The Iliad

Translated by

Ian Johnston


The Iliad

Translated by
Ian Johnston Malaspina University-College Nanaimo, BC Canada

Front Cover Illustration by Ian Crowe

Richer Resources Publications Arlington, Virginia


The Iliad

copyright © 2006 by Richer Resources Publications Second Edition (January 2007) Second Printing (May 2007) All rights reserved. Cover Art by Ian Crowe No part of this book may be reproduced in whole or in part without express permission from the publisher except for brief excerpts in review. The full text of this volume is available for download on the web at: http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/homer/iliad_title.htm Reprint requests and requests for additional copies of this book can be addressed to Richer Resources Publications 1926 N. Woodrow Street Arlington, Virginia 22207 or via our website at: www.RicherResourcesPublications.com
ISBN 978-0-9776269-0-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2006924334

Published by Richer Resources Publications Arlington, Virginia Printed by Replika Press Pvt Ltd.

This translation is dedicated to my son Geoffrey (1974 - 1997) and to my grandson Fabian (b.1992)
Generations of men are like the leaves. In winter, winds blow them down to earth, but then, when spring season comes again, budding wood grows more. And so with men– one generation grows, another dies away. (Iliad 6.181-5)

Translator's Note
This text uses the traditional Latinate spellings and common English equivalents for the Greek names, e.g., Achilles, Clytaemnestra, Achaeans, Menelaus, Hecuba, rather than modern renditions which strive to stay more closely to the Greek: Akhilleus, Klytaimnestra, Akhaians, Menelaos, Hekabe, and so on, with the exception of a very few names of gods—Cronos, Ouranos—and a few others (e.g., Idaios). And where there is a common English rendition of the name (e.g., Ajax, Troy, Teucer), I have used that. A dieresis over a vowel indicates that it is pronounced by itself (e.g., Coön rhymes with “go on” not with “goon,” Deïphobus is pronounced “Day-ee-phobus” not “Day-phobus” or “Dee-phobus”). In numbering the lines, the translator has usually included a short, indented line with the line above it, so that what looks like two partial lines counts as a single one. These numbers are approximately twentyfive to thirty percent higher than the numbers in the Greek text. The numbers inserted in the text indicate an explanatory note at the bottom of the page. These have been provided by the translator.

Table of Contents
Book 1: The Quarrel by the Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Book 2: Agamemnon’s Dream and the Catalogue of Ships . . . . . . . . 28 Book 3: Paris, Menelaus and Helen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Book 4: The Armies Clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Book 5: Diomedes Goes to Battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Book 6: Hector and Andromache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 Book 7: Hector and Ajax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Book 8: The Trojans Have Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 Book 9: Peace Offerings to Achilles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 Book 10: A Night Raid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Book 11: The Achaeans Face Disaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224 Book 12: The Fight at the Barricade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252 Book 13: The Trojans Attack the Ships . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Book 14: Zeus Deceived . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Book 15: The Battle at the Ships . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314 Book 16: Patroclus Fights and Dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340 Book 17: The Fight over Patroclus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369 Book 18: The Arms of Achilles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396 Book 19: Achilles and Agamemnon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418 Book 20: Achilles Returns to Battle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433 Book 21: Achilles Fights the River . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .451 Book 22: The Death of Hector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .473 Book 23: The Funeral Games for Patroclus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .492 Book 24: Achilles and Priam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .556 Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .561

Book One

The Quarrel by the Ships
[The invocation to the Muse; Agamemnon insults Apollo; Apollo sends the plague onto the army; Achilles and Agamemnon quarrel; Calchas indicates what must be done to appease Apollo; Agamemnon takes Briseis from Achilles; Achilles prays to Thetis for revenge; Achilles meets Thetis; Chryseis is returned to her father; Thetis visits Zeus; the gods converse about the matter on Olympus; the banquet of the gods]


ing, Goddess, sing of the rage of Achilles, son of Peleus— that murderous anger which condemned Achaeans to countless agonies and threw many warrior souls deep into Hades, leaving their dead bodies carrion food for dogs and birds— all in fulfillment of the will of Zeus. Start at the point where Agamemnon, son of Atreus, that king of men, quarreled with noble Achilles. Which of the gods incited these two men to fight?

That god was Apollo, son of Zeus and Leto. Angry with Agamemnon, he cast plague down onto the troops—deadly infectious evil. For Agamemnon had dishonoured the god's priest, Chryses, who'd come to the ships to find his daughter, Chryseis, bringing with him a huge ransom. In his hand he held up on a golden staff the scarf sacred to archer god Apollo. He begged Achaeans, above all the army's leaders, the two sons of Atreus: “Menelaus, Agamemnon, sons of Atreus, all you well-armed Achaeans, may the gods on Olympus grant you wipe out Priam's city, and then return home safe and sound. Release my dear child to me. Take this ransom. Honour Apollo, far-shooting son of Zeus.”



All the Achaeans roared out their support: “Respect the priest. Take the generous ransom.” Displeased, Agamemnon dismissed Chryses roughly: “Old man, don't let me catch you by our hollow ships, sneaking back here today or later on. Who cares about Apollo's scarf and staff? I'll not release the girl to you, no, not before she's grown old with me in Argos, far from home, working the loom, sharing my bed. Go away. If you want to get home safely, don't anger me.” The old man, afraid, obeyed his words, walked off in silence, along the shore by the tumbling, crashing surf. Some distance off, he prayed to lord Apollo, Leto's fair-haired child: “God with the silver bow, protector of Chryse, sacred Cilla, mighty lord of Tenedos, Sminthean Apollo,1 hear my prayer: If I've ever pleased you with a holy shrine, or burned bones for you— bulls and goats well wrapped in fat— grant me my prayer. Force the Danaans to pay full price for my tears with your arrows.” So Chryses prayed. Phoebus Apollo heard him. He came down from Olympus top enraged, carrying on his shoulders bow and covered quiver, his arrows rattling in anger against his arm. So the god swooped down, descending like the night. He sat some distance from the ships, shot off an arrow— the silver bow reverberating ominously.
Sminthean is a special epithet given to Apollo. It seems to mean something like “killer of field mice.” Chryse is a small coastal town near Troy, where Chryses, the father of Chryseis, is a priest of Apollo.





First, the god massacred mules and swift-running dogs, then loosed sharp arrows in among the troops themselves. Thick fires burned the corpses ceaselessly. For nine days Apollo rained death down upon the troops. On the tenth, Achilles summoned an assembly. White-armed Hera put that thought into his mind, concerned for the Danaans, seeing them die. The men gathered. The meeting came to order. Swift-footed Achilles rose to speak:


“Son of Atreus, I fear we're being beaten back, forced home, if we aren't all going to be destroyed right here, with war and plague killing off Achaeans. Come now, let's ask some prophet, priest, interpreter of dreams—for dreams, too, come from Zeus— a man who might say why Apollo is so angry, whether he faults our prayers and offerings, 70 whether somehow he'll welcome sacrificial smoke from perfect lambs and goats, then rouse himself and release us from this plague.” Achilles spoke and took his seat. Then Calchas, Thestor's son, stood up before them all, the most astute interpreter of birds, who understood present, future, past. His skill in prophecy, Apollo's gift, had led Achaean ships to Troy. He addressed the troops, thinking of their common good: “Achilles, friend of Zeus, you ask me to explain Apollo's anger, the god who shoots from far. And I will speak. But first you listen to me. Swear an oath that you will freely help me in word and deed. I think I may provoke someone who wields great power over Argives, a man who is obeyed by everyone. An angry king overpowers lesser men. Even if that day his anger is suppressed,



resentment lingers in his chest, until one day he acts on it. So speak. Will you protect me?” In response to Calchas, swift-footed Achilles said: “Take courage. State what your powers tell you. By Apollo, whom Zeus loves, to whom you, Calchas, pray in prophesy to the Danaans, I swear this— while I live to look upon the light of day, no Achaean will raise violent hands against you, no, not even if you name Agamemnon, who claims he's by far the best Achaean.” Encouraged, the wise prophet then declared: “Apollo does not fault us for prayers or offerings, but for his priest, disgraced by Agamemnon, who did not free his daughter and take ransom. That's why the archer god has brought disaster, and will bring still more. He won't remove this wretched plague from the Danaans, until we hand back bright-eyed Chryseis, give her to her beloved father, freely, without ransom, and offer holy sacrifice at Chryse. If we will carry out all that, we may change Apollo's mind, appease him.” So he spoke and sat back down. Then, Atreus' son, wide-ruling, mighty Agamemnon, stood up before them, incensed, spirit filled with huge black rage. Eyes blazing fire, he rounded first on Calchas: “Prophet of evil, when have you ever said good things to me? You love to predict the worst, always the worst! You never show good news. Now, in prophecy to the Danaans, you say archer Apollo brings us pain because I was unwilling to accept fine ransom for Chryses' daughter, Chryseis.




if that's best.” At that point. not all killed off. But let's postpone discussion of all this. But then you'll owe me another prize. while the army takes my trophy from me. Chryseis is just as good in her shape. then I'll take a prize myself by force. equal in value. Let Achaeans give me another prize. For men to make a common pile again would be most unfair. the wife I married. Let's drag a black ship to the sacred sea. The man I visit is going to be enraged. most acquisitive of men.” Mighty Agamemnon then said in reply: “Achilles. a city rich in goods. If not. That would be entirely unfair to me. You intend to keep your prizes for yourself. Still. We've divided up what we allotted. loot from captured towns we devastated. like a god. as the god demands. I want the people safe. That's why you tell me to give Chryseis back. But don't conceal what's in your heart. You all can see my spoils are going elsewhere. I'm prepared to give her back. physique. something I'll enjoy. intelligence. In fact. Send the girl back now. I won't be the only Argive left without a gift. we'll give you three or four times as much. You'll not trick me or win me with your words. you're a fine man. or work. something from you or Ajax or Odysseus. swift-footed Achilles answered the king: “Noble son of Atreus. I want her more than Clytaemnestra. how can brave Achaeans give you a prize now? There are none left for us to pass around. 120 130 140 150 12 . Should Zeus ever grant we pillage Troy.But I have a great desire to take her home.

select a crew.” Scowling grimly. How can any Achaean obey you willingly— join a raiding party or keep fighting with full force against an enemy? I didn't come to battle over here because of Trojans. we came with you. I have no fight with them. The major share of war's fury rests on me. They never stole my bulls or horses or razed my crops in fertile Phthia. Peleus's son. great shameless man. so with a sacrifice we may appease the god who shoots from far away. I don't fancy staying here unvalued. treasures just for you. You don't consider this. gift from Achaea's sons. that fair-complexioned girl. my prizes never match the ones you get. to pile up riches.” To that. Let's have as leader some wise counselor— Idomeneus. load oxen on for sacrifice. When we Achaeans loot some well-built Trojan town. where heroes grow. godlike Odysseus. to please you. But you. and for Menelaus. swift-footed Achilles interposed: “You insatiable creature. to win honour from the Trojans— for you. quite shameless. I reach my ships with something fine but small. or you. king of men. Many shady mountains and the roaring sea stand there between us. It's far better to sail back in my curved ships. shot back: 160 170 180 13 . You threaten now to confiscate the prize I worked so hard for. Worn out in war. most eminent of all. and Chryseis. Ajax. So I'll return home now to Phthia. Agamemnon. dog face. don't think at all. But when we hand around the battle spoils. you get much larger trophies.

I have others around to honour me. Athena came down from heaven. Achilles. kill Atreus' son.“Fly off home then. White-armed Hera sent her. But I'll make this threat: I'll take your prize. I don't like you or care about your rage. the dreadful glitter in her eyes. I'll not beg you to stay on my account. Peleus' son. Zeus sometimes lends it to other gods. incite the crowd. the sight of which has the power to terrify men and make them run away. or suppress his rage. “Child of aegis-bearing Zeus.” 1 190 200 210 220 The aegis is Zeus’ special shield. So scurry off home. At that moment. was overwhelmed with anguish. You love constant strife— war and combat. grabbed him by his golden hair. You'll see just how much I'm the better man. So what if you're strong? Some god gave you that.1 why have you come now? Do you wish to see how overbearing Agamemnon is? I'll tell you where all this is going to lead— that arrogance will soon cost him his life. Athena stood behind Achilles. it’s you I hate the most. I'll fetch her in person. She cherished both men. fair-cheeked Briseis.” As Agamemnon spoke. In astonishment he turned. heart torn two ways. debating in his shaggy chest what he should do: Should he draw out the sharp sword on his thigh. Take ships and friends. invisible to all except Achilles. Of all the kings Zeus cherishes. At once he recognized Pallas Athena. especially all-wise Zeus himself. Achilles spoke— his words had wings. if that's your heart's desire. And others will hate to speak to me as peers. cared for them equally. control his fury? As he argued in his mind and heart. in public claiming full equality with me. 14 . Go rule your Myrmidons. he slid his huge sword part way from its sheath.

No. deer-timid coward. White-armed Hera sent me. She loves you both alike. Control yourself. You'd much prefer to stroll around throughout the wide Achaean army. with harsh abuse. though angry in their hearts. the gods attend to all the more. A king who gorges on his own people! You lord it over worthless men. and the other gods. 230 240 250 15 . Don't draw your sword. so he becomes disgraced. to grab gifts from a man who speaks against you. It's better so. The person who's obedient to the gods. and this will happen. because of Agamemnon's arrogance some day gifts three times greater than this girl will be set down before you. his anger still unabated: “You drunken sot. Athena then returned to heaven. home of Zeus. men should follow your instructions. Achilles turned again on Agamemnon. dog-eyed. cares equally. who bears the aegis. or venture with Achaea's bravest on a raid.” Swift-footed Achilles answered Athena: “Goddess. Atreus' son.” Obeying Athena's words. Fight him with words. Achilles relaxed his huge fist on the silver hilt and pushed the massive sword back in its scabbard. For I say to you. if you obey. Obey. you're never strong enough within yourself to arm for war alongside other comrades.Glittery-eyed Athena then spoke in reply: “I came down from heaven to curb your passion. Give up this quarrel. If not. To you that smells too much like death.

in distress. And I've been colleague of better men than you. because you shamed Achaea's finest man. a fight between you two. he said: “Alas. directly facing furious Agamemnon. that man killer. a time when. Then grief will tear your hearts apart. you'll lack my help. this would be your last offence. by this sceptre. now that bronze has sliced off leaf and bark. all those born and raised with him so long ago in sacred Pylos. Priam and Priam's children will be glad. men who never showed me any disrespect. and never will—like Peirithous. But listen. among Danaans the very best for counsel or combat. clear. this is great sorrow for Achaeans. which will never sprout leaves and shoots again. nor bloom any more. Sweeter than honey the words flowed from his tongue. Then Nestor stood up. 260 270 280 290 16 . This sceptre Achaea's sons take in hand whenever they do justice in Zeus' name. sweet orator from Pylos. Then he sat down. swear a great oath on this point. men whose like I have not seen again. Now he ruled a third generation of his people. should they find out about such quarreling. I'll tell you.” So the son of Peleus spoke. You are both younger men than I.son of Atreus. the hearts of other Trojans swell with joy. Concerned about their common good. In his own lifetime two generations of mortal men had come and passed away. Dryas. a time when Hector. throwing to the ground the sceptre with the golden studs. On this I swear— the time will come when Achaea's sons all miss Achilles. since first ripped away from its mountain stump. destroys many warriors. An oath on this has power.

lord it over everyone. not as your enemy. Yet they heard me and followed my advice. Set aside. don't seek to fight the king. Agamemnon. I think. who live forever. Associate of theirs. you may be stronger. I came from Pylos. for he rules more men. And you. Let that pass. but he's more powerful.1 But they destroyed those creatures totally. whose powerful authority comes from Zeus.a shepherd to his people. a long way from that land. in the middle of war's evils. So what if the gods. the strongest. I fought on my own behalf. both of you. never shares honours equally. your rage against Achilles. shouted: 1 300 310 320 Centaurs are creatures with the head and torso of a man and the body of a horse. who provides. summoned personally. Peleus' son. But you. made him a spearman? Is that some reason we should let him say such shameful things?” Achilles. interrupting Agamemnon. son of Aegeus. And the enemies they fought against were strong. will not obey him. I urge you. Exadios. But this man wants to put the rest to shame.” Mighty Agamemnon then replied to Nestor: “Old man. The sceptre-bearing king. Theseus. check your anger. the most powerful of mountain centaurs. since your mother was divine. That's what's best now. but do not take Briseis from Achilles. god-like Polyphemus. a powerful defence for all Achaeans. But some. everything you say is true enough. Achaea's sons gave her to him first. son of Atreus. you're an excellent man. 17 . all god-like men— the mightiest earthborn men. Achilles. So listen. rule all of us. by myself. No man alive on earth could now fight them. Caeneus.

Peleus's son. Then they stood up. Savory smells curled up amid the smoke high into heaven. and now. offerings for the god. Shrewd Odysseus shipped on as leader. You Achaeans gave her to me. Menoetius' son. Agamemnon did not forget the challenge he'd made earlier to Achilles. no. loaded on the oxen. All aboard. But I will tell you this—remember it well— I'll not raise my hand to fight about that girl. you seize her back again. But you'll not take another thing from my swift black ship— you'll get nothing else with my consent. if I held back from any action because of something you might say. Bring her to me. Agamemnon dragged a swift ship down the shore. take fair-complexioned Briseis by the hand. If he won't surrender her. just try. 330 340 350 18 . My spear will quickly drip with your dark blood. The men thus occupied. along with Patroclus. They then made sacrificial offerings to Apollo— hundreds of perfect bulls and goats—beside the restless sea. Talthybius and Eurybates: “Go to Achilles' tent.” Thus the pair of them continued arguing. not against you or any other man. they set off. and friends. I'll not obey you any more. Order other men about. dissolving the assembly by the ships. Atreus' son ordered troops to cleanse themselves. Peleus's son went back to his well-balanced ships and huts. chose twenty sailors. and led on fair-cheeked Chryseis. carving a pathway through the sea. He called his heralds. a nobody. The men bathed in the sea.“I'd be called a coward. Don't tell me what I should do. washed off impurities. If you'd like to see what happens.

fetch the girl. born from Zeus. Achilles then. afraid. 360 370 380 390 19 . who moved off. but Agamemnon. since you gave me life— if only for a while—Olympian Zeus. disastrously so— he's not thinking about past or future. Patroclus. heavy hearted. how Achaeans may fight safely by their ships. out of deference to the king. but against her will. in tears. mortal men.I'll come myself in force and take her. They reached the huts and ships of the Myrmidons. withdrew from his companions. I don't blame you. Come. Come here. and that unfeeling king. messengers for gods and men. That man's wits are foolish. There they found Achilles seated by his hut and his black ship. The heralds went back. praying repeatedly to Thetis. He called them. He led out fair-cheeked Briseis from the hut and gave her up to be led off. In his heart Achilles sensed their purpose. Give her to these two to take away.” Patroclus did as his dear comrade had requested. heralds. if ever there's a need for me again to defend others from a shameful death. “Cheer up. he dismissed the men. For him that will be a worse disaster. Briseis with them. As he saw them approach. sat by the shore. “Mother. The two heralds. staring at the wide gray seas. his beloved mother. he cried aloud. returning to Achaean ships. Achilles felt no joy. He sends you both here for the girl Briseis. Let them both witness. before blessed gods. along the shore of the restless sea. just stood in silence. Stretching out his hands.” With these firm orders.

Agamemnon's share was fair-skinned Chryseis. as he wept. like an ocean mist. He prayed to Apollo. “You know. The god heard him and sent his deadly arrows against the Argives. has shamed me. has taken away my prize.” As he said this. and settled down before him. Don't hide from me what's on your mind. carried in his hands the sacred golden staff with the shawl of archer god Apollo. the people's leaders.” With a deep groan. 400 410 420 20 . He sent him roughly off with harsh abusive orders The old man went away again. For wide-ruling Agamemnon. appropriated it for his own use.high thunderer. so we'll both know. Quickly she rose up. should give me due honour. Archer god Apollo's priest sought out his daughter. then said: “My child. Atreus' son. He brought with him an enormous ransom. moving above gray waters. His noble mother heard him from deep within the sea. He begged Achaeans. Why should I tell you what you know? We came to Thebe. Achaea's sons apportioned it all fairly amongst themselves. taking everything the city had. Eëtion's sacred city. he wept. But that didn't please Agamemnon in his heart. Then Chryses arrived at the swift ships of bronze-armed Achaeans. where she sat by her old father. sacked it. She stroked him. swift-footed Achilles then replied. who loved him well. enraged. accept the splendid ransom. All Achaeans called on them to respect the priest. above all Atreus' two sons. The troops kept dying. why these tears? What sorrows weigh down your heart? Tell me. But he doesn't grant me even slight respect.

why did I rear you. so he'll want to help the Trojans somehow. so they all enjoy their king. himself may see his foolishness. if you can. protect your son. 430 440 450 460 21 . He sat down beside the son of Cronos. and Poseidon. shedding tears. came and set him free. a creature whose strength was greater than his father's. have them destroyed. The prophet Calchas. Achilles: “Oh my child. as the god rained arrows down throughout the wide Achaean army. But anger got control of Agamemnon. stopped tying up Zeus. and men all name Aigaion.one by one. So sit down right by Zeus. Go to Mount Olympus. wide-ruling Agamemnon. So quick-eyed Achaeans are sending Chryseis in fast ships back to Chryse. by quickly calling up to high Olympus that hundred-handed monster gods call Briareos. dishonouring Achilles. exulting in his glory. if ever you in word or deed have pleased him. the best of the Achaeans. understanding all. transporting gifts for lord Apollo. So now. and heralds came to take away Briseis from my huts. At once I was the first to recommend we all appease the god. afraid. when other Olympians came to tie him up. Pallas Athena. goddess. clasp his knee. remind him of all that. He stood up on the spot and made that threat which he's just carried out. so the son of Atreus. For often I have heard you boast in father's house that you alone of all the deathless gods saved Zeus of the dark clouds from disgraceful ruin. the girl who is my gift from Achaea's sons. The sacred gods. Hera. implore Zeus. corner Achaeans by the sea. by their ships' prows.” Thetis. told us Apollo's will. But you. answered her son.

Then she went away. you're in distress. then rowed the ship in to its mooring place. 470 480 490 22 . angry at heart for lovely girdled Briseis. I think I'll get him to consent. Then Chryseis disembarked from the ocean ship. Resourceful Odysseus led her to the altar. With forestays they soon set the mast down in its notch. and then. faced with a quick doom. they took in the sails and stowed them in the ship. Odysseus sailed to Chryse. For yesterday Zeus went to Oceanus. At home. I'll go to Zeus' bronze-floored house. leaving Achilles there. taken from him by force against his will. But I'll tell these things to thunder-loving Zeus. Take no part in war.” Thetis spoke. placed her in her beloved father's hands. then said: “Chryses. Now. I gave you life marked by an evil fate. I have been sent by Agamemnon. you should sit by your swift ships. They threw out anchor stones. to banquet with the worthy Ethiopians. lashed stern cables. I'll go myself to snow-topped Mount Olympus. When they had sailed into deep anchorage. to see if he will undertake all this. angry at Achaeans. ruler of men. Meanwhile. and clambered out into the ocean surf. Your life is fated to be short—you'll not live long. on behalf of the Danaans. clasp his knee. to bring your daughter to you. The gods all journeyed with him.since I brought you up to so much pain? Would you were safely by your ships dry-eyed. more so than any other man. when he returns and comes home to Olympus. In twelve days. bringing with him the sacrificial animals as sacred offerings. They brought off the offerings to archer god Apollo.

to make an offering to lord Apollo— all these sacrificial beasts—to placate the god. when I prayed to you. Chryses gave his daughter a joyful welcome back. they sampled entrails. sliced the thigh bones out. mighty lord of holy Cilla. who now inflicts such dismal evil on us. skewered the meat on spits. Once the thighs were well burned. Once they had prayed and scattered barley grain. as dusk came on. and drew off every piece. slit their throats. And when the men had had their fill of food and drink. That work complete. roasted it carefully. honouring in dance and song the god who shoots from far. protector of Chryse. pouring libations into every cup. young boys filled the mixing bowl with wine up to the brim. and hid them in twin layers of fat. 500 510 520 530 23 . Young men beside him held out five-pronged forks. Then all day long young Achaean lads played music. Just as you honoured me. Raising his arms. They washed their hands. No heart was left unsatisfied. singing to the god a lovely hymn of praise. by the ship's stern they went to sleep. he handed the girl over. then sliced up all the rest. this wretched evil. sacred Tenedos. they then prepared a meal and ate. striking hard against Achaeans then. Old Chryses burned them on split wood. with raw meat on top. and served it. At sunset. they arranged the splendid sacrifice. Apollo felt joy fill his heart. You heard me earlier. And then around the well-built altar. from the Danaans. god of the silver bow. grant me what I pray for—remove disaster. All feasted equally. Phoebus Apollo heard him. Hearing them. poured wine on them.” After saying this.” So Chryses spoke. flayed them. so now. and picked up the barley grain for sprinkling. Chryses prayed out loud on their behalf: “Hear me. they pulled back the heads of sacrificial beasts.

among the deathless gods. But honour him. She found Zeus. they set off. once more back to the wide Achaean camp. Thetis did not forget the promise to her son. who. seated on the highest peak of many-ridged Olympus. with her right she cupped his chin. has shamed him. pushed long props tight beneath it. When they reached the broad Achaean army. with Zeus in the lead. The wind blew. They raised the mast and then the sails. all-wise Olympian. robbing him in person. its motion carving a path through the ocean swell. Bring honour to my son. king of men. Not once did he attend assembly where men win glory or go out to fight.But when early born. rose-fingered Dawn appeared. She sat down right in front of him. divinely born son of Peleus. Zeus. Achilles. in supplication to lord Zeus. and kept it for himself. the company of gods came back together to Olympus. some distance from the rest. then moved high up to great Olympus. each man returning to his own huts and ships. For just now. remaining idle by his ships. Meanwhile. With her left hand. filling out the body of the sail—on both sides of the prow the purple waves hissed loudly as the ship sped on its way. they hauled the black ship high up on the sand. Far-shooting Apollo sent them favourable winds. then grant my prayer will be fulfilled. Twelve days later. if. yearning for the hue and cry and clash of battle. He seized his prize. sat down in anger alongside his swift ships. son of Cronos: “Father Zeus. wide-seeing son of Cronos. But he pined away at heart. She rose up through the ocean waves at daybreak. I've ever served you well in word or deed. Give the Trojans 540 550 560 24 . then dispersed. she clutched his knees. Agamemnon. of all men will be fate's quickest victim.

in case Hera catches on. son of Cronos. shaking Olympus to its very base.the upper hand. 570 580 590 600 25 . greatly troubled. to convince you. He sat a long time silent. until Achaeans respect my son. silver-footed daughter of the Old Man of the Sea. Looking at him. all the gods at once stood up from their seats. No one dared stay put as he came in—all rose together. Once I nod my assent. nodded his dark brows. make sure it comes to pass. She provokes me so with her abuse. I'll take care of this. Even now. or unfulfilled. But go away for now. nod your head. said: “A nasty business. Zeus seated himself upon his throne. denied. The conference over. Zeus went inside his house.” Zeus. until they multiply his honours. Their father present. Cloud gatherer Zeus did not respond. The divine hair on the king of gods fell forward. or deny me— since there's nothing here for you to fear— so I'll clearly see how among all gods I enjoy the least respect. she's always insulting me.” Cloud gatherer Zeus. the two parted. I'll nod my head. Among gods that's the strongest pledge I make. down over his immortal head. in the assembly of immortal gods. Hera sensed he'd made some deal with Thetis.” Thetis finished. clinging close. Thetis plunged from bright Olympus back into the sea. repeating her request once more: “Promise me truly. Thetis held his knees. accusing me of favouring the Trojans in the war. What you say will set Hera against me. nothing I say can be revoked. Come.

except push yourself still further from my heart. no one. for this morning early. you're always fancying things. But you can't do anything about it.” The father of gods and men replied: “Hera. I've got this dreadful fear that Thetis. I think you surely nodded your agreement to honour Achilles. don't you go digging after them. without involving me. slaughtering them by the Achaean ships.” Zeus. the cloud gatherer. You never want to tell me openly what you intend. don't hope to understand my every plan. has won you over.At once she spoke up accusingly: “Which god has been scheming with you. killing many soldiers. Surely you're quite at liberty to plan anything you wish. 610 620 630 26 . silver-footed daughter of the Old Man of the Sea. in questioning you or seeking answers. Your attention picks up every detail. But now. or pestering me for every detail. held your knees. spoke out in response: “My dear lady. What's appropriate for you to hear about. in my mind. you crafty one? You always love to work on things in secret. god or man. Even for my own wife that's dangerous. what are you saying? I have not been overzealous before now. she sat down beside you. will know before you.” Ox-eyed queen Hera then replied to Zeus: “Most dread son of Cronos. But when I wish to hide my thoughts from gods.

The entire day 640 650 660 27 . passed a double goblet across to his dear mother. It's hard to take a stand opposing Zeus. his strength's too great. disturb the feast for us. inciting gods to quarrel. Do as I say. white-armed Hera. then. mother. In Zeus' home the Olympian gods began to quarrel. then all the gods here on Olympus won't be any help. was of a mind to hurl us from our seats. If not. so he won't get angry once again. For if Zeus.” Zeus finished speaking. But if you talk to him with soothing words. our dear father.making matters so much worse for you. So sit down quietly. the Olympian lord of lightning. though the sight would make me most unhappy. spoke to them: “A troublesome matter this will prove— unendurable—if you two start fighting over mortal men like this. we can't enjoy the meal. If not. down from heaven's heights. Once. then that's the way I want them. then stood up. in fear. though she's more than willing. saying: “Stay calm. our excellent banquet. as beloved as you are. to humour Zeus. for they're invincible. I may see you beaten up before my eyes. Hephaestus. with me incapable of helping out. Zeus seized me by the feet and threw me out. when I was eager to assist you. Then that famous artisan. at once Olympian Zeus will treat us well. silently suppressing what her heart desired. concerned about his mother. even though you are upset. Ox-eyed queen Hera sat down. when I reach out to set my hands on you.” Hephaestus spoke. So I'm urging mother. If we start bickering. If things are as they are.

almost dead. Then their laughter broke out irrepressibly. After that fall. When the sun's bright light had set. No one's heart went unsatisfied. had made each god a place to live. They heard exquisite music. He poured the drink. Hephaestus. for all the other gods. with his resourceful skill. the white-armed goddess Hera smiled. men of Sintes helped me to recover. She reached for her son's goblet.” As he spoke. went home to his own bed. He went inside and lay down there. god of lightning. Olympian Zeus. with Hera of the golden throne stretched out beside him. from Apollo's lyre and the Muses' beautiful song and counter-song. going from right to left. All feasted equally. the famous lame god. 670 680 28 . until sunset. the gods all went to their own homes. drawing off sweet nectar from the mixing bowl. where he usually reclined whenever sweet sleep came over him. All that day they dined. concerned about the feast. right at sunset. as the sacred gods saw Hephaestus bustling around. dropped on Lemnos.I fell and then.

by slaughtering many soldiers by the Achaean ships. and allied forces)] Gods and warriors slept through the entire night. Trojan. Odysseus deals with Thersites. of all the more senior men the one Agamemnon held in special honour. Report my words precisely. reminds the men of Calchas' original prophecy. divine Dream spoke to Agamemnon: 10 20 29 . more disasters. But sweet Sleep did not visit Zeus. fly quickly to Achaea's men. quickly reaching Achaea's fast ships and Atreus's son. Thersites insults Agamemnon. Agamemnon urges his troops to go home. Odysseus restores order. Dream stood above his head. Agamemnon reports the dream to his advisors and outlines a test of the army. by their swift ships. tossing and turning over in his mind some way to honour Achilles. Dream set off. city of wide streets. son of Neleus. the Catalogue of Ships (list of the Achaean. Calling the Dream. In that shape. for now they'll capture Troy. wrapped up in the sweet divinity of Sleep. Go to Agamemnon's hut. Hera's entreaties have persuaded them. Immortal gods who dwell on Mount Olympus no longer disagree about all this. Atreus' son. Zeus said these winged words to him: “Evil Dream.” Zeus spoke. Bid him quickly arm long-haired Achaean troops. With these instructions. In Zeus' heart the best idea seemed to be to send out a wicked Dream to Agamemnon. looking just like Nestor. He found Agamemnon resting in his hut. Nestor suggests a display of the troops. Trojans can expect more sorrows.Book Two Agamemnon’s Dream and The Catalogue of Ships [Zeus sends a false dream to Agamemnon.

bringing light to Zeus and the immortals. Fool! He had no clue of what Zeus really meant. his plan to load on them. pulled on a supple tunic. Agamemnon roused himself from sleep. he approached the ships of the bronze-armed Achaeans. but pities and cares for you. Hera's entreaties have persuaded them. Agamemnon convened a meeting 30 40 50 60 30 . that very day. When goddess Dawn rose high up on Olympus. new and finely made. shouldn't sleep all night. The immortal gods who dwell on Mount Olympus no longer disagree about all this. He took with him the royal staff of his ancestors. Remember what I've said.“You are sleeping. when honey Sleep has loosed his sweet grip on you. who has so many things to think about. But a prudent man. I come to you as Zeus' messenger. one to whom people have given their trust. Men answered on the run.” This said. He's far off. Trojans and Danaans both. more cries of sorrow. On top he threw a large cloak. through war's brutality. He thought he'd take Troy. He sat up. son of fiery Atreus. So pay attention. Trojans can expect from Zeus more sorrows. He bids you quickly arm long-haired Achaeans. eternal and imperishable. city of wide streets. still more suffering. Such a call went out. for now you can take Troy. the divine voice all round him still. more disasters. But first. Hear what I have to say. Priam's city. tamer of horses. with his orders. Gripping this. He laced up lovely sandals over his sleek feet and slung a silver-studded sword around both shoulders. Don't let forgetfulness seize your mind. Agamemnon bid the loud-voiced heralds summon all the long-haired Achaeans to assembly. Dream went off. leaving the king imagining things which would not come to pass.

But first. With a wise sense of their common cause. He's far off. tamer of horses. He stood above my head and spoke these words: 'You are sleeping. To the assembled group Agamemnon then sketched out a plan he had conceived—a devious one. A divine Dream has just come to me. chiefs and leaders of the Argives. more disasters. Immortal gods who dwell on Mount Olympus no longer disagree about all this. through the sacred night. Nestor stood up before them. son of fiery Atreus. The Trojans can expect from Zeus more sorrows. ordering them to go home in their ships with many oars. size. king born on Pylos. You hold them back with your commands. Hear what I have to say. “My friends. if any other Achaean had told us such a dream. 70 80 90 31 . Come. who has so many things to think about. But a prudent man. and voice just like worthy Nestor. I come to you as Zeus' messenger. Remember what I've said. he addressed them: “My friends. shouldn't sleep all night. sweet Sleep released me. for now you can take Troy.” Agamemnon finished speaking and sat back down. in form. each one working from his own position.of all his great-hearted senior counselors. Dream flew off. city of wide streets. as I lay asleep. So pay attention. with his orders. it's only right I test the men. one to whom people have given their trust. then. They met by Nestor's ships. let's get long-haired Achaeans somehow armed for battle. Hera's entreaties have persuaded them.' With that. He bids you quickly arm long-haired Achaeans. but pities and cares for you. listen. king of sandy Pylos.

so from ships and huts the many clans rushed out to meet. all sceptre-bearing kings. That god had given it to lord Zeus. so men could hear their leaders. 1 100 110 120 130 32 . kept quiet in their places. charging off in all directions. in his turn.” So Nestor spoke. group after group. Nine heralds shouted out instructions. gave it to king Pelops. his people's shepherd. god of war. But now the man who has a claim to be the greatest of Achaeans has witnessed it. The noise subsided. in his turn. the chariot racer. in clusters flying to spring flowers. Thyestes.we would declare it quite false. The others stood up. leaving the council meeting. Zeus. Troops came streaming out to them. as they sat amid the din. Argus was a monster sent by Hera to guard Io. passed it onto Agamemnon. because she didn’t want Zeus to seduce Io. Later Zeus had presented it to Hermes. as he lay dying. one fashioned by Hephaestus' careful craftsmanship. comrades. Beneath the men. who held it as ruler of all Argos and many islands. igniting them. Agamemnon spoke: “You Danaan warriors. The assembly was in uproar. son of Cronos. So come. the guide. left it for Thyestes. companions of Ares. who passed the staff to Atreus. dismiss it. With this staff as his support. Zeus' messenger. Then he began to make his way back. killer of Argus. son of Cronos. attempting to control the noise. Hermes killed Argus on Zeus’ orders. following Nestor's lead. has entangled me in some really serious foolishness. let's find a way to arm Achaea's sons. This man. hands gripping his staff. who owned many flocks. the people's leader. King Agamemnon stood up. Among the troops Rumour blazed. god's chosen ones. Gradually men settled down. earth groaned.1 Hermes. Just as dense clouds of bees pour out in endless swarms from hollow rocks.

those who live in Troy. all those with no idea of what he'd planned. So come. such is his power.” So Agamemnon spoke. Ships' planks have rotted. This is apparently what high Zeus desires. tells me to return to Argos dishonoured. their ropes have frayed. warrior spearmen from many cities. the greatest power of all. to draw up a treaty. The work for which we came remains undone. For if we Achaeans and the Trojans wished.Perverse Zeus! He promised me. let's all agree to what I say. with Trojans counting each inhabitant of Troy. men's feelings quickened. That. indicates just how much Achaea’s sons outnumber Trojans. Back home our wives and children wait for us. 140 150 160 33 . then of our groups of ten many would lack a man to act as steward. he who has smashed so many city heights. They thwart my wish to smash down those sturdy walls of Troy. Let's go back to our own dear country in our ships. and if we Achaeans set ourselves in groups of ten. in good faith. Now he plans a cruel trick. are a huge problem for me. I tell you. Just like huge ocean waves on the Icarian Sea. For we'll not capture Troy with its broad streets. Nine of great Zeus' years have rolled on past. to tally up the numbers on both sides. This is a great disgrace. and will destroy still more. he agreed— I'd have devastated well-built Troy before going home. But all their allies. and failed to get what they set out to take. The assembly was aroused. a Trojan man to pour our wine. which people will learn about in years to come— how an Achaean force of such quality and size vainly sailed off to fight a lesser force. Among the soldiers. then chose. for every group. after I've lost so many warriors.

well-decked ship. come on. unconquerable child of Zeus. all ears of corn ducking down under the power of the gusts— that’s how the shouting men stampeded to their ships. a man as wise as Zeus. go back home to their dear native land. So now. From underneath their feet a dust cloud rose.when East Wind and South Wind rush down together from Father Zeus' clouds to whip up the sea. use your persuasive power to stop the men hauling their curved ships down into the sea. frantic to get home. abandoning Helen. At that point. undulating under the fury of the storm. They yelled orders to each other to grab the ships. so you are going to fly back home. raced down from Mount Olympus' crest. clear out channels for launching boats. She sped off. cross the wide sea. bright-eyed Athena spoke to him: “Odysseus. was standing. rushing to the spot Odysseus. the Argives might well have gone back— contravening what Fate had proposed for them— if Hera had not spoken to Athena: “Alas. go down to the bronze-clad Achaean troops. far from the homes they love. who bears the aegis. as West Wind roars in with force. quickly reached Achaea's swift ships. the whole assembly rippled. drag them to the sacred sea. leaving in triumph Priam and his Trojans. like a large grain field. the Argives will flee. Standing close to him. On her account. 170 180 190 200 34 . an Argive woman. divinely bred. knock out props from underneath. He'd laid no hand on his fast. His stout heart was filled with pain. Laertes’ resourceful son. many Achaeans have perished here in Troy. black. Heaven echoed with the din. Bright-eyed goddess Athena obeyed.” So Hera spoke.

When he came across some king or prominent leader. abandoning Argive Helen. Grasping this.” By contrast. take your place in silence. a man from Ithaca. aide to Odysseus. Didn't we all hear what he said in council? In his rage he may harm Achaean troops— passions run high in kings whom Zeus supports. when Odysseus came across some common soldier yelling out. for whose sake so many Achaeans have died here in Troy. Listen to what others say. Right now he's testing all the army. who loves them. he ran to the bronze-clad Achaeans' ships. Don't hesitate. took from him his imperishable ancestral staff. move around among Achaean soldiers. shrugging off his cloak— Eurybates. Odysseus knew her from her voice. later picked it up. he'd confront him.” So Athena spoke. Odysseus went straight to Agamemnon. You've no clear sense of Agamemnon's plan. the herald. as if you're worthless. 210 220 230 35 . Their honour comes from Zeus the Counselor. Take your seat instead. Atreus' son.sail off to your own dear country. he'd beat him with the staff. You'll leap into your ships with many oars. But come now. as she talked. you puny coward. far from the homes they love. useless in war or council. admonishing him: “My friend. Then he ran. your betters. and leave in triumph Priam and the Trojans. Persuade each man to stop dragging the curved ships down into the sea. telling him to hold his ground: “Friend. Get other soldiers to remain in place. Soon enough he'll punish Achaea's sons. it's not suitable for you to panic. Stay put.

