ו‬ pronouncement of the three
primary symbols of the Seder-
:‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬ Pesach,‫פסח‬- Matzah-‫מצה‬- and
Maror- ‫מרור‬-which flow into the
,‫אִלּוּ עָשָׂה בָהֶם שְׁפָטִים‬ words of Hallel,‫הלל‬- words of
,‫הֵיהֶם‬6‫א עָשָׂה בֵא‬69‫ו‬ praise. Dayenu-‫דיינו‬- captures
the essence of the Seder
:‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬ experience, acknowledging the
infinite generosity and
,‫הֵיהֶם‬6‫אִלּוּ עָשָׂה בֵא‬ compassion of God in the

,‫יהֶם‬a‫ג אֶת־בְּכוֹ‬uָ‫א ה‬69‫ו‬


Exodus experience which

AB
organically results in our own
:‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬ pursuit of and commitment to

R
lives of gratefulness, goodness

L
and loving-kindness.
,‫יהֶם‬a‫ג אֶת־בְּכוֹ‬uָ‫אִלּוּ ה‬

U
The words are
,‫ם‬8‫ן לָנוּ אֶת־מָמוֹנ‬w‫ת‬8‫א נ‬69‫ו‬ simple and direct, lean and

EF
lyrical, encouraging us to
:‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬ joyfully partake in a reliving of
AT
the experience of Jewish

,‫ם‬8‫ן לָנוּ אֶת־מָמוֹנ‬w‫ת‬8‫אִלּוּ נ‬ gratefulness, a historic


R
experience that acts as a
G

,‫ע לָנוּ אֶת־הַיָּם‬ul ‫א‬69‫ו‬ paradigm for all of Jewish


history, and for our personal
E

:‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬ lives as well. In the words of


TH

another Haggadah- “A Night to


,‫ע לָנוּ אֶת־הַיָּם‬ul ‫אִלּוּ‬ Remember”-the concept of
ʻdayenuʼ can be expressed in
‫בָה‬Iָ‫נוּ בְתוֹכוֹ בֶח‬I‫א הֶעֱבִי‬69‫ו‬ the following, brief prayer:
:‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬ ”Thank you, God, for
overdoing it!”
,‫בָה‬Iָ‫נוּ בְתוֹכוֹ בֶח‬I‫אִלּוּ הֶעֱבִי‬ # To recognize the
,‫ינוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ‬aָ‫א שִׁקַּע צ‬69‫ו‬ abundant nature of each phase
of liberation-to be grateful for
:‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬ every step and phase of the
process-is to achieve the

68
fullness of spiritual maturity ,‫ינוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ‬aָ‫אִלּוּ שִׁקַּע צ‬
and joy.
# Dayenu-‫דיינו‬- is the
,‫ה‬8‫בָּעִים שָׁנ‬Eַ‫בָּר א‬Oִ‫כֵּנוּ בַּמּ‬Eָ‫א סִפֵּק צ‬69‫ו‬
liturgical antidote to human :‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬
greed. The reiteration of the
multiplicity of reasons for ,‫ה‬8‫בָּעִים שָׁנ‬Eַ‫בָּר א‬Oִ‫כֵּנוּ בַּמּ‬Eָ‫אִלּוּ סִפֵּק צ‬
gratefulness sensitizes our
souls to respond in song ,‫א הֶאֱכִילָנוּ אֶת־הַמָּן‬69‫ו‬
with expressions of praise. :‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬
Only after achieving this
level of godly awareness is it
possible to not only proclaim ,‫אִלּוּ הֶאֱכִילָנוּ אֶת־הַמָּן‬
,‫ן לָנוּ אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת‬w‫ת‬8‫א נ‬69‫ו‬
the meaning of pesach,-
‫פסח‬- matzah-‫ מצה‬and
maror-‫מרור‬, but to partake in :‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬

BI
the consumption of these

AB
,‫ן לָנוּ אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת‬w‫ת‬8‫אִלּוּ נ‬
items as part of our repast, a
bodily reflection of profound
gratitude for the totality of R ,‫י‬H‫י הַר סִינ‬L‫בָנוּ לִפְנ‬EJ ‫א‬69‫ו‬
the Passover experience. :‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬
L
U

"
,‫י‬H‫י הַר סִינ‬L‫בָנוּ לִפְנ‬EJ ‫אִלּוּ‬
EF

,‫ה‬I‫ן לָּנוּ אֶת־הַתּוֹ‬w‫ת‬8‫א נ‬69‫ו‬


AT

:‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬
R

,‫ה‬I‫ן לָנוּ אֶת־הַתּוֹ‬w‫ת‬8‫אִלּוּ נ‬


G

,‫אֵל‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫ץ י‬Vֶ‫יסָנוּ לְא‬Y‫א הִכְנ‬69‫ו‬


E

:‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬
TH

,‫אֵל‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫ץ י‬Vֶ‫יסָנוּ לְא‬Y‫אִלּוּ הִכְנ‬


,‫ה‬I‫ה לָנוּ אֶת־בֵּית הַבְּחִי‬8‫א בָנ‬69‫ו‬
:‫דַּיֵּנוּ‬

69
God has bestowed many favors upon us.

Had He brought us out of Egypt, and not executed


judgments against the Egyptians,
It would have been enough--Dayyenu Doing
Had He executed judgments against the Egyptians, and not
their gods, It would have been enough--Dayyenu Gratefulness:
Had He executed judgments against their gods and not put
to death their firstborn, It would have been enough--Dayyenu # #
Had He put to death their firstborn, and not given us their
riches, It would have been enough--Dayyenu Compose you own
Had He given us their riches, and not split the Sea for us, It
would have been enough--Dayyenu dayenu before Passover

Had He split the Sea for us, and not led us through it on dry and read with group at the

BI
land, It would have been enough--Dayyenu

AB
Had He led us through it on dry land, and not sunk our foes seder table.
in it, It would have been enough--Dayyenu
R
Had He sunk our foes in it, and not satisfied our needs in the
L
desert for forty years, It would have been enough--Dayyenu
U
EF

Had He satisfied our needs in the desert for forty years, and
not fed us the manna, It would have been enough--Dayyenu
AT

Had He fed us the manna, and not given us the Sabbath, It


would have been enough--Dayyenu
R
G

Had He given us the Sabbath, and not brought us to Mount


Sinai, It would have been enough--Dayyenu
E
TH

Had He brought us to Mount Sinai, and not given us the


Torah, It would have been enough--Dayyenu

Had He given us the Torah, and not brought us into Israel, It


would have been enough--Dayyenu

Had He brought us into Israel, and not built the Temple for
us, It would have been enough--Dayyenu

70
We sing together.

Ilu hotzi hotzi-anu mimitzrayim, hotzi-anu mimitzrayim


(2) Dayeinu
Had He brought us out of Egypt, It would have been enough--
Dayyenu

Ilu natan natan lanu et hashabat, natan lanu et hashabat (2)


Dayeinu
Had He given us the Sabbath It would have been enough--
Dayyenu

Ilu natan natan lanu natan lanu et hatorah (2) Dayeinu


Had He given us the Torah It would have been enough--
Dayyenu

71
A contemporary application of Dayenu:

# 1. LIBERATION: “Had He taken us out of Mitzrayim-‫ …מצרים‬Dayenu-‫”! דיינו‬

Consider one aspect of freedom that you enjoy now

# 2 .THE NEGATIVE: “Had He carried out judgments against the Egyptians…

Dayenu:-‫”!דיינו‬

Think of someone or something you do not like; is there any redeeming quality in the

relationship to that thing, person or experience that can make you grateful for it?

BI
# 3. RESCUE: “Had He divided the sea for us…Dayenu:-‫”!דיינו‬

AB
Is there an experience of danger that you or a loved one were rescued from for
R
L
which you are grateful?
U
EF

# 4. SUSTENANCE: “Had He fed us manna…Dayenu-‫”!דיינו‬


AT

What is the source of your livelihood and what aspects of it make you particularly
R

grateful?
G
E
TH

72
#

5. SABBATH-LEISURE: “Had He given us Shabbat-‫…שבת‬Dayenu!”

If you could select one feature of your day-off above all others, what would that be?

# 6. WISDOM: “Had He given us the Torah…Dayenu-‫“ !דיינו‬

Can you single out one idea, thought or words of wisdom without which your spiritual

life would be incomplete?

# 7. HOLY SPACES: “Had He led us to the Land of Israel,,,Dayenu-‫”!דיינו‬

BI
What place do you consider a refuge and sacred in which you encounter the best in

AB
your inner life?
R
L
#
U
EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

73
Doing Gratefulness

BI
AB
# Discuss what freedom means to you.
R
L
U
EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

74
“THEREFORE WE ARE OBLIGATED TO

" " " " " " " THANK”…

BI
AB
R
L
U
EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

75
Grateful for the Power
of Speech RABBAN G A M L I E L - ‫ַרּבָן ּגַמְלִיאֵל‬
Why the need to
recite the words and brief
‫ּכָל ׁשֶֹּלא אָמַר ׁשְלׁשָה‬:‫ַרּבָן ּגַמְלִיאֵל הָיָה אֹומֵר‬
explanations associated with
the three primary items on the ‫ וְאֵלּו‬,‫ ֹלא יָצָא יְֵדי חֹובָתֹו‬,‫ּדְבִָרים אֵּלּו ּבַּפֶסַח‬
Passover plate? After all, we :‫הֵן‬
see them clearly sitting
prominently on our tables; we
will taste them and ingest them ,‫ּפֶסַח‬
into our very bodies. Yet,
Rabbi Gamliel iterates that ,‫מַצָה‬
without the pronouncement of
words we fail in our
obligations. .‫ּומָרֹור‬
Awareness is all
important; every characteristic
Rabban Gamli-eil hayah omeir: Kol shelo amar
of the human being is
summoned into the service of sh'loshah d'varim eilu bapesach, lo yatza y'dei

BI
greatest consciousness. chovato, v'eilu hein: Pesach. Matzah, U-maror

AB
Through speech and
intellectual recognition, we Rabban Gamliel would teach that all those who had
not spoken of three words on Passover had not

R
further the depth of our
perceptions and make the fulfilled their obligation to tell the story, and these

L
Passover experience a more three words are: Pesah [Paschal Lamb], Matzah and
enduring and meaningful one. Maror [Bitter Herb].
U
EF
We thank God for
the capacity to use speech to
A.[Everyoneʼs attention is now drawn to the
AT

heighten our awareness and


our humanity. shankbone on the Seder Plate, but it is not touched
or raised. ]
R
G

‫ּפֶסַח ׁשֶהָיּו אֲבֹותֵינּו אֹוכְלִים ּבִזְמַן ׁשֶּבֵית‬


E

‫ עַל ׁשּום מָה? עַל ׁשּום‬,‫הַּמְִקּדָׁש הָיָה ַקיָם‬


TH

‫ׁשֶּפֶָסַח הַּקָדֹוׁש ּבָרּוְ הּוא עַל ּבָּתֵי אֲבֹותֵינּו‬


‫ וַאֲמְַרּתֶם זֶבַח ּפֶסַח הּוא‬:‫ ׁשֶּנֶאֱמַר‬, ‫ּבְמִצְַרים‬
‫ אֲׁשֶר ּפֶָסַח עַל ּבָּתֵי ּבְני יִׂשְָראֵל ּבְמִצְַרים‬,‫לַיי‬
‫ וְאֶת ּבָּתֵינּו הִּצִיל? וַּיִּקֹד‬, ‫ּבְנָגְּפֹו אֶת מִצְַרים‬
.‫הָעָם וַּיִּׁשְּתַחוּו‬
Pesach she-hayu avoteinu och'lim, bizman shebeit
hamikdash hayah kayam, al shum mah? Al shum

76
she-pasach hakadosh Baruch hu, al batei
avoteinu b'mitzrayim, shene-emar: va-amartem
zevach pesach hu lʼAdonai, asher pasach al
batei v'nei yisra-eil b'mitzrayim, b'nag'po et
“Not
mitzrayim v'et bateinu hitzil, vayikod ha-am
because of victories vayishtachavu.
I sing
## having The Pesah which our ancestors ate when the
Second Temple stood: what is the reason for it?
none,
They ate the Pesah because the holy one,

L
Blessed be He “passed over” the houses of our

U
But for the ancestors in Egypt, as it is written in the Torah:
common sunshine,
EF “And You shall say, ʻIt is the Passover offering for
## The Adonai, who passed over the houses of the
AT

Israelites saving us in Mitzrayim but struck the


breeze,
houses of the Egyptians. . . .ʼ”
R

The largess of the


G

spring; The plate of Matzah is raised.


Not for victory
E

‫ עַל ׁשּום מה? עַל‬,‫מַּצָה זו שאנו אֹוכְלִים‬


TH

#
But for the dayʼs ‫ׁשּום ׁשֶֹלא הִסְּפִיק ּבְצֵָקם ׁשֶל אֲבֹותֵינּו‬
work done ‫לְהַחֲמִיץ עַד ׁשֶּנִגְלָה עֲלֵיהֶם מֶלְֶ מַלְכֵי‬
as well as I was ,‫ ּוגְאָלָם‬,‫ הַּקָדֹוׁש ּבָרּוְ הּוא‬,‫הַּמְלָכִים‬
able; ‫ וַּיֹאפּו אֶת הַּבָצֵק אֲׁשֶר הֹוצִיאּו‬:‫ׁשֶּנֶאֱמַר‬
not for the seat
‫ ּכִי‬,‫ ּכִי ֹלא חָמֵץ‬,‫מִמִצְַרים עֻגֹת מַּצֹות‬
upon the dais
‫ וְּגַם‬,ַ‫גְֹרׁשּו מִּמִצְַרים וְֹלא יָכְלּו לְהִתְמַהְמֵּה‬
.‫צֵָדה ֹלא עָׂשו לָהֶם‬
but at the
common table.” Matzah zo she-anu och'lim, al shum mah? Al
shum shelo hispik b'tzeikam shel avoteinu
Charles Reznikoff, Te Deum l'hachamitz, ad sheniglah aleihem melech
# malchei ham'lachim, hakadosh Baruch
hu,ug'alam, shene-emar: vayofu et habatzeik,
asher hotzi-u mimitzrayim, ugot matzot, ki lo
chameitz ki gor'shu mimitzrayim, v'lo yach'lu
l'hitmahmeiha, v'gam tzeidah lo asu lahem.

Matzah - what does it symbolize in the Seder?


There was insufficient time for the dough of our

77
ancestors to rise when the holy one, Blessed be He
was revealed to us and redeemed us, as it is written
in the Torah: “And they baked the dough which they
brought forth out o Egypt into matzah - cakes of
unleavened bread - which had not risen, for having
been driven out of Egypt they could not tarry, and
they had mad no provisions for themselves.”

The Maror is raised.

‫ עַל ׁשּום מה? עַל‬,‫מָרֹור זֶה ׁשֶאָנּו אֹוכְלִים‬


‫ׁשּום ׁשֶּמְֵררּו הַּמִצְִרים אֶת חַיֵי אֲבֹותֵינּו‬
‫ וַיְמֲָררּו אֶת חַיֵיהם‬:‫ ׁשֶּנֶאֱמַר‬, ‫ּבְמִצְַרים‬
‫ ּבְחֹמֶר ּובִלְבֵנִים ּובְכָל עֲבָֹדה‬,‫ּבַעֲבָֹדה ָקשָה‬
‫ּבַּׂשֶָדה אֶת ּכָל עֲבָֹדתָם אֲׁשֶר עָבְדּו בָהֶם‬
.ְ‫ּבְפֶָר‬

BI
Maror zeh she-anu och'lim, al shum mah? al shum

AB
shemeir'ru hamitzrim et chayei avoteinu b'mitzrayim,
shene-emar. Vay'mararu et chayeihem ba-avodah
kashah, b'chomer uvilveinim, uvʼchol avodah
R
L
basadeh, eit kol avodatam, asher av'du vahem
U
b'farech.
EF

Why do we eat Maror? For the reason that the


AT

Egyptians embitter the lives of our ancestors in


Mitzrayim, as the Torah states: “And they embittered
R

their lives with servitude, with mortar and bricks


G

without straw, with every form of slavery in the field


and with great torment.”
E
TH

[The Maror is lowered.]

78
BʼKHOL DOR VADOR -“In Every Generation”-
‫ּבְכ ָל ּדֹור ו ָדֹור‬
‫ּבְכָל ּדֹור וָדֹור חַיָב אָָדם לְִראֹות אֶת עַצְמֹו‬
ָ‫ וְהִּגְַדּת‬:‫ ׁשֶּנֶאֱמַר‬, ‫ּכְאִלּו הּוא יֶָצֶָא מִּמִצְַרָים‬
‫ ּבַעֲבּור זֶה עָׂשָה‬,‫לְבִנְָ ּבַיֹום הַהּוא לֵאמֹר‬
‫ ֹלא אֶת אֲבֹותֵינּו‬. ‫יי לִי ּבְצֵאתִי מִּמִצְַרים‬
‫ אֶּלָא אַף‬,‫ּבִלְבָד ּגָאַל הַּקָדֹוׁש ּבָרּוְ הּוא‬
‫ וְאֹותָנּו‬:‫ ׁשֶּנֶאֱמַר‬,‫אֹותָנּו ּגָאַל עִּמָהֶם‬
“In each ‫ לָתֶת‬,‫ לְמַעַן הָבִיא אֹתָנּו‬, ‫הֹוצִיא מִׁשָם‬
.‫לָנּו אֶת הָאֶָרץ אֲׁשֶר נִׁשָּבַע לַאֲבֹתֵנּו‬

generation we B'chol dor vador chayav adam lirot et atzmo,


k'iluhu yatza mimitzrayim, shene-emar:
v'higadta l'vincha bayom hahu leimor: ba-
are obligated to avur zeh asah Adonai li, b'tzeiti
mimitzrayim. Lo et avoteinu bilvad, ga-al

B
hakadosh Baruch hu, ela af otanu ga-al

AB
imahem, shene-emar: v'otanu hotzi misham,
see ourselves

R
l'ma-an havi otanu, latet lanu et ha-aretz
asher nishba la-avoteinu.

L
U
as if we went
EF
In each generation, every individual should feel
AT
as if he or she had actually been redeemed from
out from Mitzrayim as it is said:"You shall tell your children
R

on that day, saying."it is because of what Adonai


G

did for me when I went free from Mitzrayim.'


Egypt.”
E

"(Exodus 13:8).For the holy One redeemed not


TH

only our ancestors but us as well as it is said:" He


brought us out of there, so that He might bring us to
the land promised to our ancestors.(Deut. 6:23)

79
Grateful for the Sense of History:
Awareness of the past makes us human .Each one of us is part of
a chain in human existence, a link in the grand unfolding of life and time. We are
part of the a temporal community that stretches back to the beginning of time and
that will extend into the endless future. Each link is important; the struggle for
freedom is an ongoing dynamic, one that is nurtured and strengthened by the
conscious knowledge that we are not alone, but part of a reality beyond ourselves,
one that has evolved without us in the past and will continue to reach beyond our
limited years till the end of time.
#

“Every covenantal time experience is both retrospective,

BI
reconstructing and reliving the bygone, as well as prospective, anticipating the

AB
“about to be.” In retrospect, covenantal man re-experiences the rendezvous with
God in which the covenant as a promise, hope and vision, originated. In prospect,
R
he beholds the full eschatological realization of this covenant, its promise, hope and
L
vision.”
U
EF

Joseph B. Soloveichick,The Lonely Man of Faith, p.46


AT
R
G
E
TH

80
‫הללויה‬

BI
AB
R
L
U
EF
PRAISE
AT
R
G
E
TH

HALLELUYAH
81
HALLEL-"‫הלל‬ HALLEL-GRATEFUL FOR
–THE GIFT OF –PRAISE
,‫ לְהַלֵל‬,‫לְפִיכְָ אֲנַחְנּו חַיָבִים לְהֹודֹות‬ # “It is not you alone, or we,
or those others who pray; all
‫ לְעַּלֵה‬,ְ‫ לְבֵָר‬,‫ לְהַּדֵר‬,‫ לְרֹומֵם‬,‫ לְפָאֵר‬,ַ‫לְׁשַּבֵח‬ things pray, all things pour forth
‫ּולְַקּלֵס לְמִי ׁשֶעָׂשָה לַאֲבֹותֵינּו וְלָנּו אֶת‬ their souls. The heavens pray, the
earth prays, every creature and
‫ הֹוצִיאָנּו מֵעַבְדּות‬:‫ּכָל הַנִּסִים הָאֵלּו‬ every living thing prays. In all life
there is longing. Creation itself is
,‫ ּומֵאֵבֶל לְיֹום טֹוב‬,‫לְחֵרּות מִּיָגֹון לְׂשִמְחָה‬ but a longing, a kind of prayer to
.‫ ּומִּׁשִעְּבּוד לִגְאֻּלָה‬,‫ּומֵאֲפֵלָה לְאֹור ּגָדֹול‬ the Almighty.”

BI
Yosef Michah
.‫ הַלְלּויָּה‬:‫וְנֹאמַר לְפָנָיו ׁשִיָרה חֲָדׁשָה‬ Beredichevsky

AB
#
Lʼfichach anachnu chayavim l'hodot, l'haleil,
R The Seder repast is
l'shabei-ach, l'fa-eir, l'romeim, l'hadeir, l'vareich,
L
sandwiched between two parts of
l'aleih ul'kaleis, l'mi she-asah la-avoteinu v'lanu et
U

the Hallel; grateful praise is the


kol hanisim ha-eilu. Hotzi-anu mei-avdut l'cheirut,
EF

soul of the narrative and the


mi-yagon l'simchah, umei-eivel l'yom tov, umei- Passover experience.
AT

afeilah l'or gadol, umishibud ligulah. V'nomar


l'fanav shirah chadashah. hal'luyah.
R
G

Therefore we are obligated, to thank, sing the


E

Hallel, praise, glorify, exalt, honor, bless, elevate


TH

and raise our voices for joy to the holy one,


Blessed be He, Who performed all these miracles
for our ancestors and therefore for us!
You brought us from human servitude to freedom,
from sorrow to joy, for a time of mourning to a
festive day, from deep darkness to great light and
from slavery to redemption!
In Your presence we renew our singing as in
ancient days: Hallel-lu-yah

Sing Hallel to God.

82
Psalm 113 reflects Psalm 113
Godʼs concern for the poor
and needy, the childless and ‫ יְהִי‬.‫ הַלְלּו אֶת ׁשֵם יי‬,‫הַלְלּויָּה הַלְלּו עַבְֵדי יי‬
the lowly. As a Source of ‫ׁשֵם‬
Compassion to the powerless
we can only feel grateful for ‫ מִּמִזְַרח ׁשֶמׁש‬.‫יי מְבָֹרך מֵעַּתָה וְִעַד עֹולָם‬
the gift of this loving reality in
human life.
,‫ ָרם עַל ּכָל ּגֹויִם יי‬.‫עַדמְבֹואֹו מְהֻּלָל ׁשֵם יי‬
In the popular ‫ מִי ּכַיי אֱֹלהֵינּו הַּמַגְּבִיהִי‬.‫עַל הַּׁשָמַיִם ּכְבֹודֹו‬
imagination, a god of power is
conceived of as dwelling in ?‫ הַּמַׁשְּפִילִי לְִראֹות ּבַּׁשָמַיִם ּובָאֶָרץ‬,‫לָׁשָבֶת‬
places remote from the ,‫ מֵאַׁשְּפֹת יִָרים אֶבְיֹון‬,‫מְִקימִי מֵעָפָר ּדָל‬
powerless. The more powerful
the god, the more distant and ‫ מֹוׁשִיבִי‬.‫ עִם נְִדיבֵי עַּמֹו‬,‫לְהֹוׁשִיבִי עִם נְִדיבִים‬
aloof. Godly closeness ‫ אֵם הַּבָנִים‬,‫עֲֶקֶרת הַּבַיִת‬
suggests the attenuation of
omnipotence and superiority. .‫ הַלְלּויָּה‬.‫ׂשִמְחָה‬
The only relationship to power
is submission and obedience.
# Hallel-‫הלל‬- resounds with
the strains of a very different
Hal'luyah, hal'lu avdei Adonai, hal'lu et sheim
theology. Godʼs greatness is Adonai. Y'hi sheim Adonai m'vorach, mei-atah v'ad

BI
defined by His humility: Her olam. Mimizrach shemesh ad m'vo-o, m'hulal sheim
concern for the lowly and the Adonai. Ram al kol goyim Adonai, al hashamayim

AB
imperfect. God descends from k'vodo. Mi k'Adonai Eloheinu, hamagbihi lashavet.
the farthest reaches of icy
Hamashpili lirot, bashamayim uva-aretz. M'kimi mei-

R
indifference to the dust under
our feet where the afar dal, mei-ashpot yarim evyon. L'hoshivi im
downtrodden cry out and beg
L
n'divim, im n'divei amo. Moshivi akeret habayit, eim
U
for some sign of care and habanim s'meichah, hal'luyah.
EF
love, for the wresting of the
salvageable from the
wastelands of life. In all things
AT

there is compassion, beauty Praise the Lord! Praise, you servants of the Lord,
and holiness. praise the name of the Lord. Blessed be the name of
R

the Lord from this time forth and forever.


G

# From the rising of the sun to its setting, the Lord's


E

name is to be praised. High above all nations is the


TH

Lord; above the heavens is His glory.Who is like the


Lord our God, who though enthroned on high, looks
down upon heaven and earth? He raises the poor
man out of the dust and lifts the needy one out of the
trash heap, to seat them with nobles, with the nobles
of His people. He turns the barren wife into a happy
mother of children.
Halleluyah!