Of all the men who came to Troy. whenever we ransack some city. a ransom fetched by some horse-taming Trojan for his son tied up and delivered here by me or by some other Achaean? Or do you want a young girl to stash away. echoing like waves of the roaring sea crashing on shore. both subject to his taunts. expert in various insults. plenty of choice women. as did Odysseus. But he kept shouting out. From ships and huts. vulgar terms for inappropriate attacks on kings. cowardly comrades. Men sat calmly in their places. soldiers rushed to reassemble. you soldiers. scraggly tufts of hair. aiming noisy insults right at Agamemnon: “Son of Atreus. too.” Odysseus moved throughout the army. one crippled foot. The Achaeans. Let there be one in charge. as Ocean thunders on. too—all presents we Achaeans give you as our leader. have botched things up so badly for us. 240 250 260 270 36 . Or are you in need of still more gold. calming things. But now Agamemnon was the target of his gibes. rounded shoulders curving in toward his chest. No good comes from having many leaders. But you men. On top. despising Thersites in their hearts. what's your problem now? What do you lack? Your huts are stuffed with bronze. who receives from crooked-minded Cronos sceptre and laws. disgraceful people. so he may rule his people. so you’re the only one who gets to screw her? It's just not fair that you. Achaea's sons. one ruler. were furious at him. his pointed head sprouted thin. But a single man kept on yelling out abuse— scurrilous Thersites. he was the ugliest— bow legged. our leader. Achilles hated him.Achaeans can't all rule here as kings. whatever he thought would make the Argives laugh.

because Danaan heroes have given him so many gifts—but that's a cheap insult. Now Agamemnon has even shamed Achilles. leave this man. then let Odysseus' head no longer stay upon his shoulders. Noble Odysseus stood up quickly. 280 290 300 310 37 . That way he might come to recognize whether or not we're of some use to him. if I don't grab you. seeking to sneak back home. So shut your mouth. confronting Thersites. no heart's anger there. you're the most disgraceful. Let me tell you something— of all those who came to Troy with Atreus' sons. But don't try to have it out with kings. rip off all your clothes. our king. Scowling. down to your cock and balls. and beat you back to the fast ships in tears. How this war will end. would be your last. this bullying of yours. Atreus' son. he lashed out sternly: “Shut up. No more words from you abusing our kings. If he didn't.” Thersites yelled out these insults right at Agamemnon. So I'll tell you how things are going to be. railing at Agamemnon. You sit here. let him no longer be called the father of Telemachus. You're a champion talker. who lets it all just happen. a much finer warrior than himself. stealing a prize. Then there's Achilles. keeping it for his own use. abusing him. leader of his people. chatterbox. all by yourself. son of Atreus. cloak and tunic. If I find you being so foolish any more. the people's shepherd. Let's sail home in our ships. not warriors. in Troy here to enjoy his loot. we've no idea—whether Achaea's sons will go back home successful or will fail.you're Achaean women.

before now Odysseus has done good things. hitting Thersites hard across his back and shoulders. still on their way from horse-breeding Argos. shame you before all mortal men. At his side. looking like a herald. He sat down. Like widows or small children. Thersites' bold spirit won't urge him on to trash our kings again with his abuse. shedding many tears. spoke out: “Son of Atreus. Then Odysseus. They're refusing now to keep their promise. thinking up fine plans and leading us in war. shutting up that rabble-rouser. and rubbing away his tears. Odysseus lashed out with the sceptre. He doubled up in pain. In the middle of Thersites' back sprang up bloody welts beneath the golden sceptre. laughed uproariously. Odysseus. silenced troops. so Achaeans close by and far away could hear him and follow his advice. now the Achaeans wish to disgrace you. their king. bearing in mind their common good. becomes downhearted 320 330 340 38 . that oath that they'd return after we'd destroyed Troy's strong walls.whipping you in shame from our assembly. bright-eyed Athena. But going back demoralized is bad. they’re whining to each other to go home. A man who spends one month aboard his ship. though discontent. like an idiot. The soldiers.” That's how the soldiers talked together. grasping the sceptre. the one they all swore to while sailing here. away from his wife. But that's the best thing he's done by far to help the Argives. peering around. saying to one another: “Comrades. rose up. destroyer of cities. afraid and hurt.” Saying this.

a lovely plane tree. Calchas at once spoke out in prophecy: 'Long-haired Achaeans. new-born sparrows. Still. And then a great omen appeared. it's shameful to go home with nothing. lamenting her dear chicks. The coiled serpent snatched the crying mother by the wing. when our Achaean ships gathered at Aulis. a dreadful sight. The ninth one was the mother of the batch. So I don't think that badly of Achaeans in their frustration here by their curved ships. darting for the plane tree. why stand there so mute? Counselor Zeus has made manifest to us 350 360 370 380 39 . This is now the ninth revolving year we've been waiting here. huddled under foliage at the very top. eight fledglings. a thing sent out by Zeus into the daylight. the ones whom Fate has not yet visited to carry off in death. Crooked Cronos' son changed that snake to stone! We stood there astounded at what we'd seen— a horror desecrating the gods' sacrifice. who screamed with fear.when winter gusts and stormy seas confine him. the immortals—underneath that tree. a snake. The mother fluttered around here and there. We all have kept in mind what he foretold. Not long ago. where there lay tiny. on this very spot. You all are witnesses. where bright water flowed. bringing disaster for Priam and his Trojans. give us all more time. blood-red along its back. Once the beast had gobbled up the sparrow and her chicks. Out from under the altar that snake slithered. My friends. The serpent ate the infants. until Calchas' prophecy comes true or not. we sacrificed on holy altars placed around a spring hundreds of perfect creatures to the gods. be patient. the god who'd made the snake appear did something to it there for all to see.

signs manifesting his good will to us. though we've been sitting here for years. It has come late. wide streets and all.a tremendous omen. the few of them who yearn to go back home— something they'll find impossible to do— before we learn the truth or falsehood of what was promised by aegis-bearing Zeus. with the mother who bore them the ninth one killed. cried out: “Alas! In our assembly you're all infants. you must maintain with force your previous plan to lead the Argive troops directly to the harsh demands of war.' That's what Calchas said. and will take many years to be fulfilled. What will happen to our agreements. Just as that snake swallowed the sparrow's brood. as Achaeans roared out their endorsement of his words. the men who don't think like Achaeans. On our right hand. our treaties. silly children. Zeus hurled down lightning bolts.” At this speech Argives gave out an enormous cheer. For I assure you mighty Zeus nodded assent on that very day the Argives put to sea. let's stay. For now we fight ourselves. the oaths we made? Let fire consume our strategies. 390 400 410 420 40 . so that’s how long we’ll fight them over there. arguing like this. Son of Atreus. We can't find any remedy. but its fame will never die. So come on. In the tenth year we'll take Troy. ratified with wine and handshakes. Then Nestor. Now it's coming true. bearing Troy's destructive fate in their swift ships. men's plans. And let those one or two be damned. with no sense of war's events. those things we used to trust. the Geranian horseman. eight in all. until we seize Priam's great city. all you well-armed Achaeans. The ships on all sides resounded ominously.

then Troy's fate would be sealed without delay.So let no man run off to get back home— not before he's had sex with some Trojan's wife. his fate. king Priam's city would soon fall. But let's go off to eat. He throws me into pointless bitter fights. But if we two agreed. You. be taken. sacked at our hands. keeps showering me with grievous troubles. yelling at each other. 430 440 450 41 . So Achilles and I fought for that girl.” Mighty Agamemnon then answered Nestor: “Old man. Athena. Agamemnon. her cries of pain. let him just set hand to his well-benched ship. the two groups will stand against each other. The first offence was mine. think carefully— think about what someone else suggests. Ranged like that. Don't simply throw out what I say to you. so we can resume the fight. and Apollo— if I only had ten such counselors among Achaeans. in plain view of all. But aegis-bearing Zeus. with death. Inspect the chariots with a careful eye. in our assembly once again you win out over all Achaea's sons. set men in groups by tribes and clans. payment for Helen's miseries. You'll then know whether failure to take Troy stems from divine will or craven soldiers or ineptitude in managing the war. tribes bolster tribes. he'll come face to face. my lord. If any man is really keen to get back home. were of one mind. get your spears and shields prepared for action. O Father Zeus. so clans encourage clans. you'll then recognize who's good and bad among your leaders and your men. Feed your swift-footed horses properly. without a moment's pause. if Achaeans all obey. son of Cronos. If you do that. Every one of you.

set fires by their huts. nor darkness come. then both Ajaxes. hanging back by our curved ships. lashed by South Wind's blasts. and with my bronze sword sliced to shreds the tunic on Hector's chest. Agamemnon. praying to escape death and war's killing zone. Zeus. We'll get no respite.” Argives answered Agamemnon with a mighty roar. scattering to ships. before I have cast down Priam's palace. covered it with dust. destroyed its doors in all-consuming fire. not even for a moment. Every man then sacrificed to the immortal gods. will sweat. except at dusk. and each man ate his dinner. under the strain of hauling polished chariots. he'll not escape being food for dogs and birds. Around our spears hands will grow numb. five years old. to Zeus. May many of his comrades lie beside him. exalted lord of thunder clouds. sacrificed an ox. They stood by the ox. when nightfall separates the frenzied soldiers. like waves by a steep cliff crashing on the rock face. The men leapt up. always foaming on the rock. Horses. But if I see a man coming out to fight reluctantly. exalted son of Cronos. whipped on by every wind gusting here and there. Tydeus' son. king of men. 460 470 480 490 42 . Chest straps on our protective body shields will be soaked through with sweat. Warrior Menelaus arrived without a summons. He summoned the best senior men of all Achaeans— first. grant my prayer— May the sun not go down. Then Agamemnon prayed on their behalf: “Most powerful Zeus. knowing in his heart all Agamemnon's worries. Seventh came Odysseus. who dwells in heaven.so we can stand all day and battle Ares. then Diomedes. Nestor and Idomeneus. too. with barley grains for sprinkling. hateful god of war. a fat one. moved off.

With them strode Athena.” So he prayed. “Lord Agamemnon. eternal aegis. arranged the meat on spits. With this. Around Agamemnon. let's end our discussions now and not postpone work given by the gods. they chopped up the rest. Troops assembled on the run. The call went out. cooked it carefully. each finely woven. 500 510 520 43 . she sped on through Achaean ranks. He ordered clear-voiced heralds immediately to sound the battle call to long-haired Achaeans. ageless. Let's move together across the wide front. king of men. kings nurtured by the gods rushed to establish order. holding up the aegis— her priceless. valued at a hundred oxen. then drew it from the fire. and they'd tasted samples of the inner organs. its hundred golden tassels quivering. son of Atreus. teeth grinding dirt. scattering barley grain. with raw meat on top. they pulled back the beast's head. Each soldier's appetite was fully satisfied— all dined equally. king of men. This work finished.face down on the ground. Once the men had prayed. Come. Geranian horseman Nestor was the first to speak. flayed it. When the wrapped-up thigh bones were completely cooked. slit its throat.” Agamemnon. the men prepared a meal and ate. But Cronos' son did not grant his wish. sliced thigh bones out and hid them in twin layers of fat. agreed with Nestor. When every man had eaten as much food and drink as anyone could wish. then placed the innards on spits in Hephaestus' fire. rouse Achaea's men with blood-lust for war. Zeus took the offering but increased their suffering. her eyes glittering. let heralds of bronze-clad Achaeans summon all the soldiers to assembly. They cooked these on split wood.

like lightning. fly here and there. waist like Ares. knowing nothing certain— tell me the leaders of Danaans. the leaders organized the troops for battle. finer than sailing in the hollow ships back to his dear native land. an amazing sight. eyes and head like Zeus. their glittering bronze blazed through the sky to heaven. god of war. At once she made each man feel war far sweeter than returning home. while we hear only stories. an immense array. Under men's and horses' feet the earth rang ominously. the meadow resounding with the noise. you Muses living on Olympus. in that flowered meadow. as soldiers marched out. Just as goatherds sort out with ease the wandering beasts. Like flies swarming around shepherds' pens in spring. so through all the army. Just as in cattle herds the bull stands out above the rest. so. she roused in men that hot desire to fight. and long-necked swans— in an Asian meadow by the flowing river Caystrios. who loves the thunder. by the Scamander. cranes. tell me— for you are goddesses and know everything. firing soldiers' hearts for war. Among them powerful Agamemnon roamed. so on that day Zeus made Agamemnon stand pre-eminent among the troops. by far the most conspicuous amid the cows. all mixed up in the pasture. As many birds in flight—geese. Then they stood there. As she passed. chest like Poseidon. the rulers. eager to destroy them. Now. a huge long-haired host. when pails fill up with milk. and call. marched out onto that plain against the Trojans. proud of their strong wings. It would be impossible for me to tell 530 540 550 560 44 . so the many groups of soldiers moved out then from ships and huts onto Scamander's plain. so the Achaeans. to kill. Just as an all-consuming fire burns through huge forests on a mountain top. and men far off can see its light. first of heroes. as numerous as leaves and flowers in springtime. as they settle.

Scolus. Men from Aspledon and Minyan Orchomenus were led by Ascalaphus and Ialmenus. those who held fortified Lower Thebe and sacred Onchestus. commanded Phoceans—men from Cyparissus. mountainous Eteonus. to mighty Ares. from Lilaea. Their men came from Hyria. Hyle. the well-built fortress Medeon. went upstairs. men from Plataea.the story of or name those in the common mass. Midea. Thespeia. Fifty ships came with these men. and all the ships in full. not even with ten tongues. a modest virgin. Leitus. But I shall list the leaders. men holding Eleon. daughters of aegis-bearing Zeus. rocky Aulis. She. Azeus' son. 570 580 590 600 45 . a heart of bronze. Graia. holy Crisa. Astyoche bore them in Actor's house. each with one hundred and twenty young Boeotians. grassy Haliartus. commanders of the ships. beside Cephissus' springs. Copae. all those who came to Troy. with Poseidon's splendid grove. men holding Harma. Eilesium. rocky Pytho. Ares' sons. where the god lay with her in secret. sacred Nisa. with Clonius and Prothoenor. spacious Mycalassus. men from Coronea. and Panopeus. ten mouths. unless the Olympian Muses. and Arcesilaus led the Boeotians. Erythrae. Daulis. an untiring voice. Schedius and Epistrophus. Ocalea. Forty black ships these two leaders brought with them. Eutresis. men from Anemorea and Hyampolis. men from Arne. Peneleus. Schoenus. Glisas. city full of doves. Thisbe. from around the sacred river Cephisus. could sing of the men. and distant Anthedon. land rich in grapes. These men brought with them a fleet of thirty ships. the son of great-hearted Naubolus. Peteon. sons of Iphitus.

offspring of Ares. Bessa. Cerinthus by the sea. to pierce armed bodies with their long ash spears. Menestheus. their hair grown long behind. Nestor. Opous. after he was born out of the harvest land. filled with fierce desire to tear apart their enemies. Ajax brought forty black ships of Locrians living across from sacred Euboea. To him Athenian youth make sacrificial offerings. wine-rich Histiaea. as soldiers armed themselves. Soldiers came from that well-built fortress Athens. Elephenor. Locrians came from Cynus. at her own rich shrine. Carystus. from a previous age. soldiers from Euboea. led these men. commanded the Abantes. but a much smaller man. Calliarus. they set Phocean ranks by the Boeotians. son of Peteos. with bulls and rams as each year comes around. lovely Aegeiae. son of Oileus. The Locrians were led by swift Ajax.Moving around. the lesser Ajax. Forty black ships came with Elephenor. and from around the river Boagrius. Scarphe. Though he was short and wore cloth armour. Thronion. Tarphe. 610 620 630 46 . on their left. son of Telamon. was his only rival. Eretria. among all Hellenes and Achaeans he excelled in fighting with his spear. From Salamis Ajax commanded twelve ships. son of Chalcodon. Chalcis. great-hearted leader. Menestheus brought with him fifty black ships. warrior spearmen. not the greater Ajax. whom Athena raised. who live to breathe war's fury. These swift Abantes came with Elephenor. and Styra. land of proud Erechtheus. She placed him in Athens. In tactics no one alive on earth could match him in deploying chariots or shield-bearing men. men from the steep fortress Dium.

led one hundred ships. coastal Helos. dressed in gleaming armour. whose first king was Adrestus. Troezene. Achaean youth from Aegina. Men from Lacedaemon. Cyparisseis. warlike Menelaus. 640 650 660 670 47 . well-built Aipy. son of Atreus. as they armed themselves some distance off. with men from Hyperesia.He organized his men in their positions. where doves congregate. fortified Tiryns. There was a third leader. courageous— rousing his troops for war. skilled in war cries. men from Laäs. Thryum. Eionae. land of ravines. Orneae. prominent among all heroes. Mecisteus' son. Asine. because he had most men. Troops from the strong fortress Mycenae. Agamemnon's brother. so they stood adjacent to Athenian ranks. Sicyon. beautiful Augeiae. from around Oetylus—all these in sixty ships were led by powerful. son of lord Talaus. by Alpheus ford. lovely Araethyrea. Pellene. Agamemnon put on a proud display. and by Sthenelus. Messe. god-like Euryalus. men living in Bryseae. the finest men by far. Among these warriors. Men came from Pylos. In their midst. Amyclae. These men brought with them eighty black ships. But warlike Diomedes was the main commander. both with deep bays. Hermione. her cries of pain. lofty Gonoessa. lovely Arene. his heart passionate to avenge Helen's struggles. Pharis. Menelaus strode—confident. well-built Cleonae. from Aegium. men from coastal regions and wide Helice—of these men Agamemnon. He was the best of all. Warriors from Argos. Sparta. rich Corinth. Mases— all these were led by mighty fighter Diomedes. dear son of famous Capaneus. vine-rich Epidaurus. The most troops came with him.

coastal Myrsinus. sacred Echinean islands. Tegea. moved to Doulichium. king of men. Stratie. the rock of Olene. Pteleum. Many Arcadians came in every ship. son of Phyleus. Parrhasia—mighty Agapenor led these men. lovely Mantinea. daughters of aegis-bearing Zeus. where men excel in combat hand to hand. Third leader was Diores. descended both from Actor. from below steep mount Cyllene. near Aepytus' tomb. Fourth was Polyxeinus. son of Cteatus. son of Eurytus. living across the sea from Elis. windy Enispe. Geranian horseman Nestor led these men in a flotilla of ninety hollow ships. fair Elis. Ancaeus' son. Men from Doulichium. from the court of Eurytus the king. loved of Zeus. had himself provided well-decked ships for them to sail across the wine-dark ocean. were commanded by warlike Meges. and Alesium—these troops had four commanders. rich in flocks. troops from Pheneus. In their anger the Muses mutilated Thamyris. skilled fighters. Phyleus. Rhipe. He was coming back from Oechalia. Helos. Dorium. where the Muses met the Thracian Thamyris. Agamemnon. angry with his father. those parts bounded by Hyrmine. Meges brought with him 680 690 700 48 . and Thalpius. should they compete. Augeas' son. He'd boasted his singing would surpass the Muses.Amphigenea. son of Agasthenes. for these men lacked expertise in matters of the sea. The many Epeians on board were commanded by Amphimachus. Men from Arcadia. and stopped his singing. Orchomenus. son of Amarynces. Soldiers from Bouprasium. each with ten swift ships. and making him forget his skill in playing the lyre. in sixty ships. Stymphelus. taking away his godlike power of song. the horseman.

Odysseus led on the Cephallenians. Odysseus. Tlepolemus. Pylene.forty black ships in his flotilla. fortified Gortyn. who'd taken her from Ephyra. assembled many men. Idomeneus. Thoas. both populous towns. a huge brave man. chalky Lycastus. Samos. famous for fighting with a spear. soldiers from Ithaca. well wooded Neritum. as wise as Zeus. Miletus. men from Rhodes. led the Aetolians. They brought eighty black ships. a great fighter. Crocylea. by the river Selleis. son of Andraemon. Once he'd grown up in their well-furnished home. with other warriors from Crete's one hundred cities. from Zacynthus. and rocky Calydon. and fled away. too. split into three divisions—from Lindus. after razing many towns full of vital warriors. god of war. led these troops. Thus. Ialysus. At once Tlepolemus built a fleet. who came with him in twelve black ships. as skilled at killing men as Ares. led these troops. and he himself was dead. son of Hercules. Olenus. men from Pleuron. Proud king Oeneus had no living sons. born to Astyocheia and mighty Hercules. Rhytium. a well-loved old man. both those inhabiting the mainland and those from cities on the facing shore. famous spearman. Famous spearman Idomeneus led the Cretans from Cnossus. Licymnius. as was fair-haired Meleager. Other sons 710 720 730 740 49 . coastal Chalchis. and chalky Cameirus—all led by Tlepolemus. Lyctus. He brought forty black ships. led nine ships of courageous troops. Tlepolemus killed his father's uncle. along with Meriones. Thoas ruled alone. rugged Aegilips. Phaestus.

and grassy Pteleum— brave Protesilaus had led these men. Troops from Phylace. Men from Nisyrus. because he had few troops. and Hellas. Achilles sat still grieving. the Calydnian islands had Pheidippus and Antiphus. Antrum by the sea. flowering Pyrasus. until he came to Rhodes. All the troops from Pelasgian Argos. The son of Aglaea and lord Charopus. 750 760 770 50 . men called Myrmidons. Godlike Achilles. Achilles had laid waste Lyrnessus and Thebe's walls. Iton. loved them. Casus. swift of foot. Eurypylus' city. overthrown the spearmen Mynes and Epistrophus. he left behind a wife to tear her cheeks in grief. He suffered badly. who governs gods and men. seized from Lyrnessus after heavy fighting. sat by his ships.and grandsons of great Hercules had threatened him. But he was weak. Cos. son of king Selepius Because of her. Alos. They had no one to lead them. men living in Alope. the handsomest of all Danaans who sailed to Troy. With them came thirty hollow ships. Trachis. Achaeans—these troops Achilles led in fifty ships. Nireus brought three well-balanced ships from Syme. sons of lord Euenus. Zeus. Crapathus. But soon enough he'd rouse himself again. who had no equal. from Phthia. sons of lord Thessalus. whose people live in three groups split by tribes. after Achilles. Hellenes. where lovely women live. while still alive. Hercules' son. In Phylace. shrine of Demeter. where flocks breed. Now the black earth held him. and so the son of Cronos blessed them with great wealth. as leaders. still angry over fair-complexioned Briseis. But their minds weren't set on the grim clash of war.

Oechalia. His soldiers lamented the loss of their chief. Achaea's sons had left him there in agony. commanded by Eumelus. Warlike Podarces. city of Eurytus. He lay there in torment. 780 790 800 810 51 . They brought thirty hollow ships with them. son of Iphicles. but were now led by Medon. the first on shore. in horrific pain. But that great-hearted warlike soldier was an older. whom Rhene bore to Oïleus. the sacred island. So Medon was the one who set their ranks in order. But Philoctetes stayed behind on Lemnos. but didn't lack a leader. in seven ships. better man. were led by Philoctetes.home half complete. Glaphyrae. from Titanus with its white hilltops— these men were commanded by Eurypylus. from the fount of Hyperea. led them— the man owned many flocks and was a young blood brother to Protesilaus. skilled healers. But soon the Argives by their ships would have reason to remember him. Troops from Pherae by Lake Boebea. as he jumped on Trojan soil. These soldiers missed their chief. wounded by a snake bite. destroyer of cities. Podaleirus and Machaon. well-built Iolcus—these came in eleven ships. each with fifty men. Admetus' well-loved son. from Boebeïs. born to him by Alcestis. were commanded by two sons of Asclepius. rocky Ithome. Some Dardanian killed him. Meliboea. Men from Tricca. in forty black ships. abandoned. the Oechalian. fine son of Euaemon. Troops from Methone. loveliest of Pelias' daughters. though they missed the noble one they'd lost. Troops from Ormenius. the skilled archer. expert archers. far ahead of all Achaeans. Oïleus' bastard son. from Asterius. Podarces brought forty black ships along with him. Thaumacia. and rugged Olizon. So these troops had a leader.

son of Perithous. Of the men.Men from Argissa. both mares. led the Magnetes. These men were leaders. Muse. age. Eumelus drove them. Elone. As fast as birds. Bred by Apollo of the silver bow in Perea. reliable fighting men from cold Dodona. the white city Oloösson—these troops were led by Polypoetes. rulers of the Danaans. which empties its beautiful. dread waters by which the most solemn oaths are sealed. Gyrtone. like oil. who work by the lovely river Titaressus. son of proud-hearted Coronus. son of Telamon. from the region round Peneus and mount Pelion. Orthe. 820 830 840 52 . For the Titaressus is a branch of the river Styx. With him swift Prothous brought forty black ships. they matched each other in colour. son of Tenthredon. a steadfast soldier. where leaves are always trembling in the wind. Caeneus' son. Gouneus brought twenty-two ships from Cyphus. and beat them from mount Pelion towards the Aithices. With him sailed the Enienes and Peraebians. Prothous. flowing waters into the Peneus. These do not intermingle with the silver stream of the Peneus. by far the best was Ajax. son of Pheres. but flow along on top of them. That famous lady Hippodameia bore Polypoetes to Perithous on that very day he took revenge out on those hairy monsters. With him was Leonteus. himself son to immortal Zeus. tell me this—Which of them were the very best of those who came over with the sons of Atreus? The best horses were those of Admetus. and height along the back. they carried terror with them. With them they brought forty black ships. a warlike man. But Polypoetes was not the sole commander.

Then wind-swift Iris came to Troy as messenger from aegis-bearing Zeus carrying grim news. But now this war continues relentlessly. His soldiers amused themselves beside the breaking sea by throwing spears and discus or with archery. browsing on lotus and parsley from the marsh. like a fire consuming all the land. Their masters' chariots. old man. For Achilles was the better man by far. a convenient place for a lookout. Earth groaned under them. Looking just like Polites. Missing their warlike leader. Trojans had summoned an assembly by Priam's palace gates. in his anger lashes the land around Typhoeus. were much better. by his curved seaworthy ships. swift-footed Iris said: “Priam. remained stationed in the huts.1 right at the top. these troops strolled here and there throughout the camp and did not fight. The horses carrying Peleus' son. Priam's son. you always love to talk about irrelevant things. waiting for the moment Achaeans moved out from their ships. as you did earlier in peacetime. man without equal. 1 850 860 870 880 Aesyetes’ tomb is a prominent landmark outside the walls of Troy. That's how the earth groaned loudly under marching feet.but only while Achilles didn't join in battle. moved on out. Their horses stood near their chariots. too. The soldiers. so many men. I've gone to battle many times. He'd been stationed as a scout—fully confident of his skill at running—at old Aesyetes’ tomb. just as it does when Zeus. 53 . I've never seen an army like this one. But he stayed behind. who loves thunder. young and old. still enraged at Agamemnon. where people say Typhoeus has his lair. the people's shepherd. fully covered. Atreus' son. swift-footed Iris spoke. among the Arimi. There all had gathered. sounding like Polites. Standing by Priam.

whom Apollo had taught archery.” Iris spoke. So let each man issue orders to the ones he leads. Men from Zeleia. eager to get working with their spears. Merops' sons from Percote. some distance off. Hector understood her words. Apaesus. on you above all. Immediately he ended the assembly. extremely skilled in every form of war. a high hill stood by itself. Pityeia. I call on you. on mount Ida's lowest slope. With him were Antenor's two sons. Men rushed to arm themselves. But Aeneas was not their sole commander. led out the Trojans. wealthy Trojans. then lead them out to battle. Goddess Aphrodite had borne him to Anchises. Troops streamed out. the finest men by far.as numerous as leaves or grains of sand. Anchises' worthy son. People call it Batieia. With him marched in arms the largest contingent. to follow my instructions—the numerous allies here in Priam's great city all speak different languages from far-scattered regions. Priam's son. right before the city. Here the Trojans and their allies marshaled forces. 890 900 910 54 . let him now organize his countrymen. They opened up the gates. infantry and horses. coming across the plain to assault our city. She had lain with him on the slopes of Ida. Archelochus and Acamas. Lycaon's worthy son. who knew more of prophecy than anyone. Soldiers from Adresteia. men who drink dark waters of the river Aesepus were led by Pandarus. steep Mount Tereia were commanded by Adrestus and Amphius in cloth armour. led the Dardanians. but the gods know it as the tomb of agile Myrine. Aeneas. Hector of the flashing helmet. In the plain. Hector. A huge din arose.

those with fine homes by the stream Parthenius. by the Axius. Euphemus. Odius and Epistrophus led the Halizoni from distant Alybe. Acamas and warlike Peirous led the Thracians. Troops from Percote. Phorcys and noble Ascanius led up Phrygians 930 920 940 55 . along with Pylaeus. Teutamus's son. descendant of Aeacus. tawny horses brought him from Arisbe. Aegialus. from far off Amydon. high Erithini. Practius. son of Ceos. commanded Paphlagonians from Enetae. Abydos. Deadly black fates had called them on to battle. sons of Pelasgian Lethus. Pylaemenes. led Ciconian spearmen. But Ennomus' great skill in prophecy did not allow him to evade his deadly fate. son of god-nurtured Troezenus. an important ruler. fertile Larisa. Chromis and prophet Ennomus led the Mysians. where herds of mules run wild. Sestos. a brave soldier.He gave his children orders to stay away from war. Swift Achilles. son of Hyrtacus. They did not obey him. offshoots of Ares. killed him in the river where he slaughtered other Trojans. from Cromna. men from Cytorus. those men bounded by the Hellespont's strong flow. Pyraechmes led archers from Paeonia. a broad flowing river. Hippothous led tribes of spearmen from Pelasgia. from the river Selleïs. from around Sesamus. whose moving waters are the loveliest on earth. which eats men up. where men mine silver. holy Arisbe—these troops were led by Asius. Arius's huge.

Mesthles and Antiphus commanded the Maeonians. What a fool! His gold did not spare him a wretched death. from distant Lycia. He died in the river. with its wooded mountain. descended from Aeacus. men keen for war. Sarpedon and noble Glaucus commanded Lycians. from Miletus. Nastes led the Carians. 950 960 56 . Maeander's waters and high peaks of Mount Mycale. Sons of Talaemenes.from far-off Ascania. like a girl. Fiery Achilles carried off his gold. men with a strange language. a water nymph. Nastes went to war carrying gold. at the hand of swift Achilles. Nastes and Amphimachus. noble sons of Nomion were their leaders. by the swirling river Xanthus. they led Maeonians from around the foot of Mount Tmolus. born to Gygaea. Phthires.

Helen goes to the Scaean Gate. for one can see only a stone's throw up ahead. Paris and Helen meet back in Troy. when winter's harsh storms drive them off. determined to stand by each other in the fight. he challenged the best men in the whole Achaean force to fight— a single combat. both sides prepare make a truce. dense dust clouds rose from underfoot. Brandishing two bronze-tipped spears. on his shoulders a leopard skin. Trojans marched out. clamouring like birds. screaming as they move over the flowing Ocean. Achaeans came on in silence. bearing death and destruction to the Pygmies. Menelaus had in mind 1 10 20 Alexander is another name for Paris. something shepherds hate. They advanced at full speed out across the plain. though fierce young hunters and swift dogs attack. Aphrodite rescues Paris. launching their savage attack on them at dawn. right before his eyes.1 his troops bunched up in ranks behind him. but thieves prefer to night. breathing ferocity. He had bow and sword. Agamemnon utters the prayer for the treaty.Book Three Paris. and he rejoiced. looks at the Achaean troops with Priam. So Menelaus was pleased to see Paris there. Iris visits Helen. so. to the death. like a famished lion finding a large carcass— antlered stag or wild goat—and devouring it at once. Then godlike Paris stepped out. War-loving Menelaus noticed Alexander striding there. Priam leaves Troy to visit the armies and administer the treaty oath. Agamemnon demands compensation from the Trojans] Once troops had formed in ranks under their own leaders. Paris volunteers to fight Menelaus in single combat. as Trojan champion. as men marched. Menelaus and Helen [The armies move together. 57 . The two armies moved in close towards each other. Paris and Menelaus fight in single combat. like cranes screeching overhead. Just as South Wind spreads mist around the mountain peak.

Now long-haired Achaeans are mocking us. At once Menelaus jumped from his chariot. If not. hated by others. handsomest of men. his cheeks pale. thus bringing on great suffering for your father and your city. for all the evil things you've done by now you’d wear a garment made of stones. slid back into proud Trojan ranks. How I wish you never had been born or died unmarried. saying we've put forward as a champion one who looks good. and carried back from that far-off land a lovely woman linked by marriage to warrior spearmen. Trojans must be timid men. so much better than to live in shame. his weapons in his fists. long hair. jumping back. avoiding death. sailed sea-worthy ships across the ocean. his heart sank. all your people—joy to your enemies and to yourself disgrace? And can you now not face Menelaus? If so. but woman-mad seducer.taking revenge on the man who'd injured him. Just as a man stumbles on a snake in some mountainous ravine and gives way. his limbs trembling.” To Hector godlike Alexander then replied: 30 40 50 60 58 . so godlike Paris. among his comrades. He moved back into the ranks. You'd get no help then from your lyre. you'd learn the kind of man he is whose wife you took. Was this what you were like back on that day you gathered up your faithful comrades. Seeing this. down to the ground. lying in the dirt. Hector went at Alexander. went out among a foreign people. When godlike Alexander saw Menelaus there. but lacks a strong brave mind. good looks—Aphrodite's gifts—once face down. among the fighters at the front. afraid of Atreus' son. That's what I'd prefer. insulting him: “Despicable Paris.

attempting to hit Hector with rocks and arrows. Those complaints of yours are not unjustified. roared out at them: “Argives. Then Agamemnon. as friends. between the armies. as his wife. Put me and war-loving Menelaus in their midst to fight it out for Helen. He bids the other Trojans. Your heart is tireless. But long-haired Achaeans kept on shooting. Hector felt great joy. let him take all the goods and lead her home. stop hurling things. halted Trojan troops. listen now to what Paris has to say. you well-armed Achaeans. those gifts they personally bestow on us. king of men. land of the lovely women of Achaea. The one who triumphs. quickly falling silent. The men sat. Your mind's like that— the spirit in your chest is fearless. You want me now to go to battle. all her property. you're right in what you say against me.” So Paris spoke. the man whose actions brought about our fight. Let others swear a solemn oath. the better man. The axe makes his force stronger. like a wood-chopping axe wielded by a craftsman cutting timber for a ship. But don't blame me for golden Aphrodite's lovely gifts. Achaean lads. either to live on in fertile Troy or to return to horse-breeding Argos. Hector then addressed both sides: “You Trojans. the men stopped fighting. Hearing those words.“Hector. all Achaeans. Get others to sit down—Trojans and Achaeans.” Once Agamemnon spoke. 70 80 90 59 . He went to the middle ground. Hector of the flashing helmet wants to talk to us. grasping the centre of his spear shaft. Men can't reject fine presents from the gods. though no man would take them of his own free will. comes off victorious.

Let others swear a solemn oath as friends. Agamemnon sent Talthybius to the hollow ships. He and war-loving Menelaus here will fight it out alone between the armies for Helen and for all her property. Young men's minds are fickle. let that man perish. with little room between both groups. We'll bring one more for Zeus. and take the woman as his wife back home. Talthybius obeyed god-like Agamemnon's orders. climbed out. Lead out great Priam to administer the oath in person. thanks to the fight between myself and Paris. full of hope that wretched war would end. instructing him to bring a sacrificial lamb. a fight that he began. 100 110 120 130 60 . So now I think Argives and Trojans should part company. so for both groups things happen for the best.” Achaeans and Trojans were elated. since you have suffered many hardships.” So Hector spoke. Hector sent two heralds to the city. untrustworthy. my heart has suffered pain. So bring two lambs here—white male. answered Hector: “Listen now to me. More than anyone. disarmed. and placed their weapons next to each other on the ground. let him seize all the goods. Whichever one comes out victorious. black female— for earth and sun. An older man who joins them thinks of past and future. loud in war. Whichever one of us death takes. The soldiers all grew silent. for his sons are over-proud. Then Menelaus. our fate. the stronger man. You others quickly go your separate ways. They pulled the chariots back into the ranks. No man should transgress by violence oaths sworn in Zeus' name. to fetch the lambs with speed and summon Priam.set their weapons on the fertile ground.

with Priam and his entourage—Panthous. wars they suffered for her sake at the hands of Ares. Thymoetes. of all Priam's daughters the most beautiful. Horse-taming Trojans and bronze-clad Achaeans. delicate sounds. She found Helen in her room. on the tower. but they all spoke well. She did not go alone. Oucalegaon and Antenor. They sat there.” With these words the goddess set in Helen's heart sweet longing for her former husband. city. Her name was Laodice. like cicadas perched up on a forest branch. swift-footed Iris said: “Come here. Covering herself with a white shawl. men who earlier were fighting one another in wretched war out there on the plain. Seeing Helen approach the tower. but took with her two attendants. their fighting days were finished. dear girl. and warlike Hicataeon. taking on the image of her sister-in-law. shedding tears. sat at the Scaean Gates. Alexander and war-loving Menelaus are going to fight for you with their long spears. parents. Lampus. a double purple cloak. wife of Antenor's son. Look at the amazing things going on. Old men now. both prudent men. Clytius. are sitting still. chirping soft. Standing near by. both keen for war's destruction. fine Helicaon. these Trojan elders. The man who triumphs will call you his dear wife.Then Iris came as messenger to white-armed Helen. weaving a large cloth. Aethrae. they commented softly to each other—their words had wings: “There's nothing shameful about the fact that Trojans and well-armed Achaeans 140 150 160 61 . she left the house. and ox-eyed Clymene. daughter of Pittheus. elder statesmen. They soon reached the Scaean Gates. creating pictures of the many battle scenes between horse-taming Trojans and bronze-clad Achaeans.

where I saw Phrygian troops with all their horses.” Priam gazed in wonder at Agamemnon. They drove me to wage this wretched war against Achaeans. it’s not your fault. that vine-rich land. Once I went to Phrygia. so noble. goddess among women. our children. But things didn't work that way. a good king. soldiers of Otreus. that man is wide-ruling Agamemnon. so like a king. how I wish I'd chosen evil death when I came here with your son. godlike Mygdon. “Come here. She's beautiful. strong Achaean? Others may be taller by a head than him. whom I respect and honour. your relatives. So I weep all the time.” So they talked. I'm such a whore. As far as I'm concerned. But nonetheless let her go back with the ships. 62 170 180 190 200 . Sit down in front of me. immortal. thousands of them. fine fighter. over there. companions. your friends. blessed by the gods. Let her not stay here. But to answer you. saying: “Son of Atreus. a blight on us. so you can see your first husband. leaving behind my married home. that impressive. and friends my age. said to Priam: “My dear father-in-law.” Then Helen. awe-inspiring. darling child. who's that large man. but I've never seen with my own eyes such a striking man. Priam then called out to Helen. son of Atreus. many long-haired Achaeans serve under you. For I blame the gods. Tell me. if that life was ever real. dear child. fortune's child. and once he was my brother-in-law. divinely favoured.have endured great suffering a long time over such a woman—just like a goddess.

his broad shoulders were higher than the other's. as an ambassador in your affairs. When the time came for them to speak to us. what you say is true. a woolly ram. men's peers in war. came on against them. raised in rocky Ithaca. child of Zeus. I was their ally. He's well versed in all sorts of tricks. Once lord Odysseus came here with war-loving Menelaus.camped by the banks of the Sangarius river. then answered Priam: “That man is Laertes' son. But he looks broader in his shoulders and his chest. come tell me who this man is. son of Atreus.” At that point. wise Antenor said to Helen: “Lady. His armour's stacked there on the fertile earth. But those forces then were fewer than these bright-eyed Achaeans. setting out their thoughts quite formally. deceptive strategies. Menelaus spoke with fluency—few words.” Helen. but very clear—no chatter. I got to know them— from their appearance and their wise advice. that's what he seems to me. but he strides on. no digressions— 210 220 230 63 . shorter by a head than Agamemnon. crafty Odysseus. I received them both in my residence and entertained them. the day the Amazons. Odysseus seemed more regal. When they mingled with us Trojans in our meeting and Menelaus rose.” The old man then spied Odysseus and asked: “Dear child. Yes. part of their army. marching through men's ranks just like a ram moving through large white multitudes of sheep. But once they sat.

but have no wish to join men's battles. with words like winter snowflakes.” Priam. like some ignoramus— a bumpkin or someone idiotic. or they sailed here in their seaworthy ships. staring at the ground. But the life-nourishing earth 240 250 260 64 . He didn't move the sceptre to and fro. But when wise Odysseus got up to speak. We were no longer disconcerted at witnessing his style. but gripped it tightly. and Pollux.” Helen spoke. Castor. whom my mother bore along with me. Often war-loving Menelaus welcomed him in our house. the old man. Ajax. no man alive could match Odysseus. Now I see all the bright-eyed Achaeans whom I know well. Across from him stands Idomeneus. he just stood. whose names I could recite. saw a third figure. tamer of horses. answered: “That's massive Ajax.” Then Helen. But when that great voice issued from his chest. fearing the disgrace. eyes downcast. the fine boxer—they are both my brothers. whenever he arrived from Crete. which are justly mine. Achaea's bulwark. the many slurs. like a god.although he was the younger of the two. burly Achaean—his head and shoulders tower over the Achaeans. long-robed goddess among women. Either they did not come with the contingent from lovely Lacedaemon. surrounded by his Cretans. and asked: “Who is that other man? He’s over there— that huge. But I can't see two of the men's leaders. Around him there stand the Cretan leaders.

The old man trembled. The others will all swear an oath of friendship. they climbed out of the chariot onto fertile ground. in their own dear native land. the herald. At once. “Son of Laomedon. who comes off the victor. then ordered his attendants to prepare his chariot. the leading officers among horse-taming Trojans and bronze-clad Achaeans are calling you to come down to the plain. to ratify their solemn oaths pledged to the gods. a binding one— we will live in fertile Troy. They obeyed at once. Atreus' son drew out the dagger which always hung beside his sword's huge scabbard. 270 280 290 300 65 . heralds brought offerings to seal the binding oaths. and in Achaea. Through Troy. The man who wins.” Idaios finished. gets the woman and her property. Priam climbed in and pulled back on the reins. Antenor climbed in the fine chariot beside him. Standing close by Priam. brought in the gleaming mixing bowl and golden cups. they in Argos. he encouraged him. Idaios. to administer their binding promises. in the space between the Trojan and Achaean troops. where horses breed. Agamemnon and crafty Odysseus stood up to greet them. two lambs and in a goatskin sack some sparkling wine. land of lovely women. Noble heralds fetched the offerings. The two men led swift horses through the Scaean Gate.already held her brothers in Lacedaemon. Paris and war-loving Menelaus are going to fight it out with their long spears over the woman. They prepared wine in the mixing bowl. then poured water over the kings' hands. out to the plain. fruit of the earth. Once they reached the Trojans and Achaeans.

god of the sun. fight on until I'm fully satisfied. Agamemnon then intoned a mighty prayer on their behalf: “Father Zeus. they and their children. Let us return in our sea-worthy ships. placed them on the ground. then let the Trojans hand back Helen. hears everything. you gods are witnesses. all her property. ruling from Mount Ida. If Alexander slays Menelaus. With his bronze dagger. poured out libations to the deathless gods. their spirit sliced away by Agamemnon's knife. you gods below the earth. you immortal gods. If Alexander's killed and Priam and Priam's children are unwilling to reimburse me. most powerful. Keep this oath firm. who punish the dead when men swear false oaths. may you make sure the men who first violate these oaths will have their brains spill out onto the ground. earth. Next from the mixing bowl. Raising his hands. just like this wine.” So Agamemnon prayed. Then Trojans and Achaeans all spoke out this prayer: “Most powerful. 310 320 330 66 . gasping in their death throes as their life ebbed out. which future ages will remember. he slit the lambs' throats. then I'll remain here. mighty Zeus. too. who sees everything. But if fair-haired Menelaus kills Alexander. Attendants passed these hairs among the leaders of the Trojans and Achaeans. with all her property. you rivers.then sliced hairs off lambs' heads. and you. until I end this war appropriately. they drew off wine in cups. and you others. most glorious. and compensate Achaeans with something suitable. let him keep Helen.

I have no wish to see with my own eyes my dear son fight war-loving Menelaus. Zeus and other immortal gods know well which of them is fated to end up dead. descendant of Dardanus. held back the reins.” So Priam spoke. mighty. And grant our oath of friendship will hold firm. On his shins. Then both men set off. addressed them all: “Hear me. But the son of Cronos didn't grant their wish. It fit him well. of these two men. The troops sat down in their respective places. Hector of the flashing helmet turned his eyes to one side and shook out the lots. you well-armed Achaeans. took lots. praying to the gods: “Father Zeus. let the one who brought this war to both sides be killed and then go down to Hades' house. Then Priam. The god-like man climbed in. husband to Helen with the lovely hair. hoisted his fine armour on his shoulders. you Trojans. I am returning now to windy Troy. He placed the lambs in his chariot. Then he put around his chest the body armour belonging to his brother Lycaon. ruling from Mount Ida.May their wives be carried off by other men. and lord Odysseus first measured out the ground. moving back toward Troy. Then Hector.” So they prayed.” So they prayed. Paris. Antenor climbed in the fine chariot by Priam. Alexander's token fell out immediately. Then every Trojan and Achaean held up his hands. he clipped leg armour fitted with silver ankle clasps. Priam's son. and shook them up in a bronze helmet. to see who'd throw his bronze spear first. by their high-stepping horses and their inlaid armour. all-powerful. 340 350 360 370 67 .

the point deflected by the powerful shield. his huge strong shield. The heavy spear pierced through it. in vexation. evading a black fate. On his handsome head he put a fine helmet with nodding horse-hair plumes on top. Atreus' son. The son of Atreus. lord Alexander. but the bronze did not break through. had armed themselves. It struck Menelaus' shield. brandishing their spears in mutual fury. Alexander was the first to hurl his spear. a perfect circle. so generations of men yet to come will dread doing wrong to anyone who welcomes them into his home as friends. through the shirt which covered Alexander's naked flesh. a perfect circle. went straight through the fine body armour.” Menelaus then drew back his long-shadowed spear. Then he picked out a brave spear which fit his grip. As horse-taming Trojans and well-armed Achaeans gazed at the two men. grant I may be revenged on this man. looked up into wide heaven. what god brings us more trouble than you do? 380 390 400 68 . falling from his hand. Menelaus prepared himself as well.On his shoulder he looped his bronze. Let him die at my hands. threw in his turn. the son of Atreus raised it and struck the crest of Paris' helmet. Pulling out his silver-studded sword. staring ferociously. When the two men. But Paris twisted to the side. It hit the son of Priam's shield. silver-studded sword. full of menace. standing on each side with their troops. The two men approached each other over measured ground. But the sword shattered into three or four pieces. they strode out to the open space between the Trojans and Achaeans. crying out: “Father Zeus. Then Menelaus. First he made this prayer to Zeus: “Lord Zeus. and hurled it. who first committed crimes against me. they were overcome with wonder.

She clutched Helen by her perfumed dress. and placed him in his own sweetly scented bedroom. producing fine wool. his beauty and his garments glistening. grabbing the horse hair crest on Paris' helmet. He looks as if he's going to a dance. He's in the bedroom. with his bronze spear. twitched it. a wool carder. while from my hand my spear has flown in vain. if Aphrodite. a woman Helen really liked. I haven't hit him. intent on killing Alexander. His loyal companions retrieved it. then addressed her. but now my sword has shattered in my fist.I thought I was paying Alexander for his wickedness. on the carved-out bed. She found her on the high tower. You wouldn't think he's just come from some fight. back in the direction of well-armed Achaeans. Whipping it around. stirring emotion in Helen's heart. in the form of an old woman. someone who used to live in Lacedaemon. Zeus' daughter. Menelaus hurled the helmet in among well-armed Achaeans.” Aphrodite spoke. twisting him around. right below his chin. He charged back. But Aphrodite had snatched Paris up—for a god an easy feat—concealed him in a heavy mist. The fine leather strap stretched round Paris' soft neck. he sprang forward. leaving Menelaus clutching in his massive hands an empty helmet. Her force broke the ox-hide strap. or if he's sitting down right after dancing. Then Aphrodite went to summon Helen. In this shape.” As Menelaus said these words. He began dragging Paris off. At that point Menelaus would've hauled back Paris and won unending fame. in a crowd among the Trojan women. was strangling him to death. had not had sharp eyes. divine Aphrodite spoke to Helen: “Alexander is asking you to come back home. 69 410 420 430 440 .

back home with him? Is that why you're here. where laughter-loving goddess Aphrodite picked up a chair and carried it for Helen. you obstinate girl. and lead a miserable life with him. unnoticed by all the Trojan women. serving him in bed. because you're in love with some mortal man and Menelaus has just beaten Paris and wants to take me. goddess among women. too. angry at Helen. to some well-populated city somewhere in Phrygia or beautiful Maeonia. went off in silence. caring for him. was too afraid. until he makes you his wife or slave. Then you'd suffer death in misery. stop guiding your feet toward Olympus. Helen. “Goddess.” Divine Aphrodite. abandon you. With goddess Aphrodite in the lead. my heart is hurt enough already.Noticing the goddess' lovely neck. Helen was astonished. enticing breasts. There the attendants quickly set about their work. I won't go to him in there— that would be shameful. Besides. her glittering eyes.” Aphrodite spoke. a despised woman. I could make Trojans and Danaans hate you. Helen. Every Trojan woman would revile me afterwards. I might lose my temper. you and your devious trickery? Why don't you go with Paris by yourself. She covered herself in her soft white linen shawl. stop walking around here like a goddess. born from Zeus. they came to Alexander's lovely house. went to her room upstairs. answered her: “Don't provoke me. and hate you just as much as I have loved you. why do you wish to deceive me so? Are you going to take me still further off. 450 460 470 70 .

but with Athena's help.” Paris finished speaking. who bears the aegis. For we have gods on our side. But no Trojan nor any of their famous allies 480 490 500 71 . You used to boast you were stronger than warlike Menelaus. I'd suggest you stay away. not even when I first took you away from lovely Lacedaemon. don't mock my courage with your insults. without further thought. too. more power in your spear. Paris said: “Wife. more strength in your hands. Atreus' son paced through the crowd. too. she began to criticize her husband: “You've come back from the fight. So go now. searching for some glimpse of godlike Alexander. You might well die. sat down. That's how sweet passion has seized hold of me. challenge war-loving Menelaus to fight again in single combat. How I wish you'd died there. The two lay down together on the bed. Yes. But come. Next time I'll beat him. like a wild beast. sailing off in our sea-worthy ships. killed by that strong warrior who was my husband once. how much I want you now. He led the way to bed.She placed it facing Paris. come to a quick end on his spear.” Replying to Helen. Helen. or when I lay with you in our lover's bed on the isle of Cranae. child of Zeus. With eyes averted. Don't fight it out man to man with fair-haired Menelaus. Never has desire so filled my mind as now. Menelaus has just defeated me. His wife went. let's enjoy our love together on the bed.

compensate us with a suitable amount. king of men. So give back Argive Helen and her property.” As he finished speaking. as they hated gloomy death. For they all hated Paris. Trojans. addressed them: “Listen to me. the other Achaeans cheered. If they'd seen him. something future ages will all talk about. they had no desire to hide him. 510 72 . allies— victory clearly falls to war-loving Menelaus. Agamemnon. Dardanians.could reveal Alexander to warlike Menelaus.

she's just rescued him from certain death. while Aphrodite. For war-loving Menelaus was the victor. Agamemnon tours the battlefield rallying his troops. But they sit far away. for instance. Then Zeus. Now. Menelaus is wounded. with Zeus there. Zeus sends Athena to break the truce. But why don't we discuss how this warfare is going to finish up— whether we should re-ignite harsh combat. burst out: 73 10 20 . and Menelaus takes Argive Helen home with him. Hera of Argos and Athena of Alalcomene. plotting trouble for the Trojans. wishing to irk Hera with a sarcastic speech. helps Paris all the time. this horrific strife. no doubt of that. pouring nectar. or make both sides friends. too. who loves laughter. son of Cronos. But Hera. addressed them in deviously provoking words: “Menelaus has two goddesses assisting him. Athena sat there silently. if we find it sweet.Book Four The Armies Clash [The Council of the Gods on Olympus. then king Priam's city remains inhabited. Angry at Zeus. Gracious Hebe went among them. so enraged she didn't say a word. If this second option pleases all of us.” Athena and Hera sat together muttering. Machaon tends to Menelaus. as they looked out on Troy. looking on. protecting him from death. Athena persuades Pandarus to fire an arrow at Menelaus. the battle starts again] The gods all sat assembled in the golden courtyard. They toasted each other in golden cups. unable to contain her anger. enjoying themselves. her father.

don't try to thwart me. stands dearest in my heart. what sort of crimes have Priam or Priam's children committed against you. We shouldn't make this matter something you and I later squabble over. a source of major disagreements. that you should be so vehemently keen to destroy that well-built city Ilion? If you went through its gates or its huge walls. gathering men to wipe out Priam and his children. That's what you'd do to slake your anger. But all we other gods do not approve of what you're doing. you'd gorge on Priam and his children. with Priam and his people. swallow their flesh raw. expert spearmen. with libations and sacrificial smoke. I'll give in to you freely. though unwillingly. beneath the heavenly stars. and Mycenae. 30 40 50 60 74 . irritated. as I worked so hard. wearing my horses out. For of all towns inhabited by earth's peoples. other Trojans. Sparta.“Most fearful son of Cronos. too. Let me have my way. sacred Ilion. prevent them from achieving anything? What about the sweat which dripped from me. Go ahead then. But I'll tell you this—keep it in mind. under the sun. offerings we get as honours due to us “ Ox-eyed Hera then said in reply to Zeus: “The three cities I love the best by far are Argos. what are you saying? How can you wish to undermine my efforts.” Then cloud-gatherer Zeus. My altar there has always shared their feasts. Do as you wish. Whenever I get the urge to wipe out some city whose inhabitants you love. said to her: “Dear wife.

I yours. showering sparks behind her as she flew. then dropped right down into the middle of the soldiers. well-armed Achaeans.” Hera spoke. more wretched combat.city of wide streets. each man said to the person next to him: “There's going to be more war. I won't deny you or get in your way. let's both support each other's wishes—you mine. Destroy them utterly. by harming the glorious Achaeans. by injuring the glorious Achaeans. She darted from Olympus summit. Instruct Athena to go immediately where Trojans and Achaeans carry on their bitter conflict. But my own work must not be wasted. the same race as you— I'm crooked-minded Cronos' eldest daughter. Try to get the Trojans to break their oaths first. He spoke up to Athena—his words had wings. “Go quickly to the Trojan and Achaean troops. Horse-taming Trojans looked on in amazement. and you rule all immortals. like a comet sent by crooked-minded Cronos' son. then. As they saw her. 70 80 90 75 . I'm a god. In this matter. sped off. For you are far more powerful than me. if you ever hate them in your heart. too. That's how Pallas Athena shot to earth. If I tried disagreeing with such destruction. worth nothing. Other gods will follow our example. There she should try to get the Trojans to break their oaths first. my hostile stance would be quite useless. a beacon for sailors and the wide race of men. The father of gods and men agreed. Another thing—in addition to my birth— I'm called your wife.” Zeus' words stirred up Athena's earlier desires.

Pandarus stooped down. why not do as I suggest? Prepare yourself to shoot a swift arrow at Menelaus. Horns on its head were sixteen palm widths long. then. his bitter funeral pyre. seeking godlike Pandarus. adding gold caps snugly fitted on the tips. illustrious archer born in Lycia. Antenor's son. who serves up war to men. most of all from prince Alexander. if he could see warlike Menelaus. as it leapt down from a rock. landing on its back. He'd waited in an ambush and hit it in the front.or else great Zeus. made from a nimble wild goat he himself once shot under the chest. once you get back to your city. killed by your arrow. “Fiery hearted son of Lycaon. She met Pandarus. standing there with his sturdy regiment. Her words had wings.” That's what troops muttered. mounted on his bier. will make the troops on both sides friends. both Trojan and Achaean. Pandarus took up his bow of polished horn. to fit the horns together to create a bow. a strong spearman. 100 110 120 130 76 . Athena went down into the Trojan crowd. looking like Laodocus. shoot an arrow at him— at splendid Menelaus. He'd be the very first to bring fine gifts. a fine man. A man skilled in shaping horn had worked on them. Promise Apollo. He'd polished it all over. You'd earn thanks and glory from all Trojans. Standing near him. some new-born lambs. shield-bearing troops who'd come from the river Aesopus.” Athena spoke and thus swayed his foolish wits. holy Zeleia. The goat fell down onto the rocks. Athena spoke. So come. you'll make fine sacrifice. son of Atreus. then set it on the ground. strung the bow. Lycaon's powerful son.

going through that mail. he pulled back. the sharp-pointed arrow flew away. was first to stand before you. his most powerful guard. to ward off the piercing arrow—she brushed it from your skin. the bow twanged. Lycian-born Apollo. Just as when some woman of Meonia or Caria stains white ivory with purple dye. 140 150 160 170 77 . Then. by blocking spears and arrows. iron arrow head against the bow. a king's treasure with double value—horse's ornament and rider's glory— that's how. holy Zaleia. that he would make splendid sacrifice. eager to bury itself in crowds of men. and grazed the skin of Menelaus. Once he'd bent that great bow into a circle. When Agamemnon saw dark blood flowing from the wound. your strong thighs. Atreus' warrior son. The arrow pierced it. Zeus' daughter. the body mail. swearing an oath to the archer god. the ox-gut bowstring. passed right through the finely decorated belt. Gripping the arrow notch. Next he quickly set the keen arrow on the string. Menelaus. removing the cover from his quiver. making a cheek piece for a horse. goddess of war's spoils.His brave companions held their shields before him. just as a mother brushes a fly off her child while he lies sweetly sleeping. The keen arrow dug into the leather strap. Athena. before he could shoot Menelaus. Dark blood at once came flowing from the wound. shins and ankles were stained with your own blood below the wound. and leaves it in her room—an object many riders covet for themselves. Menelaus. a fresh-winged courier bearing dark agony. through the richly embossed armour. Pandarus took out an arrow. first-born lambs. Athena led the arrow to the spot where the gold buckles on the belt rest on the joint in the double body armour. when he got back to his city. worn to protect his flesh. But. drawing the string right to his nipple. the string sang out. just in case Achaea's warlike sons attacked them. the immortal sacred gods did not forget you.

later on he will. Mighty Agamemnon. 180 190 200 210 78 . lambs' blood. walking roughshod on their oaths. their children. taking Menelaus by the hand. son of Cronos. I'll be in dreadful pain on your account. Priam. if you die. who dwells in the sky. Then some arrogant Trojan. the oath. who loved war. as Achaea's champion. will shout: 'May Agamemnon's anger always end like this. leaping up onto the tomb of famous Menelaus. His Achaean army he brought here in vain. the Olympian. and courage flowed back into his chest. I know in my mind and heart that day will come when holy Troy. that oath I swore to was your death— letting you step forward to fight Trojans. These things will be fulfilled. too. Trojans will pay much— with their heads. And Menelaus. Your bones will lie rotting here in Trojan soil. shuddered. when high-ruling Zeus.that king of men shuddered. with a bitter groan. their wives. if Fate now ends your life. abandoning Helen. recalling the work we failed to finish. For Achaeans immediately will think of home. not underneath the skin. He returned home. that treaty they swore to in good faith. But when he saw barbs of the arrow head. spoke to his companions. leaving Priam and his Trojans here in triumph. For now the Trojans have shot you. its binding. all grieving with him: “Dear brother. his spirits rose. and his people. an Argive woman. unmixed libations. fine spearmen. does not fulfill them now. still outside. things in which we placed our trust— all these will not go in vain. But still. But. will shake his dark aegis against them all. if I return to arid Argos totally disgraced. For if Zeus. angry at their lies. handshakes. will be annihilated. Menelaus.

' That's what he'll say. son of Atreus.” Hearing his orders. said: “Take courage. My gleaming belt protected me on top. a skilled archer. He set off among bronze-clad Achaeans. But a healer must inspect your wound. abandoning courageous Menelaus. healer without equal. He saw him there. Standing close to him. His words had wings.” Mighty Agamemnon answered: “My dear Menelaus. Don't upset Achaeans. “Son of Asclepius.” Agamemnon ordered Talthybius. Achaea’s leader. Trojan or Lycian—to his glory and our grief. forged in bronze. standing among the ranks of his strong warriors. apply his medicine to relieve black pain. Before that day I hope the broad earth will lie over me!” Then Menelaus. shield-bearing men who'd come with him from Tricca. to cheer up Agamemnon.back to his native land in empty ships. to look over warlike Menelaus. 220 230 240 79 . Talthybius spoke. land where horses breed. rouse yourself. shot by someone's arrow. get Machaon here. son of Asclepius. For mighty Agamemnon calls for you to look at warrior Menelaus. his godlike herald: “Talthybius. as did my body chain mail underneath. I hope that's true. This sharp arrow is not a fatal hit. Talthybius obeyed. as quickly as you can. seeking heroic Machaon.

fully charged with passionate desire for battle. Trojan ranks advanced. under that.” At Talthybius' words Machaon's spirits were stirred up in his chest. son of Peiraeus. don't lose your warlike spirit. By attacking us. these Trojans were the first to violate their oaths. For Agamemnon had ordered him repeatedly to keep the horses ready for the time his limbs grew tired from moving through so many soldiers. Vultures will gnaw away their tender flesh. lord of the loud war shout. Machaon. son of Ptolemaeus. who held the panting horses at a distance. then skillfully applied his potions. Then you'd not have seen lord Agamemnon sleeping. he was moving out to combat. sucked out the blood. Quite the reverse. Father Zeus will never help those liars. godlike man. twisting back the sharp barbs as he pulled the arrow out. They came where wounded fair-haired Menelaus lay. then. shouting words of encouragement: “Argives. While the Achaeans were looking after Menelaus. soothing medicines which Cheiron gave his father. inspecting warrior ranks. the chain mail forged in bronze. They set off together. Next. Around him all the noblest men had gathered in a circle. shields ready. a skilled archer. He left his horses and ornate bronze chariot with his aide Eurymedon.shot by someone's arrow. while we lead off their wives 250 260 270 80 . Trojan or Lycian—to his glory and our grief. to man-ennobling war. hiding. or not keen to fight. through the wide Achaean army's crowded ranks. drew the arrow from the belt without delay. once more armed with all their weapons. he inspected the wound the keen arrow made. When he saw Danaans coming up with horses. He undid the finely decorated belt and armour. He went around on foot. strode into the middle. he'd approach them.

as does mine.” But when Agamemnon saw soldiers holding back from hateful war. Agamemnon moved around the army. Agamemnon. fierce as a wild boar.and their dear delicate children to our ships. Looking at these two. I value you in war. then—show you're a man. aren't you ashamed? What are you doing just standing here. like dazed fawns exhausted after running over a large plain. when we've destroyed their city. so you can drink any time your heart desires. in a trance. up to the fine sterns of our ships beached here. but your cup always stands full of wine. as they armed themselves round Idomeneus. the fine man you claimed to be before. disgraceful Argives. above all Danaans. so you can see if the hand of Cronos' son will shield you?” In this way. when Achaea’s finest prepare gleaming wine. the kind reserved for kings. He spoke out. in mixing bowls. king of men. Other long-haired Achaeans drink their portion. not marching up to battle. Going past crowds of men. with their swift horses. and at banquets. rejoiced. Meriones roused the ranks for action. Set off to battle. on the gray sea shore. in all other things. their fiery-hearted leader at the front. now motionless. exerting his authority throughout the ranks. talking straight to Idomeneus in a friendly tone: “Idomeneus. he met the troops from Crete. the amount allotted to them.” 280 290 300 310 81 . he'd lash out at them in anger “You cowards. Are you waiting for Trojans to come closer. In the rear. hearts drained of spirit—that's how you stand.

But you should rouse other long-haired Achaean men to action. without delay. as I promised that first time long ago. and Apollo. driving a huge storm. we'd capture it. he left them there. all dressed in black. Then king Priam's city would soon fall. destroy it utterly. urging them to fight 320 330 340 82 . driven by West Wind's force— something which at a distance seems pitch black as it moves across the sea. Seeing them. with shields and spears. Just as a goatherd high on a lookout sees a cloud coming down across the sea.” At these words. Cretan leader. shuddering at the sight. leaders of the Argives armed in bronze. so we may fight at once. As he continued on his way. Then he moved off. clear-voiced orator from Pylos. answered Agamemnon: “Son of Atreus. I wish such spirit would fill each man's chest. the son of Atreus felt joy fill his heart. he takes his flocks into a cave—that’s how the dense ranks of young men. arming themselves among the hordes of troops. ready for war. indeed I'll prove myself a loyal comrade to you. By Father Zeus. with crowds of men on foot.Idomeneus. going on to others. powerful Agamemnon felt great joy— he shouted out to them in words with wings: “You two Ajaxes. It's not right for me to urge you forward—both of you are rousing men to fight with all their force. Athena. death and sorrow will come to them at last. setting his troops in order. breaking their oaths. marched around both Ajaxes. He met Nestor. and. for you I have no orders. gods' favourites. he met both men called Ajax.” With these words. for they attacked us first. Since Trojans have broken their sworn promises.

when I cut down lord Ereuthalion. a battle wall. And don't lag behind. indeed. yes. your strength remain unbowed. “Old man. But I'll be with my horsemen. has worn you down. to avoid confusing the entire battle line: “In your eagerness to engage the Trojans.” To these words Geranian horseman Nestor said: “Son of Atreus. Seeing him. But old age. skilled in war's traditions. His words had wings. and charioteers in front.under huge Pelagon. and mighty Bias. among the ranks of younger warriors. Haemon. 350 360 370 83 . First. he placed his many brave foot soldiers. That's the most effective tactic. chariots. our common enemy. roused his men.” Thus that old man. advising them. In the middle he placed his poorer troops. Any man whose chariot confronts an enemy's should thrust with his spear at him from there. I wish I were the man I used to be back then. his people's shepherd. to force them to keep fighting on against their will. how I wish the power in those knees of yours could match the spirit in your chest. don't any of you charge ahead of others. In the rear. the way men wiped out city strongholds long ago— their chests full of that style and spirit. Then I was young. If only that had happened to some other man and left you in place. trusting in your strength and horsemanship. Now old age follows me. That will hurt our charge. He spoke to Nestor. Nestor set horses. Alastor. But gods don't give men everything at once. he told the charioteers to control their horses. mighty Agamemnon was elated. Chromius.

sharing the heat of battle. to your heart's content. god-given king. scowling grimly. At banquets. So Odysseus' soldiers stood waiting for the rest of the Achaeans to charge against the Trojans and begin the fight. crafty minded. when we Achaeans feast our senior men.” Resourceful Odysseus. spoke out. standing still among Athenians. For the armies of horse-taming Trojans and Achaeans had only just begun to march against each other. Peteos' son. how can you say such things? How can you claim I'm hanging back from battle each time we Achaeans rouse ourselves for war against horse-taming Trojans? If you want. Agamemnon. Seeing this. why are you holding back. king of men. Odysseus. His words had wings.” Nestor spoke. Next. Then you like to have roast meat and cups of wine. rebuking them. These men had not yet heard the call to battle. men who rely on strength. and you. “Son of Peteos. then replied: “Son of Atreus. Filled with joy. Atreus' son moved on. 380 390 400 410 84 . honey sweet. he came upon Menestheus. standing apart? Are you waiting for the rest? By rights you two should be with those in front. a charioteer. powerful fighting men. But now you'd be quite happy looking on if ten Achaean groups were fighting here with ruthless bronze before your very eyes. skilled in sly deception. Cephallenian soldiers. Close by them. you hear me call your name out first. Fighting with spears is for the younger men born after me.giving them their orders. resourceful Odysseus stood among his troops. an old man's right. famous for their battle cries.

Agamemnon spoke out in rebuke. 420 430 440 85 . son of Capaneus. mustering men to assault the sacred walls of Thebes. then you'll see Telemachus' dear father battling horse-taming Trojans at the very front. If I've said something bad we'll make it good. He met Diomedes. moving on to other men. Mycenaeans. willing to comply. standing by his horses and his well-made chariot. Seeing them. just watching battle lanes? Tydeus was not a man to shirk like this. son of fiery-hearted. He smiled at him and took back what he'd just said: “Odysseus. I'm issuing no orders to you. “Alas. His words had wings. Beside him stood Sthenelus. I never saw him for myself. Agamemnon left Odysseus there. I'm not finding serious fault with you. revealing an unlucky omen to them. Tydeus' high-spirited son. But then Zeus later changed their minds. you resourceful man. So Tydeus and Polyneices left. We both are of one mind. He fought his enemies in front of his companions.” With these words. why are you hiding. That's what they say. agreed. Once he came to Mycenae as a peaceful guest with godlike Polyneices. divinely born son of Laertes. People claim he ranked above the rest. They begged us to give them worthy comrades. What you've been saying is clearly nonsense. horse-taming Tydeus. Diomedes.if it's of interest to you. those who saw him work.” Mighty Agamemnon saw the anger in Odysseus. May the gods bring all of this to nothing. I know that spirit in your loyal chest is well disposed.

On their way, they reached the river Asopus, its lush grassy meadows full of reeds. Sent by Achaeans as envoy to Thebes, Tydeus went there. He found Cadmeans1 feasting in large numbers in the palace, home of great Eteocles. Though a stranger, all by himself in that Cadmean crowd, chariot fighter Tydeus was not afraid. He challenged them in various contests. Athena helped, so he won them all with ease. Horse-breaking Cadmeans were upset with him. They organized a strong ambush against him as he returned—fifty young men, with two leaders, that godlike hero Maeon, Haemon's son, and warlike Polyphontes, son of Autophonus. But these men came to fatal shameful ends. For Tydeus killed them, all but one. He let Maeon go home, sent him away, in obedience to an omen from the gods. That's the man Aetolian Tydeus was. But his son is a lesser man than he, though better when it comes to talking.” Mighty Diomedes did not reply to Agamemnon's words, shamed at the rebuke from a king whom he respected. But Sthenelus, son of famous Capaneus, answered: “Son of Atreus, don't spread lies. You know the truth. We claim we're far better than our fathers. We captured Thebes, city of seven gates, leading smaller forces over stronger walls, trusting signs sent by the gods and Zeus' aid. The others died through their own foolishness. So don't give our fathers honours high as mine.” Powerful Diomedes, frowning, spoke to Sthenelus:





Citizens of Thebes were commonly called Cadmeans after Cadmus, the founder of the city.


“My friend. Stay quiet. Follow my advice. For I'm not hurt that Agamemnon, the army's shepherd, urges armed Achaeans on to battle. For he will get the glory, if Achaeans annihilate the Trojans and capture sacred Ilion. And he'll get great sorrow, if Achaeans are wiped out. But come, let's get our two minds working to rouse our spirits for this coming fight.” Diomedes spoke. Then with his weapons he jumped from his chariot down to the ground. Around his chest the bronze rang fearfully, as he moved into action, a sound to make even brave warriors afraid. Just as thundering ocean surf crashes on the sand, wave after wave, driven by the West Wind's power, one wave rising at sea, then booming down on shore, arching in crests and crashing down among the rocks, spewing salt foam, so then Danaan ranks, row after row, moved out, spirits firmly set on war. Each leader issued his own orders to his men. The rest marched on in silence. You'd never think such a huge army could move out with its voice buried in those chests, in silent fear of their commanders. As they marched, the polished armour on them glittered. As for the Trojans, they were like thousands of ewes standing in a rich man's farm, bleating constantly, waiting for someone to come and collect white milk, as they hear lambs call. Just like that, the din rose up throughout the widespread Trojan force. They shared no words— they had no common language, but mixtures of tongues, with men from many lands. Ares urged the Trojans on, while bright-eyed Athena kept rousing the Achaeans. With them came Terror, Fear, and tireless Strife, sister and companion of man-destroying Ares— at first small in stature, she later grows enormous, head reaching heaven, as she strides across the earth.




Strife went through crowds of soldiers, casting hatred on both sides equally, multiplying human miseries. When the two armies came to one common ground, they smashed into each other—shields, spears, fierce angry men encased in bronze. Studded shields bashed one another. A huge din arose—human cries of grief and triumph, those killing and those killed. Earth flowed with blood. Just as streams swollen with melting snows pour out, flow down the hill into a pool, and meet some torrent from a great spring in a hollow gully there, and the shepherd in the distant hills hears the roar— so the shouts and turmoil resounded then from warriors, as they collided. Antilochus was the first to kill a man— a well-armed Trojan warrior, Echepolus, son of Thalysius, a courageous man, who fought in the front ranks. He hit his helmet crest, topped with horsehair plumes, spearing his forehead. The bronze point smashed straight through the frontal bone. Darkness hid his eyes and he collapsed, like a tower, falling down into that frenzied battle. As he fell, powerful Elephenor, son of Chalcodon, courageous leader of the Abantes, seized his feet, and started pulling him beyond the range of weapons, eager to strip him of his armour quickly. But Elephenor's attempt did not go on for long. Great-hearted Agenor saw him drag the dead man. He stabbed Elephenor with his bronze spear, right in his exposed side, where his shield left him vulnerable as he bent down. His limbs gave way, as his spirit left him. Over his dead body, Trojans and Achaeans kept fighting grimly on, attacking like wolves, man whirling against man. Then Ajax, son of Telamon, hit Simoeisius, Anthemion's son, a fine young warrior. He was born on the banks of the river Simoeis,






while his mother was coming down Mount Ida, accompanying her parents to watch their flocks. That's why the people called him Simoeisius. But he did not repay his fond parents for raising him. His life was cut short on great Ajax's deadly spear. As he was moving forward with the men in front, Ajax struck him in the chest, by the right nipple. The bronze spear went clean through his shoulder. He collapsed in the dust, like a poplar tree, one growing in a large well-watered meadow, from whose smooth trunk the branches grow up to the top, until a chariot builder's bright axe topples it, bends the wood, to make wheel rims for a splendid chariot, letting the wood season by the riverbank. That's how godlike Ajax chopped down Simoeisius, son of Anthemion.


Then Antiphus, Priam's son, with his shining helmet, hurled his sharp spear at Ajax through a crowd of men. He missed Ajax, but hit Leucus, 570 a brave companion of Odysseus, in the groin, as he was dragging Simoeisius away. His hands let go. He fell down on the corpse. Enraged at Leucus' slaughter, Odysseus strode up, through the front ranks, armed in gleaming bronze. Going in close, he took his stand. Looking round, he hurled his glittering spear. As he threw, Trojans moved back, but the spear found a mark. It hit Democoön, Priam's bastard son, who'd come from Abydos, where he bred horses for their speed. Angry for his friend, Odysseus speared him in the temple. 580 The sharp bronze pressed on through the other side, coming out his forehead. Darkness fell on his eyes, and he collapsed with a crash. The armour on him echoed. Trojans in the front ranks, among them noble Hector, backed away. Raising a huge shout, the Argives hauled off the corpses and charged ahead much further. Looking down from Pergamus, Apollo grew annoyed.


He called out to the Trojans, shouting: “Charge ahead, you horse-taming Trojans. Don't make Argives happy. Their skin's not made of stone or iron. Once you strike at them it can't stop flesh-ripping bronze. And Achilles, son of lovely Thetis, isn't in this fight. He's sitting by his ships, nursing his anger.” So the fearsome god spoke out from the city. Athena Tritogeneia, mighty Zeus' daughter, rushed among Achaeans, urging companies on, if she saw men holding back, hesitant to fight. Death then came to Diores, son of Amarynceus. He was hit by a jagged rock on his right shin, beside the ankle. It was thrown by Peirous, son of Imbrasus, captain of the Thracians, who'd come from Aenus. The cruel rock crushed both tendons and the bone. He fell onto his back down in the dust. There he reached out with both hands for his companions. His spirit left his body with each gasp he took. Peirous, who'd thrown the rock, ran up and speared his gut. His bowels spilled out onto the ground. Darkness hid his eyes. As Peirous moved off, Thoas, an Aetolian, hit him, his spear striking him above the nipple. The bronze spear point bit into his lungs. Thoas moved in to close quarters, pulled the heavy spear out from his chest, drew his sharp sword, then drove it straight into the middle of his belly, destroying Peirous' life. But Thoas couldn't strip the armour off. For Peirous' companions, Thracian men whose hair is piled atop their heads, rallied round, holding out long spears, forcing Thoas away from them. Thoas was big, strong, and brave, but he fell back, shaken. And so those two warriors lay stretched out in the dirt beside each other— one Thracian chief, one captain of bronze-clad Epeians. And many other men lay dead around them.






At that point, no man who joined in the battle there could take it lightly, not even one who strolled unhurt through the middle of the fight, untouched by that sharp bronze, with Pallas Athena escorting him by hand, shielding him from flying weapons. For on that day, many Trojans and Achaeans lay there side by side, stretched out together, face down in the dust.


Book Five

Diomedes Goes to Battle
[Athena inspires Diomedes with special powers; Athena takes Ares from the battle; Achaean leaders kill many Trojans; Diomedes' special glory on the field; Pandarus hits Diomedes with an arrow; Athena restores Diomedes, who continues his battle frenzy; Aeneas and Pandarus move out against Diomedes; Diomedes kills Pandarus, wounds Aeneas; Aphrodite saves Aeneas; Sthenelus captures Aeneas' horses; Diomedes attacks and wounds Aphrodite, who returns to Olympus; Diomedes threatens Apollo; Apollo heals Aeneas; Sarpedon complains to Hector; the battle continues; Sarpedon kills Tlepolemus, but is wounded; Athena and Hera go down to the battlefield; Athena and Diomedes attack and wound Ares; Ares returns to Olympus]
Then Pallas Athena gave Diomedes, son of Tydeus, strength and courage, so among all Argives, he'd stand out and win heroic glory. She made his helmet blaze with tireless flames, his shield as well—like a late star in summer which shines especially bright, newly risen from its bath in Ocean's streams. Around his head and shoulders the goddess put a fiery glow, then drove him forward, right into the middle of the strife, the killing zone, where most warriors fight. Among the Trojans was a rich and honorable man called Dares, priest of Hephaestus. He had two sons—Phegeus and Idaios—both very skilled in all aspects of war. Moving forward in their chariot to the front, these two charged Diomedes, who was on foot, staying on the ground. When they were at close range, Phegeus was the first to hurl his long-shadowed spear. The spear point flew by Diomedes' left shoulder— it missed him. Tydeus' son then threw his spear. The weapon did not leave his hand and miss the target.



It hit Phegeus right between the nipples and knocked him from his splendid chariot. Idaios jumped out and ran off from his horses. He didn't dare protect his slaughtered brother's corpse. Even so, he wouldn't have escaped black doom, but Hephaestus saved him with a dark cloud cover, so his aged father wouldn't waste away with grief. Tydeus' son, great Diomedes, drove the horses off, then gave them to his comrades to take back to the ships. When great-hearted Trojans saw those two sons of Dares— one shunning battle, one dead beside his chariot— all their hearts were stirred. Then Athena, eyes glittering, took her brother, headstrong Ares, by the hand, and said to him: “Ares, Ares, insatiable man-killer, destroyer of cities, why don't we leave Trojans and Achaeans to fight it out? Father Zeus will make one group victorious. Let's withdraw, avoiding Zeus' anger.” With these words, she led headstrong Ares from the battle, then sat him down by Scamander river bank. Danaans then began to push the Trojans back. Each leader killed his enemy. First, Agamemnon, king of men, threw huge Odius, chief of the Halizoni, from his chariot. His spear first struck him in the back, between the shoulder blades, as he turned to flee. It drove clean through his chest. Odius pitched forward with a thud, his armour rattling round him as he fell. Idomeneus slaughtered Phaestus, son of Borus, a Meonian, who'd come from fertile Tarne. With his long spear, skillful Idomeneus struck him in his right shoulder, as he climbed in his chariot. Dreadful darkness came and gathered Phaestus in. Those attending Idomeneus stripped the armour.





Then with his sharp spear Menelaus, son of Atreus, killed Scamandrius, son of Strophius, a huntsman. Artemis herself had taught him how to shoot every animal raised in the mountain forests. But archer Artemis was no help to him then, no more than was his expertise in archery, at which he'd been pre-eminent in former times. For fine spearman Menelaus, son of Atreus, caught him as he ran away in front of him, hitting him in the back between his shoulder blades, forcing the spear right through Scamandrius' chest. He fell head first. His armour rattled round him. Meriones then killed Phereclus, son of Tecton, Harmon's son, whose hands could make fine objects of all sorts. Pallas Athena had a special love for him. He was the one who'd made well-balanced ships for Paris at the start of all the trouble, bringing disaster on the Trojans and on Paris, too, for he was ignorant of what gods had decreed. Meriones went after Phereclus as he ran off, hurled his spear straight into his right buttock. The spear point pushed on through, below the bone, piercing his bladder. He fell down on his knees, screaming. Then death carried him into its shadows. Then Meges killed Pedaeus, Antenor's bastard son. Theano had raised him with all care, loving him as one of her own children, to please her husband. That famous spearman Meges, son of Phyleus, coming up close, drove a sharp spear in his neck, into the nape behind his head. The bronze point, slicing under his tongue, smashed through his teeth. He fell into the dust, jaws locked on the cold bronze. Eurypylus, Euaemon's son, killed lord Hypsenor, son of proud Dolopion, Scamander's priest, a man honoured by his people as a god. Eurypylus, Euaemon's splendid son, caught him





as he ran off in front of him. Going quickly after him, Eurypylus struck at Hypsenor's shoulder— his sharp sword sliced off Hypsenor's brawny arm. The bloody limb fell on the ground. Then death's black night, all-powerful fate, moved in and stole away his sight. Thus these men kept toiling in the battle frenzy. As for Diomedes, you couldn't tell where he belonged, whether among the Trojans or Achaeans. For he rushed across the plain like a swollen river, like a swift winter torrent bursting dikes— no dam put in its way can hold it back, no barrier of fruitful vineyards check its current, as all at once it floods when storms from Zeus roar down. It knocks aside all fine things built by farmers, hard-working men. That's how the son of Tydeus drove the dense ranks of Trojans into mass confusion. For all their numbers they could not contain him. Lycaon's fine son saw Diomedes moving fast along the plain, pushing Trojan ranks in front of him, in complete disorder. He quickly bent his bow, taking aim at Diomedes. He shot an arrow and hit him on his sculpted body armour, in the right shoulder. The sharp arrow went in there, kept going, and splattered blood down on the curving metal. At this Lycaon's noble son gave out a noisy shout: “Come on, you brave horse-lashing Trojans. For the finest of Achaeans has been hurt. I don't think he'll long survive my arrow's force, if Apollo, son of Zeus, really was the one who put it in my heart to leave Lycia.” That's what Lycaon's son cried out, boasting aloud. But his sharp arrow hadn't killed Diomedes, who moved back to stand beside his chariot and horses. He called to Sthenelus, son of Capaneus.






“My friend, son of Capaneus, come on, get down from the chariot, so you can pull this sharp arrow from my shoulder for me.” Diomedes spoke. Sthenelus jumped down on the ground. Standing beside him, he pulled out the sharp arrow stuck in his shoulder. Blood seeped through the woven shirt. Diomedes, expert in war cries, then spoke this prayer: “Hear me, Athena, unwearied daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus. If you've ever loved my father, stood by his side in murderous combat, be my friend now. Grant that I kill this man, that I come a spear's throw from the one who hit me unexpectedly and now boasts about it, saying I won't see daylight for much longer.” As Diomedes prayed, Pallas Athena heard. She put fresh strength into his legs and upper arms. Standing close by, she spoke. Her words had wings. “Take courage, Diomedes, in this fight with Trojans. I've put your father's strength into your chest, that shield-bearing horseman's fearless power. And I've removed the filter from your eyes which covered them before, so now, you'll easily distinguish gods from men. If a god comes here and stands against you, don't offer to fight any deathless one, except for Aphrodite, Zeus' daughter. If she fights, cut her with your sharp bronze.” Bright-eyed Athena left. Diomedes charged off, joining at once those soldiers fighting in the front, his spirit on fire to battle Trojans, seized by frenzy three times greater than before. He was like a lion slightly hurt by a shepherd guarding his sheep flock out in the wilds, when it jumps the wall into the pen.





in his hot rage. Then Diomedes went after Xanthus and Thoön. The shepherd can't keep the charging lion from his sheep. His next of kin thus divided up his assets. The wound rouses the beast's strength. some heifer grazing in the bushes. no person to inherit all his property. His huge sword struck the other on the collar. who. looking for Pandarus. His bronze spear hit one right above the nipple. Diomedes killed them. against their will. son of Dardanus.But he's not killed it. His companions took the horses to the ships. Worn down by sad old age. So the lion. Huddled in a mass. both in a single chariot— Echemmon and Chromius. interpreter of dreams. He left them there. Just as a lion leaps onto cattle and snaps necks on the cows. the clash of spears. Diomedes then challenged two sons of Priam. The old man didn't visit them to explain their dreams. for mighty Diomedes slaughtered both of them. He met Lycaon's son. That's how strong Diomedes went to fight the Trojans in his angry fury. panic. severing it from Hypeiron's neck and back. Aeneas saw Diomedes cutting his way through ranks of soldiers. slicing through the shoulder bone. by the shoulder. took the life they loved. a shepherd of his people. sons of old Eurydamas. First he killed Astynous. he'd have no other child. 160 170 180 190 97 . so Tydeus's son knocked them out of their chariot viciously. to chase Abas and Polyidus. two sons of Phaenops. Then he stripped their armour. He charged on through the fight. and then Hypeiron. leaps over the wide sheep-fold wall. left unguarded. who wouldn't welcome them back home from war alive. they crowd in on one another. leaving bitter grief and anguish for their father. a fine and powerful man. both of whom he loved.

I think that man must be the warlike son of Tydeus. the fierce son of Tydeus. I thought I'd shipped him straight to Hades. from all I see. counselor to bronze-armed Trojans. whose force now dominates the field. I'm not sure he's not a god. your reputation as a splendid archer? No man can match your expertise in that. For I've already shot an arrow at him. where's your bow. of course.Standing close by. raise your hands in prayer to Zeus. But if he's the man I think he is. an immortal with a covering cloud around his shoulders. your feathered arrows. hacking limbs from many fine young men. no chariot for me to chase him in. But we've no horses here. Beside each one 200 210 220 98 . displeased with Trojans' sacrificial gifts. he could not be charging at us in this way without help from some god beside him. I know him by his shield. too. No one in Lycia can claim to be your better. new ones. hurting Trojans badly. then shoot an arrow at that man. hit his shoulder through that moulded armour. In storage in Lycaon's house somewhere there are eleven chariots. it is some angry god. the god who pushed aside that sharp arrow which struck Diomedes. but covered up with drapes. They're beautiful and made just recently. unless. But I didn't kill him.” To Aeneas Lycaon's fine son then replied: “Aeneas. Come. and by looking at his horses. It's hard to stand against a raging god. the visor on his helmet. Aeneas said to him: “Pandarus. The man must be some angry god.