83
PSALM 114 Psalm 114 poetically
‫ ּבֵית יַעֲֹקב מֵעַם‬, ‫בצאת יִׂשְָראֵל מִּמצִַרָים‬ infuses Nature with a living reality
of exuberant praise and
‫ יִׂשְָראֵל‬,‫ הָיְתָה יְהּוּדָה לְָקְדׁשֹו‬,‫ֹלעֵז‬ gratefulness as it witnesses Godʼs
ָ ‫ הַּי ם‬. ‫מַמְׁשְלֹותָיו‬ hand in the process of human
freedom. Nature is no longer
‫ הֶהִָרים ָרְקדּו‬.‫ הַיְַרּדֵן יִּסֹב לְאָחֹור‬,‫ָראָה וַּיַָנֹס‬ transcendent, passive or
‫ מַה ּלְָ הַּיָם ּכִי‬.‫ ּכִבְנֵי צֹאן‬- ‫ ּגְבַָעֹות‬,‫כְאֵילִים‬ indifferent to human yearning but
- ‫ הֶהִָרים‬,‫ ּתִּסֹב לְאָחֹור‬- ‫ הַּיְַרֵדן‬,‫תָנּוס‬ rather a joyful audience beholding
the glorious spectacle of divine
‫ מִּלְפְנֵי‬.‫ ּכִבְנֵי צֹאן‬- ‫ ּגְבַָעֹות‬,‫ּתְִרְקדּו כְאֵילִים‬ unfolding in the emergence of
.‫ מִּלְפְנֵי אֱלֹוהַ יַעֲֹקב‬,‫אָדֹון חּולִי אֶָרץ‬ human striving for harmony and
unity.
‫ לְמַעְיְנֹו‬- ‫ חַּלָמִיש‬,‫הַהֹפְכִי הַּצּור אֲגַם מָיִם‬
.‫מָיִם‬

BI
B'tzeit yisra-eil mimitzrayim, beit ya-akov mei-am
loeiz. Hay'tah y'hudah l'kod'sho, yisra-eil

AB
mamsh'lotav. Hayam ra-ah vayanos, hayardein
yisov l'achor. Heharim rak'du ch'eilim, g'va-ot
kivnei tzon.Mah l'cha hayam ki tanus, hayardein
R #
L
tisov l'achor. He-harim tirk'du ch'eilim, g'va-ot
U

kivnei tzon. Milifnei adon chuli aretz, milifnei eloha


EF

ya-akov. Hahof'chi hatzur agam mayim, chalamish


l'may'no mayim.
AT

When Israel went out of Egypt, When the


R

household of Jacob left a people with a strange


G

tongue, Judah became the place from which


E

Godʼs holiness went forth,


TH

Israel became the seat from which the world


would know of Gods rule. The sea looked and
fled, The Jordan reversed its curse. Mountains
skipped like rams and the hills jumped about like
young lambs.What is happening that you turn
back, O sea,Jordan, why do you reverse your
course? Mountains, why do you skip like rams
And hills why do you jump like lambs?
You are beholding the face of your Creator,
Before God, before the God of Jacob, Turning
rocks into swirling waters and stone into a flowing
spring.

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Grateful for the Poetic Imagination
Science rightly claims that nature is immutable, its laws beyond human control.
Man cannot make rain, bring sunshine out of the skies or change the nature of a rock. Some
human modification is possible, yet nature is stubborn it its regularity.
The realm of religion allows us to perceive nature and the world not merely as
inescapably conditioned by certain laws, unmoved, unresponsive and uncaring whose field of
activity unfolds through processes of birth, growth, decay and death. Rather, religion gives us
metaphor, the poetic construct that opens our heart to Natureʼs wonder and recognizes its domain
as the arena in which God celebrates His creation.
# In real life, mountains do not dance, nor do rivers change their course
or rocks erupt with cascading waters. In the universe of the religious imagination,
however, all of nature pulsates with divine blessing.
Thus the Psalmist asks:

”Mountains, why do you skip like rams,

# # And hills, why do you jump like lambs?”

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#

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This perception endows life with an expanded sense of wonder, making
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possible our witnessing the miracle of natureʼs rejoicing and celebration.
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#
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Thus, the Hallel, praise from the wells of gratitude


AT
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Doing Gratefulness

# Discuss your feelings about Nature. Is there an experience of a natural

phenomenon that you recall suggesting a similarity of response to that of the

Psalmist?

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#
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KOS SHEINEE -Second Cup of Wine Grateful for Repetition:
Jewish practice
‫ אֲׁשֶר‬,‫ּבָרּוְ אתה יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֶלְֶ העֹולָם‬ mandates that once a blessing
over wine is recited, there is no
, ‫ּגְאָלָנּו וְּגָאַל אֶת אֲבֹותֵינּו מִּמִצְַרים‬ need to repeat the blessing
.‫וְהִּגִיעָנּו לַּלַיְלָה הַּזֶה לֶאֱכָל ּבֹו מַּצָה ּומָרֹור‬ later if more wine is drunk. Yet,
at the Seder, we repeat the
‫ּכֵן יי אֱֹלהֵינּו וֵאֹלהֵי אֲבֹותֵינּו יַּגִיעֵנּו‬ blessing over the wine before
‫לְמֹועֲִדים וְלְִרגָלִים אֲחִֵרים הַּבָאִים לְִקָראתֵנּו‬ each of the four cups. The
‫ ׂשְמֵחִים ּבְבִנְיַן עִיֶרָ וְׂשָׂשִים‬,‫לְׁשָלֹום‬ Seder seems to highlight the
importance of repetition as a
‫ וְנֹאכַל ׁשָם מִן הַּזְבָחִים ּומִן‬.ֶָ‫ּבַעֲבֹוָדת‬ means for deepening the
ֲָ‫הַּפְסָחִים אֲׁשֶר יַּגִיעַ ּדָמָם עַל ִקיר מִזְּבַח‬ experience of freedom and
liberation.
‫ וְנֹוֶדה לְָ ׁשִיר חָָדש עַל ּגְאֻּלָתֵנּו ועַל‬,‫לְָרצֹון‬ # Repetition however
.‫ ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי ּגָאַל יִׂשְָראֵל‬.‫ּפְדּות נַפְׁשֵנּו‬ can cause the stifling of
freshness and renewal. How
Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech ha-olam, do we utilize the repetitive

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process to heighten and
asher g'alanu v'ga-al et avoteinu mimitzrayim, v'higi-
deepen our experience?
AB
anu lʼlalaylah hazeh, le-echol bo matzah u-maror. # When we invest each
Kein, Adonai Eloheinu veilohei avoteinu, yagi-einu level of repetition with an inner
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l'moadim v'lirgalim acheirim, ha-ba-im likrateinu awareness of our souls and
l'shalom. S'meichim b'vinyan irecha, v'sasim ba- hearts, the act of repetition
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avodatecha,v'nochal sham min haz'vachim umin contains an element of the new


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hap'sachim (On Saturday night substitute: min and unexpected. Like a gem
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hap'sachim umin haz'vachim ), asher yagi-a damam, that requires polishing to


al kir mizbachacha l'ratzon, v'nodeh l'cha shir liberate its fullest radiance, so
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too does the soul, the jewel of


chadash al g'ulateinu, v'al p'dut nafsheinu. Baruch
manʼs humanity, require
atah Adonai, ga-al yisra-eil.
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repeated refinement in words


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and ritual to open its receptivity


Praised are you, Adonai, our God, sovereign of the to the luminous reality of Godʼs
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universe, who has redeemed us and our fathers indwelling Presence in the
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from Egypt and enabled us to reach this night that Universe.


we eat matzo and marror. Lord our God and God of #
our fathers, enable us to reach also the forthcoming
holidays and festivals in peace, rejoicing in the
rebuilding of Zion your city, and joyful at your
service. There we shall eat of the offerings and
Passover sacrifices (On Saturday night read: of the #
Passover sacrifices and offerings) which will be
acceptably placed upon your altar. We shall sing a
new hymn of praise to you for our redemption and

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for our liberation. Praised are you, Adonai, who has
redeemed Israel.

‫ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֶלְֶ הָעֹולָם ּבֹוֵרא ּפְִרי‬


.‫הַגָפֶן‬
Judaism is an Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech ha-
ongoing, repetitive discipline
that defines and refines our
olam," borei p'ri hagafen.
inner capacity for greater
godliness. Praised are you, Adonai, our God, sovereign of the
universe, who has created the fruit of the vine.

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VI. RAHTZAH -Lave / Washing:‫ַרחַץ‬ RACHTZAH-GRATEFUL
FOR –THE GIFT OF-
( The hands are ritually washed before the meal, as FULLER TRUST
is required at any meal; it is performed similar to the We have told the
previous hand-washing. Now, though, all wash with story. Responses reflecting
the usual benediction as the hands are dried. We diversity among us have been
wash because (1) we are a “kingdom of priests” and shared. We are not alone in our
whenever we wash before eating, we are reminded thoughts and feelings. The
of that special role, and (2) the ritual washing recalls story has softened our hearts,
the priestly eating of their tithes in purity. It is has penetrated the hardness of
our fears and artificial
customary not to speak - but you can hum quietly -
defenses, and pierced open
until all are ready to recite MOTZEE-MATZAH.) the stoniness of our suspicion
and distrust.
‫ אֲׁשֶר‬,‫ּ̈בָרּוְ אַּתָה יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֶלְֶ הָעֹולָם‬ Our children have
.‫ִקְדׁשָנּו ּבְמִצְֹותָיו וְצִּוָנּו עַל נְטִילַת יַָדיִם‬ asked the questions and we

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have tried to answer them,
honestly and openly. Children
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Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melech ha-olam, recognize insincerity
asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav, v'tzivanu al n'tilat instantaneously; we dare not
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yadayim. deceive them with


disconnected intellectualization
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Praised are you, Adonai, our God, sovereign of the or abstract pontification. We
universe, who has taught us the way of holiness thus extend the depth of our
EF

through commandments, commanding us to wash feeling and memory with them,


inviting them to step into our
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our hands.
stories in the hope that they will
be lovingly nurtured through
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our personal and intimate


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revelations of who we were


and who we try to be. After all,
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the story is told around a family


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table; its listeners are loved


ones; its conveyers are
sources of care and concern.
We let go of barriers of
distance and detachment,
embracing one another's words
and gestures hungrily and
gratefully.
# Now we feel more trusting;
sharing strengthens bonds of
togetherness-it is time for
"rachtzah"-‫רחצה‬-fuller trusting,

90
tangibly executed by the
washing of the hands with the
pronouncement of a blessing,
expressing our trust in and
gratitude to, God.
The water refreshes and
cleanses our spirit of the dross
of feeling apart, isolated, even
alone; we are family again, our
ties reinforced by a common
story of reaching for
redemption.
# We ready ourselves
for the meal, for the partaking
in a scrumptiously sacred
meal; but first a reminder of the
paradoxes of life and how to

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embrace them with the wisdom

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of the heart.

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Doing Gratefulness
EF

With a cup or washing


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bowl, pour water over your


hands allowing the flow to
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register the feeling of


coolness. Pay attention to
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how the water cleanses and


refreshes your hands.
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VII - VIII. MOTZEE - MATZAH - ,‫מֹוצִיא‬ MOTZI-MATZAH:
‫מַּצָה‬ GRATEFUL FOR-THE
( The usual beracha over bread, the motzee - is GIFT OF-HOLINESS
recited.However, before eating the matzah, a (“WHOLINESS”)
second beracha, thanking God for the requirement # The wholeness of the
to eat matzah, is recited.) Matzah,-‫מצה‬- restored to its
original intactness, reminds us
‫ הַמּוֹצִיא לֶחֶם‬,‫ הָעוֹלָם‬1ֶ‫הֵינוּ מֶל‬6ֱ‫ א‬,8‫י‬9‫ אַתָּה י‬1‫בְָּרוּ‬ of the inseparability of life's
polarities, how attached we are
‫ץ‬Vָ‫מִן הָא‬ to life's ambivalences and
ambiguities. Perhaps that is
Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech ha-olam, why Hillel suggested the
hamotzi lechem min ha-aretz. practice of "Korech," -‫כורך‬-

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making a "sandwich," as the
Praised are you, Adonai, our God, sovereign of the next step along our spiritual
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universe, who provides sustenance from the earth. journey of redemption.
# The salient substance and
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symbol of Passover is Matzah-
( We do not yet eat the matzah. Instead,
‫מצה‬- unleavened bread. One
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immediately after the Motzee, we now put the of the several names of the
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bottom matzah back in its place and continue, Passover celebration is the
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reciting the matzah beracha holding the top and Festival of Unleavened
middle matzah.) Bread-"Hag Ha 'Matzot”-‫חג‬
AT

‫המצות‬- Of all the multitudes of


‫ אֲׁשֶר‬,‫ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֶלְֶ הָעֹולָם‬ legal minutiae surrounding the
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observance of Passover, no
‫ִקּדְשָנּו ּבְמִצְֹותָיו וְצִּוָנּו עַל אֲכִילַת מַּצָה‬
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other item but Matzah -‫מצה‬-


and its counterpart, Hametz-
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Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech haolam, ‫חמץ‬- occupies so much


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asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu al achilat attention and "halachik," legal


matzah. consideration.
Matzah-‫מצה‬- is
Praised are you, Adonai, our God, sovereign of the moored to life's ambivalences.
universe, who has taught us the way of holiness Its two ingredients, water and
through commandments, commanding us to eat flour, simple and unadulterated
matzah. by spices or seasonings,
hearken back to the two
primordial opposites of dry land
( We now break up the top and middle matzot into
and water. Mingled in chaotic
pieces and distribute them for all to eat a portion formlessness, dry land and
while reclining.) water are separated, pulled
apart by divine words.     
On Passover, mixed together
once more, they are forged into

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# On the one hand,
Matzah-‫מצה‬- represents the
bread of affliction, the food of
slavery, simple, primitive,
prepared and eaten quickly,
without the luxury of leisure
and comfort. It is the food of
flitting impatience, eaten on
the run while hurried and
harassed. Conversely, matzah-
‫מצה‬- is eaten on the night of
redemption, while reclining,
bearing the taste of Mannah, -
‫מן‬-of the bread from Heaven.
# As we chew on its
hardened crust we become

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aware of life's polarities and
contradictions, darkness and

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light, sadness and joy, good
and evil, love and hate,
affection and anger, life and
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death. As "lechem oni"- ‫לחם‬
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‫עני‬- the food of response and


story-telling, we begin to gain
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an insight into the unity of all


things, recognizing that at the
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core of all reality is a harmony


and interconnected integration
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enfolding everything in an
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embrace of compassion and


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love. # Matzah-‫מצה‬- makes


for the unfolding of spiritual
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maturity, enabling us to hold


these contradictions of life in
our heart, and understand life's
ambiguities and crosscurrents,
its many levels of inherent
conflict. The heart's
graciousness endows us with
the gift of grasping the whole,
the outrageousness and the
beauty, under a canopy of
grateful compassion.
#

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The blessing over bread-the staple of life-is the "Hamotzi"- ‫המוציא‬-"Who brings
forth bread from the earth. "
Implied in this blessing is the emerging awareness that "Lechem"--‫לחם‬-bread-the
very sustenance of life, is extracted from the earth. In other words, the spark of God, that which
engenders life, is inherent in the physical and material fabric of existence, in the earthiness of life
itself.
# The dichotomy of heaven and earth as loci of God's presence is artificial and
misleading. "The earth is replete with God's glory"-God is everywhere, not only in the farthest
reaches of heaven. The entire cosmos is suffused with God's reality.
# When we recite the blessing -"Hamotzi"-‫המוציא‬-we extract the godliness that is contained
in the earthiness of our experience. The Hebrew word for bringing forth-Hamotzi-is closely related
to the Hebrew word for finding, for discovering , "matzoh"-‫מצא‬. As we acknowledge in formal
words the hand of God in the provision of food, we rediscover His presence in the depths of our
earthly existence.
On Passover, we recite this blessing over Matzah-,‫מצה‬- the "bread of affliction, of
impoverishment and servitude." Passover allows us to perceive with our hearts ,through story
telling and tangible tastes of ritual foods, the nearness of the divine in contexts of struggle and
hardship. While our outward awareness is blinded to God's presence because of suffering and

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want, reciting a blessing reminds us deeply of the hidden ness of God that will eventually re-
emerge into fuller view. We wash our hands first-Rachtzah- ‫רחצה‬-and with complete trust we are

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able to speak the words of blessing that allow us to recognize and rediscover the elusive reality of
God's presence everywhere and anywhere.

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Doing Gratefulness
L
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EF

# Slowly bite into the matzah-‫מצה‬. Chew it carefully as you feel the the crunchiness in your
AT

mouth. Consider the taste-its blandness, its simplicity. As you swallow it, be attentive to the feel of
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its digestion.
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MAROR- GRATEFUL
IX.MAROR-‫מָרֹור‬
FOR- THE GIFT OF –
BITTERNESS ?
‫ אֲׁשֶר‬,‫ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֶלְֶ הָעֹולָם‬
Maror,‫מרור‬- the bitter
herbs, are never eaten without ‫ִקּדְשָנּו‬
the sweet condiment known as ‫ּבְמִצְֹותָיו וְצִּוָנּו עַל אֲכִילַת מָרֹור‬
"Haroset," a mixture of sweet
fruits, spices, nuts and wine.
We all experience bitterness in
our lives. How do we deal with
those moments of misery, those Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melech ha-olam,
times of tragedy and trial? asher kid'shanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu al achilat
Passover, the Seder, suggest maror.
that the discernment of
sweetness amid adversity can Praised are you, Adonai, our God, sovereign of the
be derived from this practice of universe, who has taught us the way of holiness
mingling "maror" -‫מרור‬-with - through commandments, commanding us to eat the

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‫חרוסת‬-"haroset." The bitter herb.
bitterness of life becomes

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bearable only if somehow we
[ Small pieces of horse-radish are dipped into the
discover a morsel of meaning

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haroset ]
and depth in this suffering. God

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never imposes a challenge we
cannot withstand, we cannot
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bear.
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# How do we cope with
bitterness? However difficult
AT

and demanding it may be, we


somehow find the strength to
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recite a blessing, as we do
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before partaking of the "maror"-


‫מרור‬.
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Our Rabbis indicate that


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in the same way we recite


God's praises when life is
sweet, likewise do we bless
God when life's shadows cross
our paths. To praise God at
moments of challenge like
death and loss is to transcend
the immediate and touch the
eternal. Is this not the reason
for reciting Kaddish, the prayer
said by the mourner after the
loss of a loved one? Kaddish

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says nothing of death; it is a prayer of praise. Saying these words-"Magnified and Sanctified be
Thy Great Name..." stretches our souls to savor the sweetness of grateful acceptance of life's
mystery and totality.
#

As we chew on the harshness of "maror, "-‫מרור‬- its bitterness is mitigated, is softened


to the point of coming to terms with its severity and being able to swallow the sting of its pain.

# Doing Gratefulness

As you bite into the bitter herbs, try to stay with the bitter and harsh taste-pay
attention to the biting flavor, to the desire to swallow quickly to rid yourself of the bitterness. Notice
the feeling as you mindfully focus awareness on the sensation in your mouth.

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GRATEFUL FOR-THE
GIFT OF - UNITY IN X. KOREKH / Hillel Sandwich - ְ‫ּכֹוֵר‬
DIVERSITY
# When the Temple ( In ancient times, Hillel ate the three symbolic foods
stood in Jerusalem, it was (lamb, matzah and bitter herbs) folded together so
Hillel's custom to combine the that each mouthful contained all three.)
Matzah-‫מצה‬- and Maror -‫מרור‬-
and eat them together. Today ‫ ּכֵן עָׂשָה הִּלֵל ּבִזְמַן‬.‫זֵכֶר לְמְִקּדָׁש ּכְהִּלֵל‬
we place Maror between two
pieces of Matzah forming a ‫ הָיָה‬:‫שּבֵית הַּמְִקּדָׁש הָיָה ַקיָים‬
sandwich and eating it. ‫ לְַקיֵים מַה‬,‫ּכֹוֵרְ מַּצָה ּומָרֹור וְאֹוכֵל ּבְיַחַד‬
"Korech"-‫כורך‬-means to bind,
to wrap, and to enfold. No new
.‫ עַל מַּצֹות ּומְֹרִרים יֹאכְלֻהּו‬:‫ׁשֶּנֶאֱמַר‬
substances are added to our
celebration. Rather, the Zeicher l'mikdash k'hileil. Kein asah hileil bizman
primary items-Matzah-‫מצה‬- shebeit hamikdash hayah kayam. Hayah koreich

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and Maror-‫ מרור‬, the Paschal pesach, matzah, u-maror v'ocheil b'yachad.
Offering as well when the L'kayeim mah shene-emar. “Al matzot um'rorim

AB
Temple stood, were eaten as a yochlu-hu.”
unified substance and not as
separate and individual items.
R
This way of eating matzah, maror and haroset
L
# It is the act of binding reminds us of how Hillel would do so when the
U

together, of enfolding, that Second Temple still existed, making a sandwich of


gives this ritual step a unique
EF

the Pashal lamb, matzah and maror, fulfilling the


spiritual significance.
# The sandwich Torah injunction: “with matzot and maror they shall
AT

transcends plurality and eat the Paschal lamb.”


difference. Multiplicity and
R

individuality are preserved. The


G

Maror does not lose its taste; it


is only connected to a different
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enfolding and embracing


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substance that points to the


"divine manifestation" of Unity
and harmony.
# The Breslav
Haggadah puts it best: “In this
world we experience plurality.
The oneness of all things, the
Unity of God as it is manifested
in Creation, is hidden. We find
it difficult to comprehend how
from the One comes the
many...Hillel realized that all
things are One. (The schools

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of Hillel and Shammai disagreed
on a wide range of issues, but
there was great accord and
mutual respect between them.)
# It is the Holy Temple
which symbolizes the great
harmony in Creation, the
elevation of all things to their
Source.... With the Holy Temple,
we experience the unity of
humanity, the oneness of
adversity and contentment."
# Unity is not equivalent to
sameness. Judaism proclaims
the legitimacy and necessity of
diversity and individuality under

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an all-embracing canopy of unity
and commonality. Sharing does

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not mean relinquishing the
singularity of one's identity, one's
R ideas or levels of understanding.
We were all created in the image
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of God yet no two individuals are
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identical. The Mishnah points out


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this phenomenon as an
expression of God's omnipotence
AT

and insuperable creativity.


“Therefore but a single man was
R

created in the world to proclaim


G

the greatness of the Holy One,


blessed be He; for man stamps
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many coins with one seal and


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they are all like one another; but


the King of Kings has stamped
every human with the seal of the
first human yet not one is like his
fellows.” (Sanhedrin, Chpt.4,
Mishnah 5)
# The Matzah,-‫מצה‬- symbol of
freedom in its sandwich form,
suggests the capacity of the
human heart to gain freedom as it
enfolds the bitterness of life in its
loving embrace of life's fullness
and totality, especially the

98
suffering and pain. "Korech-
‫כורך‬-" reminds us that
avoidance is not the way of
freedom; compassionate
embrace, is.

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SHULCHAN ORECH-
GRATEFUL FOR –THE
Any moment, preparing this meal GIFT OF-FOOD
What is so special about
could be gas thirty- thousand this step? After all, until now we
have encountered a variety of
foods, from greens to bitter herbs
feet in the air soon and matzah- the sharpness of our
hunger has been blunted. Yet, the
# to fall out poisonous on leaf, ready and full availability of food
has not been arrived at until this
moment- "Shulchan Orech"-‫שלחן‬
frond and fur. Everything ‫עורך‬-a prepared table, a table
laden with food awaiting our

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# in sight would cease. consumption. Food takes on an
immediacy, and we are called

AB
# And still we cook, upon to heighten our grateful
awareness for this repast.

R
We have been patient.
# putting a thousand cherished
L We can afford to wait if there is
U
certainty that the table will be set
dreams on the table, to nourish
EF

with provisions needed for our


basic survival. For ourselves, we
# and reassure those close and dear. trust in God; we open our hearts
AT

to that which is beyond time. For


(Edward Espe Brown, The Tassajara Recipe others, however, we are enjoined
R

to open our hearts with kindness


G

and compassion, to share a full


Book)
table with one whose table is
E

bare. Gratefulness is complete


TH

only when it unfolds into acts of


compassion.
# Now our God has set a
table-laden with blessings-in sight
We eat, "our cup runneth over," grateful for of our "enemies," our fears of the
future.
our appetites and for the gift of God's gracious

Hand. "You open Your hand, and satisfy every

living thing."

100
BI
AB
Doing Gratefulness

R
With each type of food, allow the food to remain in your mouth and slowly
L
U

chew and be attentive to the texture, taste and feeling on your palate. Bring your full
EF

attention to the experience of eating and drinking.


AT

Gratefully extend thanks to those involved in the preparation of the meal


R
G

and the Seder.


E
TH

101
ZAFUN-GratefulGRAE
XII. TZAFUN/AFIKOMAN / Dessert - FOR –THE GIFT OF -
‫צָפּון‬
DISCOVERy
# So much of our
lives is hidden. We conceal
things from others, even
from ourselves often
because of shame or fear.
We feel that a good part of
If one of the children has “stolen” it, or if the adults have who we are is unworthy of
hidden the Afikoman- ‫אפיקומן‬-when it is first put aside disclosure, preferring to let
and let the children look for it during the meal to win a that part remain buried
prize, it is now time to redeem the Afikoman-Then, deep within us. So
each person eats a portion of the Afikoman-.‫אפיקומן‬. preoccupied are we in
After one eats the Afikoman,-‫אפיקומן‬- we avoid eating hiding from view who we

BI
are, we fail to feel free. Our
anything further or drinking anything but for the two
spiritual and psychological

AB
remaining mandatory ritual cups of wine, one for the energy is invested in
Grace after meals and one for Hallel-‫הלל‬. hiding, in concealing
Afikoman -‫אפיקומן‬- is a Greek word connoting the R ourselves from others, in
dessert – dates, parched corn, nuts, sweet fruits, etc. making sure that nothing of
L
The Seder meal in the time of the Temple was
U

our true identities that we


concluded with a taste of the Paschal lamb that had may consider unacceptable
EF

been offered in the Temple, after which nothing further slips out of our private and
was eaten. insular grasp.
AT

# Many are
The suggestion has been made that the word
reluctant to feel grateful for
R

afikoman-‫אפיקומן‬-is akin to a Greek word meaning


who they are and share
G

“entertainment” which concluded the Greco-Roman that with others for fear that
festive meal. Whether dinner music,” “dessert,” or “the such exposure would
E

practice of going from house to house after dinner,” the suggest hubris or a
TH

Sages of the Talmud prohibited any practices which vulnerability to the envy or
might detract from the attention that must be paid to the ill-will of others. Jewish
symbol of Passover, the Paschal sacrifice. culture is not without its
share of ancient
superstitions, one of which
is the fear of the

102
“evil eye,” the ayin hara-,‫ עין הרע‬-especially in situations of well being and

good fortune.

Zafun,-‫צפון‬-that which is hdden,ie. the Matzah,-‫מצה‬- is now searched for

and brought out in full view of the participants and shared by all. It is customary to

have children either hide or search for the Afikomen,‫אפיקומן‬- the hidden piece of

Matzah.

# What is the meaning of the word "Afikoman"-‫ ?אפיקומן‬The normative

understanding is related to the concept of eating a dessert or refreshments following

the meal. Jewish law instructs us not to eat any dessert following the consumption
BI

of the Paschal lamb, or in our day, the final piece of Matzah-‫מצה‬-the Afikoman-
AB

‫אפיקומן‬.
R

# A more homiletic interpretation touches upon the idea of revealing the hidden in
L
U

our souls. The word can be divided into two parts-"Afiko"-‫אפיקו‬-and "Man."-‫מן‬. The
EF

first word is translated as 'bring out or bring forth' and the second word suggests a
AT
R

word found in the Torah uttered in bewilderment by the Israelites when they
G

witnessed the "Manna" fall from heaven and exclaimed-"Man huh?"-‫ ?מן הוא‬What
E
TH

is it? That is, the word "Man"-‫ מן‬-denotes the unknown, the unexplainable, perhaps

the mysterious.