If I get home and see with my own eyes my native land. He told me to take chariots and horses when I lead Trojans into the hot heart of war. Things won't change at all until the two of us go out to challenge Diomedes with a chariot and horses.” Aeneas. old soldier Lycaon.stand pairs of horses. This pair will take us safely to the city. Tydeus' son and the son of Atreus. it's true. my wife. then replied: “Don't talk like that. that day I took my curved bow off its peg to lead my Lycians to lovely Troy. I've drawn blood from both of them. until we confront him with our weapons. let someone chop my head off on the spot. should Zeus give victory to Diomedes. relying on my expertise in archery. If I had. skilled in rapid movement on the plain. When I was coming here. my large and lofty home. but that just made them much more dangerous. munching wheat and barley. 230 240 250 260 99 . But that skill is apparently of little use. a favour for prince Hector. in pursuit or in retreat. and they were used to eating very well. Then you'll see how good these horses are from Troas' stock. But I worried about the horses—they'd lack forage with so many men all crammed together. For already I've hit two of their best men. It was a evil time. get in my chariot. things would have been much better for me. I left them and came to Troy to fight on foot. For me it's been completely useless. gave me much advice. in his well-built home. leader of the Trojans. But I didn't follow his advice. in all directions. if I don't smash this bow with my own hands and throw the pieces in the blazing fire. Come.

proud Anchises' son. answered Sthenelus: “Don't talk of moving back. guide your own horses—for they will pull your curving chariot that much better with a driver they're accustomed to. Sthenelus. if we must flee Tydeus' son this time. Take the whip and glistening reins. and set off. or refuse to charge straight into battle. climbed up together. Seeing them coming. The other is Aeneas. with a scowl. both keen to kill. they may shy or panic. You drive the chariot. two powerful men. One's Pandarus. “Diomedes.” They finished talking. so I can fight. Then the son of great-hearted Tydeus in his attack may kill us both. who boasts he's Lycaon's son. So come. I see two men approaching. guide your horses. His mother's Aphrodite. driving the swift horses against Tydeus' son. the skillful archer. Or if you fight him. For I know well 270 280 290 100 . riding out in a fine chariot. in case our quick charge through front lines ends up costing you your precious life. I'll do battle with him— my spear will give him a sharp welcome.Let's go. I'll leave you the horses. let's retire with the horses. my heart's true friend. I'll control the horses. an outstanding team. at once spoke up to Diomedes—his words had wings. eager to attack you. and lead these swift horses off. son of Tydeus. Capaneus' brave son. If they miss your voice.” Strong Diomedes.” Lycaon's fine son then said in reply: “Aeneas. that's his claim. you should take the reins yourself.

his son. but they'll not carry them both back again. beneath the light of day. the fast horses quickly brought the two men closer. Remember to run down Aeneas' team. then drive those horses from the Trojans to well-armed Achaeans. even if one escapes. But I will tell you this—keep it in mind— if Athena. gives me great glory and I do kill them both. away from us. If we can. My spirit's strong. Six of those horses became the breeding stock on his estate. balanced his long-shadowed spear. king of men. 300 310 320 330 101 . payment for Ganymede. we'll catch these two. that clever schemer. Lycaon's worthy son spoke first. So now I'll try to hit you with my spear. Pallas Athena does not allow me to withdraw in fear.” As they talked to each other of their strategy. and threw it. warlike son of Tydeus. For those horses come from the stock that wide-seeing Zeus gave Tros. did not destroy you. they scatter men before them. shouting out: “Great spirited. Their horses may be fast. a bitter shaft. By birth it's not in me to shirk war or seek refuge. Anchises. I see that my sharp arrow. that noble man. He kept four of them in his own stable and gave Aeneas two. I'll go to fight them as I am. then you must hold our swift horses here. got some of that line by stealth.” He spoke. horses so fierce. tying these reins up to the chariot rail. win ourselves great glory. on foot. Nor am I keen to climb up in the chariot.you won't persuade me. They're the finest horses under the sun. putting his mares into Laomedon's herd without his knowledge.

until one of you falls dead. supporting himself with his strong hand on the ground. Aeneas then leapt down with his long spear and shield. The boulder smashed the socket and both tendons round it. He held his spear in front. Falling to his knees. but stopped at the body armour. would have perished there. fiercely eager to kill anyone who came up to confront him. like a lion. Black night came down and covered both his eyes. too. warlike Aeneas stayed down. right in the ribs. hadn't seen him right away.” That said. 340 350 360 102 . and his blood satisfies in full hard warlike Ares. where thigh meets pelvis. a massive rock which no two men now alive could lift. this matter won't end for the two of you. his brightly shining armour rattling round him. left him. He made a stand by Pandarus. Pandarus fell from the chariot. The son of Tydeus picked up a stone. You haven't hit me. Athena guided it straight to Pandarus' nose. fearing Achaeans would somehow haul away the corpse. he threw his spear. In my view. king of men. The rough edges on the rock scraped off his skin. Lycaon's fine son let out a mighty cheer: “You're hit.” Unperturbed. if Aphrodite. The swiftly running horses swerved aside. Aeneas. coming out his chin. You won’t last long. his spirit. what people call the hip joint. The tireless bronze sliced through his tongue at its root. right at the tip. his round shield. Zeus' daughter. It smashed through his white teeth. confident of its strength. directly by the eyes. I think you've given me a glorious triumph. It hit Aeneas' hip. Seeing that. He threw it all by himself with ease. Then and there his life-force. powerful Diomedes said to him: “You're wrong. The bronze point pierced it. with fearful shouts.The spear hit the son of Tydeus on his shield.

who destroys whole cities. and then went after those fine-maned horses of Aeneas. But Diomedes with his ruthless bronze had gone to run down Aphrodite—knowing she was not a god who could do much in battle. When he met her. She was no Athena. she hid him in the folds of her bright gown. There he gave them to his dear companion Deïpylus. and men call them immortal. did not forget what Diomedes. goddesses of charm and grace. tying the reins onto the rail. Hence. beyond the fight. Sthenelus. He pulled his sure-footed horses to one side. He chased her through the crowded battle zone. should some Danaan driving with swift horses hurl a spear into his chest and take his life. 1 370 380 390 400 The Graces are the divine daughters of Zeus. to ward off any spears. told him. ichor. His weapon wounded her slim wrist. a garment the Graces had made for her themselves. son of Capaneus. and raced the strong horses back. whom he esteemed above all others the same age as himself. piercing the skin above her hand. grabbed the shining reins.1 Immortal divine fluid then flowed out. Wrapping her white arms around the son she loved. He instructed him to take them to the hollow ships. Then brave Sthenelus climbed back into his chariot. lunging with his sharp spear at Aphrodite. while he was tending cattle. keen to rejoin Diomedes. great-hearted Tydeus' son charged. since they both thought alike. right through her godlike robe. no goddess Strife. He drove the animals away from Trojan lines towards well-armed Achaeans. 103 . Meanwhile. skilled in war cries. She then began to carry her dear son from the fight. which circulates only in the blessed gods. usually three in number. they lack blood.She was his mother—she'd conceived him with Anchises. They don't eat food or drink down gleaming wine. not one of those who control men's wars.

then said: 410 420 430 104 . expert in war cries. Give me your horses. led her off. her fair skin stained with blood. Then Diomedes. distressed and fearful. his spear and his fast horses resting on a cloud. who took her daughter in her arms. I think the war will make you shake with terror. and gave them heavenly fodder. Wind-swift Iris came to her. pleading hard for his golden-bridled horses: “Dear brother.” At this. They flew on willingly. seated on the left flank of the fight. She came across fierce Ares. Aphrodite threw herself into her mother's lap. just in case some fast-riding Danaan threw a spear into his chest and took away his life. so I may go back up to Mount Olympus. moaning in pain. A mortal man inflicted this wound on me. she implored her dear brother. divine Dione.” Diomedes spoke. shouted loudly: “Daughter of Zeus.Aphrodite screamed wildly and let go of her son. untied them from the chariot. Aphrodite left in agony. Isn't it enough for you to fool around with feeble women? If you start loitering on the battlefield. My wound pains me a lot. At once they reached the gods' home. then lashed the horses forward. There wind-swift Iris stopped the horses. leave war and fights alone. the immortals' home. steep Olympus. then shielded him with a dark cloud. Falling on her knees. She climbed up in the chariot. her fond heart suffering. But Phoebus Apollo caught him in his hands. Ares gave her his golden-bridled horses. caressed her with her hand. out of the crowd. who'd now fight Father Zeus himself. Getting in beside her. even though you learn about it from a distance. save me. Iris picked up the reins. Tydeus' son.

when mighty Otus and Ephialtes. He stole Ares secretly. Many of us living on Olympus have been hurt by men in our attempts to bring harsh troubles on each other. acted so brazenly against you. hit her right breast with a three-barbed arrow. wounded me. She was wracked by pain beyond all cure. shot him in Pylos.” Dione. for I was carrying off Aeneas. when Hercules. a son of aegis-bearing Zeus.“My dear child. Of all men. That harsh imprisonment was breaking him. too. my dear son. which of the heavenly gods has done this. my child. though you're in pain. Ares was exhausted. when this same man. too. son of Tydeus. Ares suffered. children of Aloëus. 440 450 460 470 105 . if their step-mother. among the corpses there. Hera suffered. inflicting pain. had not told Hermes. Ares would've died there. he's the one I love the most. as if you'd done something evil in broad daylight?” Laughter-loving Aphrodite answered her: “Proud Diomedes. queen among the goddesses. replied: “Be brave. this Hercules. the powerful son of Amphitryon. then kept him prisoner in a brass jar for thirteen months. as well. tied him up in powerful manacles. away from battle. Hades went straight to Zeus at home on Olympus—his heart enraged. With them huge Hades also suffered from a sharp arrow. hold on. Now grim war is not just Trojans and Achaeans. for Danaans fight against immortals. fair Eëriboea. with all his war-lust.

that Hercules. healing the hand. must have been caressing some well-dressed Achaean lady and scratched her delicate hand on a golden brooch. wise daughter of Adrestus. What a wretch he was. he's a fool for not remembering the man who fights wars against immortals does not live long. lamenting the husband whom she married. Looking on. with her hand Dione cleaned away the ichor on Aphrodite's wrist. trying to coax some new Achaean woman into running off with one of those Trojans she loves so much. He didn't hesitate to commit bad acts with that bow of his against the gods who dwell on Mount Olympus.” As she said this. Athena and Hera teased Zeus. Paeëon healed him with pain-killing herbs smeared on the wound. once he comes home from war's grim butchery. Diomedes is surely powerful— but he should take care. will you? Aphrodite. the best of the Achaeans.in agony. the arrow buried deep in his strong shoulder. son of Cronos: “Father Zeus. a trouble maker. prompted Tydeus' son to go at you. Then Aegialeia. 480 490 500 106 . His children have no chance to prattle to their father at his knee. But Athena. He was incensed. A greater power than you may come against him. for Hades was immortal.” When they spoke. the bright-eyed goddess. the father of gods and men smiled. with cries of sorrow will rouse all her dear household from their sleep. brave wife of horse-taming Diomedes. you won't get angry with me for what I say. curing Aphrodite of her pain. Still.

Diomedes. a copy of Aeneas. But when for the fourth time he came on like a god. Though he knew Apollo himself was shielding him. he had no fear at all of that great god. son of Tydeus. You should concern yourself with your own work— love. the far shooter. Phoebus Apollo then called to foolhardy Ares: “Ares.1 There. sought out Aeneas. around which Trojans and brave Achaeans fought. Don't think you're equal to the gods. can't you return to Diomedes 1 510 520 530 540 Pergamus is the high citadel of Troy.” As the gods talked the matter over with each other. the archer goddess. inside the city. and then said to her: “My child. Three times Apollo pushed back his shining shield. Apollo. pushing on to kill Aeneas. Apollo of the silver bow then made an image. Go back. in a frenzy for the kill. where his temple stood. the son of Tydeus drew back somewhat. Leto and Artemis. at the round shields or smaller shields with fringes. healed Aeneas. on sacred Pergamus. Swift Ares and Athena will take care of this. hacking away at ox-hide covering their chests. Apollo put Aeneas some distance from the fight. especially erotic love in marriage. cried out: “Take care. 107 . Three times he charged forward. Ares. then strip his fine armour from him. in the large shrine.called for golden Aphrodite. expert at war cries. The race of men who walk upon the ground can never match the race of deathless gods. the far shooter. with matching armour. avoiding the anger of Apollo.” At these words. restoring him to his former power and magnificence. this warfare is not your business. you bloodstained man-killer. in a terrifying voice.

” Ares' words gave each man courage and blood-zest for war. Thracian leader. Those of us who've come as allies. he'd stand and fight with Father Zeus himself. But for all that. I can't see them here. at me. Then Sarpedon spoke to Hector. using your own family and relatives. traveling far. why are you still allowing the Achaeans to keep slaughtering your troops? Are you waiting until they fight by the well-built city gates? There lies great-hearted Anchises' son. by the swirling river Xanthus. fighting at close quarters. he yelled at Priam's royal sons: “You sons of Priam. Apollo took a seat high up on Pergamus. bitterly complaining: “Hector. In the shape of Acamas. he wounded Aphrodite on the wrist.” After saying this. something poor men covet. 550 560 570 108 . let's save our brave comrade from the battle roar. Looking round now. whom we honour as we do prince Hector. inspiring the troops. Then he flung himself. where's that courage you used to have? You kept claiming you could guard the city on your own. I stand and fight all comers on my own. much property.and remove him from the battle? Right now. any of them. Murderous Ares went in among the Trojan ranks. long way from here. where I left my dear wife. like dogs around a lion. They've all taken refuge. First. Aeneas. I urge my Lycian troops to action. that god-nurtured king. without your people or your allies. my infant son. when I've nothing for the enemy to take. we do all the fighting. for Lycia is a long. Come. like some god. I marched here as an ally.

he roamed through all the army. concealing them in darkness. putting fighting strength into this warrior's heart. carrying out his orders from Phoebus Apollo. Waving two sharp spears. who were overjoyed to see him safe and sound—alive— approaching with brave spirits. imploring leaders of your famous allies to hold on staunchly. Troops rallied once more and turned to face Achaeans. when Demeter. separates the grain from chaff in the rushing breeze. stood firm. Headstrong Ares assisted Trojans in the battle. rousing men to fight. 580 590 600 610 109 . covered with dust stirred up by horses' hooves. for she was helping the Danaans. god with the silver bow. Aeneas rejoined his friends. Fully armed. The men did not withdraw. wheeled round by drivers' strong ferocious hands. They didn't question him. his people's shepherd. You should be thinking of this day and night. For Apollo. Apollo then sent Aeneas from his costly shrine. You may become a prize yourself—a trophy for your enemies. who'd told him to arouse the Trojans' spirits when he saw Pallas Athena leave the fighting. and piles of chaff grow whiter.” Sarpedon's speech stung Hector's heart. and Ares. They'll quickly smash your well-built city. he quickly jumped down from his chariot to the ground. steeling hearts for dreadful war. too. god with the golden sword. Argives. They had too much other work at hand to do. It coloured the sky bronze. so then Achaean troops grew white. with her golden hair. while men stand winnowing the crop. As on the sacred threshing floor wind blows the chaff. without urging men to fight back or defend their wives. thus preventing them from mounting any serious complaints. roaming everywhere. Watch out. You'll be like a fish snared in the meshes of a fatal net.But you stand around. So the chariots came on to battle once again.

then quickly hurled his spear. whose father lived in well-built Phere. Then the two Ajaxes. and Diomedes roused Danaans. more troops are saved than slaughtered. whom Trojans honoured as they did king Priam's sons. they scatter shadowy clouds. but the shield could not hold out—the bronze went through. be men. and Orsilochus fathered great-hearted Diocles.” Agamemnon spoke. Odysseus. son of Cronos. When men recall their honour. comrade to Aeneas. without flinching. king of many men. while the force of North Wind and other raging blasts is sound asleep. Mighty Agamemnon's spear struck against his shield. The son of Atreus moved through the troops and gave out many orders. piercing Deïcoön's belt and sinking in his gut. Crethon and Orsilochus. Those who run away lose life and fame. along with insatiable Strife. to whom were born twin sons. 630 620 640 110 . a man of property. descended from the river Alpheus. his armour rattling round him. That's the way Danaans held their positions then. above a range of mountain peaks on a windless day. He hit a good fighting man. whose broad streams flow through Pylian land. for he was quick to take his place among the best. quite motionless. He fell with a thud. without fear. son of Pergasus. great-hearted Deïcoön. Let courage fill your hearts.the man killer. “My friends. The river bore Orsilochus. each man's reputation. In the heat of battle remember honour. They did not fear the Trojans' powerful attack and stood their ground like clouds set in place by Zeus. urging them to battle. Then Aeneas killed two of the best Danaans. When these storm winds blow. had stirred things up there on the battlefield. the men who do their fighting at the very front.

Death's final moment took them in. experts in all aspects of war. Atymnius' noble son. leader of the Paphlagonians. great-hearted. He made his way through the men's front ranks. But when Antilochus stood by Menelaus. They fell like lofty pines. These two. in his concern for this shepherd of the people. 650 660 670 680 111 . Antilochus hit Mydon. started to withdraw. then turned back to fight with those in the front ranks. though a swift fighter. until they perish. cut down by Aeneas. armed in glittering bronze. seeing these two men standing their ground together. city rich in horses. struck him. as he was wheeling his sure-footed horses round. cared for by their mother in a deep thick forest on a mountain peak. once grown. seeing them die. War-loving Menelaus felt pity for these two. all their efforts would be completely futile. Menelaus and Aeneas. placed the two dead heroes in the hands of friends. a man like Ares. ready to begin the fight. the attendant driver. shield-bearing men. Antilochus and Menelaus then killed Pylaemenes. The son of Atreus. saw Menelaus.Crethon and Orsilochus. with eager hands and spears. came with Argives in black ships to Troy. brandishing his spear. steal stout sheep and cattle and plunder people's farmsteads. killed by sharp bronze in the hands of men. As two lions. Ares stirred his battle spirit. to win honour for Agamemnon and Menelaus. Aeneas. so these two died. that if he came to grief. But then Antilochus. He hurried through the foremost ranks. son of great-hearted Nestor. He struck him with a rock square on the elbow. as he stood up in his chariot. hitting him right on his collar bone. famous spearman Menelaus. So Menelaus and Antilochus dragged the corpses of Crethon and Orsilochus to Achaean troops. now faced each other. planning his death at Aeneas' hand. sons of Atreus.

keen warriors—Menesthes and Anchialus—both riding in a single chariot. Stay turned towards the Trojans. warlike. and moves away— so Tydeus' son backed off then. buried in deep sand. noticed Ares. Seeing them fall. Trojans then approached much closer. but fall back. then threw his shining spear. But he's always got some god beside him. and tumbled from the well-made chariot headfirst.” Diomedes spoke. skilled in war cries. Mydon pitched over. He approached. Gasping with pain. 690 700 710 112 .The reins. with many crops. as Antilochus whipped them on. leading them back to Achaean troops. son of Selagus. great Telamonian Ajax felt pity. with strong Trojan soldiers in support. stamping him into the ground. bringing war's pitiless and murderous confusion. When Diomedes. we're so amazed prince Hector is such a spearman. Fate led him to become allied with Priam and his sons. He ran against them. decorated with rich ivory. The spear struck Amphion. he shuddered—just a man crossing a large plain stops at a raging river rushing to the sea. Don't try to fight it out with gods. it's Ares he's has with him. until his horses kicked him flat. looking like a mortal man. his head and shoulders disappearing in the dirt. sometimes in front of him. Hector killed two men. Antilochus sprang out and with his sword struck Mydon on the temple. For some time he stayed stuck. moving round. to ward off destruction. level with the dust. Hector saw this from the lines. shouting wildly. Right now. who owned much property in Paesus. Ares worked with a huge spear in his hands. sometimes behind Hector. Leading these men came Ares along with fearful Strife. fell from his hands onto the dusty ground. stood firm. saying to his men: “My friends. looks helplessly at swirling foam. so courageous.

With fewer men and only six ships. brave. brave Tlepolemus. then said in reply: “Yes. 720 The long-shadowed spear struck hard. Tlepolemus. your troops are withering away. facing each other at close quarters. they say— steadfast. what forces you to cower down right here. His shield took many hits. and you'll pass through Hades' gate. my father. Noble Ajax ran up to strip the armour off. But you've a paltry spirit. I'll kill you. against godlike Sarpedon. had to withdraw. And Ajax. counselor to the Lycians. He came here once for Laomedon's horses. He pushed his heel into the corpse and yanked out his bronze spear. he sacked the Trojan city and emptied all its streets. He collapsed with a crash. As these men toiled in frantic battle. Hercules did destroy 740 750 113 . for many spearmen crowded him and forced him back. Tlepolemus called out first: “Sarpedon. 730 for all his courage. shaken. hit Amphion in the belt. for all his massive size and strength. He was quite different. He feared the fierce brave Trojans standing by the corpse. even if you're powerful. Consider mighty Hercules.” Sarpedon. but Trojans showered him with bright. son of Hercules. low in his gut. sharp spears. These two men approached. And it's impossible you'll help the Trojans by coming here from Lycia. quite ignorant in battle? Those who say you're aegis-bearing Zeus' son are liars. son of Telamon. You're far inferior to those men born of Zeus in times long past. his spirit like a lion.Ajax. powerful fate drove strong. Lycian leader. son and grandson of cloud-gathering Zeus. But the hail of weapons stopped him stripping off Amphion's fine armour from his shoulders.

loud thunderer. well-armed Achaeans carried Tlepolemus away from battle. Dark night covered up his eyes. Lord Odysseus would have killed still more Lycians. So Hercules raised an army and captured Troy. You'll give me great glory. On this occasion. No one thought to pull the ash spear from his thigh. whether to chase after that son of Zeus. pulled down by the long spear's weight. so he could walk. 1 114 . I'll now see to your death. Father Zeus held off his fate. Sarpedon's spear hit Tlepolemus right in the neck. aiming for the bone. but his fond heart was burning. terrifying Danaans. then gone through the ranks in front. Godlike Odysseus noticed them. armed in shining bronze. as he turned over in his mind. He didn't offer Hercules the horses he'd come so far to get. Tlepolemus' long spear struck Sarpedon in his left thigh. Alastor. and Prytanis.1 As for you. 760 770 780 Hercules killed a monster to help Laomedon.sacred Ilion. high-born Laomedon. So he killed Coeranus. his spirit steady. The cruel point kept going.” Sarpedon spoke. son of Zeus. Noëmon. that fatal blackness. Then two long spears flew from their hands together. king of Troy. But Laomedon did not give Hercules the promised reward of horses. and your life you'll give to famous horseman Hades. Chromius. Alcandrus. Athena turned his heart against that Lycian crowd. who deceived the man who'd worked so well for him. On the opposing side. Tlepolemus raised his ash spear high. His brave companions carried off godlike Sarpedon. but through the foolishness of the city's king. or stay to kill more Lycians. Sarpedon. Halius. if Hector of the flashing helmet had not seen him. But Fate did not decree that brave Odysseus should kill Zeus' mighty son with his sharp bronze. They were in such a rush to shift him. Its bloodthirsty point pierced him. as it dragged behind.

a man who lived in Hyle and kept himself preoccupied with wealth along the shores of lake Cephisia. Orestes the charioteer. and brazen Ares? They were godlike Teuthras. eager to force the Argives quickly back. blowing air into his heart. He charged on. Rescue me. Let me remain forever in your city. Trechus. Among the Argives. since it seems I'll not be going home to cheer up my dear wife and infant son. Nor did they wheel about to battle Trojans face to face. don't let me lie here. He implored Hector: “Son of Priam. as his spirit panted. They kept moving back. his strong. God-like Sarpedon's noble comrades placed him by a fine oak tree. owners of rich lands. once they realized Ares was with the Trojans. but soon he breathed again.was glad to see him coming. with his glittering belt. to massacre large numbers of their soldiers. then pushed the ash spear straight out through his thigh.” Hector of the flashing helmet made no reply. Helenus. tireless one. clouding his eyes. “Alas. North Wind's breeze revived him. an Aetolian spearman. Beside him lived even more Boeotians. gasping his life away. A mist fell. Athena. Sarpedon fainted. son of Priam. Argives weren't driven back to their black ships by Ares or by bronze-armed Hector. a trophy for Danaans. She spoke out to Athena. sacred to aegis-bearing Zeus. and Oresbius. well-loved attendant. who were the first and last men killed by Hector. White-armed goddess Hera saw Argives being slaughtered in the thick of battle. son of Oenops. Pelagon. we've made an empty promise 820 790 800 810 115 . Oenomaus. child of aegis-bearing Zeus.

The gates of heaven scraped open on their own. Hera. 830 840 850 116 . that well-built city. let's both recall our fighting power. daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus. They met the son of Cronos. opening up the dense packed clouds or closing them again. agreed with Hera's words. before going home. The pole is made of silver. heavy spear. She set foot in her blazing chariot. with the chilling. on axles made of iron. heroes who annoy her. then fixed the golden collar straps. Two rails run round it. Silver axle boxes revolve on either side. On her head she placed a double-ridged gold helmet. Then Hebe quickly checked the chariot's curved wheels. bronze with eight spokes each. Strife.to Menelaus. its borders woven with Fear. the bright-eyed goddess. men from a hundred cities etched upon its four-part crest. wheel rims made out of imperishable gold. terrorizing Panic. threw on her father's porch the embroidered gown which she had made herself with her own hands. Through these gates the goddesses led out their horses. daughter of great Cronos. keen for war. She slung across her shoulders the fearsome tasseled aegis. an amazing sight. goddess with a mighty father. for they're in charge of great heavenly Olympus. went to prepare her horses with their golden bridles. grasping her huge. Hera quickly lashed the horses with her whip. Come. On its end Hebe tied the cross-piece. strong. if we let murderous Ares rage on like this. led her swift-footed horses out into their yoke. The Seasons supervise them. edged with tires of close-fitted bronze. She then put on the robe of cloud-gatherer Zeus and armed herself with weapons for that wretched war. So that revered goddess Hera. lovely gold. that he'd wipe out Troy. Force. Hera lashing them ahead.” Athena. with which she kills men. horrifying and monstrous Gorgon's head— the horrifying emblem of aegis-bearing Zeus. Then Athena. The body of the chariot has gold and silver strips.

are enjoying themselves. then spoke to Zeus. It pains me. For she's the one who's most accustomed to inflicting nasty pains on Ares. Simoeis produced ambrosia for them to eat. Aphrodite and Apollo. aren't you angry with Ares for killing off those warriors? He's wiped out so many Achaean men. who has no sense of what's appropriate. Hera. then. loosed them from the chariot and hid them in thick cloud.sitting some distance from the other gods. When they came to Troy's two flowing rivers. It's not right. do that. They flew off willingly. mid-way between the starry heaven and earth. She whipped the horses on. Father Zeus. against him. white-armed goddess. like lions who eat raw meat or wild boars whose strength 860 870 880 890 117 . white-armed goddess Hera stopped the horses. tamer of horses. happy about this madman they've unleashed. But set Athena.” White-armed goddess Hera agreed with what Zeus said. goddess of the battle spoils. that's how far gods' snorting horses vault in just one stride. and so rashly. would I annoy you very much if I hurt Ares and chased him from this fight?” Cloud gatherer Zeus smiled and then said in reply: “All right. reined in the horses. like wild pigeons. where the Simoeis and the Scamander meet. with his silver bow. too. on the highest crest of many-ridged Olympus. good ones. in a crowd by mighty Diomedes. Meanwhile. eager to assist the Argive troops. As far as a man on a height can see in the distant haze as he looks out across the wine-dark sea. The goddesses moved stealthily. They reached that place where most of the bravest men were fighting. most high son of Cronos: “Father Zeus.

When lord Achilles used to go to battle. They feared his mighty spear. in the middle of all those Cadmeans. But you're either weary after so much action. or fear has made you timid.” 900 910 920 930 118 . the son of warlike Oeneus. If so.” With these words. taking care of you. then you're no son of Tydeus. I told him to be quiet at the palace feast. white-armed goddess. wiping off dark blood. He was lifting up the strap. that time he came to Thebes alone. Bright-eyed Athena quickly moved to Diomedes. the Trojans didn't dare to venture out beyond the Dardanian gates. When I would not allow him into battle or to display himself. So he challenged Cadmean young men and beat them easily. your friend. a great-hearted. by our hollow ships. the goddess said: “Tydeus had a son not much like his father. beside you. Setting her hand on the chariot yoke. far from his Achaeans. But he possessed a powerful spirit always active in him. The chafing made his arms grow tired.is not easily exhausted. That's how much I helped him. He may have been short. stood up. she roused each man's heart and spirit. Now I stand here. The sweat under the wide strap of his round shield was bothering him. And I'm telling you to fight the Trojans. loud-throated man. good only for display. Hera cried out: “Shame on you. recovering from the wound from Pandarus' arrow. She found that king beside his chariot and horses. you Argive warriors. You're a disgrace. but he was a fighter. your limbs worn out. whose voice could shout with the strength of fifty men. But now they're fighting well outside the city. looking just like Stentor. In that place Hera.

” Saying this. You told me not to fight face to face with any immortal god. But now. bearing the fearful goddess and the finest man. Pallas Athena took up the reins and whip. what you laid down. It's not that fear has made me hesitant or anxious. I was to wound her. son of Tydeus. I've pulled myself back. Just now he gave his word to me and Hera too that he would fight the Trojans and assist the Argives. Athena grabbed Sthenelus' hand and hauled him from the chariot to the ground. she led the sure-footed horses against Ares. unless Zeus' daughter Aphrodite should come to battle. The oaken axle groaned aloud. that madman. you fill my heart with joy. With my sharp bronze. 940 950 960 119 . I'll speak to you quite openly. Don't fear Ares or any other immortal deity. weighed down. But come. that fickle god. first let your sure-footed horses charge at Ares. Ochesius' fine son.In answer to Athena. For I'll give you all the help you need. Hit him up close. concealing nothing. since I see Ares dominates the fight. he's forgotten that and helps the Trojans. The goddess climbed up eagerly beside lord Diomedes in the chariot. First. He jumped up at once. and told the other Argives to stay here. mighty Diomedes said: “I recognize you. born evil. Have no fear of headstrong Ares.” Bright-eyed goddess Athena answered him: “Diomedes. But I'm remembering your own instructions. by far the best of the Aetolians. He was removing armour from huge Periphas. goddess daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus.

so its thrust was harmless. Diomedes wounded Ares. That's how strong that cry sounded as it came from Ares. aren't you incensed at this barbarity? We gods are always suffering dreadfully at each other's hands. your destructive daughter. Just as a dark mist moves upward from the clouds. dripping with immortal blood. They shuddered. then pulled back on his spear. piercing his fair skin. ascending to wide heaven. He strode straight up to horse-taming Diomedes. Fear seized Achaeans—Trojans. insatiable for war. Ares thrust his bronze spear first. sat by Zeus. “Father Zeus. bright-eyed goddess. then made the second thrust with his bronze spear. Ares. eager to take Diomedes' life. above the chariot. in a rush.Blood-stained Ares was stripping him of all his weapons. so she was invisible to mighty Ares. But man-killing Ares did see Diomedes. went to the gods' home. When the two came to close quarters and faced each other. He let the body of huge Periphas lie there. Then Athena put Hades' helmet on her head. distressed at heart. For you gave birth to that insane young girl. over the yoke and horses' reins. We all lay the blame for this on you. shoved the spear aside. the lower part where his waist band went around him. Athena. Diomedes. as the god at once soared up into the clouds. Diomedes. He showed Zeus where he'd been wounded. where he'd first killed him and ripped out his spirit. when in hot weather a strong wind arises. skilled in war cries. Brazen Ares roared as loud as the screams of nine or ten thousand men when they clash in war. too. His words had wings. so brazen Ares looked to Tydeus' son. then made his complaint. when we bring men help. Pallas Athena guided the weapon right to Ares' gut. hands gripping the reins. always busy 970 980 990 1000 120 . steep Olympus.

He instructed Paeëon to heal Ares. But I'll leave you in pain no longer. like a god. But my quick feet took me away. do what you say. Your mother. your vicious daughter.” Scowling at him. through her conniving. Zeus fought against Cronos and the other children of Ouranos and imprisoned them deep in the earth. Among the gods who live on Mount Olympus. If not. First he attacked Aphrodite and struck her on the wrist.1 Just now she urged proud Diomedes. You're my child—your mother and I made you. son of Tydeus.”2 Zeus spoke. because you gave birth to her yourself. that's what I think. Ouranos was the original god who was overthrown by his son Cronos. unyielding spirit. 121 . has an implacable. Just as fig juice added quickly to white milk clots it at once. constant strife and battle. But if you'd been born from any other god. all those on Mount Olympus. to Athena. even me. But you never punish her in word or deed. for Ares wasn't born to die. you're the one I hate the most. don't sit there whining at me. And each of us is subject to your will. I'd be in lasting pain with the fearful dead. You do nothing. cloud-gatherer Zeus replied: “You hypocrite. or have barely lived. 1 2 1010 1020 1030 Athena sprung from Zeus’ head and therefore had no mother.with some nastiness. by now you'd be lower than the sons of Ouranos—you're so destructive. to charge insanely against deathless gods. Then he charged me. wounded by bronze spears. It's hard for me to control how she reacts to what I say. Paeëon cured him by spreading pain-killing herbs. You're suffering because of her. All the other gods. For you love war. Hera.

Hebe washed him and clothed him in fine garments. that's how fast headstrong Ares healed.as it's stirred. Athena of Alalcomenae and Argive Hera returned once more to mighty Zeus' house. He sat beside Zeus. 122 . now they'd stopped man-killing Ares' slaughter. son of Cronos. enjoying his splendour.

punching out some breathing room for his companions. 123 10 20 . Diomedes. was the first to break through ranks of Trojans. He hit Acamas. Paris rejoins Hector at the gates] Now the grim war between Trojans and Achaeans was left to run its course. Helenus gives advice to Hector. Hector prays for his son's future. Darkness fell on his eyes. Agamemnon refuses ransom. son of Eussorus. across the entire plain. then charged after Aesepus and Pedasus. Glaucus and Diomedes prepare to fight. Ajax. Hector goes home. son of Teuthras. Achaea's tower of strength. Hector goes to Troy. talks to his mother. The sharp bronze drove right into his forehead—dead in the centre— straight through bone into the brain. Diomedes took the lives of two men—Axylus and his attendant charioteer. Euryalus killed Dresus and Opheltius. killed Axylus. Calesius. Glaucus and Diomedes exchange armour in friendship. Ajax's spear struck him first on the peak of his horse-plumed helmet. expert in war cries. People really loved him. best of the Thracians. The battle raged. So both men went down into the underworld. Hector talks to Paris and Helen. Hector meets Andromache and Astyanax.Book Six Hector and Andromache [The battle continues. Glaucus tells the story of Bellerophon. this way and that. son of Telamon. as warriors hurled bronze-tipped spears at one another. Menelaus captures Adrestus. between the Simoeis and Xanthus rivers. from well-built Arisbe. protecting him from wretched death. But not one of those men he'd entertained now stood in front of him. a strong brave soldier. for he lived beside a road and welcomed all passers-by into his home. talks to his housekeeper. a rich man.

” Adrestus pleaded. right at the very end. face down in the dirt. Menelaus' heart in his chest was moved. holding his long-shadowed spear. Euryalus. stood there over him. Menelaus. He was about to hand Adrestus to his attendant. were headed. Agamemnon. Next. where others. with his glittering spear killed Ableros. The horses then ran off towards the city. if he learns I'm by Achaean ships. slaughtered both of them. His horses had panicked and bolted off across the plain. Adrestus rolled out of the chariot beside the wheel. son of Atreus—you'll get good ransom. panic stricken. His mother bore Pedasus in secret. destroying their strength and splendid bodies. Heroic Leitus knocked down Phylacus. alive.whom the naiad nymph Abarbarea bore to noble Boucolion. Then he stripped the armour from their shoulders. son of high-born Laomedon. fierce warrior Polypoetes killed Astyalus. and Antilochus. son of Atreus. So he'll give you a splendid ransom. She became pregnant. Menelaus. took Adrestus still alive. My father is a wealthy man. owns lots of things—bronze. Adrestus clutched Menelaus by the knees and begged: “Take me alive. killed Elatus. Teucer slaughtered lord Aretaon. skilled in war cries. well-worked iron. then gave birth to two twin sons. And Eurypylus then slaughtered Melanthus. Nestor’s son. With his bronze spear Odysseus killed Pidytes from Percote. who lived in high Pedasus. They charged into a tamarisk bush and snapped the pole on the curved chariot. his eldest son. son of Mecistus. too. Bucolion had had sex with the nymph while tending to his flock. king of men. silver. as he was fleeing. 30 40 50 124 . beside the banks of the fair-flowing river Satnioeis.

with the corpses on the plain. Adrestus fell onto his back. Trojans treated you exceptionally well. would once more have beaten Trojans. why are you sparing men's lives like this? In your own home. seeking to reach our ships with all you can. Let's kill the enemy instead. sharply criticizing Menelaus: “Menelaus.” With this Nestor stirred each man's strength and spirit. But then Agamemnon came running up to him. let no one lag behind to pick up loot. Mighty Agamemnon then speared him in the side. The son of Atreus placed his heel down on his chest and pulled the ash spear out. Then Nestor addressed the Argives. Helenus said: 60 70 80 90 125 . comrades of Ares. Let everyone in Troy be slaughtered. you soft-hearted man. Standing by Hector and Aeneas. So Menelaus shoved heroic Adrestus away from him.to take back captive to the fast Achaean ships. shouting: “My friends. did they not? So don't let any one of them evade a terrible destruction at our hands— not even the young child still carried in his mother's belly. without leaving any trace. you'll have time to strip off bodies of the slaughtered men.” With these words. Then Achaeans. Let no one escape. filled with love of war. without pity. broken by cowardice. by this appeal to justice. Danaan heroes. Later. by far the best at reading omens. he changed his brother's mind. back in flight to Troy. had not spoken out. a son of Priam. if Helenus.

the one she likes far above the others. And you. yearlings. We can't match his power. Make a stand right here. the main weight falls particularly on you. For then we'll have no other option. yours and mine. How that would make our enemies rejoice! Then. 100 110 120 126 . We didn't fear Achilles. Hector. before men run and fall into their women's arms. if she will pity Troy. But this man's fighting rage has no equal. pity the wives and Trojan children. Tell her to assemble the old women at the temple of bright-eyed Athena. She should take the key. Rally the men before the city gates. once you've restored the spirits in all our ranks. At once he jumped down from his chariot to the ground. clutching his weapons. among Trojans and Lycians. fair-haired Athena. open the doors of the sacred building. if she will keep Tydeus' son away from sacred Ilion. go into the city. that mighty warrior. Brandishing two sharp spears. Hector. Hector was convinced by his advice. we'll stand right here and fight Danaans. in all attacks. the best at fighting. then place in the lap of the goddess there. that fierce spearman. who makes men afraid—in my opinion. like this. as yet untouched by any goad. on the city heights. no matter how hard pressed.” Helenus spoke. Move around through the entire army. the garment she thinks loveliest. chief of men. Tell her to promise Athena she'll give twelve heifers in a temple sacrifice. although they say a goddess was his mother. at strategy. for you are. the greatest in the palace. Speak to our mother.“Aeneas. the most powerful of all Achaeans.

friends. was the first to speak: “Who are you. enabling them to turn themselves around and fight. Men who face me end up with grieving parents. summon up your fighting strength. forcing them to run by sacred Nysa. But now you've stepped out well beyond the ranks. Even mighty Lycurgus. descending from star-lit heaven to help the Trojans. Hector issued orders to the Trojans. thinking that one of the immortal gods had come. to instruct the old men of the council and our wives to pray to the gods and promise sacrifice. They all threw their holy wands onto the ground. showing more courage here than anyone. keen to fight. Hector of the shining helmet moved away. standing up to my long-shadowed spear.” With these words. son of Hippolochus. rousing their spirits for the harsh brutality of war.he moved through all the army. Then Glaucus. urging men to fight. If you're one of the immortal gods come down from heaven. So men wheeled around and faced Achaean soldiers. be men. shouting: “You proud Trojans. He was the one who chased attendants of the frenzied Dionysus. 130 140 150 160 127 . my dear man. wide-renowned allies. while I go to Troy in person. facing one another. son of Dryas. expert in war cries. As he went. among mortal men? For I've never clapped eyes on you before in those fights where men win glory. Argives then drew back and stopped the slaughter. once he started battling heavenly gods. When they'd come to close quarters. Diomedes. did not live long. I won't fight you. black leather running round the outer edge on his studded shield struck his neck and ankles. and Diomedes moved out together between the armies.

terrified. but then. when spring season comes again. father of handsome Bellerophon. But if you wish to learn about my family. fine son of Hippolochus. 170 180 190 200 128 . Thetis embraced him. plotted against him. In winter. And so with men— one generation grows. The gods made Bellerophon so beautiful and gave him the best qualities of men. There is a city in a part of Argos. not once he'd made all the deathless gods displeased with him. being much stronger. for Zeus had given royal power to Proetus. intimidated by Lycurgus' threats. Sisyphus. But Proetus. so you're familiar with my lineage. craftiest man ever born. Proetus' wife. so you can meet your death more quickly. someone who eats earth's fruit. lady Anteia. So I don't want to battle sacred gods. replied: “Son of Tydeus. many people know the details. great-hearted Diomedes. Now. jumped in the ocean waves. winds blow them down to earth. Even Dionysus. Glaucus. why ask me about my ancestry? Generations of men are like the leaves. Aeolus' son. wanted him to lie with her in secret. driving him from Argos. He didn't live much longer. He angered the gods. in his heart. land where horses breed—it's called Ephyra. who live without a care. desperate to have sex with Bellerophon. well. But if you're a mortal man. come closer to me. so the son of Cronos blinded him. There Sisyphus lived. another dies away. the budding wood grows more. as he shook with fear. He had a son.” Glaucus.as murderous Lycurgus with his ox whip kept beating them.