# Thus returning to our current attempt to understand the term-"Afiko-man, "--‫אפיקו‬

‫מן‬, does it not suggest that at this point in the Seder we are called upon to reveal

103
the hidden, the unknown, and the mysterious in our lives? Are we not bidden to

bring out and bring forth our authentic selves, without the trappings of super

sophistication and the layers of grown up convention superimposed upon our fragile

and tender souls? How do we accomplish this personal revelation?

As children figure so prominently in the act of discovering the hidden

matzah-‫מצה‬, does this not intimate an insistence that we return to the child within

us, to that dimension of dormant innocence and trust, awaiting an awakening in the

midst of the caution and censorship so characteristic of adult, cerebral life? Is this

not the perfect moment during which to throw bias, discrimination, analysis,

intellectualization to the winds and instead bask in the carefree warmth of the

Seder's safety and security? After all, we are surrounded by loved ones, we feel

God's protecting care hover above us. It is "leil shimurim"- ‫ליל שמורים‬-the night of
BI
AB
being protected, watched over, and cared for. No harm can befall us; we need not
R

raise up false defenses against imaginary fears. We are free to be who we are, and
L
U

this freedom gives us the inner strength to be ourselves-"For You are our refuge and
EF

our fortress!"
AT
R
G
E
TH

104
#

Doing Gratefulness

If there are children among the Seder guests, be mindful of their joy and

how precious it is to be with them. If only adults are present, allow “the child” within

you take pleasure in hiding the “afikomen”-‫אפיקומן‬- in searching for it, in bartering

for its return. Feel the excitement of children as they make their own discoveries.

BI
AB
R
L
U
EF
AT
R
G
E
TH

105
XIII. BAREKH / Birkat HaMazone - ְ‫ּבֵָר‬
BARECH-GRATEFUL
FOR-THE GIFT OF-
BLESSING AND
THANKING
( Fill the cup before the Birkat HaMazone / grace. The # Most religious traditions
following is is the traditional, complete “Grace After require a blessing before we
Meals,” including, of course, thankfulness for the eat; Judaism adds the
Passover holiday.) obligation of blessing after we
eat. This prescription is based
on a Biblical passage from the
book of Deuteronomy: ” When
you have eaten your fill, give
thanks to the Lord your God."
More literally the phrase is

BI
translated as: ” You shall eat,
be satisfied and bless your

AB
God."‫ואכלת ושבעת וברכת‬.
R (Deut.8:10)
# It is a commonplace
L
that once we have eaten and
U

feel satiated, the desire to


EF

think of the source of our


satisfaction becomes
AT

somewhat attenuated. When


the belly is full, our souls seem
R

to slumber. For this reason,


our tradition enjoins us to
G

awaken our souls "to give


E

them an opportunity to
express their yearnings, their
TH

cravings for God."(Breslov


Haggadah)

106
Psalm 126
# Perhaps the Biblical
reference to "You shall be
‫ ּבְשּוב יי אֶת ׁשִיבַת צִיֹון הָיִינּו‬:‫ׁשִיר הַּמַעֲלֹות‬
satisfied" points to the feeling .‫ אָז יִּמָלֵא ׂשְחֹוק ּפִינּו ּולְׁשֹונֵנּו ִרּנָה‬.‫ּכְחֹלְמִים‬
of gratefulness as a prologue
to blessing. When we feel
‫ הִגְּדִיל יי לַעֲׂשֹות עִם‬:‫אָז יֹאמְרּו בַּגֹויִם‬
grateful i.e. satiated, fulfilled, .‫ הָיִינּו ׂשְמֵחִים‬,‫הִגְּדִיל יי לַעֲׂשֹות עִמָנּו‬.‫אֵּלֶה‬
we are then spiritually inclined .‫ׁשּובָה יי אֶת ׁשְבִיתֵנּו ּכַאֲפִיִקים ּבַּנֶגֶב‬
to acknowledge the ultimate
source of this feeling of well- ְֵ‫ הָלֹוְ יֵל‬.‫ ּבְִרּנָה יְִקצֹרּו‬,‫הַּזְֹרעִים ּבְִדמְעָה‬
being, and to bless God. ‫ ּבֹא יָבֹא בְִרּנָה נֹׂשֵא‬,‫ּובָכֹה נֹׂשֵא מֶשְֶ הַּזַָרע‬

I
# At this point in the
.‫אֲלֻּמֹתָיו‬

B
Seder, we have engaged in

AB
many steps on our journey
toward spiritual freedom. We Shir ha-maʼalot bʼshuv Adonai et sheevat Tziyon

R
have recited the story, hayinu keholmim. As yʼmalel sehok pinu ulʼshonenu
completed the rituals, and rina. As yomru vagoyim higdil Adonai la-asot im eileh,

L
eaten to satiety a festive higdil Adonai la-asot imanu hayinu semeihim. Shuva
U
repast. All that is left to do is to Adonai et sheviteinu ka-afikim baNegev. Hazorim
EF
respond to God out of a deep bedimah berinah yiktzoru. Halokh yelekh uvakho,
feeling of gratitude.
nosei meshekh hazarah, bo yavo vʼrinah nosei
AT

alumatav.
R
G

A Song of Ascents. When the Lord returned us from


exile back to Zion, it was as though we were
E

dreaming. We laughed in joy and sang happy songs.


TH

It was said around the world: "The Lord has done


great things for them." The Lord did great things for
us, and we rejoiced. God, restore our captives. We
shall be like streams in the Negev. Those who sow in
tears shall ultimately reap in joy. Though the farmer
bears the measure of seed to the field in sadness, he
shall come home with joy, bearing his sheaves.

107
Leader:ְ‫נְבֵָר‬ ,‫ֵרַּבֹותֵַי‬
Rabotai nʼvarekh.

Friends, let us say grace.

Everyone:‫עֹולָם‬ ‫יְהִי ׁשֵם יי מְבָֹרְ מֵעַּתָה וְעַד‬.


Yʼhi sheim Adonai mʼvorakh mei-ata vʼad olam.
Praised be the name of the Lord now and forever.

Leader: ‫ נְבֵָרְ ]אֱֹלהֵינו[ ׁשֶאָכלְנּו מִּׁשֶלֹו‬,‫ּבְִרׁשּות מְָרנָן וְַרּבָנָן וְַרּבֹותַי‬


*included when there is a minayn present

Leader: Birshut maran vʼraban vʼrabotai nʼvareikh ( Eloheinu* ) she-akhalnu mee-


shelo.

With your permission, let us now bless ( *our ) God whose food we have eaten. .
*included when there is a minayn presen

Everyone: ‫ּבָרּוְ ]אֱֹלהֵינּו[ ׁשֶאָכַלְנּו מִּׁשֶלֹו ּובְטּובֹו חַָיִינּו‬


Barukh( Eloheinu ) she-akhalnu mee-shelo uvʼtuvo hayeenu. *included when there is
a minayn presen

Blessed be (our God) whose food we have eaten and through whose goodness we
live.

Leader: ‫ּבָרּוְ ]אֱֹלהֵינּו[ ׁשֶאָכַלְנּו מִּׁשֶלֹו ּובְטּובֹו חַָיִינּו‬


Barukh (Eloheinu) she-akhalnu mee-shelo uvʼtuvo hayeenu.
*included when there is a minyan present

Blessed be (our God) whose food we have eaten and through whose goodness we
live.

Everyone: ‫ּבָרּוְ הּוא וּבָרּוְ ׁשְמו‬


Barukh hu uvarukh shʼmo
108
Blessed be He and blessed be His name
Grateful for a sense of
“allness” ‫ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֶלְֶ הָעֹולָם הַזָן אֶת‬
We canʼt have ‫הָעֹולָם ּכֻּלֹו ּבְטּובֹו ּבְחֵן ּבְחֶסֶד‬
everything; each one of us is
given a “portion” of life. This ‫ּובְַרחֲמִים הּוא נֹותֵן לֶחֶם לְכָל ּבָׂשָר ּכִי לְעֹולָם‬
reality often elicits ‫ ּובְטּובֹו הַגָדֹול ּתָמִיד‬.‫חַסְדֹו‬
dissatisfaction and the desire
.‫ וְאַל יֶחְסַר לָנּו מָזֹון לְעֹולָם וָעֶד‬,‫ֹלא חָסַר לָנּו‬

BI
for more, for a bigger portion.
‫ ּכִי הּוא‬,‫ּבַעֲבּור ׁשְמֹו הַּגָדֹול‬

AB
Whether our meal is one of
meager morsels or a ‫ ּומֵכִין מָזֹון‬,‫אֵל זָן ּומְפְַרנֵס לַּכֹל ּומֵטִיב לַּכֹל‬
cornucopia of delicacies, we

R
recite the same blessing .‫לְכָל ּבְִרּיֹותָיו אֲׁשֶר ּבָָרא‬
.‫ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי הַזָן אֶת הַּכֹל‬

L
asserting that God nurtures
every sentient being-”hakol”-
U
EF
‫הכל‬-All.
AT

In the words of the


Sages:
Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu melekh haolam, hazal et
R

haolam kulo bʼtuvo bʼhein bʼhesed uvʼrahamim, hu


G

Who is wealthy? notein lehem lʼkhol vasar kee lʼolam hasdo. uvʼtuvo
E

hagadol, tamid lo hasar lanu, vʼal yehsar lanu mazol


The one who is
TH

lʼolam vaed. Baʼavur shʼmo hagadol, kee hu eilzan


content with what umʼfarneis lakol umei-tiv lakol, umeikhin mazon
one has.” kʼkhol bʼriyotav asher bara, Barukh atah Adonai,
hazan et hakol.
Ethics of our Sages-
Chpt 4:2

Praised are you, Adonai our God, King of the


universe, who nourishes the whole world with grace,
kindness and mercy. You provide food to all
creatures, for your
kindness endures forever.Through this great great
goodness we have never been in want; may we
never be in want of sustenance. God sustains us all,
doing good to all, and providing food for all creation.
Praised are you, Adonai, who sustains all.

109
‫נֹוֶדה לְָ יי אֱֹלהֵינּו עַל ׁשֶהִנְחַלְּתָ לַאֲבֹותֵינּו אֶֶרץ חֶמְָדה טֹובָה ּוְרחָבָה‬
‫ וְעַל‬,‫ ּופְִדיתָנּו מִּבֵית עֲבִָדים‬,‫וְעַל ׁשֶהֹוצֵאתָנּו יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֵאֶֶרץ מִצְַריִם‬
ָ‫ּבְִריתְָ ׁשֶחָתַמְּת‬
‫ וְעַל חַיִִים חֵן‬,‫ וְעַל חֻּקֶיָ ׁשֶהֹוַדעְּתָנּו‬,‫ וְעַל ּתֹוָרתְָ ׁשֶּלִּמְַדּתָנּו‬,‫ּבְבְׂשֵָרנּו‬
,‫וָחֶסֶד ׁשֶחֹונַנְּתָנּו‬
‫ ּבְכָל יֹום ּובְכָל עֵת ּובְכָל‬,‫וְעַל אֲכִילַת מָזֹון ׁשָאַּתָה זָן ּומְפְַרנֵס אֹותָנּו ּתָמִיד‬
:‫ׁשָעָה‬

Nodeh lʼkha Adonai Eloheinu al she-hinhalta la-avoteinu, eretz hemdah tovah u-


rʼhavah, vʼal she-hotzetanu Adonai Eloheinu me-eretz Mitzrayim, u-fʼditanu mi-beit
avadim, vʼal bʼritʼkha she-hatamta bi-vʼsarenu, vʼal Toratʼkha she-limadtanu, vʼal
hukekha she-hoda-tanu, vʼal hayim hen va-hesed she-honantanu, vʼal akhilat mazon
she-atah zan u-mʼfarnes otanu tamid, bʼkhol yom u-vʼkhol et u-vʼkhol sha-ah.

We thank you, Adonai, our God, for having given a beautiful, good, and spacious
land to our ancestors as a heritage; for having taken us out from the land of Egypt
and redeemed us from the house of slavery; your covenant which you sealed in our
flesh; for your Torah which you taught us; for your laws which you have given to us;
for the life, grace and kindness you have granted us; and for the food with which you
always sustain us.

‫ יִתְּבַָרְ ׁשִמְָ ּבְפִי‬,ְָ‫וְעַל הַּכֹל יי אֱֹלהֵינּו אֲנַחְנּו מֹוִדים לְָ ּומְבְָרכִים אֹות‬
‫ּכָל‬
ָ‫ וְאָכַלְּתָ וְׂשָבַעְּתָ ּובֵַרכְּתָ אֶת יי אֱֹלהֵֶי‬,‫ ּכַּכָתּוב‬:‫חַי ּתָמִיד לְעֹולָם וָעֶד‬
:‫ ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי עַל הָאֶָרץ וְעַל הַמָזֹון‬.ְָ‫עַל הָאֶָרץ הַּטֹובָה אֲּׁשֶר נָתַן ל‬

Vʼal ha-kol Adonai Eloheinu, anahnu modim lakh u-mʼvarkhim otakh, yitbarakh
shimʼkha bʼfi khol hai tamid lʼolam va-ed. Ka-katuv vʼakhalta vʼsava-ta, u-verakhta et
Adonai Elohekha al ha-aretz ha-tovah asher natan lakh. Barukh atah Adonai, al ha-
aretz vʼal ha-mazon.

For everything, Adonai, our God, we thank and praise you. May your name be
blessed by all forever, as it is written: "After you have eaten and are satisfied, you
shall bless Adonai, our God for the good land he has given you." Praised are you,
Adonai, for the land and the food.

110
,kg‫עַל צִיּוֹן מִשְׁכַּן כְּבוֹ‬9‫ ו‬,kV‫ם עִי‬Y‫רוּשָׁלַי‬9‫עַל י‬9‫ ו‬,kֶ‫אֵל עַמּ‬Iְ‫שׂ‬Y‫ עַל י‬,‫הֵינוּ‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫א י‬8‫חֵם נ‬u
.‫ עָלָיו‬kְ‫א שִׁמ‬Iiִ‫הַקָּדוֹשׁ שֶׁנּ‬9‫ת הַגָּדוֹל ו‬Y‫עַל הַבַּי‬9‫ ו‬,kֶ‫ד מְשִׁיח‬Y‫עַל מַלְכוּת בֵּית דָּו‬9‫ו‬
‫הֵינוּ‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫ח לָנוּ י‬H‫ו‬Eַ‫ה‬9‫ ו‬,‫יחֵנוּ‬Y‫ו‬Eַ‫ה‬9‫ ו‬,‫כַלְכְּלֵנוּ‬9‫ ו‬,‫סֵנוּ‬9‫נ‬Eַ‫ פּ‬,‫נוּ‬L‫ זוּנ‬,‫עֵנוּ‬E ,‫ אָבִינוּ‬,‫הֵינוּ‬6ֱ‫א‬
,‫ם‬r8‫ת בָּשָׂר ו‬H‫י מַתְּנ‬m‫א לִי‬6 ,‫הֵינוּ‬6ֱ‫ א‬8‫י‬9‫ אַל תַּצְ_יכֵנוּ י‬,‫א‬8‫נ‬9‫ ו‬,‫ינוּ‬j‫ה מִכָּל צָרוֹת‬Iֵ‫מְה‬
‫ שֶׁ|א‬,‫חָבָה‬Eָ‫ה‬9‫ הַקְּדוֹשָׁה ו‬,‫ הַפְּתוּחָה‬,‫ הַמְּלֵאָה‬kO8‫ כִּי אִם לְי‬.‫ם‬A‫אָת‬8‫י הַלְו‬m‫א לִי‬69‫ו‬
:‫עֶד‬8‫כָּלֵם לְעוֹלָם ו‬Y‫א נ‬69‫בוֹשׁ ו‬L‫נ‬
Rachem nah adonai elohaynual yisrael amecha,vʼal yerushalayim eerecha,vʼal
malkhut beit David mʼshihekha, vʼal ha-bayit ha-gadol vʼha-kadosh she-nikra
shimʼkha alav. Eloheinu, avinu, rʼenu, zunenu, parnʼsenu, vʼkhalkʼlenu, vʼharvihenu,
vʼharvah lanu, Adonai Eloheinu mʼherah mi-kol tzaroteinu, vʼna al tatzrikhenu Adonai
Eloheinu, lo lidei matnat basar va-dam, vʼlo lidei halva-atam. Ki im mʼle-ah, ha-
pʼtuhah, ha-gʼdushah vʼha-rʼhavah, she-lo nevosh vʼlo nikalem lʼolam va-ed.

Have mercy, Adonai our God, on Israel your people, on Jerusalem your city, on Zion
the abode of your glory, on the kingdom of the house of David your anointed one,
and on the great and holy Temple that bears your name. Our God, our Father, tend
and feed us; sustained and support us and relieve us. Speedily, Adonai our God,
grant us relief from all our troubles. Lord our God, O make us not rely on the gifts
and loans of men but rather on your full, open and generous hand, that we may
never be put to shame and disgrace.

:‫ּבְׁשַּבַָת מֹוסִיפִין‬
‫ְרצֵה וְהַחֲלִיצֵנּו יי אֱֹלהֵינּו ּבְמִצְֹותֶיָ ּובְמִצְוַת יֹום הַׁשְבִיעִי הַׁשַּבָת הַּגָדֹול‬
‫ ּכִי יֹום זֶה ּגָדֹול וְָקדֹוׁש הּוא לְפָנֶיָ לִׁשְּבָת ּבֹו וְלָנּוחַ ּבֹו‬.‫וְהַָקדֹוׂש הַּזֶה‬
.ֶָ‫ּבְאַהֲבָה ּכְמִצְוַת ְרצֹונ‬
‫ּובְִרצֹונְָ הָנִיחַ לָנּו יי אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶֹּלא תְהֵא צָָרה וְיָגֹון וַאֲנָחָה ּבְיֹום‬
‫ והְַראֵנּו יי אֱֹלהֵינּו ּבְנֶחָמַת צִיֹון עִיֶרָ ּובְבִנְיַן יְרּוׁשָלַיִם עִיר‬.‫מְנּוחָתֵנּו‬
.‫ָקְדׁשֶָ ּכִי אַּתָה הּוא ּבַעַל הַיְׁשּועֹות ּובַעַל הַּנֶחָמֹות‬

On Shabbat add:#
(Rʼtzei vʼha-halitzenu Adonai Eloheinu bʼmitzvotekha, u-vʼmitzvat yom ha-shʼvi-i, ha-
Shabbat ha-gadol vʼha-kadosh ha-zeh. Ki yom zeh gadol vʼkadosh hu lʼfanekha,
lishbot bo vʼlanu-ah bo, bʼahavah kʼmitzvat rʼtzonekha, u-virtzonʼkha hanah lanu,
Adonai Eloheinu, she-lo tʼhi tzarah vʼyagon va-anahah bʼyom mʼnuhatenu. Vʼhar-enu
Adonai Eloheinu bʼnehamat Tziyon irekha, u-vʼvinyan Yʼrushalayim ir kodshekha, ki
atah hu ba-al ha-yʼshu-ot u-va-al ha-nehamot.)

111
On Shabbat add:
Favor us and strengthen us, Lord our God, with your commandments-with the
commandment concerning the seventh day, this great and holy Sabbath. This day is
great and holy before you to abstain from work and rest on it in love according to
your will. In your will, Lord our God, grant us rest so that there be nor sorrow and
grief on our day of rest. Let us, Lord our God, live to see Zion your city comforted,
Jerusalem your holy city rebuilt, for you art Master of all salvation and consolation.

‫ יַעֲלֶה וְיָבֹא וְיַּגִיעַ וְיֵָראֶה וְיֵָרצֶה וְיִּׁשָמַע וְיִּפֵָקד‬,‫אֱֹלהֵינּו וֵאֹלהֵי אֲבֹותֵינּו‬


‫וְיִּזָכֵר‬
‫ וְזִכְרֹון‬,ֶָ‫ וְזִכְרֹון מָׁשִיחַ ּבֶן ּדָוִד עַבְּד‬,‫ וְזִכְרֹון אֲבֹותֵינּו‬,‫זִכְרֹונֵנּו ּופְִקּדֹונֵנּו‬
‫ לִפְלֵיטָה‬,ָ‫ וְזִכְרֹון ּכָל עַּמְָ ּבֵית יִׂשְָראַל לְפָנֶי‬,ֶָ‫יְרּוׁשָלַיִם עִיר ָקְדׁש‬
‫ לְחַּיִים ּולְׁשָלֹום ּבְיֹום חַג הַּמַּצֹות הַּזֶה‬,‫לְטֹובָהלְחֵן ּולְחֶסֶד ּולְַרחֲמִים‬
‫ ּובְִדבַר‬.‫זָכְֵרנּו יי אֱֹלהֵינּו ּבֹו לְטֹובָה ּופְָקֵדנּו בֹו לִבְָרכָה וְהוׁשִיעֵנּו בֹו לְחַיִים‬
‫ּכִי אֵל‬,‫ ּכִי אֵלֶיָ עֵינֵינּו‬,‫יְׁשּועָה וְַרחֲמִים חּוס וְחָּנֵנּו וְַרחֵם עָלֵינּו וְהוׁשִיעֵנּו‬
.‫מֶלְֶ חַנּון וְַרחּום אָּתָה‬
For Passover:Eloheinu veilohei avoteinu, yaleh vʼyavo vʼyagiah, vʼyei-ra-eh, vʼyei-
ratzeh, vʼyishma, vʼyipakeid, vʼyizakheir zikhroneinu ufik-doneinu, vʼzikhron avoteinu,
vʼzikhron mashiah ben david avdekha, vʼzikhron yʼrushalayim ir kod-shekha,
vʼzikhron kol amkha beit yisrael lʼfanekha, lifleita lʼtova lʼhein ulʼhesed ulʼrahamim,
lʼhayim ulʼshalom bʼyom hag ha-matzot hazeh. zokhreinu Adonai Eloheinu bo lʼtova,
ufokdeinu vo livrakha vʼhoshi-einu vo lʼhayim,uvʼd-var yʼshu-ah vʼrahamim, hus vʼha-
neinu, vʼraheim aleinu vʼhoshi-einu ki ei-lekha eineinu, ki eil melekh hanun vrahum
ata.

Our God and God of our fathers, may the remembrance of us, of our fathers, of the
anointed son of David your servant, of Jerusalem your holy city, and of all your
people the house of Israel, ascend, come, appear, be heard, and be accepted before
you for deliverance and good, for grace, kindness and mercy, for life and peace, on
this day of the Festival of Matzot. Remember us this day, Lord our God, for
goodness; consider us for blessing; save us for life. With a word of salvation and
mercy spare us and favor us; have pity on us and save us, for we look to you, for
you art a gracious and merciful God and King.
‫ ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי ּבֹונֶה ּבְַרחֲמָיו‬.‫ּובְנֵה יְרּוׁשָלַיִם עִיר הַֹקֶדׁש ּבִמְהֵָרה בְיָמֵינּו‬
‫ אָמֵן‬.‫יְרּוׁשָלַיִם‬

112
Uv 'nei Yʼrushalayim ir ha-kodesh bi-mʼherah vʼyameinu. Barukh atah Adonai, boneh
vʼrahamav Yʼrushalayim. Amen

Rebuild Jerusalem the holy city speedily in our days. Praised are you, Adonai, who
will rebuild Jerusalem in mercy. Amen.

‫ הָאֵל אָבִינּו מַלְּכֵנּו אִַדיֵרנּו ּבֹוְראֵנּו‬,‫ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֶלְֶ הָעֹולָם‬


‫ּגֹאֲלֵנּו יֹוצְֵרנּו‬
‫ְקדֹוׁשֵנּו ְקדֹוׁש יַעֲֹקב רֹועֵנּו רֹועֵה יִׂשְָראַל הַּמֶלְֶ הַּטֹוב וְהַּמֵטִיב לַּכֹל‬
‫ הּוא גְמָלָנּו הּוא‬.‫ הּוא יֵיטִיב לָנּו‬,‫ הּוא מֵטִיב‬,‫ׁשֶּבְכָל יֹום וָיֹום הּוא הֵטִיב‬
,‫ לְחֵן ּולְחֶסֶד ּולְַרחֲמִים ּולְֶרוַח הַּצָלָה וְהַצְלָחָה‬,‫גֹומְלֵנּו הּוא יִגְמְלֵנּו לָעַד‬
,‫ּבְָרכָה וִיׁשּועָה נֶחָמָה ּפְַרנָסָה וְכַלְּכָלָה וְַרחֲמִים וְחַּיִים וְׁשָלֹום וְכָל טֹוב‬
.‫ּומִּכָל טּוב לְעֹולָם עַל יְחַּסְֵרנּו‬
.
Barukh atah Adonai Eloheinu melekh ha-olam, ha-El, avinu, malkenu, adirenu, bor-
enu, go-alenu, yotzrenu, kʼdoshenu, kʼdosh Ya-akov, ro-enu, ro-eh Yisra-el, ha-
melekh ha-tov vʼha-metiv la-kol, she-bʼkhol yom va-yom hu hetiv, hu metiv, hu yeitiv
lanu. Hugʼmalanu, hu gomlenu, hu yigmʼlenu la-ad, lʼhen u-lʼhesedu-lʼrahamim, u-
lʼrevah, ha-tzalah vʼhatzlahah, bʼrakhah vishu-ah, nehamah parnasah vʼkhalkalah,
vʼrahamim vʼhayim vʼshalom vʼkhol tov, u-mi-kol tuv lʼolam al yʼhasrenu.

Praised are you, Adonai our God, Sovereign of the universe. Adonai, you are our
father, our king and sovereign, our creator, our redeemer, our maker, the holy one of
Jacob, the shepherd of Israel, the good king who does good to all and has done
good, is doing good, and will do good. You bestow favors on us constantly. You
lavish on us kindness and mercy, relief and deliverance, success, blessing,
salvation, comfort, sustenance, support mercy, life and peace and all goodness. May
you never deprive us of any good thing.

.‫̈הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יִמְלֹוְ עָלֵינּו לְעֹולָם וָעֶד‬


.Ha-rahaman, hu yimlokh aleinu lʼolam va-ed

May the Merciful One reign over us forever and ever.