1 210 220 230 This detail has been much discussed. under safe conduct from the gods. coded symbols written on a folded tablet. putting his trust in omens from the gods. so he'd be killed. but divine in origin. So Anteia made up lies. 'You'll be murdered. asking to see the message he had brought from Proetus. but was reluctant to kill Bellerophon—in his heart he shrank from such an evil act. he ever had with mortal beings. an invincible inhuman monster. The tenth day. unless you assassinate Bellerophon. when rose-fingered early Dawn appeared. the king. and in between a goat.But fiery Bellerophon refused. with a lethal message. they say.' Proetus was overcome with anger at what he'd heard. nine sacrificial oxen. Bellerophon went off to Lycia. he told Bellerophon. the Lycian king questioned Bellerophon. Proetus told him to give the message to his father-in-law. since it is the only explicit reference in the Iliad to some form of writing. to kill the Chimera. he battled the Solymi. 129 . He sent Bellerophon to Lycia. with nine days of welcome entertainment. Its front part was a lion. who wants to have sex with me against my will. for he possessed an honourable heart. first of all. telling Proetus. She breathed deadly rage in searing fire. But Bellerophon killed the Chimera. his son-in-law. In Lycia he reached the river Xanthus. Once he'd received the evil message from his son-in-law. Proetus.1 These told many lies about Bellerophon. Next. the worst fight. its rear a snake's tail. and was honoured fully by the Lycian king.

goddess with the golden reins.Then. Artemis. to outdo other warriors. rejoiced. skilled at war cries. bronze-armed warrior. Diomedes. as he was returning from the Amazons. in anger killed the daughter of Bellerophon. he massacred the Amazons. But not a single one of them came back— worthy Bellerophon had killed them all. So he kept him with him there in Lycia. He jabbed his spear into the life-giving earth. That's my lineage. while he was fighting the famous Solymi. Then the king knew he must be divinely born. The Lycians then gave him an estate far better than the rest. the finest men by far in Ephyra. telling me repeatedly to strive always to be the best. so I do not shame my father's family. women who rival men. and then spoke to that shepherd of his people as a friend: “In that case. wheat-growing farmland. for him to keep. Hippolochus.” Glaucus spoke. I claim my descent from him. and half the honours in the entire kingdom. killed his son Isander. and Laodamia. rich in vineyards. 240 250 260 270 130 . He sent me to Troy. in spacious Lycia. But then Bellerophon angered all the gods. the blood ancestry I claim as mine. The king planned one more devious evil trick against him. She bore great Sarpedon. gave him his daughter's hand in marriage. He wandered out alone on the Aleian plain— depressed in spirit. you're an old friend of my father. Counselor Zeus then had sex with the girl. He set Lycia's best men in ambush. Ares. insatiable in war. The king's daughter bore him three children— Isander. roaming there and shunning all. My father was Hippolochus. third.

built close to one another. that worthy man. Meanwhile. clasped hands and pledged their mutual friendship. Then Zeus. the two men jumped out of their chariots. 280 290 300 310 131 . he ordered them to pray to all the gods. I have no memory of Tydeus. On the opposite side. any warrior the gods provide. Hector reached the Scaean Gates and oak tree. The two of them exchanged fine presents. Then those warriors here will all recognize that we acknowledge our father's bonds as friends. even in the thick of all the fighting. all made of polished stone. stole Glaucus' wits. worth one hundred oxen. for he died while far away from me. exchanging that for armour made of bronze. For many were to face great grief. relatives. For there are many famous Trojans and allies for me to kill. were twelve roofed rooms. asking after children.” With these words. Oeneus gave a shining purple belt. whom I can run after and catch on foot. with porticos of well-ground stone.For Oeneus once entertained Bellerophon. For you there are many Argives to destroy. for he gave Tydeus' son his golden armour. brothers. Now I'll be your kind host in middle Argos. He came to Priam's splendid palace. in his home for twenty days. son of Cronos. Addressing each of them in turn. when I visit you. within the courtyard. and husbands. where Priam's sons slept with the wives they married. Let's make sure we avoid each other's spears. The Trojans' wives and daughters ran up round him. killed at Thebes with the Achaean army. worth only nine. all of polished rock. It had fifty private bed rooms. Bellerophon a gold two-handled cup. So let's trade armour. all you can manage. which I left in my house when I came here. you'll be mine in Lycia.

then place in Athena's lap. the very finest you keep here at home. as she was going to the palace. don't bring me some sweet wine. that fair-haired goddess.” Great Hector of the shining helmet then replied: “My dear mother. Then you may enjoy some. I can fetch some sweet wine for you. You must promise you will give Athena twelve heifers in a temple sacrifice. so you can start by pouring a libation to father Zeus and other deathless gods. for you'll weaken me. met him. First assemble the old women all together. It's not at all appropriate for a man spattered with blood and dirt to offer prayers to the son of Cronos. Your spirit has led you here to lift your hands in prayers to Zeus from our city heights. built near one another. too. loveliest of all her daughters. as yet untouched by any goad. if you'll drink. 320 330 340 132 . lord of the black clouds. Taking his hand. But you must go to Athena’s temple. eager to fight around our city. and you've grown tired guarding your own family. the garment which you think is loveliest. she spoke to Hector: “My child.for Priam's daughters. It was here Hector's gracious mother. Wine restores strength well in a weary man. Hecuba. I'll lose my battle strength. where Priam's sons-in-law slept with their married wives. goddess of battle spoils. And I'm ashamed to offer up to Zeus libations of bright wine with unwashed hands. with Laodice. But wait. with burnt offerings. yearlings. why have you left hard battle to come here? The sons of Achaea—may gods curse them!— press us hard. the one you like far better than the rest.

daughter of Cisseus. which godlike Paris brought with him from Sidon. that fierce spearman. swallow him up! Olympian Zeus raised him as trouble for the Trojans. then I could say my heart's sorrows were over and forgotten. His mother went into the house. The old ladies followed her. defender of our city.” Hector spoke. praying to Athena. break the spear of Diomedes. sacred goddess. pity the wives and Trojan children. Then she went down into the sweet-smelling room which stored their gowns. for brave Priam. Let him fall face down before the Scaean Gates. Taking that as Athena's gift. when he sailed across the broad sea. who makes men so afraid. if she will keep Tydeus' son away from sacred Ilion. If only the earth would open under him. who brought together the matrons from the city. the finest embroidery. Glittering like a star. If I could see Paris die. wife of horse-taming Antenor. Hecuba took out one of the gowns. right now 350 360 370 380 133 . All the women raised their hands. calling her attendants. that mighty warrior. let them in. while Theano took that lovely robe and placed it in Athena's lap. the largest. if he will to listen to me. goddess of battle spoils.if she will pity Troy. If so. I'll find Paris and call him back. At Athena's temple fair-cheeked Theano. heading down to Hades. on that voyage where he carried high-born Helen off. she walked away. the goddess with the lovely hair. it lay at the bottom of the chest. You must leave now— go straight to the temple of Athena. Trojans had appointed her Athena's priestess. fine embroidered work of women from Sidonia. for his children. then spoke out this prayer to great Zeus' daughter: “Blessed Athena.

Hector went to the fine house of Alexander. beasts untouched by any goad. He'd built it himself with fertile Troy's best craftsmen. Seeing Paris. I want to grieve. You would fight any man you saw avoiding battle. He met Alexander. So up with you. without reason. It's because of you the sounds of warfare catch fire round our city. Argive Helen sat there. if you'll pity our city. Listen and remember what I'm saying. Trojans' wives and children.” Godlike Alexander then replied: “Hector.we'll sacrifice twelve heifers in your temple. bronze point glittering in front of him. They'd made a bedroom.” The women prayed. Hector. too. Hector spoke some sharp words to him: “Paris. directing servants in their famous handicrafts. your rebuke is not unfair. 390 400 410 134 . I'm not sitting in my bedroom here out of spite or anger with the Trojans. busy in his room with his fine weapons—shield and body armour—polishing his curving bow. fighting round the city. a gold band running round it. loved by Zeus. you're a worthless man. while men are being destroyed. sixteen feet long. went in the house. holding his spear. It's quite wrong of you to nurse that anger in your heart. living quarters. its steep walls. with her attendant ladies. As they made their plea to great Zeus' daughter. But Pallas Athena refused their prayer. fleeing war's brutality. with fire consuming everything. or soon our city will go up in smoke. on the city height. So I'll speak plainly. Just now my wife urged me. and a yard close to Priam and to Hector.

Winning shifts from one man to another. But since gods have ordained these evil things. This husband of mine has no sense now and won't acquire any in the future. and swept me off. who really miss me when I'm gone. Helen. For my heart's on fire to help Trojans. wait here. Zeus gives us an evil fate. I'm a horrible. for I've no idea 420 430 440 450 135 . catch up with you. my brother.” Hector of the shining helmet did not answer. carried me away. But you must rouse Paris. and I'll come later. conniving bitch. I'm going home. I wish that on that day my mother bore me some evil wind had come. So Helen spoke to Hector with these soothing words: “O Hector.” Great Hector of the shining helmet answered Helen: “Don't ask me to sit down. or to the waves of the tumbling. you’re my brother. while I put on my armour. but you won't persuade me. I expect he'll get from that what he deserves. someone sensitive to others' insults. sit on this chair. You're kind. to rouse myself to fight. crashing sea. with feeling for his many shameful acts. and me.using gentle words. Then I would’ve died before this happened. and he should hurry. so we may be subjects for men's songs in human generations yet to come. Now. But come in. Or go. I wish I'd been wife to a better man. since this trouble really weighs upon your mind— all because I was a bitch—because of that and Paris' folly. up into the mountains. to visit my dear wife and infant son. And personally I think that would be best. so he can catch me here in the city.

So she's hurrying off up to the walls. Soon afterwards he reached his well-built house.” Once the housekeeper spoke. for she'd heard the Trojans were hard pressed. for she'd left with the infant child. in tears. where the other fine-haired Trojan women are praying to that fearful goddess?” His busy housekeeper then answered him: “Hector. Hector left the house by the same route he'd come. or one of your brothers' well-dressed wives.” Saying this. He didn't find white-armed Andromache at home. standing in the doorway.if I'll be coming back to them again. She went to Ilion's great tower. daughter of great-hearted Eëtion. A nurse went. like someone in a fit. Hector of the shining helmet went away. you asked me to tell you the truth. No. asked his servant: “Woman. the power of Achaeans was so great. through the well-built streets. She didn't go to one of your sisters. Andromache. and reached the Scaean Gates. tell me the truth. going to the walls with a finely dressed attendant. Where's Andromache? At one of my sisters? With a well-dressed wife of one of my brothers? Or is she at Athena's temple. across the mighty city. There his wife ran up to meet him. 460 470 480 136 . who'd included a large dowry with her. where other fine-haired Trojan women are praying to that fearful goddess. beyond which he'd go out onto the plain. or if the gods will kill me at Achaean hands. he went and. too. lamenting. carrying the child. nor did she go to Athena's temple. When Hector didn't meet his fair wife in the house.

For then I'll have no other comfort. for swift-footed lord Achilles killed them all. All went down to Hades in a single day. he brought her here with all his other spoils.Eëtion had lived below forested Mount Placus. your sad wife. 490 500 510 520 137 . no dear mother. well-loved son of Hector. She'd become married wife to Hector of the shining helmet. all together. slaying Eëtion. planted elm trees all around his body. with a smile. and cut you down. “My dear husband. lord of the city. Now she met him there. Andromache stood close to him. city with high gates. Hector had named him Scamandrius. Hector looked at his son in silence. while they were guarding their shambling oxen and their white shining sheep. once you meet your death. your warlike spirit will be your death. to be buried in the ground. For soon the Achaeans will attack you. like a beautiful star. As for me. daughters of aegis-bearing Zeus. For lord Achilles killed my father. except my sorrow. king of the Cilician people. You've no compassion for your infant child. because Hector was Troy's only guardian. holding at her breast their happy infant child. who before long will be your widow. if I'm to lose you. who ruled wooded Thebe-under-Placus. she spoke to him. but others called him Astyanax. So he burned him in his finely decorated armour and raised a burial mound above the ashes. With her came the nurse. when he wiped out Thebe. for me. it would be better. I had seven brothers in my home. But he didn't strip his corpse—his heart felt too much shame for that. in Thebe. Taking Hector by the hand. Mountain nymphs. As for my mother. I have no father. weeping.

led by the two Ajaxes. Stay here in this tower. like a coward. brother. My heart will never prompt me to do that. dreadfully shamed among Trojan men and Trojan women in their trailing gowns. Hector. striving to win fame for father and myself. But I'd be disgraced. Hecuba. or even my many noble brothers. ends your days of freedom. and my protecting husband. you are now my father. Tydeus' courageous son. incited to it by someone well versed in prophecy or by their own hearts' inclination. My pain focuses on you. slink away from war. the sons of Atreus. if I should. So pity me.” Great Hector of the shining helmet answered her: “Wife. along with Priam of the fine ash spear and Priam's people. 530 540 550 138 . If then you come to Argos as a slave. and Diomedes.Then he released her for a massive ransom. for I have learned always to be brave. or king Priam. So. slaughtered by their enemies. But archer goddess Artemis then killed her in her father's house. noble mother. all this concerns me. to fight alongside Trojans at the front. Don't orphan your child and make me a widow. too. Three times their best men have come there to attack. But what pains me most about these future sorrows is not so much the Trojans. the wall most easily scaled. who'll fall down in the dust. My heart and mind know well the day is coming when sacred Ilion will be destroyed. Place men by the fig tree. when one of those bronze-clad Achaeans leads you off in tears. for there the city is most vulnerable. famous Idomeneus.

before I hear about your screaming. hidden deep under a burial mound. Glorious Hector pulled the glittering helmet off and set it on the ground. smiling 560 570 580 590 139 . his noble mother. May I lie dead. and it will bring still more grief to you. May people someday say.” He placed his son in the hands of his dear wife. Grant that he may rule Troy with strength. to be without a man like that to save you from days of servitude. Then he kissed his dear son and held him in his arms.' May he carry back bloody spoils from his slaughtered enemy. The child's loving father laughed. as he returns from war. my son. forced by powerful Fate.” With these words. grant that this child. glorious Hector stretched his hands out for his son. then someone seeing you as you weep may well say: 'That woman is Hector's wife. too.working the loom for some other woman. He prayed aloud to Zeus and the rest of the immortals. 'This man is far better than his father. fetching water from Hypereia or Messeis. against your will. as strong and brave as me. She embraced the child on her sweet breast. making his mother's heart rejoice. pre-eminent among the Trojans. as you are dragged away. He was the finest warrior in battle of all horse-taming Trojans in that war when they fought for Troy. like me. the horse-hair plume nodding fearfully from his helmet top. scared at the sight of bronze.' Someone will say that. The boy immediately shrank back against the breast of the finely girdled nurse. may become. crying out in terror to see his own dear father. all you other gods. “Zeus.

War will be every man's concern. not the coward. holding his head high. turning away 600 610 620 140 . with your loom and wool. of all those who live in Troy. he hurried off on foot quickly through the city. Observing her. Just as some stalled stallion. mane streaming on his shoulders. he'd not escape the battle fury of Achaean hands. telling your servants to set about their tasks. keep busy with your proper work. No man will throw me down to Hades before my destined time. then spoke to her. crying bitterly. as she went. His beloved wife went home. He took her hand. breaks his restraints. off to bathe in a fair-flowing river. I tell you this— no one escapes his fate. killer of men. Once he'd pulled on his famous armour. “My dearest wife. proud of his strength. from the moment of his birth. nor the brave man. often looking back. then gallops at top speed across the plain. He soon met his brother Hector. don't let your heart be sad on my account. She quickly reached the spacious home of Hector. something he does habitually. legs taking him swiftly to the grazing mares— that's how Paris. though he was still alive—they thought he'd not come back. Hector felt compassion. rushing down from the heights of Pergamus. Paris did not wait for long in his high-roofed home. So you should go into the house. well fed in the barn. especially mine.through her tears. ornate bronze. laughing with joy as his feet carried him so fast. glorious Hector took his plumed helmet in his hands. So they mourned for Hector in his own house. son of Priam.” Having said these words. hurried then. gleaming like a ray of sunshine in his armour. Inside she met her many servants and bid them all lament.

when I hear shameful things about you from Trojans. you're in a hurry.” 630 640 141 . But let's be on our way. We'll sort all this out later. once we have driven away from Troy all these well-armed Achaeans. for you fight bravely. Godlike Paris was the first to speak: “My dear brother. It pains my heart. if Zeus ever grants we arrange in place inside our homes bowls of wine to celebrate our freedom. I'm holding you back with my delay.” Hector of the shining helmet answered Paris: “Brother.from where he’d had his conversation with his wife. in thanks to the eternal. who are suffering much distress because of you. not coming as quickly as you asked. no one could justly criticize your work in battle. heavenly gods. But you deliberately hold back and do not wish to fight.

Nestor suggests collecting the dead and building a defensive wall and ditch. Ajax and Hector fight. Poseidon objects to Zeus. 10 20 142 . in Troy Antenor suggests the return of Helen. Idaios goes to the Argives to suggest a truce to bury the dead. the Achaeans refuse the offer. Paris refuses but offers to return all the goods he took away. king Areithous’ son. in the shoulder. heralds intervene to stop them. His legs collapsed. repeats Paris' offer. a mace fighter. Ajax's shield is described. when they work themselves too hard rowing out at sea. leader of Lycians. son of Hippolochus. Athena and Apollo plan to halt the battle. Paris then killed Menesthius. Then his limbs went limp and lifeless. Achaeans draw lots to see who will fight Hector. struck Iphinous. Helenus suggests Hector issue a challenge for single combat. amid the battle din.Book Seven Hector and Ajax [Hector and Paris leave Troy. son of Dexius. she rushed down from Olympus heights to sacred Ilion. the armies collect and cremate the dead. Just as some god sends a breeze to sailors in distress. He lived in Arne. rejoin the fighting. and ox-eyed Phylomedusa. Ajax's lot falls out. the Achaeans build the wall. He fell out of his chariot down on the ground. Glaucus. he and his brother hurried through the gates. Hector issues his challenge. both sides feast after the funeral rites] After glorious Hector had talked with Paris. bodies broken with fatigue at their polished oars— that's how these two looked to the long-suffering Trojans. just as he was jumping in behind fast horses. born from Areithous. just under his bronze helmet rim. Hector hit Eioneus with his sharp spear in the neck. Nestor shames the Achaeans. no one responds. When goddess Athena with her glittering eyes saw Argives being slaughtered in the battle frenzy. both of them with hearts on fire to fight in battle.

Bronze-armed Achaeans. in a grim single combat. How will you get these troops to end this present battle?” Lord Apollo. coming from Olympus down to mingle here with Trojans and Achaeans. addressed Athena first: “Daughter of great-hearted Zeus. came to confront her. in admiration. He wanted victory for Trojans. But it would be much better if you'd follow what I say—let's put an end to battle and the killing. Priam's much-loved son. So he went to Hector. since the demolition of that city is what you goddesses desire in your hearts.” Apollo spoke. son of Zeus. They'll fight again. and bright-eyed Athena then agreed. stood by him.” Bright-eyed Athena then said to Apollo: “God who works from far away. son of Zeus.Apollo. giving victory to the Danaans. later on. for today. may incite someone to fight lord Hector. You don't pity Trojans as they're butchered. so he challenges one of the Danaans to fight him alone. I agree— that's what I myself intended. Helenus. in his heart well understood the scheme the gods had planned. one on one. until they reach their goal in Troy. The two met one another by the oak tree. and said: 50 30 40 143 . keeping watch from Pergamus. answered Athena: “Let's rouse the powerful fighting spirit of horse-taming Hector. why has your spirit pushed you so eagerly down from Olympus? You want to change the tide of battle. Lord Apollo.

That's what I propose—let Zeus be my witness. High-ruling son of Cronos has quashed our pact. bristling with shields. why not be persuaded by what I suggest. set to enjoy the unfolding human action. Ranks of men were closely packed. As West Wind. you Trojans. Athena. Achaea's finest men are here among you. looking like two vultures. Hector was elated with the plan. got well-armed Achaeans to stop fighting. on his side. Let the one whose heart now drives him to fight with me step out as champion. but give my body back to my house. Agamemnon. son of Priam. a grim fight. If your man kills me with his sharpened bronze. He went into the middle of the Trojan ranks gripping the centre of his spear and pushed men back. take it away. wise as Zeus. who bears the aegis. I’ve heard the voices of eternal gods— now is not your fated time to die. until you capture well-built Troy or else are conquered at your seaworthy ships. You should challenge the best of the Achaeans to fight you. let him strip my armour. your representative against lord Hector. The men sat down. perched in the lofty oak tree sacred to Zeus. you well-armed Achaeans. intending to bring both of us bad things. a personal single combat.” Helenus spoke. so I may speak what my heart prompts. with Apollo of the silver bow.“Hector. off to your hollow ships. with spears and helmets. Hector then addressed both armies: “Listen to me. ruffles the sea. when it starts to blow. so Trojans and their wives 60 70 80 90 144 . and waters under it grow black— that's what ranks of Trojans and Achaeans looked like out there on the plain. too. since I'm your brother? Let other Trojans and Achaeans sit.

Menelaus.may give me ritual burning once I'm dead. This shame will mean total disgrace. had not hurried up. All of you sitting here. And then. may all of you dissolve. Then people born in years to come who sail their ships with many oars on the wine-dark sea will say. afraid to answer it.” This said. The rope that's tied to victory comes from heaven above. I'll give up the body to be taken back to well-decked ships. grabbed you by your right hand. and said these words: 100 110 120 145 . killed by glorious Hector.” Hector finished. reproaching them with bitter words of shame: “Alas. if Apollo grants me that triumph. disgraced like this. son of Atreus. you're Achaean women. unless some Danaan now stands up to Hector. If I kill your champion. so long-haired Achaeans can bury him and build his funeral mound on the banks of the broad Hellespont. 'This is the funeral mound of some man who died long ago. you boasters. Menelaus pulled his fine armour on. I'll strip his armour. without heart. the best of warriors. the far shooter. The Achaeans all grew silent. stood up to speak. sick at heart. not men. king of the Achaeans. And then my glory will never fade away. I'll personally take up arms myself. from the hands of the immortal gods. ashamed to duck the challenge. I'll fight Hector.' That's what they'll say. take it to sacred Ilion and hang it in the temple of Apollo. disintegrate to earth and water. At last Menelaus. they would've seen you die at Hector's hands—he was by far the stronger man— if wide-ruling Agamemnon.

noble counselor of the Myrmidons. he'd keep lifting up his dear hands in prayer to the immortal gods that his spirit leave his body and go down to Hades' home.” Agamemnon's prudent speech changed his brother's mind. a far better man than you. If he knew these warriors were all afraid of Hector. 130 140 150 160 146 . Achaeans will send out another man as champion against Hector. Even Achilles. standing up before the Argives. would I were as young as when the Pylian and Arcadian spearmen gathered to fight by the walls of Pheia. Athena. for Hector. said: “Alas. Be patient. Then Nestor. asking questions about men's families. this grim fight. with boundless appetite for battle. By father Zeus. what great sorrow for Achaea! Old horseman Peleus would cry with grief. beside the banks of the fast-flowing river Celadon. Ereuthalion then stepped forward as their champion. Menelaus was convinced. is a man whom other men avoid. Don't volunteer from mere love of battle to fight someone better than yourself. I think he'll be content to take a rest. and his attendants gladly pulled the armour off his shoulders. have you lost your mind? There's no need for you to act so foolishly. Though he's fearless. So go now. was hesitant to meet Hector in fights where men win fame. and Apollo. even though you're disappointed. he loved to talk with me. When I was in his house. a godlike soldier. sit down with your companions. son of Priam.“Lord Menelaus. if he survives this combat. the ancestry of all Achaeans.

Lycurgus killed him. men clothed in an impetuous ferocity. left his huge body sprawling on the ground. son of Tydeus. That's the armour he had on at that time. Lycurgus himself wore it in later fights. They held back. my strength as firm. his loyal attendant. He fell down. not with long spear or bow. Nine men in all stood up. although the finest of Achaean men. and Athena gave me glory. full of fighting confidence. I killed their biggest and most powerful man. Lycurgus then stripped off the armour which brazen Ares had given Areithous. 170 180 190 147 .” Old man Nestor shamed them. With that he smashed down ranks of warriors. whom men and well-dressed women gave the name of Mace-man. but with an iron mace. who wore it as his own. not daring to accept. Hector of the shining helmet would soon have a man to fight. jumped up after him. not in a fair fight. dropping to the ground upon his back. And then. Strong Diomedes. was Agamemnon. where the iron mace could not protect him from destruction. Lycurgus anticipated Areithous' blow and struck him first a spear thrust in the belly. he gave the armour to Ereuthalion. incited me to take him on in battle. when he'd grown old in his own home. But my spirit. well before the rest. First to rise. in a narrow place. because he fought. Would I were that young now. aren't keen at all to face up to Hector. By birth I was the youngest of them all. I fought him. Next came the two Ajaxes. when he challenged all our finest men.wearing on his shoulders the armour of king Areithous—that noble Areithous. afraid. king of men. But now you warriors here. but by a trick.

while I put on my battle armour. The nine men marked their lots and threw them in Agamemnon's helmet. moving from left to right. Approaching Ajax. the herald came to the one who'd scratched his mark upon the lot and thrown it in the helmet. And I'm happy in my heart. rich in gold. this dangerous combat. this marker here belongs to me. They were all willing volunteers to fight with Hector. showing it to all the best Achaeans in the throng. Throwing the lot down on the ground beside his feet. the herald dropped the token in his palm.” Geranian horseman Nestor shook the helmet. But come. too— if he comes away from this grim fight. A herald carried round the lot. you must cast lots. the one for Ajax. But no one took it. his comrade Meriones. The chosen man will greatly benefit well-armed Achaeans and his own heart. let the choice fall on Ajax. then lord Odysseus.” Nestor spoke. Ajax looked at the mark and saw that it was his. or Tydeus' son. 200 210 220 230 148 . But when. His heart was happy. saying. for I think I'll overcome lord Hector. noble Ajax held out his hand. son of Andraemon.Then Idomeneus. in passing through the crowd. praying to the gods. From it fell out the very lot men were hoping for. Shake them well. then Thoas. or on Mycenae's king. Troops held up their hands. and Eurypylus. Eumaeon's fine son. Each man declined. as they gazed up at wide heaven: “Father Zeus. he said: “Friends. Geranian horseman Nestor spoke out once again: “To choose.

For he had made the challenge. He clutched a long-shadowed spear. Telamonian Ajax carried this shield in front of him. No man is going to force me to move off through his power or will. since we fear no one. He came up. bulwark of Achaeans. Ajax approached bearing his shield. the winner's triumph. Gazing up to heaven. a weapon made by Tychius. to fight with that war frenzy which consumes men's hearts. or through his fighting skill. equal glory. ruling from Mount Ida. son of Cronos. with seven layers. moving his feet with giant strides. who lived in Hyle. but silently. most glorious one. they uttered words like these: “Father Zeus. a grim smile on his face. son of Cronos. has stirred up for war. But there was nothing he could do to pull back now. like some gigantic Ares when he sets off to battle among warriors whom Zeus. Ajax armed himself in glittering bronze. so I'm no novice. made it eagerly. so Trojans don't find out— or do it aloud. retreat into the ranks. while the limbs of all the Trojans shook with fear. When all his armour was in place around his body. When Argives looked at him. they felt great joy.” Ajax spoke. if I don't consent. Men prayed to lord Zeus. son of Cronos.you should pray to lord Zeus. he moved forward. the best of leather workers. came up then. He'd made the glittering shield for Ajax from the hides of seven well-fed bulls. he'd set an eighth layer made of bronze. That's how huge Ajax. Even in Hector's chest the heart beat rapidly. most powerful— grant Ajax victory. It was like a tower made of bronze. each one of ox-hide.” So men prayed. grant them both equal strength. For I was born and raised in Salamis. On top of these. But if you love Hector and look out for him. 240 250 260 149 .

he balanced his long-shadowed spear and hurled it. as if I were a witless child or woman who knows nothing of what war requires.” Great Hector of the shining helmet then replied: “Noble Ajax. how to kill men. I don't want to hit you with a sneaky shot. and I know how to dance to Ares' tune in the grim killing zone. But it stopped at the seventh. I know how to charge into the frenzy of fast chariots. leader of your people. and forced its way through the breast plate and tunic covering his ribs. not counting Achilles. son of Telamon. Hector twisted to one side. He now lies by his curved sea-worthy ships. So come on then. one against one. his people's shepherd. angry at Agamemnon. now you'll come to recognize. its eighth layer. broke through the glittering shield.stood quite close to Hector. For I understand well how to fight. The tireless spear tore its way through six layers. But there are lots of us who'll stand against you. if I can manage it. with his lion's heart. to me a crucial skill in fighting battles. but in open combat. in his turn. not a man like you. He hit Ajax's fearful seven-layered shield on the outer covering of bronze. Let's start this fight. I know how to shift my tanned leather shield to right or left. evading a black fate. breaker of men. 270 280 290 300 150 . threw his long-shadowed spear at Hector.” Once Hector spoke. Then noble Ajax. Don't play with me. just what the finest men are like among Danaans. then spoke out grimly: “Hector. His spear hit the even circle of Hector's shield.

” Telamonian Ajax then said in reply: “Idaios. seized a much bigger stone. one from bronze-clad Achaeans—two trusted men. You're both fine fighters. Then Ajax charged ahead and speared Hector's shield. They held out their staffs. Now they would've fought 320 hand to hand with swords. symbols of their herald's office. fight no more. Then Ajax. And it's good to be persuaded by the night. Talthybius and Idaios. We all know that. Let him speak first. weighing him down. Then herald Idaios. tell Hector here to give the word. but the bronze did not break through—its point bent aside. I'll gladly follow what he says. Dark blood seeped out. had not stepped in. hit Hector's shield and smashed it. But Hector of the shining helmet didn't stop the fight. Strength drained from Hector's limbs. But night already is approaching. between the two. breaking clean through and striking Hector as he lunged. picked up in his powerful hand a rock 310 lying there on the plain. Its motion slashed at Hector's neck. spoke out: “You dear lads. He stepped back.The two men then both pulled the long spears from their shields and charged each other. The rock. a wise prudent man. With this he hit Ajax's seven-layered shield on its central boss. Cloud-gatherer Zeus cares for you both. if heralds. At once Apollo raised him up. End this combat. like a millstone. He was thrown on his back.” Great Hector of the shining helmet answered Ajax: 330 151 . with his shield pressing him on top. With his spear Hector struck the centre of Ajax's shield. in his turn. a huge black jagged stone. For he was keen to challenge our best men. whose strength is inexhaustible. like flesh-eating lions or savage boars. making the bronze ring out. those messengers of gods and men. swung it round and threw it with terrific force. one from Trojans.

judgment. Well-armed Achaeans. to Trojans and women in their trailing gowns. giving thanks on my behalf in prayer. Then they parted.“Ajax. his unconquerable hands. and you’re the strongest with the spear. We'll fight once again. to lord Agamemnon. power. until god decides between us. elated by his victory. cooked them carefully. to the exalted son of Cronos. Hector gave Ajax a silver-studded sword. your companions. 'These men fought in life-destroying war but were reconciled and parted friends. Ajax going to Achaean troops. and it's good to be persuaded by the night. they prepared a meal and ate. 340 350 360 370 152 . For today let's end our battle combat. Hector rejoining Trojans. They skewered these on spits.'” This said. king of men. And I can bring joy to the mighty city of king Priam. and drew them off. later on. led Ajax. let's exchange noteworthy presents with each other. When they all came inside the son of Atreus' hut. But come. Now they took him back with them into the city. They'd given up all hope for Hector's safety. Ajax gave Hector a shining purple belt. Agamemnon. especially your clansmen. chopping it skillfully into tiny pieces. who were overjoyed to see him return alive. surviving Ajax's fury. awarding one of us the victory. sacrificed an ox. For night already is approaching. so Trojans and Achaeans may say. god has given you size. among Achaeans. prepared and carved it up. They flayed the beast. along with a scabbard and a well-cut sword belt. So you can bring joy to all Achaeans by their ships. a male five years old. They'll gather in holy processions now. for their part. safe and sound. This done.

Fierce Ares has scattered their dark blood beside the fair-flowing Scamander river. Come now. Wide-ruling Agamemnon.” So Nestor spoke. to enclose the walls and hold out chariots— soldiers. he said: “Son of Atreus. Let's set up one single common funeral mound close by the fire and angled on the plain. when we return. Dardan allies. let's give back Argive Helen 380 390 400 153 . if those impetuous Trojans should ever drive us back in battle. by Priam's palace doors—they were confused and fearful. outlining for them a plan he had. Antenor. We should all assemble. was the first to speak: “Listen to me. All feasted equally. Keeping in mind their common good. So tomorrow you should call a halt. you Trojans. then carry off the bodies of the dead with mules and oxen. Then we'll burn them a short distance from our ships. All the kings approved his plan. Meanwhile the Trojans were meeting on the city heights. so I may say what the heart in my chest prompts.No one went unsatisfied. In those walls we'll construct tight-fitting gates. to guard us and our ships. so there's a path to drive our chariots through. Outside we'll dig a deep trench close by it. may carry back the bones. When everyone had had his fill of food and drink. you other Argive leaders. so each of us. Then with all speed from that mound we'll build some high walls with turrets. Their souls have departed down to Hades. too. many long-haired Achaeans have been killed. old Nestor spoke up first. heroic son of Atreus. Earlier his advice had seemed the best. acknowledged Ajax with the whole back cut of meat. Stop Achaeans fighting. a wise counselor.

then sat down. stood up to reply. But if you truly mean what you've just said. I won't give up my wife. I flatly refuse. Thinking of their common cause.” Paris spoke. Before them all. Dardan allies. But I will surrender all the goods I carried back from Argos to our home. wise as the gods. I'm not pleased with what you've said. descendant of Dardanus. We've broken the truce and are fighting once again. as before. Priam stood up. some better plan. husband of fair-haired Helen. But remember— keep sentries posted. to tell the sons of Atreus. Idaios should propose this wise suggestion— if they'll consent to postpone grim warfare. the very man whose cause launched this dispute. Trojans. 410 420 430 440 154 . even to add to it things of my own. then sat back down. both Agamemnon and Menelaus. he spoke out: “Listen to me. here in the city. You know very well how to think up some alternative. lord Alexander. His words had wings: “Antenor. so I don't see how things will work out very well for us. Now I'll speak to horse-taming Trojans.” Antenor spoke. Tomorrow morning Idaios should go to the hollow ships. unless we carry out what I propose.and her possessions to the sons of Atreus for them to keep. You should prepare your dinner and then eat. what Alexander has just now proposed. so I may state what the heart in my chest prompts. the gods themselves have muddled up your wits. I'm willing to give up all of it. Each man should stay awake.

My orders tell me to speak to you to see if you are willing to put a stop to the harsh clash of war. spoke out: “Son of Atreus. companions of Ares. approving what horse-taming Diomedes said. The loud-voiced herald.” Idaios spoke. For it's quite clear. until such time as we have burned our dead. the Trojans are tied down to lethal fate. until god adjudicates between us and awards one side the victory. All Achaea's sons roared out. in the ranks. They all remained silent. they ate their dinner. until god chooses between us. wife of Menelaus. if that meets with your approval. we'll fight later. assembled by the stern of Agamemnon's ship. an offer you will want to hear. speechless. There he found Danaans. At dawn Idaios went out to the hollow ships.” They heard what Priam said and readily agreed.so we can burn our dead. There's more. Throughout the army. Priam and other noble Trojans asked me to tell you what Alexander has proposed. nor Helen. standing in their midst. But he says he'll not return that noble lady. other Achaean leaders. though the Trojans wish he’d do that. At last Diomedes. skilled at war shouts. 470 450 460 155 .” Diomedes spoke. makes one of us the victors. cried out: “Let no man now accept Alexander's stuff. We will fight later. even to a fool. All the property which Paris brought here in his hollow ships to Troy—how I wish he'd died before that day!—he'll hand over and add more goods from his own home. That man began our strife.

stood in their midst. they made a common grave. you yourself have heard our answer. going back to sacred Ilion. 480 490 500 156 . others to find wood.Mighty Agamemnon then addressed Idaios: “Idaios. others to get firewood. one should not deny the bodies of the dead a swift propitiation in the flames. burned them. There the Trojans and Dardanians were seated in a meeting. a chosen group of Achaeans was awake around the pyre. So let Zeus. hearts full of anguish. Hera's loud-thundering husband. Once they'd burned the bodies. what Achaeans think of what you offer. He came. Idaios then returned. on an angle. in half light. Then they quickly organized two working parties— some to gather bodies. Beside it. and delivered his report. Opposite them. well-armed Achaeans heaped their dead up on a pyre. still at night.” Saying this. just before dawn. So they heaped the corpses on the pyre in silence. climbing in the sky. a general assembly. stand as witness here to our pledged word. From that mound they built a wall. the two groups met each other. and then returned back to their hollow ships. invoking all the gods. for when men die. Great Priam did not permit his Trojans to lament. Just as the sun began to shine down on the fields. They washed blood off with water and piled them onto carts. rising from the gently flowing Ocean depths. back from the plain. But I don't object to burning corpses. Agamemnon held up his sceptre. shedding hot tears. Some hurried to bring in the dead. sick at heart. And I agree with them. awaiting his return. Argives also moved swiftly from their well-decked ships. in the same way. Next day. At that point it was hard to recognize each dead man. they went back to sacred Troy.

Come now. you can smash their wall. to make a passage so chariots could pass through. and so erase that great Achaean wall completely. when the long-haired Achaeans leave. of his intentions? Don't you see that long-haired Achaeans have built a new wall to protect their ships.” As the gods discussed these things amongst themselves. the sun went down and Achaeans finished working. As long-haired Achaeans worked. mighty Earthshaker. some god with a far less powerful hand. to defend them and their ships. Inside the rampart they set close-fitting gates. as far as light of dawn. answered Poseidon: “Such talk from you. is silly. sailing their ships to their dear native land. Another god might well fear this design. Your fame will reach as far as the shining light of dawn. People will forget that wall which Phoebus Apollo and myself worked hard to build for heroic Laomedon. Outside the wall they dug a big ditch. bury the great shore under sand. take it out to sea. close to the rampart. quite irked. wide and deep. dug a ditch around it. inform gods of his plans. after this event. gods sitting beside Zeus. Earthshaker Poseidon was the first to speak: “Father Zeus. lord of lightning.” Cloud-gatherer Zeus. 510 520 530 540 157 . and yet have made no splendid sacrifice to us. a weaker spirit than your own. gazed down on the huge construction. They slaughtered oxen by their huts and ate their dinner.with high towers. the project undertaken by bronze-armed Achaeans. the gods? The fame of this wall will reach everywhere. will any mortal man on boundless earth. setting stakes down in the trench.

No one dared to drink before he made an offering to Zeus. to go to Agamemnon and Menelaus. sent by Jason's son Euneus—born to Jason. while throughout the night. bringing wine from Lemnos. a thousand measures. plotted bad things for them. Pale fear gripped men. Then they went to bed. Counselor Zeus. to receive the gift of sleep. thundering ominously.Many ships had come. his people's shepherd. or with slaves. And then the men prepared a sumptuous banquet. Some bartered with bronze. Long-haired Achaeans feasted all night long. They kept pouring wine from goblets onto the ground. live oxen. others with hides. some with shiny iron. 550 158 . as did Trojans and their allies in the city. almighty son of Cronos. Euneus had donated wine. From these ships long-haired Achaeans bought their wine. from Hypsipyle.

Zeus sends Iris to stop them. grab hold of one end of it and pull. drives him from the battle. way down. where the gates are iron. The other deities. into the deepest pit below the earth. Then he'll acknowledge just how strong I am. Or I'll seize him and pitch him into black Tartarus. And let no female god. try it—then everyone will know. Hera tries to get Poseidon to plot against Zeus. Hector's speech to his troops the night before the big battle. Hera and Athena set out to help the Achaeans. hang it from heaven. 159 10 20 . Agamemnon's speech to rally the troops. all you gods and goddesses. seek to thwart my plan. Come on. Zeus himself addressed them. as far below Hades as heaven lies above the earth. Take a golden cord.Book Eight The Trojans Have Success [At a council on Olympus Zeus decides to favour the Trojans. Diomedes comes to Nestor's help. I'll speak what the spirit in my chest prompts. “Hear me. Teucer's success against the Trojans. the threshold bronze. Zeus stops Diomedes with a lightning bolt. Hector wounds Teucer. thunder-loving Zeus summoned an assembly of the gods on the highest crest of many-ridged Olympus. Zeus sends an omen to encourage the Argives. Diomedes confronts Hector. that god I'll beat up ignominiously and send back to Olympus. Let gods and goddesses. leaves for Ida. no male one either. the Argives rally. keen to assist the Trojans or Danaans. Trojans sacrifice to the gods] As Dawn first spread her yellow robe across the earth. listened carefully. those ranked below him. all together. the strongest of all gods. and holds up the golden scales. Let's get agreement from all of you to end this matter quickly. If I see any of you breaking ranks of gods.

” Zeus finished. then lashed the horses onward. We well know your strength. But we'll stand apart from battle. no matter how hard you tried to do it. Still. a gold one. There. the highest counselor. I’m that much stronger than the gods and men. have no fears. spoke up: “Son of Cronos. He encased his body all in gold. He reached Gargaros. mother of wild beasts. untied them from the chariot. at the power of his tone. we're sorry for the troops. All the gods were speechless. down from heaven to the ground. I want to treat you in a friendly way. But when I wished to pull in earnest.” Cloud-gatherer Zeus. site of his grove and temple. the father of gods and men reined in his horses. just to answer your displeasure. fragrant with sacrifice. Zeus reached Mount Ida with its many springs. highest ruling force.You'd not drag Zeus. swift-flying animals. although we'll give the Argives our advice. climbed in his chariot.” Zeus harnessed his two horses. finely crafted. 30 40 50 160 . and hid them in thick cloud. took up his whip. said: “My dear child Tritogeneia. with hooves of bronze and flowing golden manes. shocked at what Zeus had said. never. you're the father of us all. the bright-eyed goddess. I'd loop that cord round some Olympian peak and hang it in mid-air—the whole of it. They flew off eagerly. I wasn't speaking all that seriously. suffering dreadful fates. Midway between the earth and starry heaven. It's invincible. At last Athena. the sea as well. help them. as you wish. smiling at Athena. I'd yank up earth itself. to prevent destruction of them all. Danaan spearmen dying.

Only Nestor. Zeus sent out a loud thunder clap and hurled a lighting bolt down on Achaean troops.Then he sat on the mountain peak. kept his place. but keen to fight on in the killing zone. placed on it two fatal destinies. Trojans. Then they armed themselves. proud and splendid. hit by an arrow on its head. right on top. Long-haired Achaeans gulped a quick meal by their huts. 60 70 80 90 161 . companions of the war god Ares. fewer in number. guardian of Achaeans. They threw open all the gates. a tremendous noise. making a huge din. But when the sun was at its height. nor did Agamemnon. the Achaean ships. weapons hurled by both sides grimly took their toll— men kept on dying. One of his horses had been hurt. Men looked and were astounded. while the Trojans' fate rose up toward wide heaven. in town. Screams of pain and triumph came from soldiers—those killing. a deadly place. he raised them by the centre. The army streamed out. Gripping the scales. From Mount Ida. those being killed— and the earth was saturated with their blood. one for bronze-armed Achaeans. that spot where on a horse hairs begin to grow out from the skull. foot soldiers and charioteers. nor the two men named Ajax. they crashed together. gazing down on the Trojan city. too. the Geranian. the battle frenzy of bronze-armed warriors. the one which held the Achaeans' fate that day— it moved down to the all-sustaining earth. As the two groups moved out to the same spot. In early morning. prepared for war. On the other side. a grim necessity. The arrow had been loosed by Alexander. Embossed shields collided one against the other. one for horse-taming Trojans. as that sacred day grew stronger. At that. Father Zeus set up his golden balance. Idomeneus did not dare to stand his ground. but not because he wanted to. One scale sank down. smashing shields and spears. Pale fear gripped them all. for wives and children.

” Diomedes' words missed godlike. turning your back on all these flying weapons. While old Nestor with his sword was hacking feverishly to cut the traces holding the animal in place. as the arrow pierced its brain. calling out to Nestor. in pursuit or flight. if Diomedes. Nestor would have died right there. The beast reared up in agony. He let out a loud shout to Odysseus. Come on. in this fight these young men are pressing you too hard. So come on. Let Hector see how my hand wields a spear. the beast's convulsions confused the other horses. bearing Hector with them and their bold charioteer. firm Odysseus. why move away. charged straight ahead. climb up into my chariot. though left alone. Laertes' son. So turn your team over to subordinates. in front of old Nestor's chariot. like a coward? Watch someone doesn't spear you right in the back as you run off. Hector's fast horses came through the fighting men. skilled in war cries. experts in moving to and fro across the plain. your horses slow. Your attendant's weak.” 100 110 120 162 . urging him to come to Nestor's help. Your strength is waning. you resourceful man. Old age weighs you down. Skewered by the shaft. I took them from Aeneas. You'll see how these Trojan horses do. hadn't seen him right away. With my two let's charge against the Trojans. “Noble Odysseus. “Old man. These horses would fill any man with terror. who moved off to the Achaeans' hollow ships. back into the fight. son of Neleus—his words had wings.lovely Helen's mate. He made a stand right there. let's save old man Nestor from wild Hector. Diomedes.

he loosed his lightning. Go back. Eniopeus. He tumbled from the chariot. in turn. a dazzling fiery bolt which hit the ground immediately in front of Diomedes' horses. he cried: “Son of Tydeus. eager to fight. Then strength and spirit left him as he lay there. 130 140 150 160 163 . but struck Hector's companion charioteer. A dreadful flash came from the blazing sulphur. took Nestor's horses. son of proud Thebaios. Sthelenus and noble Eurymedon.Geranian horseman Nestor followed this suggestion. right by the nipple. The two men climbed up in Diomedes' chariot. as Eniopeus held the reins. those horses had another charioteer. Before long. if the father of gods and men hadn't kept sharp watch. both horses reared up in their harnesses. son of Iphitus. charged them impetuously. He missed. They closed in on Hector quickly. At that point irrevocable disaster might have struck the people all penned up in Troy like sheep. Nestor grabbed the shining reins and lashed the horses. Sounding a dreadful thunder clap. Savage grief seized Hector for his charioteer. Feeling fear inside his chest. the two strong officers. He went to find a substitute. if that's his will. Then he. The son of Tydeus threw his spear at Hector. The swift horses swerved. a second driver full of courage. No man stops Zeus' plans. At once. In terror. for all the pain he felt for his companion. Tomorrow he'll give victory to us. Nestor let the shining reins drop from his hands. Don't you see Zeus is not protecting you? Today the son of Cronos grants Hector glory. but he left him lying there. and placed him in the chariot behind swift horses. wheel your sure-footed horses round. then handed him the reins. for Hector soon ran into Archeptolemos. in the chest.

” With these words he turned the sure-footed horses back. scurried off. expert in war cries. For Hector then will speak out in Troy. threw volleys of lethal weapons at them. back to his ships. with lots of meat. with a shout. married partners of brave men you've thrown into the dirt. Hector and the Trojans. debating whether to wheel the horses round and fight. I'll not back away. you coward girl. I'll send you to your death. Three times he thought it through in his mind and heart. Now they're ashamed of you. fast-riding Danaans at their banquets have awarded you a place of honour. or Trojan wives. and three times counselor Zeus 180 170 190 164 .” Diomedes. he'll not convince the Trojans or Dardanians.no one. the son of Tydeus was torn two ways. or take our women. fleeing through the battle zone. not even the mightiest warrior. is true enough. old man. Zeus' force is more powerful by far.' That's what he'll boast. But this brings fearful pain into my heart and chest. 'The son of Tydeus. Hector with his glittering helmet then yelled out: “Son of Tydeus.” Geranian horseman Nestor answered Diomedes: “Son of fiery-hearted Tydeus. He'll say. let you climb our walls. why talk like that? Even if he slanders you and calls you coward. still in their prime. then replied: “Everything you say. Before that happens. You've turned out no better than a woman. Run off then. face Hector man to man.” At Hector's words. Then let the wide earth open up for me. in fear of me. a wine cup always full.

pealed thunder from Mount Ida. Aithus. cried out to his Trojan warriors: “You Trojans. go after them with speed. As for the trench they dug. Then Hector.” With these words. too. great Eëtion's daughter. a disaster for Danaans. Summon your warlike spirit. She shook with fury. What fools they were to build this feeble wall. cross braces. even before me. for the wine she's mixed for you to drink. and Dardanians— soldiers who fight in the killing zone— my friends. my horses will jump over that with ease. Achaeans would climb aboard their ships tonight. which wipes out everything—I’ll burn their fleet. my warlike spirit. all the sweet grain you've had from Andromache.” So Hector bragged. choking on the smoke. whenever you desired. I think if we could capture these two things. Come on then. great glory. a puny hazard—it will not check me. I see the son of Cronos grants us victory. with a great shout. whose fame extends right up to heaven—it's all gold— the shield itself. From horse-taming Diomedes' shoulders we'll strip the decorated body armour. slaughter them. and you Podargus. be men. Lycians. so we may capture Nestor's shield. noble Lampus! Now's the time to pay me back for all my care. 200 210 220 230 165 . those Argives by their ships. She took care of you. When I reach their hollow ships. That made queen Hera angry. signaling to Trojans that victory now would shift to them. a work created by Hephaestus. as they suffocate. don't forget the fire. sitting on her throne. Hector urged his horses on: “Xanthus. her own fine husband.

to those belonging to Achilles. crammed into the space encircled by the ditch. Then she spoke out to great god Poseidon: “Alas. horses and shield-bearing troops were jammed together. for these two men had placed their balanced ships 240 250 260 166 . a black vessel. pinned down there by Hector. many pleasing gifts. you fearless talker. allowed his voice to reach both ends of the line. son of Telamon. holding a huge purple cloak in his large fists.” As the two gods talked together in this way. For he is much more powerful than us. like swift Ares. He took up a position by Odysseus' ship. if queen Hera had not set a plan in Agamemnon's mind to rouse Achaeans with all speed on his own. as Danaans are destroyed? After all.making high Olympus tremble. answered Hera: “Hera. don't you feel any anguish in your heart. from the huts of Ajax. What are you saying? That's not what I want. they bring you presents. very angry. sulking where he sits alone on Ida” Mighty Earthshaker Poseidon. son of Cronos. broad in the beam. now that Zeus was giving him the glory. whose place. we'd leave wide-seeing Zeus up there by himself. the rest of us to war on Zeus. And then he would've burned those well-balanced ships with searing fire on the spot. Don't you want them to win? Now. if all those of us who protect Danaans were to agree to drive the Trojans back. in the middle of the row. great Earthshaker. Priam's son. He strode through Achaean huts and ships. from ships to wall. to Helice and Aegae.

grant me now at least this prayer— let us get out of here alive. the bravest? Idle boasters! There in Lemnos. just one man. On every one I burned fat and thighs of oxen— I was so keen to conquer Troy. you talked of how you'd stand.” As Agamemnon spoke. Then none of those many Danaans there could claim 1 270 280 290 The ends of the line are the most vulnerable. each and every one of you. from that spot. then shouted out. its well-made walls. I say I never overlooked your lovely altars.1 Agamemnon. Now we're matched by Hector. have you ever so deluded a high-minded king and stolen his glory? While sailing well-decked ships to this disaster. Father Zeus. child of some swift deer. At once Zeus sent the surest of all bird omens. Achilles and the Greater Ajax. in safety. as you stuffed yourselves with meat from straight-horned cattle and drank bowls of wine. who'll quickly set our ships alight with fire. their battle spirits roused. making himself heard to all Danaans: “You Argives! What a shameful bunch of men! Splendid to look at. dropping it right beside that splendid altar where Achaeans sacrificed to all-knowing Zeus. men resumed the fight. but a sour disgrace! What's happened to our sworn oaths. So the two best fighters. firm in battle against a hundred or two hundred Trojans. Seeing that Zeus had sent the bird. when we claimed we were the best. The eagle released the fawn. tears streaming down his face. But Zeus. attacking Trojans eagerly. are encamped there. Father Zeus pitied him and nodded his assent— the army would be saved and not demolished. 167 . an eagle. relying on their courage and strong hands.at either end. Don't let Trojans kill Achaeans off like this. foaming to the brim. gripping in its talons a young fawn.

Diomedes killed his man. son of Telamon. then spoke out: “Teucer. a well-armed Trojan. driving through his chest. stretching his curved bow. Meriones. shoot off an arrow. Daitor. Then came Eurypylus. king of men. Agelaus. Ophelestes. Amopaon. keep on shooting as you're doing. son of Polyaimon. Agamemnon and Menelaus. then Ormenus.he was quicker with his horses than Diomedes. Agamemnon. Ninth came Teucer. But once he showed his back. and Melanippus— all these Teucer dropped one by one on fertile earth. in his own home. dropping that soldier right where he stood. Diomedes speared him between his shoulder blades. like a child beside its mother. son of Telamon. and after them both Ajaxes. a bastard. crouching down by Ajax. brave son of Euaemon. Well ahead of all the rest. Who were the first Trojans skillful Teucer killed? Orsilochus died first. Ajax would then conceal him with his shining shield. Watching him cause havoc with his bow in Trojan ranks. the sons of Atreus came charging in. driving them ahead and charging through the ditch. ending his life—then he'd duck back. He stood beneath the shield of Ajax. He'd turned his team around to get away. He fell from the chariot. was overjoyed. who raised you. After Diomedes. armour rattling round him. Chromius. master of your people. took care of you. Teucer would peer out quickly. You'll be a saving light to the Danaans. my dear comrade. followed by Idomeneus and his attendant. son of Phradmon. For I'll tell you something—and this will happen— 300 310 320 330 168 . to confront their enemies face to face and fight. encased in war's ferocity. and to your father Telamon. As Ajax cautiously pulled his shield aside. cover him with glory now. the equal of man-killing Ares. godlike Lycophontes. Though he's far off. stood beside him. He went up. hit someone in the crowd.

I've shot off eight long-barbed arrows.if Athena and aegis-bearing Zeus permit me to devastate that well-built city Ilion. right by the nipple. But the arrow did hit Archeptolemos. Again he missed. Just as the head on a garden poppy leans aslant. eager to hit him.” Skillful Teucer then replied to Agamemnon: “Mighty son of Atreus. but he left him there. I've not stopped fighting as hard as I know how. He fell from the chariot. But this man. straight at Hector. as he was coming to the fight. 340 350 360 169 . you'll be the first to take the prize of honour. why urge me on? I'm eager to continue shooting. a man whose mother. cutting men down with my bow and killing them. went from Aisyme to become a wife to Priam. Then and there his strength and spirit abandoned him. In his heart Hector felt sharp pain for his charioteer. Hector. divinely beautiful. Teucer launched another arrow from his bowstring. of course—a tripod. The arrow missed. in the chest. though grieving for his comrade. directly facing Hector. Teucer loosed yet another arrow from his bowstring. It struck him in the chest. loaded down with heavy seed and spring rain showers. some strong. or some woman to climb up into your bed with you.” With that. after me. swift warrior. Each one has sunk itself deep inside a soldier's flesh. son of Priam. but struck handsome Gorgythion. two horses. so Gorgythion's head sagged under his helmet's weight. Hector's bold driver. I can't hit. for Apollo deflected it. Since we first drove them back to Ilion. his spirit still keen to hit him. their chariot as well. He's like some crazy dog. lovely Castianeira. The fast horses swerved.

Teucer had just taken a sharp arrow from his quiver.1 The Gorgons are dreadful monsters. Raising their hands. an especially vulnerable spot. 1 370 380 390 400 170 . Hector at the front. many had died at Trojan hands. and watches that beast's every move. where collar bones divide neck from chest. each man prayed fervently to all the gods. The rock broke the bowstring and numbed his hands and wrists. Hector jumped down from his glittering chariot with a fearful yell. Seeing his brother down. Teucer fell forward on his knees and stayed there. and was drawing back the bow. his eyes glaring like a Gorgon or man-killing Ares. proudly showing off his strength. Once more Olympian Zeus put force into the Trojans. The most famous. Medusa. Cebriones heard him and willingly agreed. Just as some hunting dog in a swift-footed chase gets a grip on a wild boar or lion from the back. Picking up a boulder lying on the ground. and noble Alastor. son of Echios. set it on the bowstring. as they crossed the ditch. letting his bow fall from his hand. calling out to one another. By the time Achaeans had rushed through the stakes. he went straight at Teucer.He called out to his brother Cebriones. Ajax quickly hurried up and straddled Teucer. Hector drove his fine-maned horses back and forth. hoisted Teucer up—he was groaning heavily— then took him with them back to the hollow ships. always killing off the stragglers as they fled. At that moment. They drove Achaeans back. his heart aroused to hit him with it. on the flank or rump. covering him with his shield. that's how Hector harried the long-haired Achaeans. to take up the chariot reins. could turn people to stone. Mecisteus. At last they halted by the ships and stayed there. Two loyal attendants. But Hector struck him with that jagged rock right on the shoulder. who was near by. right back to their deep trench. once again desperately eager to hit Hector.

begged him to grant due honour to Achilles. If I'd had the foresight to anticipate what Zeus is doing now when Eurystheus sent Hercules down to the house of Hades. He does not remember how many times I saved Hercules. Now Zeus dislikes me. cupped his chin.” Bright-eyed goddess Athena answered Hera: “I wish Hector somehow would lose his strength and die. He can't be stopped. he'd never have escaped the deep rushing waters of the river Styx. is pleased when we two show up in the battle lanes. killed in his own native land at Argive hands. Achaeans are being massacred. is on a rampage.Seeing all this. wrecking my plans. He's already done great harm. worn down by work he got from Eurystheus. is in a rage. But my father. so I may see whether this son of Priam. She quickly spoke these winged words to Athena: “Alas. always in the way. child of aegis-bearing Zeus. the Gate Keeper. Now harness your sure-footed horses for us. destruction on his mind. as their evil fate accomplishes its purpose? They're being destroyed by one man's charging frenzy. What a wretch he is. while I go to aegis-bearing Zeus' home and arm myself with weapons for this battle. white-armed Hera pitied the Achaeans. Aren't we concerned about them any more. Hector. It's their last stand. She kissed his knee. his son. this Hector of the shining helmet. destroyer of cities. He's carrying out what Thetis wants. son of Priam. to fetch back from Erebus Hades' dreadful hound. too. or whether some Trojan will make a meal 410 420 430 440 171 . But the day will come when Zeus calls me dear bright eyes once more.

Through these gates the goddesses lashed on their horses. “Off with you. so the bright-eyed goddess knows what it means to fight against her father.” Athena finished. she undermines it. threw her dress down on the floor of her father's house. which she'd made with her own hands. went off and started harnessing her horses with their golden headpieces. look after. Don't permit them to come into my presence. With a groan. those gates which the Seasons. making the daughter of a mighty father angry. grasping the huge thick strong spear she used to break heroic warrior ranks which had provoked her. As for Hera. Turn them back again. Father Zeus noticed them from Ida. richly embroidered. Athena. honoured goddess. She pulled on the tunic of cloud-gatherer Zeus and armed herself with weapons for destructive war. Then she stepped up into the flaming chariot. pushing open the heavy cloud. Then Hera. custodians of Olympus and great heaven. But I do say this—and it will surely happen— I'll cripple their fast horses in their traces. For if we come to blows. Ten revolving years won't be sufficient to cure the wounds my lightning will inflict. then we'll have trouble. I'm not so angry or upset with her. then pushing it shut once more. Hera immediately whipped the horses forward. a soft robe. In a huge rage. he sent down gold-winged Iris with a message for them.” 450 460 470 172 .for dogs and birds with flesh and body fat. as he falls there beside Achaean ships. great Cronos' daughter. Meanwhile. throw them from the chariot. swift Iris. smash it in pieces. for no matter what I say. the gates of heaven opened on their own. daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus. too. White-armed Hera agreed with her.

what it means to fight against your father. she undermines it. rushed off. and leaned the chariot against the courtyard's luminescent inner wall. led them to their heavenly stalls. as chance will work it out.Zeus spoke. smash it in pieces. taking his message. throw you both out of the chariot. But as for you. She stopped them and reported Zeus' message: “Where are you rushing off? Have you lost your wits? The son of Cronos has forbidden anyone to assist the Argives. are you daring to fight Zeus with one large spear?” Having said this. you shameless schemer. among the other gods. She met the goddesses at the outer gate of many-ridged Olympus. with anger in their hearts. she turned her sure-footed horses back. bright-eyed goddess. so that you'll understand. Hera then said to Athena: “What a mess. child of aegis-bearing Zeus! I'm not keen. as his heart desires. That's how it should be. Father Zeus drove his fine-wheeled chariot and horses 480 490 500 510 173 . Ten revolving years won't be sufficient to cure the wounds his lightning will inflict. swift as a storm. Let some die and others live. And he's made this threat— which he intends to carry out—he'll maim your swift horses in their traces.” With these words. Then Iris. With Hera's he's not so angry or upset. For no matter what he says. The goddesses then sat down on their golden thrones. that two of us should take on Zeus for the sake of mortal men. She came down from Mount Ida and made for high Olympus. swift-footed Iris went away. The Seasons unyoked the horses with the lovely manes. not now. Let Zeus judge between Trojans and Achaeans.

But nonetheless. The famous Earthshaker. Athena and Hera were sitting by themselves. Zeus spoke: “Why are you so irritated. 520 530 540 174 . it's impossible for all the Olympian gods combined to turn me from my purposes. But I'll tell you what would've taken place— neither of you would’ve come back to Olympus. we pity Danaan spearmen who are being destroyed. put the chariot on its stand. angry with her father. Knowing what was in their hearts. loosed his horses from their harness for him. But Hera couldn't hold the fury in her chest. My lightning would have blasted both of you. Then wide-seeing Zeus himself sat on his golden throne. what are you saying? We know well enough how strong you are— invincible. riding in your chariot. not saying anything to him or asking questions. for whom you feel such deadly hatred? Be that as it may. Hera and Athena muttered. Athena sat in silence. Poseidon. such is my power. But we'll hold back. consumed with rage. the immortals' home. you both were trembling in your shining limbs even before you looked on any fight or witnessed first-hand war's destructiveness.from Ida to Olympus. not saying anything. exhausted after killing off the Trojans. Hera and Athena? Surely you're not tired from those fights where men win glory. and covered it with cloth.” Zeus finished speaking. As for you. She said: “Dread son of Cronos. suffering a dreadful fate. plotting trouble for the Trojans. the strength in my own hands. away from Zeus. Underneath his feet great Olympus trembled. to the place where gods were all assembled. sitting together.

The end of daylight made the Trojans sorrowful. That's been decreed. as he kills many Achaean spearmen in their army. Even if you descend to the lowest place beneath the earth and sea.refrain from fighting. something they'd been praying for constantly. if you're so inclined. so they don't all die from your displeasure. I'd still pay no attention to your displeasure. White-armed Hera didn't answer him. We'll provide useful advice to Argives. cloud-gatherer Zeus then said: “Ox-eyed queen Hera. Now the sun's bright light sank down into the ocean.” Zeus spoke. warriors 550 560 570 175 . on that day they fight with bloody desperation by the ships’ sterns—they'll be battling over the body of Patroclus. For warlike Hector won't stop fighting. until beside the ships he stirs to action swift Achilles. in open ground where there were no corpses in plain view. in the depths of Tartarus— even if you went as far away as that in your wandering. I don't care at all if this annoys you. Then glorious Hector assembled all the Trojans some distance from the ships. but Achaeans welcomed the arrival of black night. by the swirling river.” In response to Hera. Jumping from their chariots to the ground. son of Peleus. or any breeze. where Iapetus and Cronos live. For you've no rival when it comes to behaving like a bitch. where they get no pleasure in any sunlight from Hyperion. if that's your order. dragging black night over fertile crop lands. tomorrow morning you can witness the exalted son of Cronos.

Let the call go out from heralds. built by the gods. We must not let them embark easily. Let each grown woman get ready a large fire in her home. you great-hearted Trojans. you allies. for growing boys and gray-haired men to camp up on the city's walls. Bring sweet wine as well. Dardanians. Do all this. through all the city.listened for what Hector. its bronze point glittering there in front of them. then quickly bring here from the city cattle and stout sheep. we can burn many fires. Just now I stated we'd go back to Troy today. But darkness intervened. so all night long. to stop a group from entering our city while the army is elsewhere. Get lots of wood. That's the only thing that spared the Argives and saved their ships beached on the shore. he gripped a spear eighteen feet long. That's all I have to tell you at this time. lighting up the sky. just as I've said. Leaning on this spear. feed them. whom Zeus loves. In his hand. would say. without a fight. a golden ring around it. a slash from some sharp spear as they jump in their ships—so someone else will think twice about bringing wretched war upon horse-taming Trojans. Hector then addressed his Trojans: “Listen to me. loved by Zeus. 580 590 600 610 176 . Let all keep a sharp lookout. take something home they need to nurse with care— an arrow wound. until first light of dawn. So from your chariots take out of harness those horses with their lovely manes. Come then. Some time in the night. long-haired Achaeans may make their move to get away by sea. and bread from your own homes. Let some of them be hit. you Trojans. once we'd destroyed the ships and slaughtered all Achaeans. let's do what black night demands—prepare a meal.

clustered around the glowing moon. But the blessed gods weren't willing to accept it. So all night long men sat there in the battle lanes. I wish I were as sure I were immortal. conducted here in their black ships by mortal fates. I'll drive away these death-infected dogs. sweet wine and bread from home. with no wind at all. each by its chariot. From the city they soon brought cattle and stout sheep. They gathered piles of wood and made perfect sacrificial offerings to the gods. From the plain. ageless for all time. They untied their sweaty horses from their yokes. Right now. At dawn. that I'd be worshiped as Athena is. every forest glade is clearly visible. at tomorrow's sunrise. Just as those times when the stars shine bright in heaven. burning many fires. He'll be among the first men speared to death. did not please them. too. I hope and pray to Zeus. son of Tydeus. let's watch out for ourselves tonight.I've more orders for horse-taming Trojans for tomorrow. and Priam. 620 630 640 650 177 . I think he'll fall. with high expectations. as I am that this day will bring destruction to the Argives. will repel me from the ships. whether he can stand against my spear. and Priam's people. Trojans gave a shout.” Hector finished speaking. tethered them with straps. let's arm ourselves with weapons and re-ignite this bitter warfare by the hollow ships. or whether with my bronze I'll slaughter him and take away the spoils all stained with blood. for sacred Ilion. and Apollo. with many of his comrades round him. to other gods as well. when every star shines out. Then I'll know if mighty Diomedes. as it comes after him. rich in sheep. Tomorrow he'll understand how good he is. and every peak and jutting headland. the wind carried the sweet-smelling smoke right up to heaven.

Horses munched on wheat and barley. standing there by their chariots. awaiting the regal splendour of the dawn. By each sat fifty men in the glow of firelight.and the shepherd's heart rejoices—that's the way the many Trojan fires looked. a thousand fires burning on the plain. as they burned there in front of Ilion. between the river Xanthus and the ships. 660 178 .

Achilles refuses Phoenix. the envoys return with Achilles' answer. Phoenix urges Achilles to accept. 179 10 20 . his face shedding tears like a black water spring whose dark stream flows down a sheer rock precipice.] Meanwhile. chilling Fear's dread comrade. telling me to return to Argos in disgrace. Achilles refuses. Agamemnon addressed the Argives: “My friends. he promised me—he nodded his assent— that I'd lay waste to well-built Ilion. heart overwhelmed with painful sorrow. carried out the task. leaders. Ajax speaks last. then fling seaweed in piles along the shoreline— so spirits in Achaean chests were now cast down. Phoenix. Agamemnon proposes they go home. Just like those times two winds blow in from Thrace— North Wind and West Wind suddenly spring up and lash the fish-filled seas—black waves at once rise up. as the Trojans maintained their careful watch. their best men suffering unendurable anguish. has snared me badly in grievous folly. Deceptive god. Now he tricks me. Atreus' son. calling them one by one. Agamemnon agrees. went to give out orders for clear-voiced heralds to summon all the warriors to assembly. He's devised a cruel deceit for me. Zeus.Book Nine Peace Offerings to Achilles [The Argives in despair. Panic. With a sigh. Nestor proposes a reconciliation with Achilles. Diomedes responds. tells the story of Meleager. not with a general shout. and Ajax go to Achilles with the offer. after the deaths of so many warriors. he welcomes them with a meal. before I went back home. with his heralds. Argive counselors. Agamemnon stood. Achaeans retire for the night. rebuking Agamemnon. He himself. Achilles makes a slight concession. gripped Achaeans. Odysseus. The counselors sat heart sick. son of Cronos. Odysseus outlines Agamemnon's offer. outlines his offer.

But the rest of the long-haired Achaeans will stay here. courage. in our assembly. My misguided king. then go. all Achaea's sons endorsed his words. an unwarlike man. all know this. as is my right. At last Diomedes. speechless with grief. and who'll still demolish many more— such is his power. but he didn't give the strongest power. For we're never going to capture Troy. let's all follow what I propose— let's sail back to our dear native land. The road lies there in front of you. then Sthenelus and I will fight on to our goal. Achaeans. The many ships which sailed here with you from Mycenae stand ready by the sea. to take Ilion. The son of crooked-minded Cronos gave you a two-edged gift—he gave you honour to govern all men with your sceptre. stunned. too. Achaea's sons just sat there.That's what now delights all-powerful Zeus. said: 30 40 50 60 180 . pleased with the speech made by horse-taming Diomedes. irresistible.” He finished. I'll be the first to challenge your foolishness. All those there stayed silent. do you think Achaea's sons are really fearful cowards. when you claimed I was no soldier. But come. Then horseman Nestor. skilled in battle cries. my lord. First of all. So don't be angry. you slighted my bravery in front of all Danaans.” With a roar. as you state? If your heart wishes to go home. young and old. until we demolish Troy. standing up before them. For the gods were with us when we came. who has hurled down so many lofty towns. If they flee back to their dear native land in their ships. spoke out: “Son of Atreus.

” Nestor spoke. Any man who's keen on civil war is an evil outlaw. you're excellent in battle and the best Achaean of your age in council. you should follow whoever offers you the best advice.“Son of Tydeus. when enemies are burning many fires right beside our ships. something to eat. then followed his advice. Once many people have assembled there. which Achaea's sons bring here each day over the wide sea from Thrace—you've got all you need to show such hospitality. for you are ruler over many men. Who finds that pleasant? This night saves our army or destroys it. I'm saying young men should do this. But come. his people's shepherd. Then. All we Achaeans need good practical advice. Nestor's son. so I shall explain this matter fully. for you are chief king here. son of Atreus. But your speech is incomplete. especially now. Let's get dinner ready. let's do what we must. And let’s have sentries camp beside that trench we dug outside the wall. you spoke sensibly. in what you said to the Achaean king. So for the time being. 70 80 90 100 181 . Armed sentinels went out. No Achaean will fault what you've just said or oppose it. not even mighty Agamemnon. I can claim to be your senior. led by Thrasymedes. issue your instructions. For you spoke justly and kept to the point. without a heart. You've got lots of wine stockpiled in your huts. without a home. Those present listened carefully. You are still young—you might well be my son. my youngest born. now that night has come. Prepare a meal for senior counselors— that's the right and proper thing to do. Let no one take issue now with what I say. Still.

Thus. But then you. Zeus gave you sceptre and laws to rule them.” Agamemnon. surrendering to your arrogant spirit. then answered Nestor: 110 120 130 182 . and Deïpyrus. and each man ate and drank to his full heart's content. king of men. made Achilles angry by taking back that young girl Briseis from his hut. Keeping in mind their common good. No one else has set out a better scheme than the one which I've been mulling over a long time now. then act upon what other men may say. king of men. Creion's son.with Ascalaphus and Ialmenus. Aphareus. You'll get the credit for what they begin. They ate the food prepared and set before them. They marched off and took positions half way between the ditch and wall. A hundred young men. You still have that prize you took. for you are lord of many men. These seven were captains of the sentinels. win him back with gifts and gracious speeches. against my judgment. and be friends once more. all armed with their long spears. went with each of them. should speak and listen. along with noble Lycomedes. whose previous advice had seemed the best. So I'll say what seems to me the best advice. I'll begin and end my speech with you. Then the men lit fires and prepared their meals. above all. Old Nestor. if their spirit prompts them to speak well. he spoke out: “Mighty son of Atreus. Repeatedly. and Meriones. Atreus' son led his advisors to his hut and gave all of them a generous meal. I urged you not to do it. honoured by the gods. ever since you. you. strong fighters. shamed our strongest man. was the first to begin explaining what he thought. Agamemnon. my lord. So now let's think how we may make amends.

He may choose twenty Trojan women for himself. With them the one I seized from him. whom I dearly love. I have three daughters—Chrysothemis. with bronze. If we get back to the rich land of Argos. as is men's custom. I'll list these rich gifts in presence of you all—seven tripods which fire has not yet touched. let him come and load his ship with gold. I was deluded. I don't deny that. or need precious gold. Briseis. the loveliest after Argive Helen. I'm now willing to make amends. They surpass all women for their beauty. Since my delusion made me follow my mistaken feelings. to give in recompense immense treasures. my son. when we Achaeans allocate the spoils. skilled in crafts. whom I chose for myself when he captured well-built Lesbos. If gods grant we destroy Priam's great city. He's being raised in great prosperity. I'll honour him just as I do Orestes. as much as he desires. The man whom Zeus loves in his heart is worth whole armies. ten gold talents. In my well-built home. 140 150 160 170 183 . or lack possessions. where men and women are concerned. he can then become my son-in-law. I'll solemnly swear I never once went up into her bed or had sex with her. twelve strong horses whose speed has triumphed and earned them prizes. And then I'll give him seven women of Lesbos.“Old man. A man who has as much as I have won from racing these sure-footed animals would not be poor. All these things he will receive immediately. These I shall present to him. twenty shining cauldrons. And this man Zeus now honours by destroying an army of Achaeans. you expose my folly justly. daughter of Briseus.

and vine-rich Pedasus. I'll give much more to bring about our reconciliation. And may those I select agree to do it. beside sandy Pylos. Enope. to take pity on us. First. Peleus' son. Let herald Odius accompany them. I'll give him seven populous cities. Let him concede. son of Cronos. the gifts you're offering to lord Achilles can't be criticized. let Phoenix. all near the sea. he's the one men hate the most. a dowry bigger than any man so far has ever handed over with his daughter. Let's observe a holy silence. Only Hades is totally relentless and unyielding. holy Pherae. then great Ajax. Agamemnon.” 180 190 200 210 184 . fertile Antheia. Cardamyle. whom Zeus loves. People living in these places own a lot. grassy Hire. I shall give all this if he will abate his anger. He can take whichever one he chooses back home as his wife to Peleus' house and pay no bridal gift. Bring some water for our hands. But come. many sheep and cattle. That's why of all the gods. along with Eurybates. as if he were a god. be leader. lovely Aepea. king of men. let's send out hand-picked men to go with all speed to Achilles' hut. In age I can claim to be his senior. and lord Odysseus. Under his laws and sceptre they'll do well. And let him acknowledge my authority.” Geranian horseman Nestor then said in reply: “Mighty son of Atreus. for I'm the greater king. They will honour him and give him gifts.Iphianessa and Laodice. so we may pray to Zeus.

With every cup they made libations.” With these words. My dear friends have come. He was easing his spirit with a tuneful finely decorated lyre. In astonishment. kept encouraging them to persuade Achilles. especially at Odysseus. I must be needed. Achilles got up off his chair and stood up quickly. they left the hut of Agamemnon. Young men filled mixing bowls with wine up to the brim and passed them round. The envoys approached. even in my anger. looking at each man. Patroclus did the same. Achilles said: 220 230 240 185 . lord Odysseus in the lead. It had a silver cross-piece. Patroclus. sat there facing him. offering up their prayers to world-circling Earthshaker Poseidon to help them more easily convince the great heart of Achilles. singing about the celebrated deeds of men. his sole companion. the envoys made their way. Among Achaeans you're the men I love the most. Peleus' excellent son. All present approved of what he'd said. Attendants then poured water on their hands. crashing sea. still holding the lyre. Once they'd made offerings and drunk their fill of wine. Swift-footed Achilles greeted them and said: “Welcome. They stood in front of him. With the lyre he was bringing pleasure to his heart. Moving up close to Patroclus. waiting in silence until Achilles finished singing. lord Achilles conducted them inside his hut and seated them on chairs covered with purple rugs. son of Atreus. He'd seized it as a prize when he'd destroyed the city of Eëtion.Nestor spoke. They came to the ships and huts of the Myrmidons. standing up as soon as he saw the embassy. Geranian horseman Nestor. There they found Achilles. Along the shore of the tumbling.

Seeing that. unless 250 260 270 280 186 .” Achilles spoke. And. Then Ajax gave a nod to Phoenix. to sacrifice to all the gods. godlike man. When the meat was cooked. he laid it out on platters. while Automedon held the meat. Achilles. then passed it in fine baskets round the table. we are afraid. my lord. my closest friends. Then each man helped himself. Patroclus obeyed his dear companion. for you've prepared a richly satisfying meal. They all ate and drank to their full heart's content. Once the blaze died down and flames subsided. Achilles told Patroclus. Then in the firelight he set down a large chopping block. a huge one. Prepare a cup for everyone. Achilles served the meat and sat down by the wall. lord Odysseus filled up his cup with wine and proposed a toast: “Good health. set out for us a larger wine bowl. in a quandary. whether we can save our well-decked ships. or here. For we are staring at a great disaster. Patroclus threw the offerings into the fire. Achilles carved. Patroclus spread the glowing embers. his companion. Atreus' son. either in Agamemnon's hut. placed on it slabs of mutton. eating the food prepared and set before him. These men. directly opposite godlike Odysseus. or whether they will be destroyed. stoked the fire. laid the spits lengthwise on top. setting them in place on stones and sprinkling on the sacred salt. Patroclus took the bread. and mix stronger wine. The son of Menoetius. swimming in fat.“Son of Menoetius. But now our business is not pleasant banqueting. then got them ready on the spits. and the chine of a plump hog. He sliced up small pieces. are under my own roof. goat. We have not had to go without our share of feasts.

Athena and Hera will give you power. didn't he say this. He prays for holy dawn to come quickly. burn them in destructive fire. son of Cronos. 'My son. You won't find any cure for such despair. but you must check that overbearing spirit in your chest. fears neither man nor god. away from Phthia. Hector. sent you off. They claim nothing can prevent them now from attacking our black ships. Then Achaeans. exulting hugely in his power. And Zeus. on their right a lightning flash. and by those very ships kill the Achaeans driven out in desperation by the smoke. you'll suffer future agonies. advice which you've forgotten. if you've a mind to save Achaeans from their suffering at this Trojan onslaught. If not. to perish here in Troy. in a terrifying manic frenzy. A killing passion now possesses him. where horses breed. far away from Argos. It's better to show good will. So rouse yourself.you put on your warlike power once again. to join Agamemnon. has sent them his signal. you should think about how to help Argives at this evil hour. young and old. So even now 290 300 310 320 187 . I have a dreadful fear deep in my heart that the gods will make good all his boasting. vowing he'll hack apart the high sterns of our ships. to give up malicious quarreling. For haughty Trojans and their famous allies have camped close to the ships and barricade and lit many fires throughout their army. that day your father. seal our fate. puts his faith in Zeus. late though it may be. if they so wish. My friend. Peleus. Before that happens. will respect you all the more'? That's what your old father said.

twelve strong horses whose speed has triumphed. ten gold talents. Agamemnon will give you worthy gifts. you may come and load your ship with gold. whom he chose for himself when you captured well-built Lesbos. his son. when we Achaeans allocate the spoils. with bronze. daughter of Briseus. If gods grant that we destroy Priam's great city. He'll give much more 330 340 350 360 188 . skilled in crafts. the loveliest after Argive Helen. You may choose twenty Trojan women for yourself. If we get back to the rich land of Argos. All these things you will receive immediately. as much as you desire. and Laodice. Briseis. whom he dearly loves. In his well-built home he has three daughters—Chrysothemis. He's being raised in great prosperity. you can then become his son-in-law. as is men's custom. All gifts are in his huts—seven tripods which fire has not yet touched. For if you will mitigate your anger. earned them prizes— a man who's won as much as Agamemnon from racing these sure-footed animals would not be poor or lack possessions or precious gold. where men and women are concerned. cease this heart-corroding rage. Then he will add to this seven women of Lesbos. These he will present to you. with them the one he seized from you. He'll honour you just as he does Orestes.you should stop. You can take whichever one you choose back home as your wife to Peleus' house and pay no bridal gift. twenty shining cauldrons. then I'll repeat what Agamemnon has promised to you. He'll solemnly swear he never once went up into her bed or had sex with her. They surpass all women for their beauty. If you will hear the list. Iphianessa.

holy Pherae. Among them you'll earn enormous glory. I must be blunt about what I think. But if your heart still resents Atreus' son and his gifts. He'll give you seven populous cities. if you will abate your anger. resourceful Odysseus. beside sandy Pylos. for no thanks are given to the man who always fights without rest against the enemy. Cardamyle. Enope. So I'll declare what.to bring about your reconciliation. all near the sea. They will pay you honours like a god. and vine-rich Pedasus. a dowry bigger than any man so far has ever handed over with his daughter. in my view.” Swift-footed Achilles then answered Odysseus: “Divinely born son of Laertes. grassy Hire. our exhausted soldiers. then take pity on all Achaeans. for now you might kill Hector. who may well approach you—he's so obsessed with slaughter. Under your laws and sceptre they'll do well. Atreus' son. one by one. People living in these places possess many sheep and cattle and will honour you and give you gifts. as if you were a god. try to entice me with sweet promises. fertile Antheia. so you do not sit there and. He will give all this. lovely Aepea. he thinks there's not a warrior his equal among Danaans brought here in our ships. Whether one fights 370 380 390 189 . or any other Argive will persuade me. where all this will lead. I hate like the gates of Hell any man who says one thing while thinking something else which stays hidden in his mind. it's best for me to say— I don't believe that Agamemnon.

brought it to Agamemnon. Odysseus. Since he's taken my prize out of my hands and cheated me. in the area of fertile Troy. in battling men in wars about their wives. pain in my heart. Just as a bird takes scraps of food. as my heart loved that girl. at the swift ships. a woman I love. From me alone he stole away a prize. I took fine treasure. but herself eats little. and they hung on to them. persevered through bloody days of fighting. I know him too well. lots of it. keeping most of it for his own use. 190 . battling on. I claim eleven more. From all these. I've seized twelve towns and killed their men. 430 He'll never persuade me to agree. with my life always under threat. 420 Let him have his pleasure in bed with her. let him not try to take another thing from me. He's built a wall. 410 On land. so have I lain without sleep many nights. He shared very little of what he got. He gave prizes to the best of men. to her fledglings. whatever she can find. though captured with my spear. let him rely on you and other kings as well to save his ships from fiery destruction. But. the shares are still the same. constructed a large wide ditch around it. Coward and brave man both get equal honour. With ships. Atreus' son—I gave it all to him. He has done much without me already. He stayed back. Why must Argives fight against the Trojans? Why did Atreus' son collect an army and lead it here if not for fair-haired Helen? Are Atreus' sons the only mortal men who love their wives? Every good and prudent man loves his wife and cares for her.or stays behind. Death treats idle and active men alike. the kings. 400 I've won nothing for all I've suffered.

He cheated me. betrayed me. once I've dragged them down into the sea. fair women. still clothed in shamelessness. he doesn't dare confront me face to face.and fixed stakes inside. hopes at any time to deceive some Argive. To hell with him! Let him march to his death by his own road. seized back from me the prize which he awarded. I hate his gifts. to all the gods. Atreus' son. for Counselor Zeus has stolen his wits. Once he met me there alone. red bronze. But mighty Agamemnon. not even 440 450 460 470 191 . Cur that he is. twenty times more than all he owns right now. no. Hector wasn't eager to push the battle far from his own walls. There I own many things I left behind when I made this disastrous trip to Troy. if he. or will possess in future. I'll take back from here more gold. if you're interested. Tomorrow I'll make holy sacrifice to Zeus. His words will cheat no more. But for all these things. Not even if he gave me ten times. he's not been able to check the power of man-killing Hector. And he's not worth a damn. on the fish-filled Hellespont. Tell him that. no actions. men rowing with great eagerness. I'll discuss no plans with him. famous Earthshaker. But now I don't want to fight lord Hector. Repeat in public everything I say. in three days I'll reach fertile Phthia. gives us fair sailing. so other Achaeans will grow angry. When I fought beside Achaeans. and gray iron—all I captured. He barely got away from my attack. He came out only to the Scaean Gates and to the oak tree. And if Poseidon. in his arrogance. tomorrow my ships will be sailing off. if you wish. You'll see. and load my ships.