‫הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יִתְּבַָרְ ּבַּׁשָמַיִם ּובָאֶָרץ‬


Ha-rahaman, hu yitbarakh ba-shamayim u-va-aretz

113
May the Merciful One be blessed in heaven and on earth.

,‫ וְיִתְּפָאַר ּבָנּו לָעַד ּולְנֵצַח נְצָחִים‬,‫הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יִׁשְּתַּבַח לְדֹור ּדֹוִרים‬


.‫וְיִתְהַּדַר ּבָנּו לָעַד ּולְעֹולְמֵי עֹולָמִים‬
Ha-rahaman, hu yishtabah lʼdor dorim, vʼyitpa-ar banu lʼnetzah nʼtzahim, vʼyit-hadar
banu la-ad u-lʼolmei olamim

May the Merciful One be praised for all generations; may He be glorified in us forever
and ever; may He be honored in us to all eternity.

.‫הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יְפְַרנְסֵנּו ּבְכָבֹוד‬


Ha-rahaman, hu yʼfarnʼsenu bʼkhavod.

May the Merciful One grant us an honorable livelihood̈


.‫ וְהּוא יֹולִיכֵנּו קֹומְמִיּות לְאְַרצֵנּו‬,‫הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יִׁשְּבֹור עֻּלֵנּו מֵעַל ּצַּוָאֵרנּו‬
Ha-rahaman, hu yishbor ulenu me-al tzavarenu vʼhu yolikhenu komʼmiyut lʼartzenu.

May the Merciful One break the yoke from our neck; may He lead us upstanding into
our land.

‫ וְעַל ׁשֻלְחָן זֶה ׁשֶאָכַלְנּו‬,‫הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יִׁשְלַח לָנּו ּבְָרכָה מְֻרּבָה ּבַּבַיִת הַּזֶה‬
‫עָלָיו‬
.
Ha-rahaman, hu yishlah bʼrakhah mʼrubah ba-bayit ha-zeh, vʼal shulhan zeh she-
akhalnu alav.

May the Merciful One send ample blessing into this house and upon this table at
which we have eaten.

‫ וִיבַּׂשֶר לָנּו ּבְׂשֹורֹות‬,‫הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יִׁשְלַח לָנּו אֶת אֵלִּיָהּו הַּנָבִיא זָכּור לַּטֹוב‬
.‫טֹובֹות יְׁשּועֹות וְנֶחָמֹות‬
Ha-rahaman, hu yishlah lanu et Eliyahu ha-navi, zakhur la-tov, vivaser lanu bʼsorot
tovot, yʼshu-ot vʼnehamot.

114
May the Merciful One send us Elijah the prophet of blessed memory who will bring
us good tidings of consolation and comfort
.
‫ וְאֶת (אִּמִי מֹוָרתִי‬.‫הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יְבֵָרְ אֶת אָבִי מֹוִרי) ּבַעַל הַּבַיִת הַּזֶה‬
.‫ אֹותָם וְאֶת ּבֵיתָם וְאֶת זְַרעָם וְאֶת ּכָל אֲׁשֶר לָהֶם‬,(‫) ּבַעַלת הַּבַיִת הַּזֶה‬
‫ ּכְמֹו ׁשֶּנִתְּבְָרכּו אֲבֹותֵינּו‬,‫אֹותָנּו וְאֶת ּכָל אֲׁשֶר לָנּו‬
‫ ּכֵן יְבֵָרְ אֹותָנּו ּכֻּלָנּו יַחַד ּבִבְָרכָה‬,‫אַבְָרהָם יִצְחָק וְיַעֲֹקב ּבַּכֹל מִּכֹל ּכֹל‬
.‫ אָמֵן‬,‫ וְנֹאמַר‬,‫ׁשְלֵמָה‬
̈
Harachaman, hu y'vareich et avi mori ba-al ha-bayit ha-zeh, vʼet imi morati ba-alat
ha-bayit ha-zeh

May the Merciful One bless


(at the home of oneʼs parents, add words in parenthesis)

(my revered father) the master of this house and (my revered mother) the mistress of
this house

( at a gathering of the family in your home:)

‫אותי ואבי ואמי ואשתי ואת זרעי ןאת כל אשר לי‬


oti (vʼavi vʼimee) (vʼ ishti vʼet zar-i vʼet kol asher li)
me (and my revered father and mother) (my wife and children and all that is mine)

( leading at anotherʼs home)

‫את בעל הבית הזה ואת בעלת הבית הזה אותם ואת ביתם את זרעם‬
‫ואת כל אשר להם‬
et ba-al ha-bayit ha-zeh, vʼet ba-alat ha-bayit ha-zeh otam vʼet beitam vʼet zar-am
vʼet kol asher lahem

our host and our hostess them their children and all that belongs to them

‫אותנו ואת כל אשר לנו‬

115
otanu vʼet kol asher lanu.

‫ּכְמֹו ׁשֶּנִתְּבְָרכּו אֲבֹותֵינּו‬


‫ ּכֵן יְבֵָרְ אֹותָנּו ּכֻּלָנּו יַחַד ּבִבְָרכָה‬,‫אַבְָרהָם יִצְחָק וְיַעֲֹקב ּבַּכֹל מִּכֹל ּכֹל‬
.‫ אָמֵן‬,‫ וְנֹאמַר‬,‫ׁשְלֵמָה‬
kʼmo she-nitbarkhu avoteinu, Avraham, Yitzhak, vʼYa-akov: ba-kol, mi-kol, kol. Ken
yʼvarekh otanu kulanu yahad bi-vʼrakhah shʼlemah, vʼnomar: Amen.

all those who are participating in this meal. May He bless us all together and all our
possessions just as He blessed our forebears Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, with every
blessing. May He bless us all together with a perfect blessing, and let us say, Amen.

‫ וְנִׂשָא בְָרכָה‬.‫ּבַמָרֹום יְלַּמְדּו עֲלֵיהֶם וְעָלֵינּו זְכּות ׁשֶּתְהֵא לְמִׁשְמֶֶרת ׁשָלֹום‬


.‫וְנִמְצָא חֵן וְׂשֵכֶל טֹוב ּבְעֵינֵי אֱֹלהִים וְאָָדם‬,‫ ּוצְָדָקה מֵאֹלהֵי יִׁשְעֵנּו‬, ‫מֵאֵת יי‬
Ba-marom yʼlamdu aleihem vʼaleinu zʼkhut, she-tʼhi lʼmishmeret shalom, vʼnisa
vʼrakhah me-et Adonai, u-tzʼdakah me-Elohei yish-enu, vʼnimtza hen vʼsekhel tov
bʼeinei Elohim vʼadam.

May heaven find merit in us that we may enjoy a lasting peace. May we receive
blessings from the Lord, justice from the God of our salvation, and may we find favor
and good sense in the eyes of God and men.
‫ הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יַנְחִילֵנּו יֹום ׁשֶּכֻלֹו ׁשַּבָת ּומְנּוחָה לְחַּיֵי הָעֹולָמִים‬:‫ּבְׁשַּבָת‬
(On Shabbat add) Ha-rahaman, hu yanhilenu yom she-kulo Shabbat u-mʼnuhah,
lʼhayei ha-olamim. )
( May the Merciful One cause us to inherit the day which will be all Sabbath and rest
in the eternal life. )
.‫הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יַנְחִילֵנּו יֹום ׁשֶּכֻלֹו טֹוב‬
Ha-rahaman, hu yanhilenu yom she-kulo tov.
May the Merciful One cause us to inherit the day of total goodness.
May the Merciful One bless the State of Israel.
May the Merciful One bless this country.
May the Merciful One bless those who serve in the IDF and watch over them.
.‫̈הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יְזַּכֵנּו לִימֹות הַּמָׁשִיחַ ּולְחַּיֵי הָעֹולָם הַּבָא‬
Ha-rahaman, hu yʼzakenu limot ha-mashi-ah u-lʼhayei ha-olam ha-ba.

116
May the Merciful One enable us to live in the days of the Messiah and in the world to
come.
‫מִגְּדֹול יְׁשּועֹות מַלְּכֹו וְעֹׂשֶה חֶסֶד לִמְׁשִיחֹו לְָדוִד ּולְזְַרע‬
‫ הּוא יַעֲׂשֶה ׁשָלֹום‬,‫ עֹׂשֶה ׁשָלֹום ּבִמְרֹומָיו‬.‫עַד עֹולָם‬
.‫ אָמֵן‬,‫עָלֵינּו וְעַל ּכָל יִׂשְָראַל וְאִמְרּו‬
Migdol yʼshu-ot malko, vʼoseh hesed li-mʼshiho, lʼDavid u-lʼzar-o ad olam. Oseh
shalom bi-mʼromav, hu ya-aseh shalom aleinu vʼal kol Yisra-el, vʼimru: Amen.
God is our tower of salvation, showing kindness to his anointed, to David and his
descendents forever. May he who creates peace in his heavenly heights, may he
grant peace for us, all Israel; and all humanity, and we can say, Amen.

‫ וְֹדְרׁשֵי יי‬,‫ ּכְפִיִרים ָרׁשּו וְָרעֵבּו‬.‫ ּכִי אֵין מַחְסֹור לִיֵראָיו‬,‫יְִראּו אֶת יי ְקדׁשָיו‬
‫ֹלא יַחְסְרּו‬
‫ ּומַׂשְּבִיעַ לְכָל‬,ָ‫ ּפֹותֵחַ אֶת יֶָד‬.‫ הֹודּו לַיי ּכִי טֹוב ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‬.‫כָל טֹוב‬
.‫חַי ָרצֹון‬
‫ וְֹלא‬,‫ נַעַר הָיִיתִי גַם זַָקנְּתִי‬.‫ וְהָיָה יי מִבְטַחֹו‬,‫ּבָרּוְ הַּגֶבֶר אֲׁשֶר יִבְטַח ּבַיי‬
‫ וְזְַרעֹו‬,‫ָראִיתִי צִַדיק נֶעֱזָב‬
.‫ יי יְבֵָרְ אֶת עַמֹו בַׁשָלֹום‬,‫יי' עֹז לְעַמֹו יִּתֵן‬.‫מְבַּקֶׁש לָחֶם‬

Yʼru et Adonai kʼdoshav, ki ein mahsor lire-av. Kʼfirim rashu vʼra-evu, vʼdorshei
Adonai lo yahsʼru khol tov. Hodu ladonai ki tov, ki lʼolam hasdo. Pote-ah et yadekha,
u-masbi-a lʼkhol hai ratzon. Barukh ha-gever asher yivtah badonai, vʼhayah Adonai
mivtaho. Na-ar hayiti gam zakanti, vʼlo ra-iti tzadik ne-ezav, vʼzar-o mʼvakesh lahem.
Adonai oz lʼamo yiten, Adonai yʼvarekh et amo va-shalom.

Revere the Lord, all Godʼs holy ones for those who revere Adonai suffer no want.
Lions may starve, but those who seek the Lord shall lack nothing. Give thanks to the
Lord, for God is good; Godʼs kindness endures forever. You open your hand and
satisfy the needs of every living thing. Blessed is the everyone who trusts in the
Lord, for the Lord will surely guarantee protection. I once was young and now I am
old, but never have I seen a righteous person forsaken, nor his children in want of
bread. The Lord strengthens Godʼs people, blessing them with peace.

117
Shorter form of the Grace / Birkat HaMazon
Psalm 126
‫ אָז יִּמָלֵא ׂשְחֹוק‬.‫ ּבְשּוב יי אֶת ׁשִיבַת צִיֹון הָיִינּו ּכְחֹלְמִים‬:‫ׁשִיר הַּמַעֲלֹות‬
‫הִגְּדִיל יי‬.‫ הִגְּדִיל יי לַעֲׂשֹות עִם אֵּלֶה‬:‫ אָז יֹאמְרּו בַּגֹויִם‬.‫ּפִינּו ּולְׁשֹונֵנּו ִרּנָה‬
.‫ ׁשּובָה יי אֶת ׁשְבִיתֵנּו ּכַאֲפִיִקים ּבַּנֶגֶב‬.‫ הָיִינּו ׂשְמֵחִים‬,‫לַעֲׂשֹות עִמָנּו‬
‫ ּבֹא יָבֹא‬,‫ הָלֹוְ יֵלְֵ ּובָכֹה נֹׂשֵא מֶשְֶ הַּזַָרע‬.‫ ּבְִרּנָה יְִקצֹרּו‬,‫הַּזְֹרעִים ּבְִדמְעָה‬
.‫בְִרּנָה נֹׂשֵא אֲלֻּמֹתָיו‬
Shir ha-maʼalot bʼshuv Adonai et sheevat Tziyon hayinu keholmim. As yʼmalel sehok
pinu ulʼshonenu rina. As yomru vagoyim higdil Adonai la-asot im eileh, higdil Adonai
la-asot imanu hayinu semeihim. Shuva Adonai et sheviteinu ka-afikim baNegev.
Hazorim bedimah berinah yiktzoru. Halokh yelekh uvakho, nosei meshekh hazarah,
bo yavo vʼrinah nosei alumatav.

A Song of Ascents. When the Lord returned us from exile back to Zion, it was as
though we were dreaming. We laughed in joy and sang happy songs. It was said
around the world: "The Lord has done great things for them." The Lord did great
things for us, and we rejoiced. God, restore our captives. We shall be like streams in
the Negev. Those who sow in tears shall ultimately reap in joy. Though the farmer
bears the measure of seed to the field in sadness, he shall come home with joy,
bearing his sheaves.

Leader :‫נְבֵָרך‬ ,‫ֵרַּבֹותֵַי‬


Rabotai nʼvarekh.

Friends, let us say grace.

Everyone:‫עֹולָם‬ ‫יְהִי ׁשֵם יי מְבָֹרְ מֵעַּתָה וְעַד‬.


Yʼhi sheim Adonai mʼvorakh mei-ata vʼad olam.

Praised be the name of the Lord now and forever.

Leader:‫עֹולָם‬ ‫יְהִי ׁשֵם יי מְבָֹרְ מֵעַּתָה וְעַד‬

118
Yʼhi sheim Adonai mʼvorakh mei-ata vʼad olam.

Praised be the name of the Lord now and forever.

*included when there is a minayn present


Leader:‫מִּׁשֶלֹו‬ ‫ נְבֵָרְ ]אֱֹלהֵינו[ ׁשֶאָכלְנּו‬,‫ּבְִרׁשּות מְָרנָן וְַרּבָנָן וְַרּבֹותַי‬
Birshut maran vʼraban vʼrabotai nʼvareikh ( Eloheinu* ) she-akhalnu mee-shelo.

*included when there is a minayn present

With your permission, let us now bless ( *our ) God whose food we have eaten. .

*included when there is a minayn presen

Everyone:‫חַָיִינּו‬ ‫ּבָרּוְ ]אֱֹלהֵינּו[ ׁשֶאָכַלְנּו מִּׁשֶלֹו ּובְטּובֹו‬


Barukh( Eloheinu ) she-akhalnu mee-shelo uvʼtuvo hayeenu.

*included when there is a minayn presen

Blessed be (our God) whose food we have eaten and through whose goodness we
live.

Leader: ‫ּבָרּוְ ]אֱֹלהֵינּו[ ׁשֶאָכַלְנּו מִּׁשֶלֹו ּובְטּובֹו חַָיִינּו‬


Barukh( Eloheinu ) she-akhalnu mee-shelo uvʼtuvo hayeenu.

Blessed be (our God) whose food we have eaten and through whose goodness we
live.

Everyone: ‫ּבָרּוְ הּוא וּבָרּוְ ׁשְמו‬

Barukh hu uvarukh shʼmo.

Blessed be He and blessed be His name.

119
‫ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֶלְֶ הָעֹולָם הַזָן אֶת הָעֹולָם ּכֻּלֹו ּבְטּובֹו ּבְחֵן ּבְחֶסֶד‬
‫ ּובְטּובֹו הַגָדֹול‬.‫ּובְַרחֲמִים הּוא נֹותֵן לֶחֶם לְכָל ּבָׂשָר ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְדֹו‬
‫ּתָמִיד‬
‫ ּכִי‬,‫ ּבַעֲבּור ׁשְמֹו הַּגָדֹול‬.‫ וְאַל יֶחְסַר לָנּו מָזֹון לְעֹולָם וָעֶד‬,‫ֹלא חָסַר לָנּו‬
‫הּוא‬
.‫ ּומֵכִין מָזֹון לְכָל ּבְִרּיֹותָיו אֲׁשֶר ּבָָרא‬,‫אֵל זָן ּומְפְַרנֵס לַּכֹל ּומֵטִיב לַּכֹל‬
.‫ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי הַזָן אֶת הַּכֹל‬

Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu melekh haolam, hazal et haolam kulo bʼtuvo bʼhein
bʼhesed uvʼrahamim, hu notein lehem lʼkhol vasar kee lʼolam hasdo. uvʼtuvo hagadol,
tamid lo hasar lanu, vʼal yehsar lanu mazol lʼolam vaed. Baʼavur shʼmo hagadol, kee
hu eilzanumʼfarnei lakol umei-tiv lakol, umeikhin mazon kʼkhol bʼriyotav asher bara,
Barukh atah Adonai, hazan et hakol.

Praised are you, Adonai, our God, sovereign of the universe, who nourishes the
whole world with grace, kindness and mercy. You provide food to all creatures, for
your kindness endures forever. Through this great goodness we have never been in
want; may we never be in want of sustenance. God sustains us all, doing good to all,
and providing food for all creation. Praised are
you, Adonai, who sustains all.

‫̈ נֹוֶדה לְָ יי אֱֹלהֵינּו עַל ׁשֶהִנְחַלְּתָ לַאֲבֹותֵינּו אֶֶרץ חֶמְָדה טֹובָה ּוְרחָבָה‬
‫ וְעַל‬,‫ ּופְִדיתָנּו מִּבֵית עֲבִָדים‬,‫וְעַל ׁשֶהֹוצֵאתָנּו יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֵאֶֶרץ מִצְַריִם‬
ָ‫ּבְִריתְָ ׁשֶחָתַמְּת‬
‫ וְעַל חַיִִים חֵן‬,‫ וְעַל חֻּקֶיָ ׁשֶהֹוַדעְּתָנּו‬,‫ וְעַל ּתֹוָרתְָ ׁשֶּלִּמְַדּתָנּו‬,‫ּבְבְׂשֵָרנּו‬
,‫וָחֶסֶד ׁשֶחֹונַנְּתָנּו‬
‫ ּבְכָל יֹום ּובְכָל עֵת ּובְכָל‬,‫וְעַל אֲכִילַת מָזֹון ׁשָאַּתָה זָן ּומְפְַרנֵס אֹותָנּו ּתָמִיד‬
:‫ׁשָעָה‬

Nodeh lʼkha Adonai Eloheinu al she-hinhalta la-avoteinu, eretz hemdah tovah u-


rʼhavah, vʼal she-hotzetanu Adonai Eloheinu me-eretz Mitzrayim, u-fʼditanu mi-beit
avadim, vʼal bʼritʼkha she-hatamta bi-vʼsarenu, vʼal Toratʼkha she-limadtanu, vʼal
hukekha she-hoda-tanu, vʼal hayim hen va-hesed she-honantanu, vʼal akhilat mazon
she-atah zan u-mʼfarnes otanu tamid, bʼkhol yom u-vʼkhol et u-vʼkhol sha-ah.

120
We thank you, Adonai, our God, for having given a beautiful, good, and spacious
land to our ancestors as a heritage; for having taken us out from the land of Egypt
and redeemed us from the house of slavery; your covenant which you sealed in our
flesh; for your Torah which you taught us; for your laws which you have given to us;
for the life, grace and kindness you have granted us; and for the food with which you
always sustain us.

‫ יִתְּבַָרְ ׁשִמְָ ּבְפִי‬,ְָ‫וְעַל הַּכֹל יי אֱֹלהֵינּו אֲנַחְנּו מֹוִדים לְָ ּומְבְָרכִים אֹות‬
‫ּכָל‬
ָ‫ וְאָכַלְּתָ וְׂשָבַעְּתָ ּובֵַרכְּתָ אֶת יי אֱֹלהֵֶי‬,‫ ּכַּכָתּוב‬:‫חַי ּתָמִיד לְעֹולָם וָעֶד‬
:‫ ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי עַל הָאֶָרץ וְעַל הַמָזֹון‬.ְָ‫עַל הָאֶָרץ הַּטֹובָה אֲּׁשֶר נָתַן ל‬
Vʼal ha-kol Adonai Eloheinu, anahnu modim lakh u-mʼvarkhim otakh, yitbarakh
shimʼkha bʼfi khol hai tamid lʼolam va-ed. Ka-katuv vʼakhalta vʼsava-ta, u-verakhta et
Adonai Elohekha al ha-aretz ha-tovah asher natan lakh. Barukh atah Adonai, al ha-
aretz vʼal ha-mazon.

For everything, Adonai, our God, we thank and praise you. May your name be
blessed by all forever, as it is written: "After you have eaten and are satisfied, you
shall bless Adonai, our God for the good land he has given you." Praised are you,
Adonai, for the land and the food.

:‫ּבְׁשַּבַָת מֹוסִיפִין‬
‫ְרצֵה וְהַחֲלִיצֵנּו יי אֱֹלהֵינּו ּבְמִצְֹותֶיָ ּובְמִצְוַת יֹום הַׁשְבִיעִי הַׁשַּבָת הַּגָדֹול‬
‫ ּכִי יֹום זֶה ּגָדֹול וְָקדֹוׁש הּוא לְפָנֶיָ לִׁשְּבָת ּבֹו וְלָנּוחַ ּבֹו‬.‫וְהַָקדֹוׂש הַּזֶה‬
.ֶָ‫ּבְאַהֲבָה ּכְמִצְוַת ְרצֹונ‬
‫ּובְִרצֹונְָ הָנִיחַ לָנּו יי אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶֹּלא תְהֵא צָָרה וְיָגֹון וַאֲנָחָה ּבְיֹום‬
‫ והְַראֵנּו יי אֱֹלהֵינּו ּבְנֶחָמַת צִיֹון עִיֶרָ ּובְבִנְיַן יְרּוׁשָלַיִם עִיר‬.‫מְנּוחָתֵנּו‬
.‫ָקְדׁשֶָ ּכִי אַּתָה הּוא ּבַעַל הַיְׁשּועֹות ּובַעַל הַּנֶחָמֹות‬

On Shabbat add:
Rʼtzei vʼha-alitzenu Adonai Eloheinu bʼmitzvotekha, u-vʼmitzvat yom
ha-shʼvi-i, ha-Shabbat ha-gadol vʼha-kadosh ha-zeh. Ki yom zeh gadol vʼkadosh hu
lʼfanekha, lishbot bo vʼlanu-ahbo, bʼahavah kʼmitzvat rʼtzonekha, u-virtzonʼkha hana
lanu, Adonai Eloheinu, she-lo tʼhi tzarah vʼyagon va-anahah bʼyom mʼnuhatenu.
Vʼhar-enu Adonai Eloheinu bʼnehamat Tziyon irekha, u-vʼvinyan Yʼrushalayim
irkodshekha, ki atah hu ba-al ha-yʼshu-ot u-va-al ha-nehamot.]

121
On Shabbat add:
Favor us and strengthen us, Lord our God, with your commandments-with the
commandment concerning the seventh day, this great and holy Sabbath. This day is
great and holy before you to abstain from work and rest on it in love according to
your will. In your will, Lord our God, grant us rest so that there be nor sorrow and
grief on our day of rest. Let us, Lord our God, live to see Zion your city comforted,
Jerusalem your holy city rebuilt, for you artMaster of all salvation and consolation.
‫ד‬Jָ‫פּ‬Y‫י‬9‫ ו‬,‫שָּׁמַע‬Y‫י‬9‫ ו‬,‫צֶה‬IL‫י‬9‫ ו‬,‫אֶה‬IL‫י‬9‫ ו‬,ַ‫גִּיע‬H‫י‬9‫בֹא ו‬8‫י‬9‫עֲלֶה ו‬H‫ י‬,‫ינוּ‬j‫הֵי אֲבוֹת‬6‫א‬L‫הֵינוּ ו‬6ֱ‫א‬
,ֶָ‫ וְזִכְרֹון מָׁשִיחַ ּבֶן ּדָוִד עַבְּד‬,‫ וְזִכְרֹון אֲבֹותֵינּו‬,‫וְיִּזָכֵרזִכְרֹונֵנּו ּופְִקּדֹונֵנּו‬
‫ לִפְלֵיטָה‬,ָ‫ וְזִכְרֹון ּכָל עַּמְָ ּבֵית יִׂשְָראַל לְפָנֶי‬,ֶָ‫וְזִכְרֹון יְרּוׁשָלַיִם עִיר ָקְדׁש‬
‫ לְחַּיִים ּולְׁשָלֹום ּבְיֹום חַג הַּמַּצֹות הַּזֶה‬,‫לְטֹובָהלְחֵן ּולְחֶסֶד ּולְַרחֲמִים‬
‫ ּובְִדבַר‬.‫זָכְֵרנּו יי אֱֹלהֵינּו ּבֹו לְטֹובָה ּופְָקֵדנּו בֹו לִבְָרכָה וְהוׁשִיעֵנּו בֹו לְחַיִים‬
‫ּכִי אֵל‬,‫ ּכִי אֵלֶיָ עֵינֵינּו‬,‫יְׁשּועָה וְַרחֲמִים חּוס וְחָּנֵנּו וְַרחֵם עָלֵינּו וְהוׁשִיעֵנּו‬
.‫מֶלְֶ חַנּון וְַרחּום אָּתָה‬

(For Passover)" Eloheinu veilohei avoteinu, yaleh vʼyavo vʼyagiah, vʼyei-ra-eh, vʼyei-
ratzeh, vʼyishma, vʼyipakeid, vʼyizakheir zikhroneinu ufik-doneinu, vʼzikhron avoteinu,
vʼzikhron mashiah ben david avdekha, vʼzikhron yʼrushalayim ir kod-shekha,
vʼzikhron kol amkha beit yisrael lʼfanekha, lifleita lʼtova lʼhein ulʼhesed ulʼrahamim,
lʼhayim ulʼshalom bʼyom hag ha-matzot hazeh. zokhreinu Adonai Eloheinu bo lʼtova,
ufokdeinu vo livrakha vʼhoshi-einu vo lʼhayim,uvʼd-var yʼshu-ah vʼrahamim, hus vʼha-
neinu, vʼraheim aleinu vʼhoshi-einu ki ei-lekha eineinu, ki eil melekh hanun vrahum
ata.

( For Passover) Our God and God of our fathers, may the remembrance of us, of our
ancestors, of the anointed son of David your servant, of Jerusalem your holy city,
and of all your people the house of Israel, ascend, come, appear, be heard, and be
accepted before you for deliverance and good, for grace, kindness and mercy, for life
and peace, on this day of the Festival of Matzot. Remember us this day, Lord our
God, for goodness; consider us for blessing; save us for life. With a word of salvation
and mercy spare us and favor us; have pity on us and save us, for we look to you,
for you art a gracious and merciful God and King.

‫ ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי ּבֹונֶה ּבְַרחֲמָיו‬.‫ּובְנֵה יְרּוׁשָלַיִם עִיר הַֹקֶדׁש ּבִמְהֵָרה בְיָמֵינּו‬


‫ אָמֵן‬.‫יְרּוׁשָלַיִם‬
U-vʼnei Yʼrushalayim ir ha-kodesh bi-mʼherah vʼyameinu. Barukh atah Adonai, boneh
vʼrahamav Yʼrushalayim. Amen

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‫ וְנִׂשָא בְָרכָה‬.‫ּבַמָרֹום יְלַּמְדּו עֲלֵיהֶם וְעָלֵינּו זְכּות ׁשֶּתְהֵא לְמִׁשְמֶֶרת ׁשָלֹום‬
.‫וְנִמְצָא חֵן וְׂשֵכֶל טֹוב ּבְעֵינֵי אֱֹלהִים וְאָָדם‬,‫ ּוצְָדָקה מֵאֹלהֵי יִׁשְעֵנּו‬, ‫מֵאֵת יי‬
Ba-marom yʼlamdu aleihem vʼaleinu zʼkhut, she-tʼhi lʼmishmeret shalom, vʼnisa
vʼrakhah me-et Adonai, u-tzʼdakah me-Elohei yish-enu, vʼnimtza hen vʼsekhel tov
bʼeinei Elohim vʼadam.

May heaven find merit in us that we may enjoy a lasting peace and receive blessings
from the Lord, justice from God, and may we find favor and good sense in the eyes
of God and men.

‫ הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יַנְחִילֵנּו יֹום ׁשֶּכֻלֹו ׁשַּבָת ּומְנּוחָה לְחַּיֵי הָעֹולָמִים‬:‫ּבְׁשַּבָת‬


( On Shabbat add) Ha-rahaman, hu yanhilenu yom she-kulo Shabbat u-mʼnuhah,
lʼhayei ha-olamim.

May the Merciful One cause us to inherit the day which will be all Sabbath and rest
in the eternal life.

‫הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יַנְחִילֵנּו יֹום ׁשֶּכֻלֹו טֹוב‬


Ha-rahaman, hu yanhilenu yom she-kulo tov.

May the Merciful One cause us to inherit the day of total goodness.
May the Merciful One bless the State of Israel.
May the Merciful One bless this country.
May the Merciful One bless those who serve in the IDF and watch over them.

‫̈הַָרחֲמָן הּוא יְזַּכֵנּו לִימֹות הַּמָׁשִיחַ ּולְחַּיֵי הָעֹולָם הַּבָא‬


Ha-rahaman, hu yʼzakenu limot ha-mashi-ah u-lʼhayei ha-olam ha-ba.
May the Merciful One enable us to live in the days of the Messiah and in the world to
come.
‫מִגְּדֹול יְׁשּועֹות מַלְּכֹו וְעֹׂשֶה חֶסֶד לִמְׁשִיחֹו לְָדוִד ּולְזְַרעֹו‬
‫ הּוא יַעֲׂשֶה ׁשָלֹום‬,‫ עֹׂשֶה ׁשָלֹום ּבִמְרֹומָיו‬.‫עַד עֹולָם‬
.‫ אָמֵן‬,‫עָלֵינּו וְעַל ּכָל יִׂשְָראַל וְאִמְרּו‬

Migdol yʼshu-ot malko, vʼoseh hesed li-mʼshiho, lʼDavid u-lʼzar-o ad olam. Oseh
shalom bi-mʼromav, hu ya-aseh shalom aleinu vʼal kol Yisra-el, vʼimru: Amen.

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God is our tower of salvation, showing kindness to his anointed, to David and his
descendants forever. May he who creates peace in his heavenly heights, may he
grant peace for us, all Israel; and and all humanity, and we can say, Amen.

‫ וְֹדְרׁשֵי יי‬,‫ ּכְפִיִרים ָרׁשּו וְָרעֵבּו‬.‫ ּכִי אֵין מַחְסֹור לִיֵראָיו‬,‫`יְִראּו אֶת יי ְקדׁשָיו‬
‫ֹלא יַחְסְרּו‬
‫ ּומַׂשְּבִיעַ לְכָל‬,ָ‫ ּפֹותֵחַ אֶת יֶָד‬.‫ הֹודּו לַיי ּכִי טֹוב ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‬.‫כָל טֹוב‬
.‫חַי ָרצֹון‬
‫ וְֹלא‬,‫ נַעַר הָיִיתִי גַם זַָקנְּתִי‬.‫ וְהָיָה יי מִבְטַחֹו‬,‫ּבָרּוְ הַּגֶבֶר אֲׁשֶר יִבְטַח ּבַיי‬
‫ וְזְַרעֹו‬,‫ָראִיתִי צִַדיק נֶעֱזָב‬
.‫ יי יְבֵָרְ אֶת עַמֹו בַׁשָלֹום‬,‫יי' עֹז לְעַמֹו יִּתֵן‬.‫מְבַּקֶׁש לָחֶם‬

Yʼru et Adonai kʼdoshav, ki ein mahsor lire-av. Kʼfirim rashu vʼra-evu, vʼdorshei
Adonai lo yahsʼru khol tov. Hodu ladonai ki tov, ki lʼolam hasdo. Pote-ah et yadekha,
u-masbi-a lʼkhol hai ratzon. Barukh ha-gever asher yivtah badonai, vʼhayah Adonai
mivtaho. Na-ar hayiti gam zakanti, vʼlo ra-iti tzadik ne-ezav, vʼzar-o mʼvakesh lahem.
Adonai oz lʼamo yiten, Adonai yʼvarekh et amo va-shalom.

Revere the Lord, all Godʼs holy ones for those who revere Adonai suffer no want.
Lions may starve, but those who seek the Lord shall lack nothing. Give thanks to the
Lord, for God is good; Godʼs kindness endures forever. You open your hand and
satisfy the needs of every living thing. Blessed is the everyone who trusts in the
Lord, for the Lord will surely guarantee protection. I once was young and now I am
old, but never have I seen a righteous person forsaken, nor his children in want of
bread. The Lord strengthens Godʼs people, blessing them with peace.

124
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KOS SHʼLISHEE - THIRD CUP-‫ּכֹוס שְלִישִי‬

We conclude the Grace after the meal by drinking the Third Cup of wine, the cup of
blessing, while reclining to the left.

.‫ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֶלְֶ הָעֹולָם ּבֹוֵרא ּפְִרי הַגָפֶן‬

Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech ha-olam, borei p'ri hagafen.

Praised are you, Adonai, Lord of the universe, who has created the fruit of the vine.

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ELIJAHʼS CUP - KOS SHEL ELIYAHU -Cup of Elijah-‫כוס‬
GRATEFUL FOR – ‫של אליהו‬
THE GIFT OF-
FIGHTERS OF At this point in the Seder, we fill the Cup of Elijah on
FREEDOM the table. We rise, and we generally send the
# We open the youngest child(ren) still awake to open the door for
door and invite a spiritual Elijah, who by tradition is the forerunner of the
presence into our home, Messiah, the harbinger of hope. Sing "Eliyahu Ha-
the presence of passionate Navi" and then close the door.
compassion. Elijah, the
invisible honored guest,
personifies an unyielding ‫אליהו‬ ‫אליהו הנביא‬
passion for justice. At the ‫( הגלעדי‬3) ‫אליהו‬ ‫התשבי‬
same time he is viewed as
a disguised beggar who
‫יבוא אלינו‬ ‫במהרה בימינו‬

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goes to extraordinary
lengths bringing blessings (2)‫עם משיח בן דוד‬

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of compassion and
kindness to the poor,the
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humble and the needy. As Eliyahu Ha-navee Eliyahu Ha-tish-bee Eliyahu,

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both champion of justice
L
Eliyahu Eliyahu Ha-giladee
and exemplar of
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compassion, he inspires us
Bim Heira Bʼyameinu Yavo eileinu Eem mashiah ben
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to emulate his ways and his David Eem mashiah ben David
commitments; we are
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grateful for this source of God has taught all men to love their neighbors as
spiritual strength in our themselves. Yet, in almost every age, some have not
R

lives. obeyed His command. Our people have suffered


G

# How empty our frequently at the hands of such men. In Godʼs own
cups of blessing would be way and in His own time, the wicked pay the price of
E

had the myriad numbers of


their wickedness. For God is a God of justice. As we
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heroes not come forward


open our doors and our hearts to Elijah, we pray that
and willingly sacrificed their
lives so that we could enjoy there soon will be an end to all evil deeds in the world.
our blessings of freedom God has shown us the paths to peace. Amen.
and security!
Pour Out Thy Wrath- ְָ‫ׁשְפְֹ חֲמָת‬
(A late addition to the Haggadah, after the period of
the Crusades and the pogroms of the Rhineland. The
Crusades were a series of military conflicts of a
religious character waged by Christians from
1096-1291, usually sanctioned by the Pope. The First
Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with
the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of

127
Gratitude is not only a
natural response to this
Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims, recognition; it is a response
and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim rooted in our capacity to touch
rule. Inevitably the Crusades also involved our moral sense and declare-
destruction and oppression of Jewish this is the right thing to do.
communities in Europe and the Holy Land. The
harshness of this section often causes it to be “Gratitude is the
excluded or skipped in many a modern Seder.) moral memory of
mankind.”
(George Simmel)

ָ‫ׁשְפְֹ חֲמָתְָ אֶל הַּגֹויִם אֲׁשֶר ֹלא יְָדעּו‬ Doing Gratefulness


‫ ּכִי‬.‫וְעַל מַמְלָכֹות אֲׁשֶר ּבְׁשִמְָ ֹלא ָקָראּו‬
# Share with those at
ְֹ‫ ׁשְפ‬.‫אָכַל אֶת יַעֲֹקב וְאֶת נָוֵהּו הֵׁשַמּו‬ the table people no longer
‫ ּתְִרֹדף‬.‫עֲלֵיהֶם זַעְמֶָ וַחֲרֹון אַּפְָ יַׂשִיגֵם‬ alive who have influenced
.‫ּבְאַף וְתַׁשְמִיֵדם מִּתַחַת ׁשְמֵי יי‬ your life in a way for which
you are grateful. Select a
figure from public life or a
member of your family or
friend.
Pour out your fury on the nations that do not
know you, upon the kingdoms that do not
invoke your name, they have devoured Jacob
and desolated his home.” (Ps. 79:6,7) “Pour
out your wrath on them; may your blazing
anger overtake them.” (Ps. 69.25) “Pursue
them in wrath and destroy them from under
the heavens of the Lord!” (Lam. 3:66)

Let us not forget the Avenue of the Righteous


Gentiles and the efforts of the Jewish People to
remember that there is good as well as evil in
humanity. Let us try to emphasize the good.

128
MIRIAMʼS CUP- Pour Out Your Love On The Righteous
GRATEFUL FOR –
Gentiles
THE GIFT OF-
NURTURANCE Pour out your love on the nations who have known you
Contemporary and on the kingdoms who call upon your name. For they
celebrations of the Seder show loving-kindness to the seed of Jacob and they
recognize the equal role of defend your people Israel from those who would devour
women in the experience them alive. May they live to see the sukkah of peace
of freedom historically and spread over your chosen ones and to participate in the
as freedom unfolds in the
joy of your nations.
present. Miriam, Mosesʼ
sister, is viewed as a
prophet and an essential
figure in the process of
liberation and redemption.

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Rabbinic teaching informs
us that the well of water

AB
that accompanied the
Israelites through the
wilderness was called
R
L
Miriamʼs Well. In other
U

words, Miriam reemerges


EF

as the embodiment of
nurturance and life-
supporting refreshment.
AT

# Without the
quality of care,
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compassion and sacrifice


G

embedded in the nature of


womanhood, redemption
E

would remain incomplete.


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We appeal to Godʼs
“feminine” side when we
pray for compassion,
forgiveness and leniency.
The waters of Miriam are
cooling and comforting,
quenching the thirst for
feeling protected and
loved.
The Midrash,
Shemoth Rabah-1: 26
states:

129
” ʻI had no peaceʻ( Job.
3:26 ) from the first decree that
Pharaoh laid on me-”and they
embittered (vaʼyimararu-‫וימררו‬-
their lives (Exodus 1:13)...But
then God raised up a redemeer
for me-that is ,
Miriiam
named for bitterness.”
(MAR-bitter.)

Doing Gratefulness

Think of a heroine or
a personal female figure in
your life for whom you are

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grateful; discuss how that

AB
individual has blessed your
life.
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L
U
EF
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TH

130
We approach the saddest of all moments...

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AB
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We do so in silence....
AT
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TH

131
AUSCHWITZAUSC
HWITAUSCHWITZ
...‫ֹלעלא‬

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AB
Le’ ayla–
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L
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EF



Beyond
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132
A moment beyond gratitude

beyond all praise and blessing


beyond comprehension...

we are left with silence; sadness; memory


# even madness...

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# gratitude is beyond our grasp and we

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grope for meaning and hope
R
perhaps gratitude can grow out of ashes
L
U

so that faint whispers of praise


EF

will sigh back into the empty spaces


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R
G
E

# of our souls.
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# # # # # # # # # # AMEN.

133
...‫כ ן‬ ‫ואף על פי‬

and yet...

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# AB
Time tries as I drift across it
L
R
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to sink me by mixing my nectar with poison


EF
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against my body it raised its hand


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after taking my wealth and son


G
E
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But I will foil its plans.

I will praise my Maker with endless song.

Todros Abulafia(1247-1300)

134
T

# Can we go from grief to Gratitude-How do


we do it?

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#

AB
# Compassionately , L
R Humbly !
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## # # # #
EF
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R

Share
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# thoughts and feelings of this challenging


E
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# process.

135
,‫ ּכִי לְׁשִמְָ ּתֵן ּכָבֹוד‬, ‫ ֹלא לָנּו‬,‫ יי‬, ‫ֹלא לָנּו‬ HALLEL- PART 2
:‫ לָּמָה יֹאמְרּו הַּגֹויִם‬.ֶָ‫ עַל אֲמִּת‬,ְָ‫עַל חַסְּד‬ GRATEFUL FOR-THE GIFT
OF- PRAISING
‫אַּיֵה נָא‬ # “Tell us, O poet, what
‫ ּכֹל אֲׁשֶר חָפֵץ‬, ‫אֱֹלהֵיהֶם? ואֱֹלהֵינּו ּבַּׁשָמַיִם‬ do you do? I praise;
But those dark,
.‫ עֲצַּבֵיהֶם ּכֶסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲׂשֵה יְֵדי אָָדם‬.‫עָׂשָה‬ deadly devastating ways,/
.‫ עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְֹלא יְִראּו‬,‫ּפֶה לָהֶם וְֹלא יְַדּבֵרּו‬ How do you bear them,
‫ אַף לָהֶם וְֹלא‬,‫אָזְנָיִם לָהֶם וְֹלא יִׁשְמָעּו‬ suffer them?
I praise.
‫ ַרגְלֵיהֶם וְֹלא‬,‫ יְֵדיהֶם וְֹלא יְמִיׁשּון‬.‫יְִריחּון‬ And the Nameless,
‫ ּכְמֹוהֶם יִהְיּו‬.‫ ֹלא יֶהְּגּו ּבִגְרֹונָם‬,‫יְהַּלֵכּו‬ beyond guess or gaze, How
‫ יִׂשְָראֵל ּבְטַח‬.‫ ּכֹל אֲׁשֶר ּבֹטֵחַ ּבָהֶם‬,‫עֹׂשֵיהֶם‬ can you call it, conjure it?
I praise.
‫ ּבֵית אהרן בטחו‬.‫ עֶזְָרם ּומַָגִּנָם הּוא‬,‫ּבַיהוה‬ And whence your
‫ יראי יהוה בטחו‬.‫ עֶזְָרם ּומַָגִּנָם הּוא‬,‫ביהוה‬ right, in every kind of maze/
.‫ עֶזְָרם ּומַָגִּנָם הּוא‬,‫ביהוה‬ in every mask, to remain

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true? I praise.
And that the mildest

AB
and the wildest ways/ Know
Lo lanu, Adonai, lo lanu, ki l'shimcha tein kavod, al
R you like star and storm?
chasd'cha al amitecha. Lamah yomru hagoyim,
Because I praise.
ayeih na Eloheihem. Veiloheinu vashamayim, kol
L
# Rilke
asher chafeitz asah. Atzabeihem kesef v'zahav, ma-
U

“Sometimes we feel
aseih y'dei adam. Peh lahem v'lo y'dabeiru, einayim
EF

overwhelmed. Where to turn?


lahem v'lo yiru. Oz'nayim lahem v'lo yishma-u, af # Where to begin? So
lahem v'lo y'richun. Y'deihem v'lo y'mishun, much to do, so much to
AT

ragleihem v'lo y'haleichu, lo yehgu bigronam. correct...Jealousy. Anger.


Pride. How do we get rid of
R

K'mohem yihyu oseihem, kol asher botei-ach


bahem. Yisra-eil b'tach bʼAdonai, ezram u-maginam them? Gossip. Bickering.
G

They embitter our lives...


hu. Beit aharon bitchu v'Adonai, ezram umaginam
Sometimes we
E

hu. Yirei Adonai bitchu v'Adonai, ezram u-maginam simply want to become better
TH

hu. people, better Jews ... Itʼs too


much to deal with at one
Nor for our sake, O Lord, not for our sake, but for time. We must find one path,
your name's sake give glory, because of your one attribute to give us the
kindness and your truth. Why should the nations proper perspective, to show
say: "Where is their God?" Our God is in the us the right way out of the
heavens; He does whatever He pleases! maze of confusion and fear.
Their idols are silver and gold, the work of human Hallel is this response, the
hands. They have a mouth, but they cannot speak; golden way to awareness of
the divine. To praise God is
they have eyes, but they cannot see; they have
to overcome illusion and to
ears, but they cannot hear; they have a nose, but
touch Reality." (Breslov
Haggadah)

136
they cannot smell; they have hands, but they cannot
Grateful beyond feel; they have feet, but they cannot walk; nor can
reciprocity: they utter a sound with their throat. Those who make
“ How can I repay them shall become like them, whoever trusts in them.
the Lord for all his kind O Israel, trust in the Lord! He is their help and shield.
acts toward me?” You who revere the Lord, trust in the Lord! He is their
# The essence of the help and shield.
Hallel is the awareness of
Psalm 115:12-18
our inability to repay God for
the gifts and kindnesses in ְ‫ יְבֵָר‬,‫ יְבֵָרְ אֶת ּבֵית יִׂשְָראֵל‬. ְ‫יי זְכָָרנּו יְבֵָר‬
the world. Psalm 116 speaks ‫ הַּקְטַנִים עִם‬,‫ יְבֵָרְ יְִראֵי יי‬,‫אֶת ּבֵית אַהֲֹרן‬
of offerings of thanksgiving
for all the good bestowed .‫ עֲלֵיכֶם וְעַל ּבְנֵיכֶם‬,‫ יֹסֵף יי עֲלֵיכֶם‬.‫הַּגְֹדלִים‬
upon humanity. Ironically, the ‫ הַּׁשָמַיִם‬.‫ עֹׂשֵה ׁשָמַיִם וָאֶָרץ‬,‫ּבְרּוכִים אַּתֶם לַיי‬
one reference to a possible
reason for not being grateful-
‫ ֹלא הַּמֵתִים‬.‫ׁשָמַיִם לַיי וְהָאֶָרץ נָתַן לִבְנֵי אָָדם‬
‫ וַאֲנַחְנּו נְבֵָרְ יָּה‬.‫יְהַלְלּויָּה וְֹלא ּכָל יֹרֵדי דּומָה‬

BI
but the very opposite-is the
verse:”Precious in the sight .‫ הַלְלּויָּה‬.‫מֵעַּתָה וְעַד עֹולָם‬

AB
of the Lord is the death of his
pious followers!” Adonai z'charanu y'vareich, y'vareich et beit yisra-eil,
R
How do we
y'vareich et beit aharon. Y'vareich yirei Adonai,
reconcile this unexplainable
L
hak'tanim im hag'dolim. Yoseif Adonai aleichem,
U

reality and tragedy with the


bulk of the psalmʼs insistence aleichem v'al b'neichem. B'ruchim atem l'Adonai,
EF

upon thanksgiving and oseih shamayim va-aretz. Hashamayim shamayim


gratitude? The moral l'Adonai, v'ha-aretz natan livnei adam. Lo hameitim
AT

incongruity of the death of y'hal'lu yah, v'lo kol yor'dei dumah. Va-anachnu
the good while the evil n'vareich yah, mei-atah v'ad olam, hal'luyah.
R

prosper remains a dilemma


G

for which there is no obvious The Lord who has remembered us will bless; He will
or rational answer. The
E

bless the house of Israel; He will bless the house of


Psalmist seems to suggest
TH

Aaron; He will bless those who revere the Lord, the


that this reality is inevitable
and the only response from small with the great. May the Lord increase you, you
God is His response of grief and your children.You are blessed by the Lord, who
to such circumstances. Thus, made the heaven and earth. The heaven is the Lord's
any expectation of heaven, but he has given the earth to mankind. The
intervention on Godʼs part is dead cannot praise the Lord, nor can any who go
futile. What remains is the down into silence. We will bless the Lord from this
totality of the world and life time forth and forever. Halleluyah!
that enfolds this grievous
loss in a context of
abundance and goodness, of
‫ ּכִי‬.‫ ּתַחֲנּונָי‬,‫אָהַבְּתִי ּכִי יִׁשְמַע יי אֶת קֹולִי‬
everlasting kindness that ‫ אֲפָפּונִי חֶבְלֵי מָוֶת‬.‫הִּטָה אָזְנֹו לִי ּובְיָמַי אְֶקָרא‬
surrounds us always, and ‫ ּובׁשֵם‬.‫ צָָרה וְיָגֹון אֶמְצָא‬,‫ּומְצֵָרי ׁשְאֹול מְצָאּונִי‬
137
‫ ׁשֹמֵר‬.‫ וֵאֱֹלהֵינּו מְַרחֵם‬,‫ אָּנָא יי מַּלְטָה נַפְׁשִי! חַנּון יי וְצִַדיק‬:‫יי אְֶקָרא‬
‫ ּכִי‬.‫ ּכִי יי ּגָמַל עָלָיְכִי‬,‫ ׁשּובִי נַפְׁשִי לִמְנּוחָיְכִי‬.ַ‫ ּדַֹלתִי וְלִי יְהֹוׁשִיע‬,‫ּפְתָאִים יי‬
‫ אֶתְהַלְֵ לִפְנֵי יי‬.‫ אֶת ַרגְלִי מִּדֶחִי‬,‫ אֶת עֵינִי מִן ּדִמְעָה‬,‫חִּלַצְּתָ נַפְׁשִי מִּמָוֶת‬
‫ אֲנִי אָמְַרּתִי‬.‫ אֲנִי עָנִיתִי מְאֹד‬,‫ הֶאֱמַנְּתִי ּכִי אֲַדּבֵר‬.‫ּבְאְַרצֹות הַחַּיִים‬
.‫ ּכָל הָאָָדם ּכֹזֵב‬:‫בְחָפְזִי‬
Ahavti ki yishma Adonai, et koli tachanunay. Ki hitah oz'no li, uv'yamai ekra. Afafuni
chevlei mavet, um'tzarei sh'ol m'tza-uni, tzarah v'yagon emtza. Uv'sheim Adonai
ekra, anah Adonai maltah nafshi. Chanun Adonai v'tzadik, veiloheinu m'racheim.
Shomeir p'ta-im Adonai, daloti v'li y'hoshi-a. Shuvi nafshi limnuchay'chi, ki Adonai
gamal alay'chi. Ki chilatzta nafshi mimavet, et eini min dimah, et ragli midechi. Et-
haleich lifnei Adonai, b'artzot hachayim. He-emanti ki adabeir, ani aniti m'od. Ani
amarti v'chof'zi, kol ha-adam kozeiv

I love that the Lord hears my supplications. Because he has inclined his ear to me, I
will call upon him as long as I live. The cords of death encircled me; the pains of the
grave have overtaken me; I found trouble and sorrow. Then I called upon the name
of the Lord: "O Lord, save my life!" Gracious is the Lord, and righteous and our God
is merciful. The Lord protects the simple; I was brought low and he saved me.
Return to your rest, O my soul, for the Lord has been kind to you. You delivered me
from death, my eyes from tears and my feet from stumbling. I shall walk before the
Lord in the lands of the living. I kept faith even when I cry out: "I am greatly afflicted.'
I kept faith even when I said in haste: "All men are deceitful."