Phoebus Apollo. horses and chariots all together—not even if he gave me gifts as numerous as grains of sand beside the sea or particles of dust. if the gods keep me safe and I get home. stacked on the stone floor in rocky Pytho. men who govern cities. where huge treasures sit piled up in houses—that city of gates. or Egyptian Thebes. through each can ride two hundred men. a more prestigious king than me. For me. not by theft or plunder. when they were still at peace. more than all the treasures of the archer. someone suitable for marriage. once it has flown out from him. 480 490 500 510 192 . not for all that would Agamemnon win my heart. Peleus himself will find me a wife. son of Atreus. Men can steal cattle. not even if her beauty rivals that of golden Aphrodite. There are plenty of Achaean women in Hellas and in Phthia—daughters of lords. I'll never take as wife any daughter of Agamemnon. I will not marry her. not until he satisfies me in full for all my heartfelt bitter pain. before the sons of Achaea came. From them I'll choose the one I want to make my cherished wife. or her skill in crafts equals bright-eyed Athena's. to enjoy the riches which old Peleus has acquired.all the wealth amassed in Orchomenus. fat sheep. someone like himself. Life is worth more to me than all the wealth they say was stored in well-built Ilion some time ago. one hundred of them. get tripods. herds of sorrel horses. My heart has often felt a strong desire to take a woman there as my own wife. But no man gets his life back. Let him select another Achaean.

has said two fates may bring about my death.passed beyond the barrier of his teeth. knowing nothing about war. because far-seeing Zeus shields that city with his hand. my fame will die. alone. stunned by the sheer force of his refusal. though my life will last a long time—death will not end it quickly. sleep here. And so I encourage all the rest of you to sail back home. If I remain here. Thus. in silence. You'll not attain your goal. because that anger has consumed your heart. if that's his wish. if your mind is really set on going back. on that day he shipped you from Phthia to join Agamemnon. 520 530 540 550 193 . After a pause. Astounded by his speech. silver-footed Thetis. away from you? Old horseman Peleus sent me with you. old horseman Phoenix spoke: “Glorious Achilles. if you are totally unwilling to protect our swift ships from destructive fire. they all sat there. you should go. so tomorrow he may join our voyage to his dear native land. But if I go back home. but my glory will never die. Report this message to Achaean leaders— that's the privilege of senior men— their minds must come up with some better plan to save the Achaean fleet and army beside the hollow ships. continuing the fight against the Trojans' city. My goddess mother. You were young. dear lad. since anger still keeps me away. Let Phoenix stay here with me. For I will not take him back by force.” Achilles spoke. The one they've got won't work. how can I remain here. that means I won't be going home. steep Ilion. Its people have confidence in that.

the man I was when I first left Hellas. My heart no longer felt the slightest wish to stay in my father's house with him so angry. thus dishonouring his wife. swimming in fat. I planned to murder him with my sharp bronze. Fires always burned. Amyntor. so you could speak and carry out great actions. I obeyed. or about public debates. to be singed in Hephaestus' flames. underworld Zeus and dread Persephone. praying to dread Furies that no dear son born from me would ever sit upon his knees. My friends and relatives who lived around me begged me repeatedly to stay right there. where men acquire distinction. to make me young. My father soon found out what I had done— he cursed me many times repeatedly. shuffling cattle with crumpled horns. who begged me constantly—on her knees— to have sex with that mistress. their great contempt— how among all Achaeans I'd be called the man who'd slaughtered his own father. taking turns as guards. they kept watch over me throughout the night. so she'd hate my father. and laid out many hogs. 560 570 580 590 194 . my mother. not even if god himself promised to cast off my old age. how can I wish to be alone and separated from you? No.which levels men. He was incensed with me about his fair-haired mistress. Ormenus' son. For nine nights. did what she asked. land of beautiful women. Given all this. running off from my angry father. He loved her. Some god checked my anger. dear lad. They drank many jugs of the old man's wine. Thus Peleus sent me to teach you all these things. putting in my heart what men would say. The gods made sure his curses took effect. And then they butchered many well-fed sheep.

He made me wealthy. propitiating gods with offerings. I ran away through all of spacious Hellas. unless I set you on my knees. you'd protect me. So. I made you my son. cross-eyed. cut the meat. sacrifice. to king Peleus. wrinkled. where flocks are bred. gentle prayers. And I was the one. they try to follow 600 610 620 195 . another in the hallway right outside my bedroom doors. I've gone through a lot for you. Gods themselves are flexible. reigning as king over the Dolopes. loved me. Lame. went out. without being seen by men and women checking up on me. so that if I ever met disaster. libations. He received me hospitably. Ten nights later. godlike Achilles. subdue your giant passion. as night fell. I broke through the tight-closed bedroom doors. too. and jumped with ease across the wall around the outer court. more power. Many times you soaked the shirt on my chest. worked hard. Men pray when they go wrong or make mistakes. I lived in the borderlands of Phthia. who raised you up to be the man you are. and held the wine cup for you. bearing in mind that gods had taken care I'd never have some children of my own. heir to all his goods. It's not right for you to have an unyielding heart. Godlike Achilles. slobbering your wine. then came a suppliant to fertile Phthia. and they have more honour than we possess. fed you. assigning me to govern many people. Achilles. You would refuse to attend a banquet with anyone or eat in your own home. a helpless baby.one underneath the enclosed portico. Prayers are the daughters of almighty Zeus. as a father dearly loves his only son.

paying attention to him as he prays. If someone spurns them. because she's strong and quick. But he's giving plenty now. they were swayed by gifts and by persuasive speeches. around Calydon. who. Don't show contempt for what they have to say or insult their coming here. Far behind. If a man honours these daughters of Zeus as they come near. The Curetes and staunch Aetolians were fighting and killing one another. Up to now. They have changed the minds of other men. appearing all over the world. in her rage that Oeneus hadn't given her 630 640 650 660 196 . begging for Folly to pursue that man. they will help him greatly. I'll tell it. inflexibly angry. But we learn this from previous actions of heroic men—when furious anger came over some of them. even great ones. more later. runs far in front of them. bringing harm to men. son of Cronos. they go to Zeus.behind Folly. He has sent out his greatest warriors. you should give Zeus' daughters your respect. rudely rejecting them. your finest friends among the Argives. Since you are all my friends. no matter how painful their distress. I recall an old tale from long ago. Golden-throned Artemis had driven them to fight. Prayers carry on their healing. I wouldn't tell you to cast aside your rage and help the Argives. with the Aetolians defending Calydon and the Curetes eager to destroy the place in war. Achilles. your resentment has been justified. selected from the whole Achaean army. If Agamemnon were not bringing gifts— and naming more to come—but persisting. For that reason. who then harms himself and suffers punishment.

including wise ones. courageous men fighting for the boar's head and bristly hide. a lapse within his foolish heart. but he'd failed to offer anything to her. just as it forcibly swells up in chests of other men. daughter of Euenus and Ides. first fruits of his orchard. too. His heart was angry with his dear mother. incited a savage white-tusked wild boar against him. a daughter of great Zeus. strongest of all men then alive. they could not hold their ground outside the city walls. Phoebus Apollo. Meleager. Cleopatra's father and noble mother at home called her by the name Alcyone. Maripessa. Other gods had received their sacrifices. including roots and flowering apples. in her rage. the Curetes did not do well. He was the one who took his bow to make a stand against a god. fighting for the girl with lovely ankles. for a small group could not subdue such an enormous boar. killed the beast. First he gathered huntsmen and hunting dogs from many cities. He forgot. knocking tall plants to the ground. Artemis began a war about this beast. It had killed many men and sent them off to their funeral pyres in agony. But then anger swept through Meleager. the attractive daughter of the lady with the lovely ankles. that battle between the Curetes and the Aetolians. For all their numbers. Oeneus' son. or else grew careless. Cleopatra. 670 680 690 700 197 . Althea. So he stayed home with his wife. entire trees.a harvest-offering. The archer goddess. This beast from the gods reached Oeneus' orchard and was causing serious damage there. So long as war-loving Meleager was in the fight.

not until his own room was under fierce attack. infuriated by his mother's curses. Oeneus. telling him he could take for himself. war's turmoil. from anywhere on the richest plain of lovely Calydon fifty acres of the finest farm land. Beside this Cleopatra Meleager lay. listened to her prayers from Erebus. added their prayers. 1 710 720 730 740 198 . she prayed to the gods. once the Curetes had scaled the tower and begun to burn that great city. Meleager had killed his mother’s brothers. brooding on the rage that pained his heart. the old horseman. In her grief over her brothers’ killing. the mournful halcyon. for she cried when Apollo. his closest friends of all. But he refused. begging Hades and fearful Persephone to kill her son. Then his lovely wife. kept imploring him. beating fertile earth with her hands over and over. seized her. His sisters and his mother often entreated him. with their stone hearts. begging his son. standing at the threshold of his high room.1 The night-walking Furies. her breasts wet from crying. In a quarrel over who should get credit for first wounding the great wild boar. kneeling down. The gates were being demolished. The old men of the Aetolians begged Meleager to come to their assistance. the far shooter. They sent their gods' most important holy priests. They promised him great gifts. But they could not overcome those passions in his chest.Her mother shared the same fate as that bird. open fields for ploughing. His companions. Then around the gates of Calydon the battle din grew loud. half for a vineyard and half for farming. those most faithful to him. beating on the firmly bolted doors.

But I'll say this to you— bear it in mind—do not confuse my heart with these laments. He went outside. you'll never get such honour. So accept the gifts. with women and children seized by strangers. dear old father. and so injure the man who injures me. implored Meleager. even though you may push the conflict back. his heart stirred. Achaeans are honouring you like a god. noble lord. by following his heart. all serving that heroic son of Atreus. although he'd saved them from catastrophe. At dawn. so long as there is breath within my body. Take half my honours. for I possess honour in the will of Zeus. Once he'd heard of these disasters.” Swift-footed Achilles then said in reply: “Phoenix. it will be harder to defend them. I don't need such honours. put his shining armour around his body—and thus averted a disastrous day for the Aetolians. If you return to man-killing battle without the gifts. You stay here. Don't let some god make you choose that way. Sleep in your soft bed. who are now my friend. these speeches of distress. Once the ships catch fire. My friend. That will keep me here beside my own hollow ships. don't think like Meleager. You would be noble to join with me. You should not love him.in her grief. strength in my limbs. we shall consider whether to go back 750 760 770 780 199 . telling him the evils which can overtake men whose town is violently seized— how men are butchered and the city burned. in case I hate you. These men report back. Be equal king with me. But the Aetolians did not give him the many splendid gifts.

how we honoured him above all others there beside the ships. not on this trip. We must report this news. The man who killed them pays a large amount to stay there in his own community. to the Danaans waiting to receive it.to our own land. godlike son of Telamon. or whether to remain. Now we are offering seven of the best we have and much more. of all Achaeans. your closest friends. chosen from the Argive host. But with you. so the others would quickly think of leaving. let's be off. are the ones most dear to you. I don't think we'll bring this talk to a successful end. You should turn your passion into kindness. resourceful Odysseus. though it's not good. He has no pity. gods have put inside your chest unchanging evil passions.” Achilles spoke. your people's leader.” Swift-footed Achilles then said in reply: “Ajax. But Ajax. He's cruel and doesn't care for friendship of his comrades. spoke up: “Noble son of Laertes. the hospitality of your own house. For we are guests here under your own roof. For Achilles has turned his great spirit into something savage in his chest. noble son of Telamon. and all this over a single girl. The other man's angry heart and spirit are checked. everything you say matches what I feel. 790 800 810 200 . His eyebrows gave a silent signal to Patroclus to set a firm bed out for Phoenix. Any man accepts reparations for a murdered son or brother. We believe that we. once he takes the compensation. far more so than all the others.

” 820 830 840 850 201 . king of men: “So come. killing Achaean soldiers as he goes. around my own black ship. whom Achilles gave him after capturing steep Scyros.” So Achilles spoke. to stay till morning. I think that Hector will be held in check around my hut. fair Diomede. does he wish to protect our ships from all-destroying fire. They obeyed his orders and prepared a bed. But you'd better go. The old man lay down. The others reached the huts of Atreus' son. Patroclus slept opposite Achilles. great glory of Achaeans. Beside him lay a woman he'd seized from Lesbos. The first to speak was Agamemnon. famous Odysseus. tell me. with Odysseus in the lead. The men each took a goblet with two handles. Patroclus ordered his companions and the women servants to set up a sturdy bed without delay for Phoenix. take back this message—I shall not concern myself with bloody war until lord Hector.But my heart chokes with rage when I recall how that son of Atreus behaved towards me with contempt. one of Phorbas' daughters. for all his eagerness to battle on. Achilles slept in a corner of the well-built hut. his mighty spirit still gripped with anger. gave offerings. or does he refuse. comes against the huts and sea ships of the Myrmidons. Beside him lay lovely Iphis. murderous son of Priam. Achaea's sons stood up and welcomed them with toasts in golden cups. with sheepskin fleece and rug and fine linen sheets. asking questions. Enyeus' city. as if he were dishonoring some vagrant. and went back to the ships. until he starts to burn our ships with fire. one after another.

Diomedes. for you'll not attain your goal of lofty Ilion. whose gaze ranges far and wide. and tells you to think for yourself with the Argives how you may save Achaean ships and men. spoke: “Mighty Agamemnon. as Achilles told him. Achaea's sons sat a long time speechless. That's what he said. Let's leave him alone. both prudent men. He despises you. let's all follow what I now propose. They all were silent and disheartened.” Odysseus spoke. whose people now have confidence. But come. if he wants. that man’s unwilling to let go his rage. who had endured much. to go to sleep. skilled in war cries.Lord Odysseus. since Zeus. holds his hand over Troy. He said he would encourage others to sail home. offering countless gifts. your gifts. king of men. mighty Agamemnon. As for him. for he won't take him by force. For he'll fight when the spirit in his chest moves him. troubled. so that he may go away with him in his ships back to their dear native land. The others who went with me will confirm this for you—Ajax and two heralds. son of Atreus. he made this threat—at first light of dawn. At last. he'll drag his trim balanced ships down to the sea. or when god drives him to it. 860 870 880 202 . whether he goes or stays. especially by the force with which Achilles had refused. he's a proud man Now you've encouraged him to be prouder still. more so now than ever. you should not have begged noble Peleus' son. Old Phoenix stayed there. He's full of anger. At the best of times. replied: “King of men.

then rouse their spirits. They poured libations. with you fighting at the front in person. Then each man went to his hut. where he lay down and stretched out to take the gift of sleep. So now. When fair rosy-fingered Dawn appears. for strength and stamina.” All the kings applauded horse-taming Diomedes.We've had our fill of food and wine. you should get some sleep. 890 203 . you should range your army—men and horses— before the ships.

for his mind was disturbed with many worries. Odysseus and Diomedes catch and interrogate Dolon. he was overcome at the sight of countless fires burning in front of Ilion. promises Achilles’ horses and chariot. some plan to save all the Danaans. Diomedes kills Dolon. Every time he looked out on the Trojan plain. making his whole body tremble. pipes. roots and all. and then put on 204 10 20 . Achaea's most important leaders slept through the night. overpowered by soft sleep. flashes lightning to announce a massive rain storm. Odysseus and Diomedes return in triumph to the ships] By their ships. his brave heart groaning. deep in his heart. So he got up. Dolon volunteers and set off. an immense downpour of hail or snow. all except Agamemnon. the loud noise all those soldiers made. son of Atreus. To him the best plan seemed to be to go to Nestor. praying to high Zeus above. Odysseus and Diomedes attack the Thracian camp. kill many men. son of Neleus. or to foretell some bitter warfare. Diomedes volunteers but asks for a second man. Diomedes selects Odysseus to go with him. Just as when Zeus. the gaping jaws of battle—in just that way then the groans reverberated in Agamemnon's chest. before seeing anybody else. Looking back at the Achaean army and the ships. laced up fine sandals over his sleek feet. he and Menelaus set off to summon the chief leaders. to check if he could come up with some good advice. at the meeting Nestor suggests someone spy out the Trojan position.Book Ten A Night Raid [Agamemnon's worries about the state of his army. and take the horses of king Rhesus. when fields are sprinkled white. he tugged many tufts of hair out of his scalp. at the sound of flutes. husband of fair-haired Hera. Sweet slumber did not enfold this shepherd of his people. slipped a tunic on over his chest. Hector calls for a volunteer to spy out the Achaean ships.

then picked a spear up in his powerful fist. as Hector. has brought upon us. picked up his bronze helmet. some shrewd plan to protect or save the Argives.a tawny lion's skin. how one man made so much havoc in a single day. Next he went to rouse his brother. Menelaus found him putting his fine armour on by his ship's stern. For I've never witnessed yet. need advice. Such work would require a courageous heart. those who on his account had crossed wide seas to Troy. His heart prefers Hector's sacrifices more than ours. 30 40 50 205 . Achaea's sons. nor even a god's son. Then he got his spear. Zeus' friend. skilled in war cries. was troubled with anxieties. together with their ships. He's not a god. as he approached. lord Menelaus. He covered his broad back with a spotted leopard skin. No sleep sat on his eyelids either. too. planning to make war. Zeus' mind has changed. Agamemnon welcomed him. He was afraid Argives would be hurt. who worshiped him just like a god.” Mighty Agamemnon answered Menelaus: “You and I. spoke first: “Brother. all by himself. you're arming yourself. Menelaus. set off to spy against a hostile force under the cover of immortal night. large and fiery red. Menelaus. set it on his head. nor heard anyone report. with actions they'll remember for many years to come. extending to his feet. commander of the Argives. Why? Are you going to encourage some companion to scout the Trojans out? I really doubt that anyone will do that for you. But he's damaged Argives in a major way.

his glittering helmet. a heavy burden of responsibility. Call each soldier by his father's name. But make sure you call out each place you pass. once I've told them your instructions?” Agamemnon.” Menelaus. We must work hard. expert at war cries. too— that's what Zeus charged us with when we were born. two spears. We entrusted them. He came across him beside his hut and his black ship. see if he wants to check our watchmen and tell that strong contingent what to do. to rouse him. king of men. answered Menelaus: “Stay there. complimenting all of them. shepherd of his people. Don't make a show of your own proud heart. They'll attend to him ahead of anyone. His fine armour lay there with him—shield. along with Meriones. an officer of Idomeneus. then replied: “How do you want me to carry out your orders? Shall I stay there with them. I'll go for godlike Nestor. on a soft bed. with this special work. or hurry back to you. come.That's how badly Hector's harmed Achaeans. for there are many pathways through the camp. because his son is captain of the sentries. and that shining belt which the old man strapped around him every time he armed himself to lead his troops in battles 60 70 80 90 206 . sending his brother off with detailed orders. wait for you to come. But. Then he set out to find Nestor. in case we somehow miss each other as we go.” Agamemnon spoke. telling troops to stay awake. why don't you run quickly by the ships to summon Ajax and Idomeneus. above all others.

I'm wandering like this because sweet sleep won't sit upon my eyelids. worn out. You should recognize me—Agamemnon. questioning him: “Why are you alone like this. My heart's about to burst outside my chest. since sleep hasn't come to you here either. My spirit isn't resolute. go with me. Hostile troops are camped close by. while others sleep? What are you looking for? A mule? Some comrade? Tell me. Don't approach in silence. so long as breath stays in my chest and movement in my limbs. I'm dreadfully afraid for the Danaans. son of Neleus. great glory of Achaeans. has me worried. he spoke to Agamemnon. more so than other men. Nestor made no concessions to the infirmities of age. If you want some action. Sitting up there. forgetting to maintain a watch. this danger to Achaeans. Instead. son of Atreus. wandering among the ships throughout the camp in the pitch dark night. My fine limbs tremble. the one whom Zeus always loads with miserable fortune. 100 110 120 207 . It wavers. head resting on his arm. We don't know if somehow they may be keen to fight at night. We'll walk down to the sentries and check if they're exhausted and asleep. Agamemnon—Counselor Zeus won't fulfill all the things that Hector has in mind. What do you need?” Agamemnon. replied: “O Nestor. this war.which destroy men's lives. king of men.” Geranian horseman Nestor then said in reply: “Glorious son of Atreus. king of men.

begging them to help us.” With these words. In my opinion. Their ships aren't near here—they're a long way off. And let's get other leaders stirring also— Tydeus' son. I won't hide that. Hector will be struggling with more troubles than you face. famous for his spear. reluctant to carry out the heavy tasks. at other times I'd urge you on to criticize him. Right now he should be active. godlike Ajax and lord Idomeneus. but because he's looking for my signal. For he's still sleeping. He came to see me. waiting for me to make a move. even if I anger you. working on all the finest men. Nestor put a tunic on his chest. We'll find them right before the gates.all his present hopes. Odysseus. Yes. although he's a friend and I respect him. I sent him off to summon those very men you mention. Let's go. none of the Argives will say bad things of him or disobey. where I ordered them to meet the sentries. The need confronting us is urgent. not because he's lazy or soft in the head. But I have some harsh words for Menelaus. leaving you alone to do the work. and Phyleus' brave son. 130 140 150 208 . replied to Nestor: “Old man. when he stirs them on or issues orders.” Agamemnon. I'll come with you. But this time. swift Ajax.” Geranian horseman Nestor then replied: “If that's the case. if Achilles changes his fond heart from its hard anger. he was up and roaming well ahead of me. king of men. for often he holds back. Someone should go summon two more men.

son of Tydeus. one thickly lined with wool. Achaeans are experiencing much suffering. in the immortal night? Is there something urgent?” Geranian horseman Nestor answered Odysseus: “Divinely bred son of Laertes. someone who should be there when we discuss our plans. equal to the gods for wise advice. He came out of his hut. son of Tydeus. Approaching him. Around him he buckled on a purple cloak in a double fold. Their bronze spear points glittered like Father Zeus' lightning. Diomedes slept with the hide of a field ox spread out under him and a bright rug underneath his head. They came across him with his weapons outside his hut. he set off on his way down to the bronze-clad Achaeans' ships. to find noble Diomedes. so we may rouse another man. going around alone like this among the ships.laced lovely sandals over his sleek feet. Why sleep 160 170 180 190 209 . Selecting a strong spear with a sharp bronze point. waking him up. The first person Geranian horseman Nestor roused from sleep was Odysseus. resourceful Odysseus. whether we should flee or battle on. His comrades were asleep around him. Nestor then said teasingly: “Wake up. Geranian horseman Nestor shoved him with his foot. don't be angry. spears driven upright in the ground by the butt spike. Nestor called out to him. Resourceful Odysseus went into his hut. But come now. then slung across his shoulder his finely decorated shield and set off with them.” Nestor finished speaking. then questioned Nestor: “What are you doing here. His voice entered Odysseus' mind at once. their shields under their heads.

But Achaeans here are in their greatest need. so those dogs get no rest. that's how sweet sleep had left those sentries' eyelids. Diomedes threw a lion's skin around his shoulders. when they hear a savage beast. wide awake. the younger ones? Can't each of them go round waking up the kings? You old man. only a short distance off?” Nestor spoke.” Nestor spoke. always turning 200 210 220 210 . I have excellent sons and many soldiers. they did not find the captains of the watchmen sleeping. a huge red pelt which reached his feet. so if you feel compassion for me. near the ships. who's just moved down from wooded hills. What about Achaea's other sons. Then Diomedes grabbed a spear and went away. we can't do anything to check you. everything you say is true enough. You're a younger man. Diomedes woke up quickly.all night long? Aren't you aware that Trojans are encamped here on the edges of the plain. They were all sitting with their weapons. You never stop working. then answered him—his words had wings: “Old man. men and dogs raising a din around it. you're a hard one. Just as dogs maintain a tired watch over their sheep in some farm yard.” Geranian horseman Nestor answered Diomedes: “My friend. When they joined up with the company of sentries. set off and wake up Meges and swift Ajax. For now things stand upon a razor's edge— miserable destruction for Achaeans or their salvation. Any of them could go round with orders. as they kept guard that wretched night. He woke those warriors and brought them back with him.

Meriones went. Old man Nestor was pleased to see them. too. those commanding every ship. or catch wind of some report of what the Trojans say among themselves. now that they have beaten the Achaeans? A man who could find out these things.” Nestor spoke. At banquets and our drinking parties. dear friends. he'll be always there. to keep good watch. to see if he can trap an enemy soldier. expert in war cries. as did Thrasymedes. so we don't bring pleasure to our enemies. no bodies of the slain. The others were quiet. once night hid everything. Argive kings. Then Diomedes. speaking winged words of encouragement. They went through the scooped-out ditch.” 230 With these words. away from home. For our best men. saying nothing. return to us unharmed. is there some man confident enough of his own daring spirit to venture out among stout-hearted Trojans. Compared to that. Don't let sleep seize on any one of you. “That's the way.towards the plain. Then in an open spot they sat down where there seemed to be no corpses. accompanied him. some straggler. whether they are keen to stay beside the ships. as well. “My friends. He called out. those who'd been called to council. It was where fearful Hector turned back from killing Argives. who'd been asked to join the group. they talked to one another. will give him a black sheep with suckling lamb. Sitting down there. there's no possession finer. or to go back to the city. would be famous among all men living under heaven. Nestor's noble son. and get rich gifts. in case they heard the Trojans coming. Nestor hurried through the ditch. 240 Then Geranian horseman Nestor began to speak. spoke up: 250 260 211 .

” 270 280 290 212 . less resourceful. with his heart and daring spirit always eager for every challenge? Pallas Athena loves him. spoke to them again: “If you bid me choose a companion for myself. When two set out. better than other men. But you must choose the other man. Many men wished to volunteer. but his mind is less perceptive. For he knows. attendants of the war god Ares. Agamemnon. king of men. and brave Odysseus was keen to steal into the Trojan army. Many are keen. than two. even from blazing fire. how to use his mind. The two Ajaxes. skilled in war cries. Diomedes. for the spirit in his chest was always daring. which stands close by. Then. We'd have more confidence. afraid for fair-haired Menelaus. my heart and my proud spirit prompt me to infiltrate the hostile Trojans' camp. spoke up: “Diomedes.“Nestor. Meriones. A man alone might notice it.” Agamemnon spoke. was ready. son of Tydeus. following a sense of duty in your mind. Don't reject the better man. thinking only of his birth. Things would go much better. Famous spearman Menelaus. With Odysseus at my side.” Diomedes spoke. we'd both return. And Nestor's son was really eager. were willing. one may see something good before the other. Take the one you want. But another man should come with me. taking someone less worthy as your comrade. son of Atreus. too. even if the second is the greater king. you delight my heart. how could I reject godlike Odysseus. the best of those in view. Don't do that.

Amphidamas then gave the cap to Molus. set off. as a present for his hospitality. without crest or plume. having put their fearful armour on. Outside. Ormenus' son. Autocylus. but they heard its cry. two thirds of it. well known for his clever. wild boars' white teeth were placed here and there. He'd broken in his well-built home in Eleon. This cap had once been stolen by Autolycus. or censure me. what people call a skull-cap. and a sword. leaving behind there all the most important chiefs. Meriones gave Odysseus bow. On their right. is Odysseus’ grandfather. with one third left. don't over-praise me. Molus later gave it to his son Meriones. Dawn approaches.” This said. Warlike Thrasymedes gave a two-edged sword to the son of Tydeus. It protected heads of brave young men. Autolycus gave it to Amphidamas of Cythera. strategically and well. who know everything about me. thieving ways. to take back home to Scandeia. Let's go. the original one who stole the cap. In between these layers was a piece of felt. for he'd left his own beside the ships. The stars have shifted forward. Some time later. And now it sat there. that long-suffering. On his head Odysseus set a hide cap. Most of the night has passed.Odysseus. and a shield as well. replied: “Son of Tydeus. Night is passing quickly. 1 300 310 320 213 . on the inside skillfully reinforced with leather thongs.1 The two men. quiver. You're speaking to the Argives. the two men pulled on fearful armour. from Amyntor. Pallas Athena sent them a heron. On his head he put a helmet made of leather. close to the path. covering Odysseus' head. In the darkness of the night they didn't see it with their eyes. godlike man.

For his part. He prayed then to Athena: “Child of aegis-bearing Zeus. through black pools of blood. with keen support from you. He called their finest men together. But now especially be my friend. sent there by Achaeans. that time he went as messenger. after doing something great.” Then noble Diomedes. hear me. in the darkness of night. through the slaughter. I don't move without your watching me. Grant that we two come back to the ships covered in glory. Athena. hear me. something the Trojans will regret. On his way back. they continued on their way. like two lions. Their prayers to the daughter of great Zeus complete. Stand by me as you did my father. he did some fearful things. You've always stood beside me in all sorts of troubles. untiring goddess. invincible goddess.” So they prayed. at Thebes. I'll make that sacrifice to you. lord Tydeus. through corpses.Odysseus was pleased with this omen of the bird. armour. and more— on that beast I'll plate both horns with gold. He'd left bronze-clad Achaeans at the Asopus. with all their rulers. 330 340 350 214 . and I'll sacrifice to you an unbroken yearling ox with a broad head which no man yet has put beneath the yoke. prayed: “Child of Zeus. divine goddess. and Pallas Athena heard them. all the ones who commanded Trojans troops. protect me. Be willing now to stand by me like that. Hector did not let his proud Trojans go to sleep. taking peace proposals to Cadmeans. skilled in war cries.

by approaching close to those swift ships. swear to me that you'll give me those horses and that chariot decorated all in bronze which carry the fine son of Peleus. or whether those men. Hector swore: “Let Zeus himself. but he ran fast. to find out whether they're being guarded. I'll go straight through the army. as before. to any man who dares. Now.” Hector finished. a sacred herald. 360 370 380 390 215 . who's fit to seize the glory for himself.To those assembled. with five sisters. raise your sceptre. and no longer wish to keep alert at night. beaten at our hands. He was the only male child. a man rich in gold and bronze. I'll give a chariot and two strong-necked horses. who'll do it for a worthy gift? I guarantee he'll get a fine reward. Hera's loud-thundering husband. I'll not be a useless scout or disappoint you. the finest ones there are by those fast ships of the Achaeans.” Dolon spoke. son of Eumedes. till I reach Agamemnon's ship. Holding up his sceptre. Come. where their best men must be in council talking of their plans. whether to flee or to continue fighting. plan among themselves to flee. Dolon wasn't much to look at. among the Trojans was a man called Dolon. exhausted by their desperate efforts. They all sat there in silence. saying nothing. he laid out a shrewd idea: “Is there someone who'll undertake for me an exploit. At that point he spoke up to Hector and the Trojans: “Hector. my heart and my proud spirit prompt me to volunteer to sneak up to those fast ships and find out what I can.

the two men lay down beside the road. Keep brandishing your spear behind him. But when they came within the distance of a spear throw or even less.” Hector spoke. someone's coming from the camp. When he'd gone about as far as mules plough in a single day—and in deep fields they outwork oxen pulling double-jointed ploughs— the two men ran after him. he went eagerly along the path. but Dolon was encouraged. bringing Hector information from the ships. among the corpses. then threw a gray wolf skin on it. I don't know if he's going to scout our ships or strip some dead man's corpse. just a bit. and set off. On his head he set a cap of marten skin.” After these words. skilled hunting hounds with sharp fangs. He would not be coming back. At once. Hector having changed the orders. If his feet outrun ours. I affirm that you will glory in them all your life. he saw that they were enemies and started running. But when he left the crowd of men and horses. so he doesn't make it to the city. harass some doe 400 410 420 216 . When he heard their noise. He'd sworn an empty oath. Let's let him at first get past us on the plain. They set off chasing him with speed. he slung across his shoulder his curved bow. grabbed a sharp spear. Dolon ran past them quickly. noble Odysseus saw him and said to Diomedes: “Diomedes.be my witness. going from the camp towards the ships. to get away as quickly as his legs could carry him. quite unaware. Then we can go after him and catch him fast. Dolon stopped. that no other Trojan will be carried by those horses. Just as when two dogs. As he moved. we'll keep following him and chase him from his camp towards our ships. hoping in his heart they were comrades coming from the Trojans to get him to turn back.

” Diomedes shouted this. The two men ran up.or hare relentlessly across a wooded country. gold. powerful Diomedes yelled: “Stop! Or I'll hit you with my spear. destroyer of cities. at that point Athena put fighting power into Tydeus' son. Springing forward with his spear. when other warriors are fast asleep? Are you going to strip some dead man's body. the prey screaming as it runs. pale with fear— his teeth were chattering in his mouth. to learn something about the hollow ships? 430 440 450 460 217 . so no bronze-clad Achaean could make the boast that he'd hit Dolon first and that Diomedes had come up later. The polished spear point sailed over his right shoulder. stammering. deliberately missing Dolon. My father will give lots of it to you— an immense ransom—if he once finds out I'm at Achaean ships and still alive. well-wrought iron. or has Hector sent you as a spy. Don't let death weigh down your heart.” Crafty Odysseus smiled at him and said: “Don't worry. Dolon just stood there terrified. Dolon began to cry and beg: “Take me alive. tell me—and be sure to speak the truth. Why are you going like this to the ships alone. then threw the spear. I don't think you'll long escape complete destruction at my hands. that's how Tydeus' son and Odysseus. At home there is bronze. away from your army in the dead of night. and grabbed his hands. Come now. keeping Dolon from his people with their constant chase. then stuck in the ground. pursued him. panting. When Dolon was about to run into the sentries in his flight towards the ships. and I'll ransom myself.

now. or whether they'll return to the city. and be sure to speak the truth. they were planning flight among themselves. get close to hostile troops. Those horses of warrior Achilles. and his chariot with its bronze decoration. then continued: “Your heart has been ambitious for big gifts. answered Odysseus: “I'll answer you in this quite truthfully. where did you leave Hector. He told me to venture out into the swift dark night. Right now Hector is with his advisors.” Shrewd Odysseus. When you came here. still smiling. and then find out if they were guarding their swift ships as before. whether they're keen to stay beside the ships. son of Eumedes. He promised he'd give me the sure-footed horses of Achilles. are hard to manage or control for any mortal person. descendant of Aeacus. or whether. Tell me. son of an immortal mother. his limbs trembling. holding a council meeting by the tomb 470 480 490 218 . except Achilles.Or did your own spirit prompt you to this?” Dolon answered Odysseus. unwilling to keep up watch at night. quite far from home. exhausted by their desperate efforts. “Hector led my mind astray with foolish hopes. with Achaeans beaten. shepherd to his people? Where's his armour? Where are his horses? How are the sentries of the other Trojans set? Where are they sleeping? Tell me what they talk of amongst themselves.” Dolon. lots of them. Peleus' excellent son. now we have defeated them.

Around Thymbre are positioned Lycians. impetuous fighters. to keep up their guard. answered Odysseus: “I can reveal the truth of this as well. Ilus was a king of Troy in the distant past. those allies—are they intermingled with horse-taming Trojans where they sleep or separate from them? Tell me. I need to know. or keep lookout. with their curved bows.1 As for the guards you asked about. Caucones. god-like Pelasgians. there are men who stay awake. Mysians. He came here with his armour— an amazing sight—huge and made of gold. among them their king Rhesus. as necessity requires.” Dolon.” Crafty Odysseus. over there are Thracians. is sleeping. But the allied force. 1 500 510 520 219 . with a smile. By the sea lie Carians. son of Eioneus. Lelegians. whiter than snow. calling to each other. noble sir. fresh troops. frequently mentioned in the poem. the finest and largest ones I've ever seen. But why ask me details of these matters? If you're keen to infiltrate the Trojan army. as fast as the winds. and Phrygians. who fight on horseback.of godlike Ilus. some distance from the noise. there's nothing special to protect the troops. son of Eumedes. His chariot is finely built—with gold and silver. new arrivals. His tomb is a prominent landmark outside Troy. They leave it toTrojans to stay on watch. and from Maeonia there are charioteers. By all Trojan watch fires. His horses are the best. furthest distant from the rest. Paeonians. then asked Dolon: “Now. which comes from many lands. for their wives and children aren't close by.

you'll pose no problems for the Argives later.It's not appropriate for mortal men to wear such armour. either to spy or fight us openly. Dolon. so you can go and check my story out. But take me now to your fast ships. You've fallen in our hands. these are for you.” Mighty Diomedes scowled at Dolon and said: “Don't fill your heart with thoughts you'll get away. you'd come back to the swift Achaean ships. see whether I have told the truth or not.” So Odysseus prayed. goddess of battle spoils. leave me here in painful fetters. and prayed: “Goddess.” As Diomedes finished. when they returned. only deathless gods. grabbing up reeds and branches of tamarisk in full bloom. to bring you joy. or else tie me up. Dolon's head rolled in the dust. so they wouldn't miss finding the spoils in the dark night. Now. then took the wolf hide. placed it on a tamarisk bush. and his curved bow. He lifted the loot up high. if we released you or set you free for ransom. The two proceeded on through weapons and black blood. even though your news is good. as he was speaking. long spear. They stripped the cap of marten skin. But with his sword Diomedes jumped at him. Dolon was intending to cup his chin with his strong hand in supplication. then set there a clear marker. Lord Odysseus held these objects high above him for Athena. Send us on again to where Thracians sleep and to those horses. We invoke you first of all immortal gods living on Olympus. But if my hands subdue you and you die. slicing through both tendons. slashed him across the middle of his neck. 530 540 550 560 220 .

Rhesus lay there. So loose those horses. a device sent by Athena—and that dream was the son of Tydeus. A bad dream had stood beside his head that night. Beside each man stood his yoked horses. Just as a lion comes across an unguarded flock of sheep or goats and leaps on them. Or else kill the men. For his mind was planning how he might steal the fine-maned horses easily. Meanwhile. he began the killing. Come. Odysseus saw him first. Moving around everywhere. let's see that mighty strength of yours. worn out by their hard work. tethered with their straps to the chariot's top rail.They quickly reached the camp of Thracian soldiers. Agonizing groans came from those his sword then butchered. while I take care of them. crafty Odysseus. would grab his feet and drag the body clear. the man we killed. until he'd slaughtered twelve. 570 580 590 221 . He pointed him out to Diomedes. heart thirsting for the kill.” Odysseus spoke. In the middle Rhesus slept. in his last gasp. Tydeus' son came across the king. The earth grew soggy with their blood. the thirteenth man whose sweet life he had taken. so Tydeus' son went at those Thracian soldiers. Athena with her glittering eyes breathed fighting power into Diomedes. close by him his swift horses. and drove them from the camp. Whenever Diomedes stood over some man he'd just killed with his sword. Diomedes. “There's our man. from behind. It's not right for you to stand there idly with your weapons. properly arranged in triple rows. if he didn't frighten them by forcing them to step on dead men's bodies. prodding with his bow. roped them together. And these are the horses which Dolon told us of. bold Odysseus untied the sure-footed horses. Their lovely armour lay on the ground beside them. now. The men were sleeping. for they were not used to that.

Should he take away the chariot. Odysseus smacked them with his bow. He recognized the goddess by her voice. in a rush to reach the swift Achaean ships. They raced ahead. totally confused. he went down into that huge crowd of Trojans and woke up Hippocoön. to the hollow ships. pulled their swift horses up. then said to noble Diomedes: “Think of going back. Angry with her. son of great-hearted Tydeus. 222 600 610 620 630 . Athena came. in case you get driven there in quick retreat. He screamed in grief. stood by him.” She spoke. pull it by the pole. He quickly climbed up on one of the horses. Trojans created a commotion. wondering how he could do something really bold. once he'd perceived Athena taking care of Tydeus' son. dear to Zeus. which contained the king's finely decorated armour. or lift it up above his head and carry it like that? Or should he take the lives of still more Thracians? While Diomedes turned over these matters in his mind.for he'd forgotten to pick up the shining whip from the ornate chariot. But he just stayed there. to gaze astonished at the terrible destruction those two men did before returning to the hollow ships. Then he gave a whistle. crying out for his companion. one of noble Rhesus' family. Roused from sleep. calling him by name. a Thracian counselor. he saw that where the horses stood was empty. When the pair came to where they'd slaughtered Hector's spy. the fearful carnage with men gasping in their death throes. Odysseus. as they rushed in all at once. to signal noble Diomedes. But Apollo of the silver bow had not been unvigilant. The son of Tydeus jumped down onto the ground. if some other god wakes up the Trojans.

But I fear. He spoke up: “Friends. I'm always going in among the Trojans. tell me how you two obtained these horses. that Achaea's best are in trouble from pursing Trojan forces.” Before Nestor could finish. never imagined horses like these. Geranian horseman Nestor was the first with questions: “Renowned Odysseus. and I claim I don't malinger by the ships. son of Neleus. Odysseus and mighty Diomedes are driving sure-footed horses back from Trojans.” Odysseus grinned at Nestor and answered him: “O Nestor. But I've never seen.handed over to Odysseus their bloodstained spoils. They dismounted and were welcomed joyfully. I think some god met you and gave them to you. For cloud-gathering Zeus loves both of you. Men shook their hands. he'd easily give even better horses. But will I say something true or false? A sound beats in my ear. Argive leaders and counselors— my spirit prompts me to speak. They whipped the horses on. daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus. great glory of Achaeans. as does bright-eyed Athena. Perhaps. with warm congratulations. great glory of Achaeans. in my anxious heart. as we speak. racing willingly towards the hollow ships with eager hearts. 640 650 660 223 . Did you sneak into that crowd of Trojans? Or did you meet some god who gave them to you? They're astounding. if a god wanted to. then got back on his horse. the two men arrived. fast-moving horses’ hooves. although I'm an old man for a warrior. like rays of the sun. Nestor was the first to hear them.

they tethered the horses with cut straps in the stall where Diomedes' own swift horses stood.”1 Odysseus finished. 1 224 . to scout around our camp. But these horses which you ask about. From the brimming wine bowl they drew off sweet wine and poured libations to Athena. 670 680 The number in Odysseus’ report doesn’t quite tally with earlier details. until they'd made an offering to Athena. Brave Diomedes killed their master. are from Thrace. removing all the sweat. they stepped in shining tubs and bathed. which list the number of dead as fourteen. Odysseus put the bloodstained loot from Dolon into his ship's stern. Then the two men waded into the sea. munching their sweet grain. driving the sure-footed horses past the ditch. Other Achaeans came after him. old man. then sat down to eat. along with all twelve of his companions. Once the surf had taken layers of sweat from off their skin and their hearts had been refreshed. When they reached Diomedes' well-constructed hut. sent there by Hector and the other haughty Trojans. They washed. rejoicing. There was a thirteenth killed. a spy we captured near the ships. Then he laughed with triumph. their finest men. rubbing lots of smooth oil on themselves. new arrivals. washed off their legs and necks and thighs.for gods are much more powerful than us.