Psalm 116:12-19
.‫ ּכֹוס יְׁשּועֹות אֶּׂשָא ּובְׁשֵם יי אְֶקָרא‬.‫מָה אָׁשִיב לַיי ּכֹל ּתַגְמּולֹוהִי עָלָי‬
‫ אָנָא‬.‫ יָָקר ּבְעֵינֵי יי הַּמָוְתָה לַחֲסִיָדיו‬.‫נְָדַרי לַיי אֲׁשַּלֵם נֶגְָדה ּנָא לְכָל עַּמֹו‬
‫ לְָ אֶזְּבַח זֶבַח‬.‫ ּפִּתַחְּתָ לְמֹוסֵָרי‬,ֶָ‫ אֲנִי עַבְּדְָ ּבֶן אֲמָת‬,ֶָ‫יי ּכִי אֲנִי עַבְּד‬
‫ ּבְחַצְרֹות ּבֵית‬.‫ נְָדַרי לַיי אֲׁשַלֵם נֶגְָדה נָא לְכָל עַמֹו‬.‫ּתֹוָדה ּובְׁשֵם יי אְֶקָרא‬
.‫ הַלְלּויָּה‬.‫ ּבְתֹוכֵכִי יְרּושָלַיִם‬,‫יי‬

138
allows us to transcend our grief Mah ashiv l'Adonai, kol tagmulohi alay. Kos y'shuot
with the awareness of how esa, uv'sheim Adonai ekra. N'darai l'Adonai
abundant life is despite our loss ashaleim, negdah na l'chol amo. Yakar b'einei
and sadness. Adonai, hamav'tah lachasidav. Anah Adonai ki ani
# Therefore, one can avdecha, ani avd'cha ben amatecha, pitachta
conclude that while we mourn l'moseiray. L'cha ezbach zevach todah, uv'sheim
angrily and sorrowfully, Adonai ekra. N'darai l'Adonai ashaleim, negdah na
thankfulness still waits in the
l'chol amo. B'chatzrot beit Adonai, b'tocheichi
wings.
y'rushalayim, hal'luyah.
“I thank you for you
BI
have answered me”-
AB

Often we feel as if God How can I repay the Lord for all his kind acts toward
has not answered us, has not me? I will raise the cup of salvations, and call upon the
R

fulfilled our desires in a way that name of the Lord. My vows to the Lord I will pay in the
we understand as necessary for
L

presence of all his people. Precious in the sight of the


us. Thus, many interpret this
U

Lord is the death of his pious followers. O Lord, I am


verse of the Psalmist as truly your servant; I am your servant, the son of your
EF

suggesting that I will thank God - handmaid; You has loosened my bonds. To you I
ki- ‫כי‬-when, He answers me. sacrifice a thanksgiving offering, and call upon the name
AT

# The Psalmistʼs assertion of the Lord. My vows to the Lord I will pay in the
could be read differently; the ki - presence of all his people, In the courts of the Lord's
‫כי‬- here could be translated as house, in the midst of Jerusalem. Halleluyah!
“because,” indicating that God
has already answered us and Psalm 117
continues to do so; thus the .‫ ׁשַּבְחּוהּו ּכָל הָאֻּמִים‬,‫הַלְלּו אֶת יי ּכָל ּגֹויִם‬
spiritual necessity or expectation
that thankfulness be in our hearts .‫ וֶאֱמֶת יי לְעֹולָם‬,‫ּכִי גָבַר עָלֵינּו חַסְדֹו‬
at all times- “Odecha”-‫אודך‬- I .‫הַלְלּויָּה‬
thank and I will thank,
unceasingly, with every breath I Hal'lu et Adonai, kol goyim, shab'chu-hu, kol ha-
breathe, and without interruption. umim. Ki gavar aleinu chasdo, ve-emet Adonai
As a pivotal reference l'olam, hal'luyah
point of the climatic crescendo to
the experience of liberation, we .Give thanks to the Lord, all you nations; praise him, all
meet with “zeh,” -‫זה‬-ʻthis,ʼ at the you peoples! For his kindness overwhelms us, and the
end of our service as we praise truth of the Lord is forever, Halleluyah!
God for making this day a source
of rejoicing and gratefulness. Psalm 118:1-4
A poignant reference to .‫הֹודּו לַיי ּכִי טֹוב ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‬
“zeh” -‫זה‬-is that which is found in
the verses of Psalms read as part
.‫יֹאמַר נָא יִׂשְָראֵל ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‬
of the Hallel during the Seder. .‫יֹאמְרּו נָא בֵית אַהֲֹרן ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‬
“Zeh haʼshaar lʼadonai zaddikim
yavohoo vo”- -‫זה השער ליי‬ .‫יֹאמְרּו נָא יְִראֵי יי ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‬

139
‫צדיקים יבואו בו‬-“this is the
Hodu l'Adonai ki tov, ki l'olam chasdo. Yomar na yisra- gateway to the Lord, the
eil, ki l'olam chasdo. Yomru na veit aharon, ki l'olam righteous shall enter therein.”
chasdo. Yomru na yirei Adonai, ki l'olam chasdo. What is the gateway that
leads to an awareness of
Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good; His kindness divinity, to a closeness with
God, to a consciousness of
endures forever. Let Israel say: his kindness endures
Shechinah,-‫שכינה‬- of the
forever. Let the house of Aaron say: his kindness presence of the sacred in our
endures forever. Let those who revere the Lord say: his lives? The Psalmist leaves
kindness endures forever. the point of reference vague,
although it is assumed that
Psalm 118:5-29 this Psalm was recited in the
precincts of the Sanctuary
,‫ יי לִי‬.‫ עָּנָנִי בַמְֶרחַב יָּה‬,‫מִן הַּמֵצַר ָקָראתִי ּיָּה‬ during occasions of
‫ מַה ּיַעֲׂשֶה לִי אָָדם? יי לִי ּבְעֹזְָרי וַאֲנִי‬- ‫ֹלא אִיָרא‬ pilgrimage.
In a more
.‫ טֹוב לַחֲסֹות ּבַיי מִּבְטֹחַ ּבָאָָדם‬.‫אְֶראֶה ּבְׂשנְאָי‬ imaginative and expanded
‫ ּכָל ּגֹויִם‬.‫טֹוב לַחֲסֹות ּבַיי מִּבְטֹחַ ּבִנְִדיבִים‬ way, I would suggest that the

BI
gateway to godliness can be
,‫ סַּבּונִי גַם סְבָבּונִי‬.‫ ּבְׁשֵם יי ּכִי אֲמִילַם‬,‫סְבָבּונִי‬

AB
located by the “zeh”-‫זה‬-the
‫ ּדֹעֲכּו ּכְאֵׁש‬, ‫ סַּבּונִי כִּדְבִֹרים‬.‫ּבְׁשֵם יי ּכִי אֲמִילַם‬ “this” pointing backward to
the very end of the previous
R
,‫ ּדָחֹה ּדְחִיתַנִי לִנְּפֹל‬.‫ ּבְׁשֵם יי ּכִי אֲמִילַם‬,‫קֹוצִים‬ verse: “Pitchoo li shaarei
‫ קֹול‬.‫ עּזִי וְזִמְָרת יָּה וַיְהִי לִי לִיׁשּועָה‬.‫וַיי עֲזָָרנִי‬ zedek, avoh bam, ohdeh
L
yah,”-‫פתחו לי שערי צדק אבוא‬
U

,‫ יְמִין יי עֹׂשֵָה חָיִל‬:‫ִרּנָה וִיׁשּועָה ּבְאָהֳלֵי צַּדִיִקים‬ ‫בם אודה יה‬-”open for me the
EF

‫ ֹלא אָמּות ּכִי‬.‫ יְמִין יי עֹׂשֵָה חָיִל‬,‫יְמִין יי רֹומֵמָה‬ gates of triumph, that I may
enter to thank, to praise
‫ וְלַּמָוֶת‬,‫ יַּסֹר יִּסְַרנִי ּיָּה‬.‫ וַאֲסַּפֵר מַעֲׂשֵי יָּה‬,‫אֶחְיֶה‬
AT

God.” By reversing the order


of the activities contained in
‫ אֹוֶדה‬,‫ אָבֹא בָם‬,‫ ּפִתְחּו לִי ׁשַעֲֵרי צֶֶדק‬.‫ֹלא נְתָנָנִי‬
R

the verse, we can understand


.‫ צַּדִיִקים יָבֹאּו בֹו‬,‫ זֶה הַּׁשַעַר לַיי‬.‫יָּה‬ its meaning by the following
G

paraphrasing- By praising
E

God, I pass through the


Min hameitzar karati yah, anani vamerchav yah. Adonai
gateway and enter into the
TH

li lo ira, mah ya-aseh li adam. Adonai li b'oz'ray, va-ani presence of the


ereh v'son'ay. Tov lachasot bʼAdonai, mib'toach ba- Compassionate One. Thus
adam. Tov lachasot bʼAdonai, mib'toach bindivim. Kol “zeh-”‫זה‬- ʻthis” again re-
goyim s'vavuni, b'sheim Adonai ki amilam. Sabuni gam emerges as an axis around
which the enterprise of
s'vavuni, b'sheim Adonai ki amilam. Sabuni chidvorim
spiritual freedom revolves,
do-achu k'eish kotzim, b'sheim Adonai ki amilam. and the Seder becomes
Dachoh d'chitani linpol, v'Adonai azarani. Ozi v'zimrat another gateway through
yah, vay'hi li lishuah. Kol rinah vishuah b'aholei which all of us-not only the
tzadikim, y'min Adonai osah chayil. Y'min Adonai righteous-can pass through
and gain access to the
romeimah, y'min Adonai osah chayil. Lo amut ki majesty, grandeur, warmth,
echyeh, va-asapeir ma-asei yah. Yasor yis'rani yah, joy and love of this night of
v'lamavet lo n'tanani. Pitchu li sha-arei tzedek, avo vam freedom.

140
Parenthetically, the odeh yah. Zeh hasha-ar lʼAdonai, tzadikim yavo-u
Hebrew for gate--‫שער‬-sh-aa-r- vo.
when the letters are rearranged,
spell the word o-sher -‫עשר‬-which From the straits I called upon the Lord; the Lord
means wealth. Thus to further answered me by placing me in a great expanse. The
reinforce the centrality of Lord is with me; I have no fear of what man can do
gratefulness during the Seder, to me. The Lord is with me among my helpers; I
wealth according to Judaism is
not reflected in the level of
shall see the defeat of my foes. It is better to seek
possession but rather the depth refuge in the Lord than to trust in man. It is better to
of perception. seek refuge in the Lord than to trust in princes. All
The Hallel declares- nations have encompassed me; but in the name of
“Meyʼet Adonai hayta Zot…” the Lord, I routed them. They swarmed around me;
‫מאת יי היתה זאת‬- “This is but in the name of the Lord, I cut them down. They
the doing of the Lord, it is swarmed like bees about me, but they were
marvelous in our sight.” extinguished like a fire of thorns; but in the name of
the Lord, I cut them down. You pushed me that I
When the Psalm asserts-“zeh

BI
might fall, but the Lord helped me. The Lord is my
hayom asah Adonai, nagilah
vʼnismecha vo- ‫זה היום עשה יי‬ strength and song; He has become my salvation.
‫נגילה ונשמחה בו‬-“this is the day
AB
The voice of rejoicing and salvation is heard in the
the Lord has made, let us exult tents of the righteous: "The right hand of the Lord
R
and rejoice in it,” this day is filled does valiantly. The Lord's right hand is raised in
with the sunshine of unsparing
L

triumph; the Lord's right hand does valiantly!" I shall


generosity and freedom,
U

suffusing time and space with the not die, but live to relate the deeds of the Lord. The
EF

sounds of grateful joy and song. Lord has surely punished me, but he has not left me
to die. Open for me the gates of righteousness, that
AT

I may enter and praise the Lord. This is the gate of


the Lord; the righteous may enter through it
R

ָ‫ אֹוְד‬.‫אֹוְדָ ּכִי עֲנִיתָנִי וַּתְהִי לִי לִיׁשּועָה‬


G

‫ אֶבֶן מָאֲסּו‬.‫ּכִי עֲנִיתָנִי וַּתְהִי לִי לִיׁשּועָה‬


E

‫הַּבֹונִים הָיְתָה לְֹראׁש ּפִּנָהאֶבֶן מָאֲסּו‬


TH

‫ מֵאֵת יהוה‬.‫הַּבֹונִים הָיְתָה לְֹראׁש ּפִּנָה‬


.‫הָיְתָה ּזֹאת הִיא נִפְלָאֹת ּבְעֵינֵינּו‬
‫מֵאֵת יהוה הָיְתָה ּזֹאת הִיא נִפְלָאֹת ּבְעֵינֵינּו‬
Od'cha ki anitani, vat'hi li lishuah. Od'cha ki anitani,
vat'hi li lishuah.Even ma-asu habonim, hay'tah l'rosh
pinah. Even ma-asu habonim, hay'tah l'rosh pinah.
Mei-eit Adonai hay'tah zot, hi niflat b'eineinu. Mei-eit
Adonai hay'tah zot, hi niflat b'eineinu.

141
Zeh hayom asah Adonai, nagilah v'nism'chah vo. Zeh hayom asah Adonai, nagilah
v'nism'chah vo.

I thank you for you have answered me, becoming my salvation. The stone which the
builders rejected has become the major cornerstone. This the Lord's doing; It is
marvelous in our eyes. This is the day which the Lord has made; We will be glad and
rejoice on it.

. ‫ הֹוש ִיע ָה ּנ ָ א‬,‫ּא ָנ ָא יי‬


.‫ הֹושִיעָה ּנָא‬,‫אָנָא יי‬
.‫ הַצְלִיחָה נָא‬,‫אָנָא יי‬
.‫ הַצְלִיחָה נָא‬,‫אָנָא יי‬
Ana Adonai hoshi-ah na. Ana Adonai hoshi-ah na. Ana Adonai hatzlichah na. Ana

BI
Adonai hatzlichah na

AB
O Lord, please save us! O Lord, please save us! O Lord, let us prosper! O Lord, let us
prosper! R
L
( Each verse is recited twice.)
U

‫ ּבֵַרכְנּוכֶם‬,‫ ּבָרּוְ הַּבָא ּבְׁשֵם יי‬.‫ ּבֵַרכְנּוכֶם מִּבֵית יי‬,‫ּבָרּוך הַּבָא ּבְׁשֵם יי‬.
EF

‫ אֵל יי‬.ַ‫ אִסְרּו חַג ּבַעֲבֹתִים עַד ַקְרנֹות הַּמִזְּבֵח‬. ‫ אֵל יי וַּיָאֶר לָנּו‬.‫מִּבֵית יי‬
- ‫ אֱֹלהַי‬,ָ‫ אֵלִי אַּתָה וְאֹוֶדּך‬.ַ‫ אִסְרּו חַג ּבַעֲבֹתִים עַד ַקְרנֹות הַּמִזְּבֵח‬. ‫וַּיָאֶר לָנּו‬
AT

‫ ּכִי לְעֹולָם‬,‫ הֹודּו לַיי ּכִי טֹוב‬.ָ‫ אֲרֹומְמֶּך‬- ‫ אֱֹלהַי‬,ָ‫ אֵלִי אַּתָה וְאֹוֶדּך‬.ָ‫אֲרֹומְמֶּך‬
R

.‫ ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‬,‫ הֹודּו לַיי ּכִי טֹוב‬.‫חַסְּדֹו‬


G
E

Baruch haba b'sheim Adonai, beirachnuchem mibeit Adonai. Baruch haba b'sheim
TH

Adonai, beirachnuchem mibeit Adonai. Eil Adonai vaya-er lanu, isru chag ba-avotim ad
karnot hamizbei-ach. Eil Adonai vaya-er lanu, isru chag ba-avotim, ad karnot
hamizbei-ach. Eili atah v'odeka, elohai arom'meka. Eili atah v'odeka, elohai
arom'meka. Hodu l'Adonai ki tov, ki l'olam chasdo. Hodu l'Adonai ki tov, ki l'olam
chasdo.

Blessed be he who comes in the name of the Lord; We bless you from the house of
the Lord. The Lord is God who has shown us light; Bind the sacrifice with cords, up to
the altar-horns. You are my God, and I thank you;You are my God, and I exalt you.
Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good; His kindness endures forever.

ְָ‫ וְכָל עַמ‬,ֶָ‫ וַחֲסִיֶדיָ צַּדִיִקים עֹוׂשֵי ְרצֹונ‬,ָ‫יְהַלְלּוָ יי אֱֹלהֵינּו ּכָל מַעֲׂשֶי‬
142
‫ּבֵית יִׂשְָראֵל ּבְִרנָה יֹודּו‬
‫ ּכִי‬.‫ מַלְּכֵנּו‬,ְָ‫ וְיְַקּדִיׁשּו וְיַמְלִיכּו אֶת ׁשִמ‬,‫ וִירֹומְמּו וְיַעֲִריצּו‬,‫וִיׁשַּבְחּו וִיפָאֲרּו‬
.‫ ּכִי מֵעֹולָם וְעַד עֹולָם אַּתָה אֵל‬,‫לְָ טֹוב לְהֹודֹות ּולְׁשִמְָ נָאְֱה לְזַמר‬

May all creation praise You,Adonai our God. May the pious, the righteous who do Your
will and al your people the house of Israel, join in thanking You with joyous song. May
they praise, revere, adore, extol,exalt and sanctify Your sovereign glory, our King. To
you it is good to give thanks,to your glory it is fitting to sing.From age to age,
everlastingly, You are our God.

THIS ------ ‫זאת‬

I WILL ‫אודה‬

# # # #
THANK

THIS ------ ‫זה‬

143
‫‪Psalm 136‬‬
‫הֹודּו לַיי ּכִי טֹוב ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫הֹודּו לֵאֹלהֵי הָאֱֹלהִים ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫הֹודּו לָאֲֹדנֵי הָאֲֹדנִים ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫לעֹׂשֵה נִפְלָאֹות גְֹדלֹות לְבַּדֹו ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫לעֹׂשֵה הַּׁשָמַיִם ּבִתְבּונָה ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫לְרֹוַקע הָאֶָרץ עַל הַּמָיְם ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫לְעֹׂשֵה אֹוִרים ּגְֹדלִים ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫אֶת הַּׁשֶמֶׁש לְמֶמְׁשֶלֶת ּבַיֹום ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫אֶת הַּיֵָרחַ וְכֹוכָבִים לְמֶמְׁשְלֹות ּבַּלַיְלָה ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫לְמַּכֵה מִצְַרים ּבִבְכֹוֵריהֶם ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫וַיֹוצֵא יִׂשְָראֵל מִּתֹוכָם ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫ּבְיָד חֲזָָקה ּובִזְרֹועַ נְטּויָה ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫לְגֹזֵר יַם סּוף לִגְזִָרים ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫וְהֶעֱבִיר יִׂשְָראֵל ּבְתֹוכֹו ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫וְנִעֵר ּפְַרעֹה וְחֵילֹו בְיַם סּוף ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫לְמֹולִיְ עַּמֹו ּבַּמְִדּבָר ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫לְמַּכֵה מְלָכִים ּגְֹדלִים ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫וַיָהֲֹרג מְלָכִים אִַדיִרים ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫לְסִיחֹון מֶלְֶ הָאֱמִֹרי ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫ּולְעֹוג מֶלְֶ הַּבָׁשָן ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫וָנָתַן אְַרצָם לְנַחֲלָה ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫נַחֲלָה לְיִׂשְָראֵל עָבְדּו ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫ׁשֶּבְִׁשִפְלֵנּו זָכַר לָנּו ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫וַיִפְְרֵקנּו מִּצֵָרינּו ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫נֹתֵן לֶחֶם לְכָל ּבָׂשָר ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬
‫הֹודּו לְאֵל הַּׁשָמַיִם ּכִי לְעֹולָם חַסְּדֹו‪.‬‬

‫‪Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good, His kindness endures‬‬


‫;‪forever‬‬
‫‪Give thanks to the God above gods, His kindness endures‬‬
‫;‪forever‬‬

‫‪144‬‬
The moon and the stars to reign by night, His kindness endures
forever;
Give thanks to the Lord of lords, His kindness endures forever;
To him who alone does great wonders, His kindness endures
forever;
To him who made the heavens with understanding, His kindness
endures forever;
To him who stretched the earth over the waters, His kindness
endures forever;
To him who made the great lights, His kindness endures forever;
The sun to reign by day, His kindness endures forever;
To him who smote Egypt in their firstborn, His kindness endures
forever;
And took Israel out from among them, His kindness endures
forever;
With strong hand and outstretched arm, His kindness endures
forever;
To him who parted the Red Sea, His kindness endures forever;
And caused Israel to pass through it, His kindness endures
forever;
And threw Pharaoh and his host in the Red Sea, His kindness
endures forever;
To him who led His people through the wilderness, His kindness
endures forever;
To him who smote great kings, His kindness endures forever;
And slew mighty kings, His kindness endures forever;
Sihon, king of the Amorites, His kindness endures forever;
And Og, king of Bashan, His kindness endures forever;
And gave their land as an inheritance, His kindness endures
forever;
An inheritance to Israel his servant, His kindness endures forever;
Who remembered us in our low state, His kindness endures
forever;
145
And released us from our foes, His kindness endures forever;
Who gives food to all creatures, His kindness endures forever;
Give thanks to God of all heaven, His kindness endures forever.

146
‫‪Grateful for God as‬‬ ‫̈נִׁשְמַת ּכָל חַי ּתְבֵַרְ אֶת ׁשִמְָ‪ ,‬יי אֱֹלהֵינּו‪,‬‬
‫‪Creator, Liberator,‬‬
‫‪Protector and‬‬ ‫וְרּוחַ ּכָל ּבָׂשָר ּתְפָאֵר ּותְרֹומֵם זִכְְרָ‪ ,‬מַלְּכֵנּו‪,‬‬
‫‪Provider‬‬ ‫ּתָמִיד‪ .‬מִן הָעֹולָם וְעַד הָעֹולָם אַּתָה אֵל‪,‬‬
‫‪Praise is the spiritual‬‬ ‫ּומִּבַלְעֶָדיָ אֵין לָנּו מֶלְֶ ּגֹואֵל ּומֹושִיעַ‪ּ ,‬פֹוֶדה‬
‫‪expression of a sense of‬‬
‫‪gratitude for the awareness of‬‬ ‫ּומַּצִיל ּומְפְַרנֵס ּומְַרחֵם ּבְכָל עֵת צָָרה וְצּוָקה‪.‬‬
‫‪having been given essential‬‬ ‫אֵין לָנּו מֶלְֶ אֶּלָא אַּתָה‪ .‬אֱֹלהֵי הִָראׁשֹונִים‬
‫‪gifts of our existence-the‬‬
‫‪world, the capacity to be free,‬‬ ‫וְהָאַחֲרֹונִים‪ ,‬אֱלֹוּהַ ּכָל ּבְִריֹות‪ ,‬אֲדֹון ּכָל‬
‫‪feeling safe and secure and‬‬
‫‪knowing that human needs‬‬
‫ּתֹולָדֹות‪ ,‬הַּמְהֻלָל ּבְֹרב הַּתִׁשְּבָחֹות‪ ,‬הַמְנַהֵג‬
‫‪can be met.‬‬ ‫עֹולָמֹו ּבְחֶסֶד ּובְִרּיֹותָיו ּבְַרחֲמִים‪ .‬וַיי ֹלא יָנּום‬
‫וְֹלֹא יִיׁשָן ‪ -‬הַּמְעֹוֵרר יְׁשֵנִים וְהַּמִֵקיץ נְִרּדָמִים‪,‬‬
‫‪These gifts flow out‬‬
‫‪of a divine source or reality‬‬ ‫וְהַּמֵׂשִיחַ אִּלְמִים וְהַּמַּתִיר אֲסּוִרים וְהַּסֹומְֵ‬
‫‪that saturates all things with‬‬
‫נֹופְלִִים וְהַּזֹוֵקף ּכְפּופִים‪ .‬לְָ לְבַּדְָ אֲנַחְנּו‬

‫‪BI‬‬
‫‪kindness and love. This‬‬
‫‪dimension of compassion is‬‬ ‫מֹוִדים‪.‬‬

‫‪AB‬‬
‫‪enduring and indestructible.‬‬
‫‪Frequently this reality is‬‬
‫‪hidden, submerged under‬‬ ‫אִּלּו פִינּו מָלֵא ׁשִיָרה ּכַּיָם‪ּ ,‬ולְׁשֹונֵנּו ִרּנָה‬
‫‪R‬‬
‫‪layers of cruelty and‬‬
‫ּכֲהַמֹון ּגַּלָיו‪ ,‬וְׂשִפְתֹותֵינּו ׁשֶבַח ּכְמְֶרחֲבֵי ָרִקיעַ‪,‬‬
‫‪L‬‬
‫‪indifference, like the sun‬‬
‫‪U‬‬

‫‪concealed behind ominous‬‬ ‫וְעֵינֵינּו מְאִירֹות ּכַׁשֶמֶׁש וְכַּיֵָרחַ‪ ,‬וְיֵָדינּו פְרּוׂשֹות‬


‫‪EF‬‬

‫‪clouds. As long as we can‬‬


‫‪praise, the reality of‬‬ ‫ּכְנִׂשְֵרי ׁשָמַיִם‪ ,‬וְַרגְלֵינּו ַקּלֹות ּכָאַּיָלֹות ‪ -‬אֵין‬
‫‪compassion is within our‬‬ ‫אֲנַחְנּו מַסְּפִיִקים לְהֹודֹות לְָ ‪ ,‬יי אֱֹלהֵינּו‬
‫‪AT‬‬

‫‪grasp, and the sunʼs rays‬‬


‫‪reappear.‬‬ ‫וֵאֹלהֵי אֲבֹותֵינּו ‪ּ ,‬ולְבֵָרְ‪ ,‬אֶת ׁשִמְָ עַל‬
‫‪R‬‬

‫אַחַת‪ ,‬מֵאֶלֶף‪ ,‬אַלְפֵי אֲלָפִים וְִרּבֵי ְרבָבֹות‬


‫‪G‬‬

‫ּפְעָמִים‪ ,‬הַּטֹובֹות ׁשֶעָׂשִיתָ עִם אֲבֹותֵינּו‬


‫‪E‬‬

‫וְעִּמָנּו‪ .‬מִּמִצְַרים ּגְאַלְּתָנּו‪ ,‬יי אֱֹלהֵינּו‪ּ ,‬ומִּבֵית‬


‫‪TH‬‬

‫עֲבִָדים ּפְִִדיתָנּו‪ּ ,‬בְָרעָב זַנְּתָנּו ּובְׂשָבָע‬


‫ּכִלְּכַלְּתָנּו‪ ,‬מֵחֶֶרב הִּצַלְּתָנּו ּומִּדֶבֶר מִּלַטְּתָנּו‪,‬‬
‫ּומֵחָלָיִם ָרעִים וְנֶאֱמָנִים ּדִּלִיתָנּו‪ .‬עַד הֵּנָה‬
‫עֲזָרּונּו ַרחֲמֶיָ וְֹלא עֲזָבּונּו חֲסֶָדיָ‪ ,‬וְאַל‬
‫ּתִּטְׁשֵנּו‪ ,‬יי אֱֹלהֵינּו‪ ,‬לָנֶצַח‪ .‬עַל ּכֵן אֵבִֶָרים‬
‫ׁשֶּפִּלַגְּתָ ּבָנּו וְרּוחַ ּונְׁשָמָה ׁשֶּנָפַחְּתָ ּבְאַּפֵינּו‬
‫וְלָׁשֹון אֲׁשֶר ׂשַמְּתָ ּבְפִינּו ‪ -‬הֵן הֵם יֹודּו וִיבְָרכּו‬
‫וִיׁשַּבְחּו וִיפָאֲרּו וִירֹומְמּו וְיַעֲִריצּו וְיְַקּדִיׁשּו‬
‫וְיַמְלִיכּו אֶת ׁשִמְָ מַלְּכֵנּו‪ּ .‬כִי כָל ּפֶה לְָ יֹוֶדה‪,‬‬

‫‪147‬‬
,‫ וְכָל קֹומָה לְפָנֶיָ תִׁשְּתַחֲוֶה‬,‫ וְכָל ּבֶֶרְ לְָ תִכְַרע‬,‫וְכָל לָׁשֹון לְָ ּתִּׁשָבַע‬
‫ ּכָל‬,‫ ּכַָדבָר ׁשֶּכָתּוב‬,ֶָ‫ וְכָל ֶקֶרב ּוכְלָיֹות יְזַּמֵרּו לִׁשְִמ‬,ָ‫וְכָל לְבָבֹות יִיָראּו‬
.‫ מִי כָמֹוָ מַּצִיל עָנִי מֵחָזָק מִּמֶנּו וְעָנִי וְאֶבְיֹון מִּגֹזְלֹו‬,‫ יי‬:‫עַצְמֹתַי ּתֹאמְַרנָה‬
‫ אֵל‬,‫ הַּגִּבֹור וְהַּנֹוָרא‬,‫מִי יְִדמֶה ּלְָ ּומִי יִׁשְוֶה ּלְָ ּומִי יַעֲֹרְ לְַָ הָאֵל הַּגָדֹול‬
,ֶָ‫ נְהַּלֶלְָ ּונְׁשַּבֵחֲָ ּונְפָאְֶרָ ּונְבֵָרְ אֶת ׁשֵם ָקְדׁש‬.‫ ֹקנֵה ׁשָמַיִם וָאֶָרץ‬,‫עֶלְיֹון‬
.‫ ּבְָרכִי נַפְׁשִי אֶת יי וְכָל ְקָרבַי אֶת ׁשֵם ָקְדׁשֹו‬,‫ לְָדוִד‬:‫ּכָאָמּור‬

The soul of every living being shall bless your name, Lord our God the spirit of all
flesh shall ever glorify and exalt your remembrance, our King. Throughout eternity
Thou art God. Besides Thee we have no king who redeems and saves, ransoms and
rescues, sustains and shows mercy in all times of trouble and distress. We have no
King but Thee-God of the first and of the last, God of all creatues, Master of all
generations, One acclaimed with a multitude of praises, He who guides His world
with kindness and His creatures with mercy. The Lord neither slumbers nor sleeps;
He rouses those who sleep and wakens those who slumber; He enables the
speechless to speak and loosens the bonds of the captives; He supports those who
are fallen and raises those who are bowed down. To Thee alone we give thanks.
Were our mouth filled with song as the ocean, and our tongue with joy as the
endless waves; were our lips full of praise as the wide heavens, and our eyes
shining like the sun or the moon; were our hands spread out in prayer as the eagles
of the sky and our feet running as swiftly as the deer--we should still be unable to
thank Thee and bless your name, Lord our God and God of our fathers, for one of
the thousands and even myriads of favors which Thou hast bestowed on our fathers
and on us. Thou hast liberated us from Egypt, Lord our God, and redeemed us from
the house of slavery. Thou has fed us in famine and sustained us with plenty. Thou
hast saved us from the sword, helped us to escape the plague, and spared us from
severe and enduring diseases. Until now your mercy has helped us, and your
kindness has not forsaken us; mayest Thou, Lord our God, never abandon us.
Therefore, the limbs which Thou has given us, the spirit and soul which Thou has
breathed into our nostrils, and the tongue which Thou hast placed in our mouth, shall
all thank and bless, praise and glorify, exalt and revere, sanctify and acclaim your
name, our King. To Thee, every mouth shall offer thanks; every tongue shall vow
allegiance; every knee shall bend, and all who stand erect shall bow. All hearts shall
revere Thee, and men's inner beings shall sing to your name, as it is written: "all my
bones shall say: O Lord, who is like Thee? Thou savest the poor man from one that
is stronger, the poor and needy from one who would rob him." Who may be likened
to Thee? Who is equal to Thee? Who can be compared to Thee? O Great, mighty
and revered God, supreme God is the Master of heaven and earth. Let us praise,

148
acclaim and glorify Thee and bless your holy name, as it is said: "A Psalm of David:
Bless the Lord, O my soul, and let my whole inner being bless His holy name."

‫ הַּגִּבֹור לָנֶצַח וְהַּנֹוָרא‬,ֶָ‫ הַּגָדֹול ּבִכְבֹוד ׁשְמ‬,ֶָ‫הָאֵל ּבְתַעֲצֻמֹות עֻּז‬


‫ ׁשֹוכֵן עַד ּמָרֹום וְּקָדֹוׁש‬.‫ הַּמֶלְֶ הַּיוׁשֵב עַל ּכִּסֵא ָרם וְנִשִָּׂא‬,ָ‫ּבְנֹוְראֹותֶי‬
.‫ לַיְׁשִָרים נָאוָה תְהִּלָה‬,‫ ַרּנְנּו צַּדִיִקים ּבַיהוה‬:‫ וְכָתּוב‬.‫ׁשְמֹו‬

O God in your mighty acts of power, great in the honor of your name, powerful
forever and revered for your awe-inspiring acts, O King seated upon a high and lofty
throne!

He who abidest forever, exalted and holy is His name. And it is written: "Rejoice in
the Lord, you righteous; it is pleasant for the upright to give praise."

,‫ּבְפִי יְׁשִָרים ּתִתְהַּלָל‬


,ְ‫ּובְִדבְֵרי צַּדִיִקים ּתִתְּבַַָר‬
,‫ּובִלְׁשֹון חֲסִיִדים ּתִתְרֹומָם‬
.‫ּובְֶקֶרב ְקדֹוׁשִים ּתִתְַקּדָׁש‬

By the mouth of the upright you shall be praised; By the words of the righteous you
shall be blessed; By the tongue of the pious you shall be exalted; And in the midst of
the holy you shall be sanctified.

‫ ּבְכָל‬,‫ מַלְּכֵנּו‬,ְָ‫ובְמְַקהֲלֹות ִרבבְֹות עַּמְָ ּבֵית יִׂשְָראֵל ּבְִרּנָה יִתְּפָאֵר ׁשִמ‬


, ‫ יי אֱֹלהֵינּו וֵאֹלהֵי אֲבֹותֵינּו‬,ָ‫ ׁשֶּכֵן חֹובַת ּכָל הַיְצּוִרים לְפָנֶי‬,‫ּדֹור וָדֹור‬
‫ לְעַּלֵה ּולְַקּלֵס עַל ּכָל‬,ְ‫ לְפָאֵר לְרֹומֵם לְהַּדֵר לְבֵָר‬,ַ‫לְהֹודֹות לְהַּלֵל לְׁשַּבֵח‬
.ֶָ‫ מְׁשִיח‬,ְָ‫ּדִבְֵרי ׁשִירֹות וְתִׁשְּבְחֹות ּדַָוִד ּבֶן יִׁשַי עַבְּד‬
In the assemblies of the multitudes of your people, the house of Israel, with song
shall your name, our King, be glorified in every generation. For it is the duty of all
creatures to thank, praise, laud, extol, exalt, adore, and bless Thee; even beyond the
songs and praises of David the son of Jesse, your anointed servant.

,‫ הָאֵל הַמֶלְֶ הַּגָדֹול וְהַּקָדֹוׁש ּבַּׁשָמַיִם ּובַָאֶָרץ‬,‫יִׁשְּתַּבַח ׁשִמְָ לַָעַד מַלְּכֵנּו‬


‫ עֹז‬,‫ הַּלֵל וְזִמְָרה‬,‫ ׁשִיר ּוׁשְבָחָה‬, ‫ יי אֱֹלהֵינּו וֵאֹלהֵי אֲבֹותֵינּו‬,‫ּכִי לְָ נָאֶה‬

149
‫ ּתְהִלָה‬,‫ ּגְֻדּלָה ּוגְבּוָרה‬,‫ נֶצַח‬,‫ּומֶמְׁשָלָה‬ Grateful for the
‫ ּבְָרכֹות וְהֹוָדאֹות‬,‫ ְקֻדּׁשָה ּומַלְכּות‬,‫וְתִפְאֶֶרת‬ obligation to praise:
ְֶ‫ אֵל מֶל‬, ‫ ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי‬.‫מֵעַּתָה וְעַד עֹולָם‬ What comes first,
the feeling or the word?
‫ אֲדֹון‬,‫ אֵל הַהֹוָדאֹות‬,‫ּגָדֹול ּבַּתִׁשְּבָחֹות‬ In the prayer of praise
‫ מֶלְֶ אֵל חֵי‬,‫ הַּבֹוחֵר ּבְׁשִיֵרי זִמְָרה‬,‫הַנִפְלָאֹות‬ recited at this point in the
.‫הָעֹולָמִים‬ Seder we affirm that it “is the
duty of all creatures to thank,
praise, laud, adore etc.”
Praise be your name forever, our King, who rules Somehow the obligation in
and is great and holy in heaven and on earth; for to itself is a source of great
Thee, Lord our God, it is fitting to render song and significance. As often happens
praise, hallel and psalms, power and dominion, in life and in religious
victory, glory and might, praise and beauty, holiness experience, the starting point
and sovereignty, blessings and thanks, from now
of our journey toward

BI
and forever.
expanded inner awareness is

AB
one of mere practice and
mechanical movement-But,
R ”mee-toch shelo lishmah, bah
L
Fourth Cup-K O S R ’ V E E - E E - lishmah”-‫מתוך שלא לשמה בא‬
U

‫לשמה‬- from the rote-like can


‫ּכֹוס ְרבִיעִי‬
EF

spring up the spontaneous


[ The fourth cup of wine is filled and after the and heart felt experience of
AT

following beracha we drink this final cup of the the godly in our lives. Often
Seder. ]
R

we first have to merely say the


‫ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֶלְֶ הָעֹולָם ּבֹוֵרא ּפְִרי‬
G

words “thank you” before we

.‫הַגָפֶן‬ can gain a full understanding


E

of the reason for our gratitude.


Baruch atah Adonai, Eloheinu melech ha-olam,
TH

borei p'ri hagafen. # # #


The word for
Blessed art Thou, Lord our God, King of the obligation used in the above
universe, who creates the fruit of the vine. text is “HOVAH”-‫חובה‬-
Curiously, the slight change in
‫ עַל הַּגֶפֶן וְעַל ּפְִרי‬,‫ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה יי אֱֹלהֵינּו מֶלְֶ העֹולָם‬ vocalization takes us to
‫ עַל ּתְנּובַת הַּׂשֶָדה וְעַל אֶֶרץ חֶמְּדָה‬, ‫הַּגֶפֶן‬ another word-”HIBAH”-‫חיבה‬
‫טֹובָה ּוְרחָבָה‬ meaning affection, even love.
This association can lead us
to an understanding of

150
obligation as an expression of
affection and love; being
‫ׁשֶָרצִיתָ וְהִנְחַלְּתָ לַאֲבֹותֵינּו לֶאֱכֹל מִּפְִריָּה‬
obligated, and acting out of ‫וְלִׂשְּבֹעַ מִּטּובָּה ַרחֶם נָא ד' אֱֹלֵקינּו עַל‬
obligation, have the potential ‫יִׂשְָראֵל עַּמֶָ וְעַל יְרּוׁשָלַיִם עִיֶרָ וְעַל צִּיֹון‬
for enhancing our attitude of ‫מִׁשְּכַן ּכְבֹוֶדָ וְעַל מִזְּבְחֶָ וְעַל הֵיכָלֶָ ּובְנֵה‬
grateful affection for the ‫יְרּוׁשָלַיִם עִיר הַֹקֶדׁש ּבִמְהֵָרה בְיָמֵינּו וְהַעֲלֵנּו‬
“mitzvah.” ‫לְתֹוכָּה וְׂשַמְחֵנּו ּבְבִנְיָנָּה וְנֹאכַל מִּפְִריָּה וְנִׂשְּבַע‬
‫מִּטּובָּה ּונְבֶָרכְָ עָלֶיהָ ּבְִקֻדׁשָה ּובְטָהֳָרה‬
(‫ ּוְרצֵה וְהַחֲלִיצֵנּו ּבְיֹום הַׁשַּבָת הַּזֶה‬:‫)בשבת‬
Before the Seder is '‫ ּכִי אַּתָה ד‬, ‫וְׂשַמְחֵנּו ּבְיֹום חַג הַּמַּצֹות הַּזֶה‬
concluded, our final words are ‫טֹוב ּומֵטִיב לַּכֹל וְנֹוֶדה ּלְָ עַל הָאֶָרץ וְעַל ּפְִרי‬
those of gratitude and .‫ ּבָרּוְ אַּתָה ד' עַל הַּגֶפֶן וְעַל ּפְִרי הַּגֶפֶן‬.‫הַּגֶפֶן‬
thankfulness, an expression of
Baruch atah Adonai Eloheinu melech ha-olam,

BI
the ultimate goodness of God.
We thank for the wine al hagefen v'al p'ri hagefen. V'al t'nuvat

AB
we have drunk and expand hasadeh, v'al eretz chemdah tovah ur'chavah,
our awareness to the source sheratzita v'hinchalta la-avoteinu, le-echol
R
of this wine-the vines that mipiryah v'lisboa mituvah. Rachem na, Adonai
L
grow out of the good earth that Eloheinu, al yisra-eil amecha, v'al y'rushalayim
U

irecha, v'al tzion mishkan k'vodecha, v'al


the Good God has created.
EF

mizb'checha, v'al heicholecha. Uv'neih


Together with our thanks for
y'rushalayim ir hakodesh bimheirah v'yameinu,
AT

what is, we pray for what can


v'ha-aleinu l'tochah, v'sam'cheinu b'vinyanah,
be, a future of redemptive v'nochol mipiryah v'nisba mituvah, un'varechcha
R

goodness. aleha bikdushah uv'tahorah. [ B'shabat] ur'tzeih


G

v'hachalitzeinu b'yom hashabat hazeh.]


V'sam'cheinu b'yom chag hamatzot hazeh. Ki
E

atah Adonai tov umeitiv lakol, v'nodeh l'cha al


TH

ha-aretz v’al p'ri hagafen. Baruch atah Adonai,


al ha-aretz v’al p'ri hagafen.

Praised are you, Adonai, King of the universe,


for the vine and its fruit, and for the produce of
the field, for the beautiful and spacious land
which you gave to our ancestors as a heritage to
eat of its fruit and to enjoy its goodness. Have
mercy, Adonai our God, on Israel your people,
on Jerusalem your city. Rebuild Jerusalem, the
holy city, speedily in our days. Bring us there
and cheer us with its restoration; may we eat

151
there Israel’s produce and enjoy its goodness; we praise you for Jerusalem’s
centrality in our lives. [ On the Sabbath add:[ Renew us this Shabbat]
and grant us happiness on this Feast of Matzot; For you, Adonai are good
and beneficent to all, and we thank you for the land and the fruit of the vine.
Praised are you, Adonai, for the land and the fruit of the vine.

152
NIRZAH-GRATEFUL FOR-
THE GIFT OF - ENDINGS XV. NIRTZAH / Acceptance- ‫נרצה‬
We have come to the
end of our Seder, the end of ‫ ּכְכָל מִׁשְּפָטֹו‬,‫חֲסַל סִּדּור ּפֶסַח ּכְהִלְכָתֹו‬
our journey. There is nothing left
to do. .‫וְחָֻקתֹו‬
We have prayed, .‫ּכַאֲׁשֶר זָכִינּו לְסַּדֵר אֹותֹו ּכֵן נִזְּכֶה לַעֲׂשֹותֹו‬
praised, sung and talked, eaten
and drunk, laughed and cried, .‫ קֹומֵם ְקהַל עֲַדת מִי מָנָה‬,‫זְָ ׁשֹוכֵן מְעֹונָה‬
questioned and commented,
connected with the past and the
.‫ּבְָקרֹוב נַהֵל נִטְעֵי כַּנָה ּפְדּויִם לְצִיֹון ּבְִרּנָה‬
present, hoped for the future;
# # what remains? Chasal sidur pesach k'hilchato, k'chol mishpato
Is it over? Does the

BI
v'chukato. Ka-asher zachinu l'sadeir oto, kein
journey ever end? Is not every
nizkeh la-asoto. Zach shochein m'onah, komeim

AB
ending also a beginning?
k'hal adat mi manah. B'karov naheil nitei chanah,
What remains to be p'duyim l'tzion b'rinah.

R
done? Do we start over? L
Yes, The Passover Seder is concluded, according to
U
but first we fulfill the
each traditional detail with all its laws and customs.
stage of Nirzah-‫נרצה‬-
EF

As we have been privileged to celebrate this Seder,


acceptance.
so may we one day celebrate it in Jerusalem. Pure
AT

We have concluded the active


part of the Seder. One who dwells in the high places, support your
People countless in number. May you soon redeem
R

One act remains. all your People joyfully in Zion.


G

Now all we can do is “stand


before God with our hands
.‫לְׁשָנָה הַּבָאָה ּבִירּוׁשַָלָיִם הַּבְנּויָה‬
E

raised."
TH

All we can do is to be.


We surrender, we let go, of
effort, of strain, of activity, of L'Shana HaʼBa'ah B'Y'rushalayim
planning and devising, of
struggle,
Habenuyah
and simply
experience the fullness of the
All, grateful for the overflowing Next Year in a peaceful
of Godʼs gifts and blessings.
Jerusalem!

153
BI
AB
“We have long anticipated this night, we have

R
extensively prepared for it. We have done our human
L
U
best.
EF

# Yehi ratzon -‫יהי רצון‬: May You, God, accept the longing
AT

of our hearts." (Breslov Haggadah)


R

"Leshana habah beyerushalayim


G

" habenuya"-
E
TH

Next year in a Jerusalem that is joyous, that


reflects the wisdom of the heart,
## “Habenuya”- ‫הבנויה‬- built upon the

## "binah"-‫בינה‬-of Godʼs wisdom and


of the human soul.

# #
Amen vʼAmen .‫ואמן‬ ‫אמן‬

154
SONG-GRATEFUL FOR –THE GIFT OF-SINGING
Another locus of lively activity and gratitude-giving is the singing of songs composed
over the ages to delight Seder guests and preserve our consciousness of the Divine.
Had Gadyah,‫חד גדיה‬- one little goat, is an example: a playful yet quite instructive ditty
about the reality of lifeʼs transience. A series of animals and phenomena are described in a
hierarchical way as the more powerless are swallowed up by the more powerful until finally God
emerges as the ultimate source of all things.

At our seders, my son is assigned the task of making the sounds of each participant in
the series of lifeʼs many vulnerabilities from the meowing of the cat to the barking of the dog
and the deep, solemn utterances of the ultimate authority, God Himself. This digression into fun
and sheer sillinesss is another ingredient in the preparation of a spiritual banquet that nurtures us
with so much gratefulness. The Seder continues informally with songs that buoy up our elevated
spirits.
Gratitude spawns song, as we simply raise our voices in melodies of Passover that

BI
nourish our hearts and souls.

AB
Song originates from a place deep within us.Our Sabbath morning prayer of
praise,”NISHMAT KOL CHAI”-‫נשמת כל חי‬- which was recited only moments ago, reminds us
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that “every mouth shall extol You, every tongue shall pledge devotion, every knee shall bend to
You, every back shall bow to You, every heart shall revere You, every fiber-ʻkerev uʼklayotʼ- ‫קרב‬
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U

‫וכליות‬-the innermost parts of our being, shall SING Your glory...”


EF

For the Psalmist, song does not begin in the diaphragm, the vocal cords, mouth or lips;
its starting point is the spiritual essence of our innermost selves.
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In discussing the Song of Moses,Aviva Zornberg makes the following statement


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regarding the spiritual power of song:


G

”And it is from the heart of that silence that Moses conceives of a Song.What is
uncontainable and inexpressible, he puts to words that are written in the Torah.What remains
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unwritten, of course, is the melody that gives voice to the mystery.”


(The Particulars of Rapture,P.218)
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155
Songs

KiLoNa-eh,KiLoYa-eh-‫ ּכִי לֹו יָאֶה‬,‫ּכִי לֹו נָאֵֶה‬.

:‫ ּגְדּוָדיו יֹאמְרּו לֹו‬,‫ ּבָחּור ּכַהֲלָכָה‬,‫אִַדיר ּבִמְלּוכָה‬


Adir bimluchah, bachur ka-halachah, g'dudav yomru lo.
Powerful in kingship, truly chosen, his troops sing to him:

‫ ּכִי לֹו‬,‫ ּכִי לֹו נָאֵֶה‬,‫ לְָ יי הַּמַמְלָכָה‬, ְָ‫ לְָ אַף ל‬, ְָ‫ לְָ ּכִי ל‬, ְָ‫לְָ ּול‬
.‫יָאֶה‬
Lecha u'lecha,lecha ki lecha,lecha af lecha, lecha Adonai hamamlacha
Ki lo naeh ki lo yaeh

:‫ וָתִיָקיו יֹאמְרּו לֹו‬,‫ הָדּור ּכַהֲלָכָה‬,‫ּדָגּול ּבִמְלּוכָה‬


Dagul bimluchah, hadur ka-halachah, v'tikav yomru lo.
Famous in kingship, truly glorious, his faithful sing to Him:

‫ ּכִי לֹו‬,‫ ּכִי לֹו נָאֵֶה‬,‫ לְָ יי הַּמַמְלָכָה‬, ְָ‫ לְָ אַף ל‬, ְָ‫ לְָ ּכִי ל‬, ְָ‫לְָ ּול‬
.‫יָאֶה‬
Lecha u'lecha,lecha ki lecha,lecha af lecha, lecha Adonai hamamlacha
Ki lo naeh ki lo yaeh
:‫ חָסִין ּכַהֲלָכָה טַפְסְָריו יֹאמְרּו לֹו‬,‫זַּכַאי ּבִמְלּוכָה‬
Zakay bimluchah, chasin ka-halachah, tafs'rav yomru lo.
Guiltless in kingship, truly strong, his angels sing to Him:

‫ ּכִי לֹו‬,‫ ּכִי לֹו נָאֵֶה‬,‫ לְָ יי הַּמַמְלָכָה‬, ְָ‫ לְָ אַף ל‬, ְָ‫ לְָ ּכִי ל‬, ְָ‫לְָ ּול‬
.‫יָאֶה‬
Lecha u'lecha,lecha ki lecha,lecha af lecha, lecha Adonai hamamlacha
Ki lo naeh ki lo yaeh
:‫ ּכַּבִיר ּכַהֲלָכָה לִמּוָדיו יֹאמְרּו לֹו‬,,‫יָחִיד ּבִמְלּוכָה‬
Yachid bimluchah, kabir ka-halachah, limudav yomru lo.

156
Alone in kingship, truly powerful, his scholars sing to Him:

‫ ּכִי לֹו‬,‫ ּכִי לֹו נָאֵֶה‬,‫ לְָ יי הַּמַמְלָכָה‬, ְָ‫ לְָ אַף ל‬, ְָ‫ לְָ ּכִי ל‬, ְָ‫לְָ ּול‬
.‫יָאֶה‬
Lecha u'lecha,lecha ki lecha,lecha af lecha, lecha Adonai hamamlacha
Ki lo naeh ki lo yaeh
:‫ נֹוָרא ּכַהֲלָכָה סְבִיבָיו יֹאמְרּו לֹו‬,,‫מֹוׁשֵל ּבִמְלּוכָה‬
Mosheil bimluchah, nora ka-halachah, s'vivav yomru lo.
Commanding in kingship, truly revered, his near ones sing to Him:

‫ ּכִי לֹו‬,‫ ּכִי לֹו נָאֵֶה‬,‫ לְָ יי הַּמַמְלָכָה‬, ְָ‫ לְָ אַף ל‬, ְָ‫ לְָ ּכִי ל‬, ְָ‫לְָ ּול‬
.‫יָאֶה‬
Lecha u'lecha,lecha ki lecha,lecha af lecha, lecha Adonai hamamlacha
Ki lo naeh ki lo yaeh

:‫ צַּדִיָקיו יֹאמְרּו לֹו‬,‫ ּפֹוֶדה ּכַהֲלָכָה‬,‫עָנָיו ּבִמְלּוכָה‬


Anav bimluchah, podeh ka-halachah, tzadikav yomru lo.
Humble in kingship, truly redeeming, his righteous sing to Him

‫ ּכִי לֹו‬,‫ ּכִי לֹו נָאֵֶה‬,‫ לְָ יי הַּמַמְלָכָה‬, ְָ‫ לְָ אַף ל‬, ְָ‫ לְָ ּכִי ל‬, ְָ‫לְָ ּול‬
.‫יָאֶה‬
Lecha u'lecha,lecha ki lecha,lecha af lecha, lecha Adonai hamamlacha
Ki lo naeh ki lo yaeh

:‫ ַרחּום ּכַהֲלָכָה ׁשִנְאַנָיו יֹאמְרּו לֹו‬,‫ּקָדֹוׁש ּבִמְלּוכָה‬


Kadosh bimluchah, rachum ka-halachah, shinanav yomru lo.
Holy in kingship, truly merciful, his angels sing to Him:

‫ ּכִי לֹו‬,‫ ּכִי לֹו נָאֵֶה‬,‫ לְָ יי הַּמַמְלָכָה‬, ְָ‫ לְָ אַף ל‬, ְָ‫ לְָ ּכִי ל‬, ְָ‫לְָ ּול‬
.‫יָאֶה‬
Lecha u'lecha,lecha ki lecha,lecha af lecha, lecha Adonai hamamlacha

157
Ki lo naeh ki lo yaeh
:‫ ּתֹומְֵ ּכַהֲלָכָה ּתְמִימָיו יֹאמְרּו לֹו‬,,‫ּתִַקיף ּבִמְלּוכָה‬
Takif bimluchah, tomeich ka-halachah, t'mimav yomru lo.
Indomitable in kingship, truly sustaining, his innocent sing to Him:

‫ ּכִי לֹו‬,‫ ּכִי לֹו נָאֵֶה‬,‫ לְָ יי הַּמַמְלָכָה‬, ְָ‫ לְָ אַף ל‬, ְָ‫ לְָ ּכִי ל‬, ְָ‫לְָ ּול‬
.‫יָאֶה‬
Lecha u'lecha,lecha ki lecha,lecha af lecha, lecha Adonai hamamlacha
Ki lo naeh ki lo yaeh

Adir Hu - ‫אַּדִיר הּוא‬


.‫אַּדִיר הּוא יִבְנֶה ּבֵיתֹו ּבְָקרֹוב‬
.‫ ּבְיָמֵינּו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬
.‫ ּבְנֵה ּבֵיתְָ ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ אֵל ּבְנֵה‬,‫אֵל ּבְנֵה‬

Adir hu, yivneh veito b'karov, bimheirah bimheirah, b'yameinu b'karov. Eil b'neih,
b'neih veitcha b'karov.
He is powerful. May He build his temple very soon. O God, build your temple
speedily.

.‫ ּדָגּול הּוא יִבְנֶה ּבֵיתֹו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ ּגָדֹול הּוא‬,‫ּבָחּור הּוא‬


.‫ ּבְיָמֵינּו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬
.‫ ּבְנֵה ּבֵיתְָ ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ אֵל ּבְנֵה‬,‫אֵל ּבְנֵה‬

Bachur hu, gadol hu, dagul hu, yivneh veito b'karov, bimheirah bimheirah, b'yameinu
v'karov. Eil b'neih, eil b'neih, b'neih veitcha b'karov.
He is chosen, great, and famous. May He build his temple very soon. O God, build
your temple speedily.

.‫ זַּכַאי הּוא יִבְנֶה ּבֵיתֹו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ וָתִיק הּוא‬,‫הָדּור הּוא‬


.‫ ּבְיָמֵינּו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬
.‫ ּבְנֵה ּבֵיתְָ ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ אֵל ּבְנֵה‬,‫אֵל ּבְנֵה‬

158
Hadur hu, vatik hu, zakay hu, yivneh veito b'karov, bimheirah bimheirah, b'yameinu
v'karov. Eil b'neih, eil b'neih, b'neih veitcha b'karov.
He is glorious, pure and guiltless; May He build his temple very soon. O God, build
your temple speedily.
.‫ יָחִיד הּוא יִבְנֶה ּבֵיתֹו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ טָהֹור הּוא‬,‫חָסִיד הּוא‬
.‫ ּבְיָמֵינּו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬
.‫ ּבְנֵה ּבֵיתְָ ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ אֵל ּבְנֵה‬,‫אֵל ּבְנֵה‬

Chasid hu,Tahor hu, yachid hu, podeh hu, tzadik hu, yivneh veito b'karov, bimheirah
bimheirah, b'yameinu v'karov. Eil b'neih, eil b'neih, b'neih veitcha b'karov.
He is pious, pure and unique; May He build his temple very soon. O God, build
your temple speedily.

.‫ מֶלְֶ הּוא יִבְנֶה ּבֵיתֹו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ לָמּוד הּוא‬,‫ּכַּבִיר הּוא‬


.‫ ּבְיָמֵינּו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬
.‫ ּבְנֵה ּבֵיתְָ ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ אֵל ּבְנֵה‬,‫אֵל ּבְנֵה‬
Kabir hu, lamud hu, melech hu yivneh veito b'karov, bimheirah bimheirah, b'yameinu
v'karov. Eil b'neih, eil b'neih, b'neih veitcha b'karov.
May He build his temple very soon. O God, build your temple speedily.

.‫ עִּזּוז הּוא יִבְנֶה ּבֵיתֹו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ סַּגִיב הּוא‬,‫נֹוָרא הּוא‬


.‫ ּבְיָמֵינּו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬
.‫ ּבְנֵה ּבֵיתְָ ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ אֵל ּבְנֵה‬,‫אֵל ּבְנֵה‬
Nora hu, sagiv hu, izuz hu, yivneh veito b'karov, bimheirah bimheirah, b'yameinu
v'karov. Eil b'neih, eil b'neih, b'neih veitcha b'karov.

He is revered, eminent and strong May He build his temple very soon. O God, build
your temple speedily.
.‫ ּקָדֹוׁש הּוא יִבְנֶה ּבֵיתֹו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ צִַדיק הּוא‬,‫ּפֹוֶדה הּוא‬
.‫ ּבְיָמֵינּו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬
.‫ ּבְנֵה ּבֵיתְָ ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ אֵל ּבְנֵה‬,‫אֵל ּבְנֵה‬
Podeh hu,Tzadik hu, Kadosh hu, yivneh veito b'karov, bimheirah bimheirah,
b'yameinu v'karov. Eil b'neih, eil b'neih, b'neih veitcha b'karov.

159
He is redeeming, righteous and holy; May He build his temple very soon. O God,
build your temple speedily.
.‫ ּתַּקִיף הּוא יִבְנֶה ּבֵיתֹו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ ׁשַּדַי הּוא‬,‫ַרחּום הּוא‬
.‫ ּבְיָמֵינּו ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬,‫ּבִמְהֵָרה‬
.‫ ּבְנֵה ּבֵיתְָ ּבְָקרֹוב‬,‫ אֵל ּבְנֵה‬,‫אֵל ּבְנֵה‬
rachum hu, shadai hu, takif hu,yivneh veito b'karov, bimheirah bimheirah, b'yameinu
v'karov. Eil b'neih, eil b'neih, b'neih veitcha b'karov.

He is merciful, ominipotent, and indomitable; May He build his temple very soon. O
God, build your temple speedily.

Who knows ַ‫אֶחָד מִי יֹוֵדע‬

?ַ‫אֶחָד מִי יֹוֵדע‬


.‫ אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים ּובָאֶָרץ‬:ַ‫אֶחָד אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
Echad mi yodei-a? Echad ani yodei-a. Echad Eloheinu shebashamayim uva-aretz.
Who knows one? I know one! One is our God in heaven and earth.

?ַ‫ׁשְנַיִם מִי יֹוֵדע‬


.‫ אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים ּובָאֶָרץ‬.‫ ׁשְנֵי לֻחֹות הַּבְִרית‬:ַ‫ׁשְנַיִם אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
Sh'nayim mi yodei-a? Sh'nayim ani yodei. Sh'nei luchot hab'rit, echad Eloheinu
shebashamayim uva-aretz.
Who knows two? I know two! Two are the tablets of the
covenant; One is our God in heaven and earth.

?ַ‫ׁשְלׁשָה מִי יֹוֵדע‬


‫ אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו‬,‫ ׁשְנֵי לֻחֹות הַּבְִרית‬,‫ ׁשְלׁשָה אָבֹות‬:ַ‫ׁשְלׁשָה אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים ּובָאֶָרץ‬

160
Sh'loshah mi yodei-a? Sh'loshah ani yodei-a. Sh'loshah avot, sh'nei luchot hab'rit,
echad Eloheinu shebashamayim uva-aretz.
Who knows three? I know three! Three are the fathers of Israel; Two are the tablets
of the covenant; One is our God in heaven and earth.

?ַ‫אְַרּבַע מִי יֹוֵדע‬


,‫ ׁשְנֵי לֻחֹות הַּבְִרית‬,‫ ׁשְלׁשָה אָבֹות‬,‫ אְַרּבַע אִמָהֹות‬:ַ‫אְַרּבַע אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים ּובָאֶָרץ‬
Arba mi yodei-a? Arba ani yodei-a. Arba imahot, sh'loshah avot, sh'nei luchot
hab'rit, echad Eloheinu shebashamayim uva-aretz.
Who knows four? I know four! Four are the mothers of Israel; Three are the fathers
of Israel; Two are the tablets of the covenant; One is our God in heaven and earth.

?ַ‫חֲּמִּׁשָה מִי יֹוֵדע‬


,‫ ׁשְלׁשָה אָבֹות‬,‫ אְַרּבַע אִמָהֹות‬,‫ חֲמִׁשָה חּומְׁשֵי תֹוָרה‬:ַ‫חֲּמִּׁשָה אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫ אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים ּובָאֶָרץ‬,‫ׁשְנֵי לֻחֹות הַּבְִרית‬
Chamishah mi yodei-a? Chamishah ani yodei-a. Chamishah chum'shei torah, arba
imahot, sh'loshah avot, sh'nei luchot hab'rit, echad Eloheinu shebashamayim uva-
aretz.
Who knows five? I know five! Five are the books of the Torah; Four are the mothers
of Israel; Three are the fathers of Israel; Two are the tablets of the covenant; One is
our God in heaven and earth.

?ַ‫ׁשִשִָּׂה מִי יֹוֵדע‬


‫ אְַרּבַע‬,‫ חֲמִׁשָה חּומְׁשֵי תֹוָרה‬,‫ ׁשִּׁשָה סְִדֵרי מִׁשְנָה‬:ַ‫ׁשִשִָּׂה אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫ אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים‬,‫ ׁשְנֵי לֻחֹות הַּבְִרית‬,‫ ׁשְלׁשָה אָבֹות‬,‫אִמָהֹות‬
‫ּובָאֶָרץ‬
Shishah mi yodei-a? Shishah ani yodei-a. Shishah sidrei mishnah, chamishah
chum'shei torah, arba imahot, sh'loshah avot, sh'nei luchot hab'rit, echad Eloheinu
shebashamayim uva-aretz.
Who knows six? I know six! Six are the orders of the Mishnah; Five are the books
of the Torah; Four are the mothers of Israel; Three are the fathers of Israel; Two are
the tablets of the covenant; One is our God in heaven and earth.

?ַ‫ׁשִבְעָה מִי יֹוֵדע‬

161
‫ חֲמִׁשָה חּומְׁשֵי‬,‫ ׁשִּׁשָה סְִדֵרי מִׁשְנָה‬,‫ ׁשִבְעָה יְמֵי ׁשַּבָתָא‬:ַ‫ׁשִבְעָה אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫ אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו‬,‫ ׁשְנֵי לֻחֹות הַּבְִרית‬,‫ ׁשְלׁשָה אָבֹות‬,‫ אְַרּבַע אִמָהֹות‬,‫תֹוָרה‬
‫ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים ּובָאֶָרץ‬
Shivah mi yodei-a? Shivah ani yodei-a. Shivah y'mei shabata, shishah sidrei
mishnah, chamishah chum'shei torah, arba imahot, sh'loshah avot, sh'nei luchot
hab'rit, echad Eloheinu shebashamayim uva-aretz.
Who knows seven? I know seven! Seven are the days of the week; Six are the
orders of the Mishnah; Five are the books of the Torah; Four are the mothers of
Israel; Three are the fathers of Israel; Two are the tablets of the covenant; One is
our God in heaven and earth.

?ַ‫ׁשְמֹונָה מִי יֹוֵדע‬


‫ ׁשִּׁשָה סְִדֵרי‬,‫ ׁשִבְעָה יְמֵי ׁשַּבָתָא‬,‫ ׁשְמֹונָה יְמֵי מִילָה‬:ַ‫ׁשְמֹונָה אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫ ׁשְנֵי לֻחֹות‬,‫ ׁשְלׁשָה אָבֹות‬,‫ אְַרּבַע אִמָהֹות‬,‫ חֲמִׁשָה חּומְׁשֵי תֹוָרה‬,‫מִׁשְנָה‬
‫ אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים ּובָאֶָרץ‬,‫הַּבְִרית‬
Sh'monah mi yodei-a? Sh'monah ani yodei-a. Sh'monah y'mei milah, shivah y'mei
shabata, shishah sidrei mishnah, chamishah chum'shei torah, arba imahot,
sh'loshah avot, sh'nei luchot hab'rit, echad Eloheinu shebashamayim uva-aretz.
Who knows eight? I know eight! Eight are the days to circumcision; Seven are the
days of the week; Six are the orders of the Mishnah; Five are the books of the Torah;
Four are the mothers of Israel; Three are the fathers of Israel; Two are the tablets of
the covenant; One is our God in heaven and earth.

?ַ‫ּתִׁשְעָה מִי יֹוֵדע‬


‫ ׁשִבְעָה יְמֵי‬,‫ ׁשְמֹונָה יְמֵי מִילָה‬,‫ ּתִׁשְעָה יְַרחֵי לֵָדה‬:ַ‫ּתִׁשְעָה אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫ ׁשְלׁשָה‬,‫ אְַרּבַע אִמָהֹות‬,‫ חֲמִׁשָה חּומְׁשֵי תֹוָרה‬,‫ ׁשִּׁשָה סְִדֵרי מִׁשְנָה‬,‫ׁשַּבָתָא‬
‫ אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים ּובָאֶָרץ‬,‫ ׁשְנֵי לֻחֹות הַּבְִרית‬,‫אָבֹות‬
Tishah mi yodei-a? Tishah ani yodei-a. Tishah yarchei leidah, sh'monah y'mei milah,
shivah y'mei shabata, shishah sidrei mishnah, chamishah chum'shei torah, arba
imahot, sh'loshah avot, sh'nei luchot hab'rit, echad Eloheinu shebashamayim uva-
aretz.
Who knows nine? I know nine! Nine are the months to childbirth; Eight are the days
to circumcision; Seven are the days of the week; Six are the orders of the Mishnah;

162
Five are the books of the Torah; Four are the mothers of Israel; Three are the fathers
of Israel; Two are the tablets of the covenant; One is our God in heaven and earth.

?ַ‫עֲׂשֶָָרה מִי יֹוֵדע‬


,‫ ׁשְמֹונָה יְמֵי מִילָה‬,‫ ּתִׁשְעָה יְַרחֵי לֵָדה‬,‫ עֲׂשָָרה ִדּבְַריָא‬:ַ‫עֲׂשֶָָרה אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫ אְַרּבַע‬,‫ חֲמִׁשָה חּומְׁשֵי תֹוָרה‬,‫ ׁשִּׁשָה סְִדֵרי מִׁשְנָה‬,‫ׁשִבְעָה יְמֵי ׁשַּבָתָא‬
‫ אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים‬,‫ ׁשְנֵי לֻחֹות הַּבְִרית‬,‫ ׁשְלׁשָה אָבֹות‬,‫אִמָהֹות‬
‫ּובָאֶָרץ‬
Asarah mi yodei-a? Asarah ani yodei-a. Asarah dib'raya, tishah yarchei leidah,
sh'monah y'mei milah, shivah y'mei shabata, shishah sidrei mishnah, chamishah
chum'shei torah, arba imahot, sh'loshah avot, sh'nei luchot hab'rit, echad Eloheinu
shebashamayim uva-aretz.
Who knows ten? I know ten! Ten are the commandments; Nine are the months to
childbirth; Eight are the days to circumcision; Seven are the days of the week; Six
are the orders of the Mishnah; Five are the books of the Torah; Four are the mothers
of Israel; Three are the fathers of Israel; Two are the tablets of the covenant; One is
our God in heaven and earth.

?ַ‫אַחַד עָׂשָר מִי יֹוֵדע‬


‫ ּתִׁשְעָה יְַרחֵי‬,‫ עֲׂשָָרה ִדּבְַריָא‬,‫ אַחַד עַָׂשָר ּכֹוכְבַּיָא‬:ַ‫אַחַד עָׂשָר אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫ חֲמִׁשָה‬,‫ ׁשִּׁשָה סְִדֵרי מִׁשְנָה‬,‫ ׁשִבְעָה יְמֵי ׁשַּבָתָא‬,‫ ׁשְמֹונָה יְמֵי מִילָה‬,‫לֵָדה‬
‫ אֶחָד‬,‫ ׁשְנֵי לֻחֹות הַּבְִרית‬,‫ ׁשְלׁשָה אָבֹות‬,‫ אְַרּבַע אִמָהֹות‬,‫חּומְׁשֵי תֹוָרה‬
‫אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים ּובָאֶָרץ‬
Achad asar mi yodei-a? Achad asar ani yodei-a. Achad asar koch'vaya, asarah
dib'raya, tishah yarchei leidah, sh'monah y'mei milah, shivah y'mei shabata, shishah
sidrei mishnah, chamishah chum'shei torah, arba imahot, sh'loshah avot, sh'nei
luchot hab'rit, echad Eloheinu shebashamayim uva-aretz.
Who knows eleven? I know eleven! Eleven are the stars in Joseph's dream; Ten are
the commandments; Nine are the months to childbirth; Eight are the days to
circumcision; Seven are the days of the week; Six are the orders of the Mishnah;
Five are the books of the Torah; Four are the mothers of Israel; Three are the fathers
of Israel; Two are the tablets of the covenant; One is our God in heaven and earth.

?‫ׁשְנֵים עָׂשָר מִי יודע‬

163
‫ עֲׂשָָרה‬,‫ אַחַד עַָׂשָר ּכֹוכְבַּיָא‬,‫ ׁשְנֵים עֶָׂשָר ׁשִבְטַיָא‬:ַ‫שנים עָׂשָר אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫ ׁשִּׁשָה‬,‫ ׁשִבְעָה יְמֵי ׁשַּבָתָא‬,‫ ׁשְמֹונָה יְמֵי מִילָה‬,‫ ּתִׁשְעָה יְַרחֵי לֵָדה‬,‫ִדּבְַריָא‬
‫ ׁשְנֵי‬,‫ ׁשְלׁשָה אָבֹות‬,‫ אְַרּבַע אִמָהֹות‬,‫ חֲמִׁשָה חּומְׁשֵי תֹוָרה‬,‫סְִדֵרי מִׁשְנָה‬
‫ אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים ּובָאֶָרץ‬,‫לֻחֹות הַּבְִרית‬
Sh'neim asar mi yodei-a? Sh'neim asar ani yodei-a. Sh'neim asar shivtaya, achad
asar koch'vaya, asarah dib'raya, tishah yarchei leidah, sh'monah y'mei milah, shivah
y'mei shabata, shishah sidrei mishnah, chamishah chum'shei torah, arba imahot,
sh'loshah avot, sh'nei luchot hab'rit, echad Eloheinu shebashamayim uva-aretz.
Who knows twelve? I know twelve! Twelve are the tribes of Israel; Eleven are the
stars in Joseph's dream; Ten are the commandments; Nine are the months to
childbirth; Eight are the days to circumcision; Seven are the days of the week; Six
are the orders of the Mishnah; Five are the books of the Torah; Four are the mothers
of Israel; Three are the fathers of Israel; Two are the tablets of the covenant; One is
our God in heaven and earth.
?ַ‫ׁשְלׁשָה עֶָׂשָר מִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫ אַחַד‬,‫ ׁשְנֵים עֶָׂשָר ׁשִבְטַיָא‬.‫ ׁשְלׁשָה עָׂשָר מִּדַיָא‬:ַ‫ׁשְלׁשָה עָׂשָר אֲנִי יֹוֵדע‬
‫ ׁשִבְעָה‬,‫ ׁשְמֹונָה יְמֵי מִילָה‬,‫ ּתִׁשְעָה יְַרחֵי לֵָדה‬,‫ עֲׂשָָרה ִדּבְַריָא‬,‫עַָׂשָר ּכֹוכְבַּיָא‬
,‫ אְַרּבַע אִמָהֹות‬,‫ חֲמִׁשָה חּומְׁשֵי תֹוָרה‬,‫ ׁשִּׁשָה סְִדֵרי מִׁשְנָה‬,‫יְמֵי ׁשַּבָתָא‬
‫ אֶחָד אֱֹלהֵינּו ׁשֶּבַּׁשָמַים ּובָאֶָרץ‬,‫ ׁשְנֵי לֻחֹות הַּבְִרית‬,‫ׁשְלׁשָה אָבֹות‬
Sh'loshah asar mi yodei-a? Sh'loshah asar ani yodei-a. Sh'loshah asar midaya,
sh'neim asar shivtaya, achad asar koch'vaya, asarah dib'raya, tishah yarchei leidah,
sh'monah y'mei milah, shivah y'mei shabata, shishah sidrei mishnah, chamishah
chum'shei torah, arba imahot, sh'loshah avot, sh'nei luchot hab'rit, echad Eloheinu
shebashamayim uva-aretz.
Who knows thirteen? I know thirteen! Thirteen are the attributes of God; Twelve are
the tribes of Israel; Eleven are the stars in Joseph's dream; Ten are the
commandments; Nine are the months to childbirth; Eight are the days to
circumcision; Seven are the days of the week; Six are the orders of the Mishnah;
Five are the books of the Torah; Four are the mothers of Israel; Three are the fathers
of Israel; Two are the tablets of the covenant; One is our God in heaven and earth.

‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬


One little Goat Chad Gadyah
.‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫חַד ּגְַדיָא ּדְזַּבִין אַּבָא ּבִתְֵרי זּוזֵי‬,‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬

164
Chad gadya, chad gadya d'zabin aba bitrei zuzei, chad gadya, chad gadya.

One kid, one kid that Father bought for two zuzim; One kid, one kid.

.‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ ּדְזַּבִין אַּבָא ּבִתְֵרי זּוזֵי‬,‫וְאָתָא ׁשּונְָרא וְאַָכְלָה לְגְַדיָא‬
V'ata shun'ra, v'achlah l'gadya, d'zabin aba bitrei zuzei, chad gadya, chad gadya.

The cat came and ate the kid that father bought for two zuzim; One kid, one kid

‫ חַד‬,‫ ּדְזַּבִין אַּבָא ּבִתְֵרי זּוזֵי‬,‫ ּדְאַָכְלָה לְגְַדיָא‬,‫וְאָתָא כַלְּבָא וְנָׁשְַ לְׁשּונְָרא‬
.‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ּגְַדיָא‬

V'ata chalba, v'nashach l'shunra, d'achlah l'gadya, d'zabin aba bitrei zuzei, chad
gadya, chad gadya.

The dog came and bit the cat that ate the kid that father bought for two zuzim; One
kid, one kid.
‫ ּדְזַּבִין אַּבָא‬,‫ ּדְאַָכְלָה לְגְַדיָא‬,‫ ּדְנָׁשְַ לְׁשּונְָרא‬,‫וְאָתָא חּוטְָרא והִּכָה לְכַלְּבָא‬
.‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ּבִתְֵרי זּוזֵי‬
V'ata chutra, v'hikah l'chalba, d'nashach l'shunra, d'achlah l'gadya, d'zabin aba bitrei
zuzei, chad gadya, chad gadya.

The stick came and beat the dog that bit the cat that ate the kid that father bought for
two zuzim; One kid, one kid.

‫ ּדְאַָכְלָה‬,‫ ּדְנָׁשְַ לְׁשּונְָרא‬,‫ ּדְהִּכָה לְכַלְּבָא‬,‫וְאָתָא נּוָרא וְׂשַָרף לְחּוטְָרא‬


.‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ ּדְזַּבִין אַּבָא ּבִתְֵרי זּוזֵי‬,‫לְגְַדיָא‬
V'ata nura, v'saraf l'chut'ra, d'hikah l'chalba, d'nashach l'shunra, d'achlah l'gadya,
d'zabin aba bitrei zuzei, chad gadya, chad gadya.

The fire came and burned the stick that beat the dog that bit the cat that ate the kid
that father bought for two zuzim; One kid, one kid.

165
,‫ ּדְנָׁשְַ לְׁשּונְָרא‬,‫ ּדְהִּכָה לְכַלְּבָא‬,‫ ּדְׂשַָרף לְחּוטְָרא‬,‫וְאָתָא מַיָא וְכָבָה לְנּוָרא‬

BI
.‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ ּדְזַּבִין אַּבָא ּבִתְֵרי זּוזֵי‬,‫ּדְאַָכְלָה לְגְַדיָא‬

AB
V'ata maya, v'chavah l'nura, d'saraf l'chutra, d'hikah l'chalba, d'nashach l'shunra,

R
d'achlah l'gadya, d'zabin aba bitrei zuzei, chad gadya, chad gadya.

L
U
The water came and quenched the fire that burned the stick that beat the dog that bit

EF
the cat that ate the kid that father bought for two zuzim; One kid, one kid.

AT
,‫ ּדְהִּכָה לְכַלְּבָא‬,‫ ּדְׂשַָרף לְחּוטְָרא‬,‫ ּדְכָבָה לְנּוָרא‬,‫וְאָתָא תֹוָרא וְׁשָתָה לְמַיָא‬
.‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ ּדְזַּבִין אַּבָא ּבִתְֵרי זּוזֵי‬,‫ ּדְאַָכְלָה לְגְַדיָא‬,‫ּדְנָׁשְַ לְׁשּונְָרא‬
R
G
V'ata tora, v'shata l'maya, d'chavah l'nura, d'saraf l'chutra, d'hikah l'chalba, d'nashach
E

l'shunra, d'ach'lah l'gadya, d'zabin aba bitrei zuzei, chad gadya, chad gadya.
TH

The ox came and drank the water that quenched the fire that burned the stick that beat
the dog that bit the cat that ate the kid that father bought for two zuzim; One kid, one
kid.

,‫ ּדְׂשַָרף לְחּוטְָרא‬,‫ ּדְכָבָה לְנּוָרא‬,‫ ּדְּׁשָתָה לְמַיָא‬,‫וְאָתָא הַׁשֹוחֵט וְׁשָחַט לְתֹוָרא‬


‫ חַד‬,‫ ּדְזַּבִין אַּבָא ּבִתְֵרי זּוזֵי‬,‫ ּדְאַָכְלָה לְגְַדיָא‬,‫ ּדְנָׁשְַ לְׁשּונְָרא‬,‫ּדְהִּכָה לְכַלְּבָא‬
.‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ּגְַדיָא‬

V'ata hashocheit, v'shachat l'tora, d'shata l'maya, d'chavah l'nura, d'saraf


l'chutra,dʼhikah l'chalba, d'nashach l'shunra, d'achlah l'gadya, d'zabin aba bitrei zuzei,
chad gadya, chad gadya.

The slaughterer came and killed the ox that drank the water that quenched the fire that
burned the stick that beat the dog that bit the cat that ate the kid that father bought for
two zuzim; One kid, one kid.

‫ ּדְכָבָה‬,‫ ּדְּׁשָתָה לְמַיָא‬,‫ ּדְׁשָחַט לְתֹוָרא‬,‫וְאָתָא מַלְאְָ הַּמָוֶת וְׁשָחַט לְׁשֹוחֵט‬


,‫ ּדְאַָכְלָה לְגְַדיָא‬,‫ ּדְנָׁשְַ לְׁשּונְָרא‬,‫ ּדְהִּכָה לְכַלְּבָא‬,‫ ּדְׂשַָרף לְחּוטְָרא‬,‫לְנּוָרא‬
.‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ּדְזַּבִין אַּבָא ּבִתְֵרי זּוזֵי‬

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V'ata malach hamavet, v'shachat l'shocheit, d'shachat l'tora, d'shata l'maya, d'chavah
l'nura, d'saraf l'chutra,dʼhikah l'chalba, d'nashach l'shunra, d'achlah l'gadya, d'zabin aba
bitrei zuzei, chad gadya, chad gadya.

The angel of death came and slew the slaughterer that killed the ox that drank the
water that quenched the fire that burned the stick that beat the dog that bit the cat that
ate the kid that father bought for two zuzim; One kid, one kid.

‫ ּדְׁשָחַט‬,‫ ּדְׁשָחַט לְׁשֹוחֵט‬,‫וְאָתָא הַּקָדֹוׁש ּבָרּוְ הּוא וְׁשָחַט לְמַלְאְַ הַּמָוֶת‬


ְַ‫ ּדְנָׁש‬,‫ ּדְהִּכָה לְכַלְּבָא‬,‫ ּדְׂשַָרף לְחּוטְָרא‬,‫ ּדְכָבָה לְנּוָרא‬,‫ ּדְּׁשָתָה לְמַיָא‬,‫לְתֹוָרא‬
,‫ ּדְאַָכְלָה לְגְַדיָא‬,‫לְׁשּונְָרא‬
.‫חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ חַד ּגְַדיָא‬,‫ּדְזַּבִין אַּבָא ּבִתְֵרי זּוזֵי‬
V'ata hakadosh Baruch hu, v'shachat l'malach hamavet, d'shachat l'tora, d'shata
l'maya, d'chavah l'nura, d'saraf l'chutra, d'hikah l'chalba, d'nashach l'shunra, d'achlah
l'gadya, d'zabin aba bitrei zuzei, chad gadya, chad gadya.

The holy one, blessed be He, came and slew the angel of death that slew the
slaughterer that killed the ox that drank the water that quenched the fire that burned the
stick that beat the dog that bit the cat that ate the kid that father bought for two zuzim;
One kid, one kid.

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