Patroclus visits Nestor and Machaon. gives him medicines] As Dawn rose from her bed beside lord Tithonus. a dreadful sound. from the huts of Ajax. whose well-balanced ships were drawn up at the ends. Diomedes is wounded by Paris. Diomedes and Odysseus make a stand against the Trojans. Odysseus is wounded. going home in their hollow ships to their dear native land. Nestor questions Patroclus about Achilles.Book Eleven The Achaeans Face Disaster [The description of Agamemnon's armour as he prepares for battle. Patroclus meets Eurypylus. First on his legs he set his shin guards—beautifully made. so she could be heard in both directions. Machaon is wounded. to those of Achilles. 225 10 20 . Eurypylus is wounded. He pulled on his shining bronze. carrying the sign of war. She stood by Odysseus' broad-beamed black ship in the middle of the line. Zeus sent Strife down to the fast Achaean ships. she put strength for war. Standing there. taken from the battle by Nestor. for these men trusted courage and their own strong hands. Menelaus and Ajax come to help Odysseus. for unremitting combat. Agamemnon's exploits on the battlefield. fitted with silver ankle clasps. Zeus sends Hector a message. Hector reenters the battle. has to withdraw from the battle. kills many Achaeans. To men war then became sweeter than sailing back. Odysseus is left alone. takes him to his hut. son of Telamon. something he'd received as a gift of hospitality from Cinyras. The son of Atreus shouted to his Argives to get their armour on. the battle resumes. the Trojans are pushed back close to the city. Agamemnon is wounded. Then he put a breast plate round his chest. the goddess screamed out a piercing call. Ajax is forced to retreat. In the heart of each Achaean. the savage goddess. Hector moves against Ajax. Nestor's long speech about his youthful fighting. Achilles sends Patroclus to find out news of the battle. bringing light to immortal gods and men alike.

whose glitter shone from him right up to heaven. On the opposite side. three enameled snakes coiled to the neck. and horsehair plume. its three heads intertwined. while they marched ahead on foot in all their armour. king of Mycenae. stood the Gorgon. On his head Agamemnon placed his helmet. moving fast. Then Cronos' son brought them confusing signs of trouble. They arranged their ranks on the far side of the ditch. like rainbows which the son of Cronos sets in clouds. and twenty made of tin. Agamemnon. twelve of gold. Then each man told his charioteer to curb his horses and line up in good formation at the ditch's edge. 30 40 50 226 . which nodded menacingly on top. On each side. for his intention was to hurl the heads of many brave men down to Hades. shouting bravely in the early dawn. fitted with golden straps. prophetic omens for mortal men. Terror and Panic were placed on either side. rich in gold. a ferocious face with a horrific stare. all growing from one neck. he slung his sword studded with shining gold. sending down from high in heaven a rain of blood dripping from the sky. So to please the king. On it were ten metal strips. On that shield. The scabbard was silver.who'd learned in Cyprus the great news that Achaeans were intending to set sail in their ships for Troy. with ten bronze circles. and in the centre a boss of blue enamel. well beyond the chariots following at some distance. He took two strong spears. Then he picked up his richly decorated shield. each dark blue. by the high ground on the plain. On the shield's silver strap writhed an enamel snake. paying tribute to him. a beautiful work. On his shoulder. sharp ones with bronze points. with four bosses. Athena and Hera gave peals of thunder overhead. Cinyras gave the breastplate to Agamemnon. a double ridge. as crowning symbol. which covered his whole body. twenty bosses of white tin.

because he planned to give glory to the Trojans. who seemed like one of the immortals. Looking on. Strife. in their own homes on many-ridged Olympus. when his arms are tired cutting big trees. he sat apart. weapons thrown by both sides took their grim toll—men kept on falling. Throughout the early morning. slicing men down. The sides were matched in fury equally—they fought like wolves ripping at each other. where a fine house had been built for each of them. issuing orders. The others were far off. wheat or barley. whom Trojan people honoured like a god. Withdrawing some distance from them. In the front ranks. an even perfect circle. glorious. and then disappears again into the cloud cover. at warriors killing. As some ominous star now suddenly appears. that's how Hector looked. goddess who brings much sorrow. he flashed like lightning from Father Zeus. as he showed up in front. All blamed the son of Cronos. All in shining bronze. at the flashing bronze. godlike man.Trojans gathered round Hector. at the Achaean ships. and three sons of Antenor—Polybus. just as reapers work in some rich man's fields. exultant. But at the hour a woodcutter prepares his meal in some mountain glade. when weariness comes in his heart 60 70 80 90 227 . who holds the aegis. Hector carried his shield. But Father Zeus was not concerned on their account. that's how Trojans and Achaeans went at each other. lord of the dark cloud. Aeneas. cutting the crop. as that sacred day grew stronger. then in the rear. fine Polydamas. scything handfuls thick and fast. sitting at their ease. She was the only god present at this battle. was delighted. and at warriors being killed. No one thought of lethal flight. shining through the clouds. arranged in rows facing each other. Then. He looked out at Troy. Agenor. and youthful Acamas.

cannot help them. that's when Danaans. He knew them. But this time. stripped off their tunics and left them there. throwing him out of the chariot. calling to each other in the ranks. courageously broke through. He'd charged straight at him. He quickly stripped off their fine armour. who'd jumped down from the chariot to challenge Agamemnon. for he'd noticed them before by the fast ships. 130 bolting in a lather through dense foliage and trees.and sweet appetite for food overtakes his mind. when swift-footed Achilles led them in from Ida. which smashed through it. wide-ruling Agamemnon. too. The rimmed helmet made of heavy bronze didn't stop the spear. for they were running off in flight from Argives. These two men Achilles had once tied up with willow shoots. Agamemnon. for a fearful trembling panic seizes her. the charioteer. from that mighty beast's attack—in just that way. Isus. king of men. and his sword sliced Antiphus right by his ear. and splattered his brain inside the entire helmet. The bastard. and renowned Antiphus stood beside him as the fighting man. through the bone. but his forehead took a blow from a sharp spear. no Trojan then could save these two from slaughter. two of Priam's sons— 110 one was a bastard. shepherd of his people. 228 . when he'd captured them while they were herding sheep along Mount Ida's lower slopes. with his spear struck Isus in the chest. Just as a lion chews up with ease the tender offspring of some nimble deer. He slaughtered Bienor. son of Atreus. The first to kill a man was Agamemnon. their white skin showing. so she runs fast. the other one legitimate— both traveling in a single chariot. held the reins. 100 Oïleus. He'd let them go for ransom. That stopped his bloodthirsty charge. when he comes in their den— his strong teeth seize them and rip out their tender life— and the mother. and his companion. 120 above the nipple. even close by. Then he moved on to butcher Isus and Antiphus.

now you'll pay the price for those shameful actions of your father. “If you're the two sons of Antimachus. This man had two sons. if he learns we're at Achaean ships alive. son of Atreus. The son of Atreus jumped out and faced them like a lion. addressing the king with tender words. both riding in one chariot. to stop him going back to the Achaeans. sons of fiery-hearted Antimachus. when Menelaus came as envoy once to the assembled Trojans with godlike Odysseus. like some round stone. Then he struck Peisander. so he'd agree not to hand back Helen to fair-haired Menelaus. he charged into the line where soldiers' ranks were most confused.” The men said this in tears. urged the Trojans to kill Menelaus. that hot-hearted man who. panicking the horses.Next. Agamemnon battled brave Hippolochus and Peisander. There are many treasures in Antimachus' homes—bronze and gold and well-worked iron. But Agamemnon killed him on the ground. The shining reins had fallen from the driver's hands. But the reply they heard was harsh.” Agamemnon spoke. Hipplochus jumped out. 140 150 160 229 . Our father will be glad to give a massive ransom from all that. You'll get a worthy ransom. Leaving the bodies there. a man who'd received much gold from Alexander. a splendid gift. His sword sliced away his arms and slashed his head off. Then he set the head rolling through the crowd. From the chariot the two warriors appealed to Agamemnon: “Take us alive. attempting to control their horses. Mighty Agamemnon now caught them. He crashed on the ground and lay there motionless. He knocked him from the chariot to the earth with a spear thrust to his chest.

as they fled back.leading other well-armed Achaeans with him. But they were still in flight across the middle of the plain. swallowed up in the inferno's fiery rush. far more friendly to the vultures than their wives. missing their drivers. Many strong-necked horses in the battle lanes rattled past with empty chariots. dust. son of Atreus. harassed Trojans. or on their backs. at the hands of Atreus' son. brought down by Agamemnon. driven in all directions by the swirling wind. But with his invincible blood-spattered hands. breaks it. Chariots went at chariots. burning thickets to their roots. but Agamemnon. past the tomb of ancient Ilus. Men butchered men with bronze. son of Dardanus. then gorges on the blood and all the innards— that's how mighty Agamemnon. so they disappear. son of Atreus. even past the fig tree. like cows scattered by a lion coming at them in the dead of night—a general stampede. that's how the heads of Trojans fell. slaughter. shouting out instructions to the Argives. Mighty Agamemnon surged on ahead. to wait for their remaining men. Their infantry cut down soldiers compelled to flee. blood. but clearly grim destruction for one of them. always killing as he moved. as with his spear he raged up and down the field. bellowing orders to his Danaans. When Trojans reached the Scaean Gates and oak tree. Trojans rushed back across the middle of the plain. On the plain. Many men collapsed face down. as they ran off. 170 180 190 200 230 . dust clouds arose from underneath. Zeus pulled Hector back from the flying weapons. they stopped there. excellent charioteers now lying on the ground. always killing off the stragglers. and noise. desperate to reach the city. Agamemnon kept up his pursuit relentlessly. Just as destructive fire strikes thick woodland scrub. kicked up by thundering horses' hooves. whose neck the lion first seizes in strong teeth. still pursued.

that shepherd of his people.” After saying this. tell other troops to fight the enemy in the killing zone. Tell other troops to fight the enemy in the killing zone. going down from Ida to sacred Ilion. then Zeus will give you power to kill and kill. But when Agamemnon. son of Priam. at sunset. holding a thunderbolt. rampaging at the front. swift-footed Iris sped away. sat on the peaks of Ida. mounts his chariot. He sent off gold-winged Iris with a message: “Go. swift Iris. 210 220 230 240 231 . and tell Hector this— as long as he sees Agamemnon. hit by a spear or wounded with an arrow. She found Hector. with its many springs.” Zeus finished. wise Priam's noble son. standing with his horses. until he moves up to the well-decked ships. you must restrain yourself. that shepherd of his people. he must restrain himself. like the gods for your wise counsel. at sunset. mowing down rows of men. until you move up to the well-decked ships. hit by a spear or wounded with an arrow.But just as Agamemnon was about to reach the steep walls of the city. Coming close beside him. Wind-swift Iris obeyed. mounts his chariot. when sacred darkness comes. the father of gods and men came down from heaven. then I'll give Hector power to kill and kill. swift-footed Iris spoke: “Hector. mowing down rows of men. in his well-made chariot. But when Agamemnon. Father Zeus has sent me to give you these instructions— for as long as you see Agamemnon. when sacred darkness comes. rampaging at the front.

Brandishing his sharp spear. his sword slashing through his neck—his limbs collapsed. Then he hit him. then come on foot to Ilion. just below the breast plate. who was the first to come against Agamemnon— one of the Trojans or one of their famous allies? It was Iphidamas. like lead. raised him in his house when he was very young. though for bride price 250 260 270 232 . Opposing them. But Iphidamas struck Agamemnon in his belt. Cisseus tried to keep him there. His mother was lovely Theano. thrusting with all his force. Agamemnon was among them.With his weapons Hector jumped out of his chariot down to the ground. encouraging their spirits for the dreadful fight. When the two were close. which nurtures flocks. and Iphidamas fell there into a bronze sleep. unhappy man. raised in the fertile land of Thrace. eager to fight well out in front of everyone. then bent aside. But he'd left his bridal chamber to chase after fame against Achaeans. which followed him. Now he moved out to face Atreus' son Agamemnon. far from the wife he'd married. first to charge ahead. Agamemnon threw and missed—his spear turned aside. Tell me now. urging men to battle on. you Muses inhabiting Olympus. He'd left these well-balanced ships at Percote. right out of Iphidamas' hands. the Argives reinforced their ranks. a fine large man. within each other's range. his mother's father. But he didn't penetrate the gleaming belt. to help his fellow citizens. he moved all through the army. Wide-ruling Agamemnon grabbed the spear in his fists and yanked it towards him with the fury of a lion. Cisseus. Once Iphidamas had reached the age when younger men seek glory. for the spear hit the silver first. marrying him to his own daughter. The troops rallied and stood up against Achaeans. far from that lady from whom he'd had no favours. pulling it away. taking with him twelve beaked ships. trusting his strong hands. son of Antenor.

to one side. taken from the immense numbers in his flocks. His heart was heavy. Iphidamas. He moved out of lord Agamemnon's line of sight. crying for help to all the finest men. But then Agamemnon. Agamemnon stood over him. son of Atreus. that's how sharp pain sapped Agamemnon's fighting strength. Hera's daughters. shuddered. who control keen pangs of childbirth. stripped him. But once that wound began to dry and blood stopped flowing. While the warm blood was still flowing from his wound. 280 290 but didn't stop the fight or pull back from battle. so it fell on Iphidamas. Agamemnon strode around the other ranks. 300 310 He climbed into his chariot and told his driver to go back to the hollow ships. Antenor's sons came to their fatal end at king Agamemnon's hands and went down to Hades. Coön's limbs gave way. just below the elbow. Agamemnon. king of men. killed him. as he was pulling Iphidamas out from the crowd. First. Coön was feverishly dragging his blood brother. Just as a sharp spasm seizes women giving birth. When Coön noticed this.he'd offered much. his eyes darkened with grief for his fallen brother. and went off through the Achaean throng. a piercing labour pain sent by the Eilithyiae. then sharp pain started to curb Agamemnon's fighting spirit. he'd given a hundred cattle and promised a thousand goats and sheep combined. He charged at Coön. with spear and sword and massive boulders. Antenor's eldest son. carrying his armour. Coön's shining spear point sliced straight through. holding up his battered spear. then hacked off his head. an eminent man. Agamemnon struck him with his bronze-tipped spear shaft below his embossed shield. 233 . then struck his forearm with his spear. out by the feet. Thus.

330 340 234 . Drive your sure-footed horses straight at those strong Danaans. he gave a loud shout to the Lycians and Trojans: “Trojans. In every man he stirred up the spirit of war. Opites. like that man-destroyer Ares. gives me glory. Aesymnus. son of Priam. call on your fighting strength. who were the last men slaughtered by Hector. then Opheltius. and Hipponous. When Hector saw Agamemnon going back. fully confident. then Autonous. Dardan spearmen. be men. my friends. His charioteer lashed the horses with the lovely manes toward the hollow ships. Lycians. urged his great-hearted Trojans on against Achaeans. chests flecked with foam. it's up to you now to guard our seagoing ships in this dangerous war. falling on the enemy like a furious storm swooping down to lash the purple ocean. son of Priam. so you can seize an even greater glory. that's how Hector. calling his Danaans: “Friends. son of Clytius. Their best man is leaving. as they took the exhausted king away and left the battle. to chase a lion or wild boar. The horses flew on willingly. and Dolops. For Counselor Zeus won't let me fight these Trojans all day long. son of Cronos.He gave a piercing shout. once Zeus gave him glory? First was Asaeus. Orus. Zeus. He himself moved with those in front. their underbellies caked with dust. rulers of Argives.” Agamemnon spoke. Agelaus. Just as a hunter urges on his white-fanged hounds. leaders. Who were the first. 320 Hector spoke.

” Diomedes spoke. 360 370 The two warriors then seized a chariot with two men. So Achaeans got welcome relief in their flight from godlike Hector.” Powerful Diomedes then answered Odysseus: “I'll stay and stand up to their attack. Odysseus struck Molion. that's how Diomedes and Odysseus turned back again to slaughter Trojans. if Hector of the gleaming helmet takes the ships. But we won't enjoy this fight for very long. disaster would have struck. 350 At that very moment. what's the matter with us? Have we no memory of our warlike courage? Come here. if Odysseus had not called out to Diomedes: “Son of Tydeus. while many waves roll on. massive and swollen.a strong fighter. he hit Thymbraeus in his left nipple. striking them with heavy squalls. when it demolishes white South Wind's clouds. They left the two men there. a man skilled. Like West Wind. godlike attendant to lord Thymbraeus. for their fighting days were done. Hector killed these Danaan leaders. 235 . since cloud-gatherer Zeus would sooner give the victory to Trojans rather than to us. stand by me. their people's finest. tossing him from his chariot to the ground. creating havoc. and charged to battle. scattering spray high in the air. friend. inflicting on Achaeans irreparable damage— they’d have been routed and fallen on their ships. Then he went after common soldiers. under the howling of the veering wind storm— that's how thick and fast Hector destroyed those men. With his spear. two sons of Merops from Percote. Just as two furious wild boars fall on the dogs chasing after them. We'll be disgraced.

son of Paeon. Brave Diomedes. taking ranks of Trojans with him. Black night hid his eyes. Hector kept a sharp watch on those men. Let's make a stand. close at hand for his escape. But they did not obey. But as the son of Tydeus rushed in to retrieve his spear from where it hit the earth among the front-line fighters.above all others. drove back into the crowd. catching his helmet at the very top. son of Tydeus. Gazing down from Ida. in prophecy. For Fates lured them on to the darkness of their deaths. He fell on his knee and stayed there. Hector revived. skilled at war cries. He shuddered and said to Odysseus. Tydeus' son wounded brave Agastrophus. a fatal blunder. That famous spearman Diomedes. Jumping back. until lord Diomedes robbed him of his life.” Diomedes spoke. and beat him back. With his spear. He leapt into his chariot once more. stole their living spirit and stripped their lovely armour. while he went on foot through those fighting at the front. who was close by: “Mighty Hector's lethal wave engulfs us. Bronze deflected bronze—the spear missed his splendid skin. He drew back his long-shadowed spear. prevented by the triple layers on the helmet. he went after them. holding himself up with his strong hand on the ground. on the head. There were no horses ready. With a shout. powerful Diomedes yelled: 380 390 400 236 . His attendant was holding them some distance off. on the hip. stay here. Brandishing his spear. noticed this. He wouldn't let his sons go off to war's destruction. Hector quickly rejoined the massed ranks of his troops. so on both sides men killed each other. then hurled it unerringly. The spear hit Hector. Odysseus then killed Hippodamus and Hypeirochus. which he'd been given by Apollo. the son of Cronos made the fight an equal combat. eluding his black fate.

“You dog—once more you're evading death for now.

But you've narrowly escaped disaster. Phoebus Apollo has saved you once again. No doubt you always pray to him, every time you go into the sound of thudding spears. Next time we meet, I'll surely finish you if some god is there to help me out, as well. But now I'll attack the rest, any man I chance to meet.”

Diomedes spoke. Then he stripped the armour off the son of Paeon, a famous spearman. But fair-haired Helen's husband, Alexander, now aimed his bow at Diomedes, his people's shepherd, leaning against a gravestone, part of the funeral mound men had built for Ilus, son of Dardanus, an elder of the people long ago. Diomedes was stripping the gleaming breast plate off the chest of strong Agastrophus, taking, too, the shield from off his shoulders and his heavy helmet. Alexander drew back on the centre of the bow. He shot. The arrow did not leave his hand and miss. It hit Diomedes' foot, the right one, on the top— it passed through and drove into the ground. Laughing aloud, Paris jumped from his cover, shouting out this boast: “You're hit. My arrow wasn't wasted. I wish I'd got you low down in the gut, taken your life. That way, there'd be some relief for Trojans from the misery you bring. Right now they shake with fear in front of you, like bleating goats confronted by a lion.” Without a sign of fear, strong Diomedes then replied: “You useless archer, brave only with your bow, seducer, if you stepped out to face me with real weapons, that bow and clutch of arrows




would be no use to you. So now you've grazed me on my foot, and you boast like this. It's nothing— like some blow from a woman or witless child. A weapon from a coward has no bite at all. But from me, it's different, even a slight hit. My spear is sharp. The man it hits, it kills. His wife tears at her cheeks, his children then are orphans. Earth is blood-soaked where he rots, with vultures instead of women round him.” Diomedes spoke. Famous spearman Odysseus came up and made a stand before him. He sat down behind Odysseus and pulled the arrow from his foot. Sharp pain shot through his flesh. Then he got in his chariot, took the reins, and with a heavy heart went to the hollow ships. Now famous spearman Odysseus was left alone, no Achaean there beside him, for fear gripped them all. Greatly troubled, he spoke to his proud heart: “Here's trouble. What's going to happen to me? If I run away from this crowd in fear, I'll be badly shamed. But to be trapped here, all alone, that could be worse. For Cronos' son has made the rest of the Danaans flee. But why's my fond heart arguing all this? I know that those who leave the war are cowards. The man who wants to fight courageously must stand his ground with force, whether he's hit, or whether his blows strike the other man.” While in his mind and heart he turned this over, ranks of shield-bearing Trojans advanced against him, encircling him. But this only brought them trouble. As when young men and hunting dogs harass a boar, the beast charges from dense foliage on every side, whetting white teeth on its curving jaws, and they dodge all round it, to the sound of champing tusks, hunters and dogs standing firm, for all their fear—





that's how Trojans then kept going at Odysseus, whom Zeus loved. First he wounded fine Deïopites above his shoulder, lunging at him with his sharp spear. Then he killed Thoön, Ennomus, and Chersidamas, whom Odysseus speared as he jumped from his chariot. He hit him in the groin below his shield. As he fell, he clawed handfuls of dust. Odysseus left these men, then with his spear struck Charops, son of Hippasus, blood brother of rich Socus. That god-like man came up, stood close to him, and cried:


“Renowned Odysseus, your store of tricks, of suffering, is infinite. Today you'll boast you killed both sons of Hippasus, slaughtered two men and stripped away their armour,

or else you'll lose your life, hit by my spear.” Saying this, Socus struck the even circle of Odysseus' shield. The strong spear punctured the bright shield, forcing its way through the finely decorated breastplate, slicing off the flesh along his ribs. But Pallas Athena stopped it from sinking into any vital organ. Odysseus knew the spear had not hit a fatal spot. He drew back and spoke to Socus:

“You poor man, now's the moment grim death surely takes you. Yes, you've prevented me from fighting Trojans, 500 but I promise here this very day you'll meet the fatal darkness of your death, killed on my spear. I'll get the glory. You'll give your life to horseman Hades.” Odysseus spoke. Turning round, Socus began to run. But Odysseus hit him as he was moving off, spearing him in the back between the shoulder blades, driving the spear clean through his chest. He fell with a thud. Lord Odysseus cried out in triumph:

“Ah, Socus, son of fierce horse-taming Hippasus, Death's final end was quick—no escape for you. Unhappy man, you'll not have your father or your noble mother close your eyes in death. Flesh-eating birds will now rip you apart, spreading their thick wings all over you. But if I die, god-like Achaeans will provide a proper burial for me.”


With these words, Odysseus pulled Socus' strong spear out of his flesh and removed it from his shield. But as he drew it out, he began to bleed. Odysseus grew concerned. When great-hearted Trojans saw blood on Odysseus, they shouted through the ranks and rushed him all at once. Odysseus stepped back, calling out to his companions. Three times he yelled, as loud as any man can shout. Three times warlike Menelaus heard him call. He quickly spoke to Ajax, who stood close by. “Ajax, divinely born son of Telamon, leader of your people, I've just heard a voice call—it belonged to brave Odysseus. It sounds as if Trojans have him cut off, caught him on his own in the killing zone. Let's go to that crowd. We'd better save him. I'm afraid that he's in trouble. He's a fine man— he'd be a great loss to the Danaans.” Saying this, Menelaus led on. Ajax, that godlike man, went with him. They found Odysseus, whom Zeus loved, encircled by Trojans, like red mountain jackals surrounding a horned stag wounded by an arrow from some man's bow—its legs enable it to flee, for while its warm blood flows, its limbs have power— but as soon as that sharp arrow's drained its strength,





in some forest shade, wild mountain carnivores attack, but should some god then lead a hungry lion there, the jackals scatter, and the lion eats the stag— that's the way resourceful fierce Odysseus was attacked by many daring Trojans. The single warrior, wielding his spear, held at bay his pitiless fate. Then Ajax approached, carrying his towering shield. He made a stand beside Odysseus. Trojans scattered in all directions. Taking Odysseus by the hand, warlike Menelaus led him from the crowd, until his attendant could bring up his chariot. Ajax then charged the Trojans. He killed Doryclus, one of Priam's bastard sons. Then he hit Pandocus, Lysander, Pyrasus, and Pylantes. As some river, a mountain torrent in full winter flood, crashes down onto the plain, gaining its power from Zeus' storms, sweeping up many withered oaks and pine trees, throwing piles of mud into the sea—that how glorious Ajax then charged out onto the plain, creating havoc, slaughtering men and horses. Hector did not notice Ajax, for he was fighting on the far left of the battle, by Scamander's banks, where the slaughter was most fierce. A constant din arose around great Nestor and warlike Idomeneus. Hector was in the crowd there with them, grimly killing with chariot and spear, decimating young men's ranks. But the brave Achaeans would not have given way, if Alexander, fair-haired Helen's husband, had not stopped Machaon, shepherd of his people, as he was proving himself among the very best. Alexander's arrow, with a triple barb, hit Machaon's right shoulder. Then Achaeans, who breathe fighting spirit, feared for Machaon— they thought he might he captured, should the battle change. At that point Idomeneus spoke to Nestor: “Nestor, son of Neleus, great glory of Achaeans, come, climb up into my chariot.





Let Machaon get in there beside you. Drive those sure-footed horses to the ships, and quickly, too. Machaon's a healer and so worth more than other men, with skill to cut out arrows and use healing potions.” He finished. Geranian horseman Nestor heard him. He climbed into the chariot. Machaon got in beside him, son of that excellent healer Asclepius. Nestor whipped the horses. They dashed off willingly, their spirits happy to be heading for the hollow ships. Then Cebriones noticed Trojans were being driven back. Going up to Hector, he spoke to him:


“Hector, here the two of us mingle with Danaans, but on the outskirts of this hard-fought battle. Other Trojans, both men and horses, are being driven back in great confusion, routed by Ajax, son of Telamon. I know him well. He carries a huge shield around his shoulders. Let's get our horses and drive there in our chariot—that's where most of those fighting with horses or on foot are slaughtering each other, where men fight with most intensity. The noise never stops.” Saying this, Cebriones urged on their horses with the lovely manes, cracking his whip over them. Obeying the lash, they took the fast chariot at top speed in the direction of the Trojans and Achaeans, trampling on shields and corpses as they galloped on. The axle was completely spattered underneath, as were the rails behind, with gobs of blood thrown up from horses' hooves and chariot wheels. Hector pushed on, eager to join the throngs of men, to jump into the fight, to smash that group to pieces. He made Danaans




totally confused—his spear hardly seemed to pause. He ranged up and down Achaean soldiers' ranks with spear and sword and massive rocks. But he kept away from any fight with Ajax, son of Telamon. Then Father Zeus, enthroned on high, put fear in Ajax. He stood bewildered, shifted his seven-layered shield onto his back, turned, looked round at throngs of Trojans, like some wild beast, then backed off step by step, retreating, but often turning back. Just as a tawny lion is driven from a farmyard holding cattle by dogs and farmers, who keep watch all night long to stop it tearing some well-fed cow to pieces, but the beast, ravenous for meat, keeps charging in, without success, for a storm of spears rains down on him, thrown by eager hands, followed then by burning sticks, which, for all his fierce desire, make him afraid, so, at dawn, he slinks away in bitter disappointment— that's how Ajax most unwillingly retreated then, away from Trojans, his spirit in distress. He was very much afraid for the Achaean ships. Just as when some donkey taken past a cornfield— a stubborn beast on whose sides many sticks are broken— bolts from boys tending it and goes to munch deep corn, while boys beat it with sticks—although their strength is small, at last they drive it out, once it's had its fill— that's how proud Trojans and allies from many lands then pushed back great Ajax, son of Telamon, their spears always prodding at the centre of his shield. From time to time, remembering his warlike spirit, Ajax would turn again, holding off the ranks of horse-taming Trojans. Then he'd turn back to retreat. But he blocked the way to the swift ships for all of them. He stood alone between the Trojans and Achaeans, fighting furiously. Some spears hurled by brave hands flew swiftly forward, then stuck in his great shield, and many stood upright in the space between them, impaled in earth, still eager to devour his flesh.





When Eurypylus, fine son of Euaemon, saw Ajax being attacked by this hail of spears, he went and stood by him. He hurled his shining spear and hit Apisaon, son of Phausius, a shepherd to his people, below his diaphragm, in the liver. His legs gave way. Eurypylus rushed up to strip armour from his shoulders, but he was seen by godlike Alexander, as he was pulling off the armour from Apisaon. So Paris grabbed his bow, aimed at Eurypylus, then shot an arrow in his leg, his right thigh. The arrow shaft snapped off. His thigh was crippled. So Eurypylus moved back among his comrades and thus escaped destruction. But he shouted far and wide, calling to Danaans: “Friends, leaders and rulers of the Argives, rally your ranks. Save Ajax from a brutal death. He's being attacked with spears, and I don't think he's able to get out of this grim fight. Come, stand by great Ajax, son of Telamon!” Eurypylus yelled this out as he lay wounded. Men closed their ranks around him, leaning their shields against their shoulders with their spears extended. Ajax came to meet them. When he reached his comrades, he turned around and stood his ground once more. Thus these soldiers went at the fight like a raging fire, as Neleus' horses carried Nestor from the fight. Swift-footed Achilles, looking on, noticed Nestor. Achilles stood by the stern of his broad-beamed ship, watching the harsh work of battle, the pitiful retreat. At once he spoke out to Patroclus, his companion, calling him beside the ship. From inside the hut Patroclus heard him. He came out, looking like Ares. This moment marked the start of his final rush to death. Patroclus, Menoetius' fine son, was the first to speak: “Why did you summon me, Achilles?






Is there something you need me to carry out?” Swift-footed Achilles then said in reply: “Fine son of Menoetius, joy of my heart, I think the time has come for the Achaeans to stand around my knees in supplication, for their needs have now become unbearable. But Patroclus, dear to Zeus, go now— ask Nestor who that wounded person is he's taking from the battle. From the back, he looked exactly like Machaon, son of Asclepius. But I didn't see his face, for the horses passed me quickly in their haste to gallop on.”


Achilles spoke. Patroclus then obeyed his dear companion. He went on the run through Achaean huts and ships. When the others reached the huts of Nestor, Neleus' son, they stepped out on the fertile earth. Then Eurymedon, Nestor's aide, unharnessed horses from the chariot. The two men let the sweat dry on their tunics, standing in the seashore breeze. They went inside the hut and sat down on some chairs. Fair-haired Hecamede made them a soothing drink. Old Nestor had taken her from Tenedos, when Achilles ransacked the place. Daughter of great-hearted Arsinous, she'd been chosen for him by Achaeans, because he excelled them all in giving wise advice. First, she pushed out in front of them a well-polished table with feet of blue enamel. Then she set there a bronze basket holding onions, to spice up their drink, with pale honey and bread made of sacred barley. Beside these she set a cup, a magnificent work Nestor had brought from home, studded with gold. There were four handles on it, around each one a pair of golden doves was feeding.




Below were two supports. When that cup was full, another man could hardly lift it from the table, but, old as he was, Nestor picked it up with ease. In this cup Hecamede, looking like a goddess, made a soothing drink for them from Pramnian wine. In it she shredded goat's cheese with a grater made of bronze, then shook white barley grain on top. When she'd prepared it, she invited them to drink. The two men drank and quenched their parching thirst. They started talking, enjoying each other's pleasant conversation. Then Patroclus stood in the doorway, like some god. Seeing him, old Nestor leapt up from his shining chair, took him by the hand and invited him to sit. Patroclus declined, staying where he was. He said: “Old man, divinely bred, I can't sit down. You'll not talk me into it. The man who sent me is honourable but quick to take offence. I'm here to learn the name of that wounded man you drove in with. But I see him for myself. I know Machaon, his people's shepherd. Now I'll go back and tell this to Achilles. You know well enough, divinely bred old man, what he's like—not someone to take lightly. He'd be quick to blame an innocent man.” Geranian horseman Nestor then said to Patroclus: “Why is Achilles showing pity now for Achaea's sons, those men hurt with spears and arrows? He knows nothing of our trouble, the great suffering which afflicts the army. For our best men lie injured at the ships, crippled by arrows, spears, and swords. Strong Diomedes, son of Tydeus, is hurt, as is Odysseus, famous for his spear, Agamemnon and Eurypylus as well, with an arrow in his thigh. This man here, hurt with an arrow from some bowstring,





I've just brought in from battle. Achilles is brave, but shows no pity, feels nothing for Danaans. Is he waiting until our fast ships by the sea are set on fire with all-consuming flames, and Achaeans, powerless to stop it, are slaughtered one by one? My strength now in my supple limbs is not what it used to be. I wish I were as young, my strength as firm, as when the Eleans and our people went to war over stolen cattle, when I killed Itymoneus, brave son of Hypeirochus, a man from Elis, as I was driving off what we'd seized in reparation. He was fighting for his cattle. In the foremost ranks, a spear from my hand struck him. He collapsed. His country people ran away, and so we seized a huge amount of plunder from that plain— fifty herds of cattle, as many flocks of sheep, fifty droves of pigs, fifty herds of wandering goats, one hundred fifty horses, all chestnut mares, many with foals still standing under them. At night we drove these to the citadel of Neleus' city Pylos. Neleus rejoiced, glad at heart, because I'd shared in so much loot, though I was just a young man going to war. Next day at dawn, heralds proclaimed out loud that all those to whom Elis stood in debt should meet together. The leading men of Pylos thus gathered to appropriate the spoils, for Epeians were in debt to many men. Those of us in Pylos were few and weak. Mighty Hercules had come some years before and sapped our strength by killing our best men. Neleus once had twelve worthy sons— I'm the only one remaining. The others were all wiped out. Bronze-armed Epeians at that point took advantage of us, committing evil and aggressive acts. From that plunder old Neleus selected






For Athena planned the battle out in just that way. There is a river Minyeïus. She brought a message— we should arm ourselves. But even so. fully armed. On the third day Epeians came in force. kept the horses there in Elis. a large flock of sheep. Athena came speeding from Olympus down to us at night. I made my mark among our charioteers. all keen for war. Neleus would not let me take up arms. which had come to Elis to compete. at top speed. all together. so no one would object. though I fought on foot.a herd of cattle. She mustered a force of volunteers in Pylos. But Augeias. Desperately eager to destroy this place. Old Neleus was angry with Augeias for what he'd said and done. That's why he took so much booty for himself. intent on racing for a tripod. The Pylian horsemen waited there till dawn while squads of men on foot 800 810 820 248 . The rest he gave to be distributed among the people in equal shares. they pitched their forces round it in a siege. Holy Elis owed him an enormous debt— four prize-winning horses with their chariot. there's a certain city Thryoessa. taking three hundred of them with their shepherds. which meets the sea near Arene. He sent their diver back. He hid my horses—he thought I was ignorant of anything to do with war. lots of them. Among them came the two Moliones. not knowing much of serious warfare. at the very end of sandy Pylos. still young. Now. far off on a steep hill by the Alpheius. king of men. But once Epeians crossed the entire plain. with their sure-footed horses. grieving for his team. We allocated each and every bit and sacrificed to all the city gods.

Then we had dinner at our positions there throughout the camp. They ran away in all directions. When Pylians and Epeians began the battle. We moved out quickly with our weapons. and one to Alpheius. we sacrificed to Zeus and to Athena. 830 840 850 860 249 . As he came against me.came streaming in. I was the first to kill a man and seize his sure-footed horses. then started our attack. Stout-hearted Epeians saw the man go down. until we pushed our horses into Bouprasium. Then Zeus put great power into Pylians. each man with his weapons. I pursued. going after them like some black whirlwind. Before they managed that. He fell into the dust. We went to sleep. That man was Mulius. I jumped in his chariot. but their father. a spear fighter. taking my place among the foremost fighters. their best fighting man. son-in-law to Augeias. Poseidon. We pursued Epeians over that wide plain. In every one two warriors bit the dust. To Athena with the glittering eyes we offered up a cow from our own herd. along the river bank. slain by my spear. At noon we reached the holy river Alpheius. a major battle. killing them and gathering their splendid weapons. For when the sun appeared above the earth. all together. I struck him with my bronze-tipped spear. The brave Epeians were encircling the city. He'd taken as his wife fair-haired Agamede. And I'd have slaughtered both the Molines. the eldest daughter. a bull to Poseidon. who knew all medicines this wide earth provides. hearts set on razing it. leader of their horsemen. I captured fifty chariots. they saw a fight. with a thick concealing mist let them escape. Actor's descendants. the wide-ruling shaker of the earth. We sacrificed fine beasts to Zeus almighty.

The two of you were busy with the ox meat. I think he might bitterly regret all this. We heard all he said to you there in his house. Achilles jumped up in great surprise. mustering men across fertile Achaea. Both lord Odysseus and myself were present. We two stood in the doorway. Both older men gave you instructions about many things. that day Menoetius sent you from Phthia in Agamemnon's cause. poured gleaming wine. told you: 'My son. He held a golden cup. he gave you orders. In the courtyard. to stand pre-eminent. once our army is destroyed. libations. That's how I once used to be. asking you to come with us. brought us inside. son of Actor. Achaeans quickly led their fast horses back from Bouprasium to Pylos. We'd come to the well-built home of Peleus.a wheat-rich region. when I was a man among the men. took our hands. Old Peleus ordered his son Achilles always to be the best. the place which people call Alesium hill. when we'd had our fill of food and drink. on the flaming sacrifice. old horseman Peleus was burning thigh bones rolled in fat to thunder-loving Zeus. Then we received fine hospitality. You were really eager. I began to speak. There Athena turned our soldiers back. together with Achilles. the sort appropriate for strangers. above all other men. Menoetius. Later. Achilles is by birth 870 880 890 900 250 . But what of Achilles? His courage will profit no one but himself. And we found warrior Menoetius and yourself. I killed the final warrior and left him there. to the rock of Olene. O my friend. and among all men to Nestor. all of them paying tribute among all the gods to Zeus. inviting us to sit.

In strength he is by far your better. descendant of Aeacus. if you'd speak to fierce Achilles. limping from the battle. prudent counsel. then at least let him send you to war. towards Achilles. A friend's persuasion is an excellent thing. But if his heart knows of some prophecy that he's avoiding. Down his head and shoulders ran rivulets of sweat. They might gain a breathing space. Even now. But you forget. Who knows? Some god might help you shift his spirit with your words. But his spirit was still strong. and direction to him.” Nestor finished speaking. in command of other Myrmidons—it may be you'll prove a saving light to the Danaans. But as Patroclus ran by lord Odysseus' ships. where they'd built their altars to the gods as well. you might persuade him. something rare in warfare. Achaea's warrior sons are tired out. His words stirred up the heart inside Patroclus' chest. Your troops are fresh.' That's what the old man said. his thigh wounded by an arrow.a finer man than you. But you are older. Seeing him. He went off on the run along the line of ships. something from Zeus his mother's mentioned to him. he met Eurypylus. far from our ships and huts. Let him also give you his fine armour to carry into battle. but it's up to you to give shrewd advice. right where they held assemblies and judicial court. for that works to his benefit. He'll comply. Menoetius' worthy son felt compassion. so Trojans may confuse the two of you and thus refrain from fighting. He spoke winged words of sympathy: 910 920 930 940 251 . royal son of Euaemon. They might drive Trojans worn out with fighting to the city. Black blood seeped from his nasty wound.

Achaea's guardian. tell me whether Achaeans will manage to contain warlike Hector.” Wise Eurypylus then said in answer to Patroclus: “Lord Patroclus. he put his arm around Eurypylus' chest. noble Eurypylus? I'm on my way to inform warlike Achilles of the news which Geranian Nestor.“You leaders. asked me to report. But I won't leave you in such suffering. Achilles taught you. then took that shepherd of his people to his hut. Of our healers. you royal warrior. I believe. far from your native land. far from your friends. who'll fall back to their black ships. lies wounded in our huts. it seems to be your destiny to feed the dogs with your white flesh at Troy. Eurypylus. All those who were our finest fighters are lying by the ships. the other's out there on the plains. whose use. himself requiring some worthy healer. then rub on fine soothing medication. Podalerius and Machaon. they say. holding off the fighting spirit of the Trojans. most righteous of the Centaurs. an art he learned from Cheiron. But come now. But take me safely back to my black ship.” Menoetius' fine son then said to Eurypylus: “How can you get this cure? What can we do. cut the arrow from my thigh. one. whose strength keeps growing.” When Patroclus had finished. slaughtered here on Hector's spear. Seeing them. rulers of Achaeans. or whether they'll all die. 950 960 970 252 . hurt or wounded at Trojan hands. there's no longer anything can save Achaeans. and with warm water wash away the black blood there.

then with warm water washed the black blood off. and blood stopped flowing. from his thigh. razor sharp. something to relieve the hurt.an aide put down some ox hides. He put some bitter root onto his hands and rubbed it in. with a knife Patroclus cut out the arrow. The wound then dried. 980 253 . remove all pain. Settling him there.

Trojans receive a bad omen. Glaucus is wounded.Book Twelve The Fight at the Barricade [The battle continues at the wall. to protect the ships and guard the ample plunder stored inside. the Trojans breach the wall. Hector demolishes the doors in the gate. Heptaporus. two Lapith spearmen guard the Achaean gate. with Achaeans hemmed in. Sarpedon's speech to Glaucus about their warrior code. so the wall soon fell apart. then Poseidon and Apollo planned to erase that wall. Trojans organize themselves into five companies for the assault. Granicus. Rhodius. where many ox-hide shields and helmets had fallen in the dust. Priam's city was destroyed. Achaeans retreat to their ships. asking them to keep their swift ships safe.] Thus. 254 10 20 . Trojans and Achaeans kept fighting on in clusters. though many did survive. Caresus. along with a race of people half-divine. They'd built the wall. Phoebus Apollo merged the mouths of all these rivers. Aesepus. Sarpedon assaults the wall. Polydamas advises Hector to leave the chariots behind. But they'd built it without sanction from immortal gods—they'd made no splendid offering. Polydamas advises Hector not to attack the wall. looked after wounded Eurypylus in his hut. then for nine days drove the flood against the rampart. the huge Achaean wall remained intact. The Danaan ditch and the high broad wall weren't going to hold out long. many Achaeans. Menestheus asks for help from Ajax and Teucer. But after so many of the finest Trojans died. by stirring up the raging power of all rivers flowing from Mount Ida to the sea—Rhesus. the sacred Scamander and Simoeis. When Achaeans sailed back to their dear native land. Ajax responds. Menoetius' fine son. as Patroclus. no sacrifices to the gods. too. then dug the ditch around it. in the war's tenth year. As long as Hector lived and Achilles' anger did not relent and Priam's city wasn't captured.

terrified because the trench was wide to cross. covering huge beaches once again with sand. confident of his strength. And Poseidon. so they flowed on as before. Argives. The wall gone. wood and stone Achaeans had worked so hard to set there. They couldn't easily jump over it or get through. standing at the very edge. There was no easy way horses pulling chariots with wheels could move across. for. threatening the ranks of men—that's how Hector then moved through the troops. with many large sharp stakes driven in the upper edge. he changed the rivers. Then Polydamas. but its courage kills the beast—repeatedly it whirls itself around. holding his trident. coming up beside bold Hector. neighing loudly. were all hemmed in beside their hollow ships. the Earthshaker himself.Zeus brought constant rain to wash the wall away into the sea more quickly. it's foolish to think of driving our swift horses 30 40 50 60 255 . The battered timbers on the tower rattled. urging men to attack the ditch and charge across it. too. whose powerful presence scared them. preparing to go against the beast. their lovely waters in their customary channels. broken by Zeus' whip. set there by Achaea's sons as a protection against their enemies. held back by fear of Hector. show any fear in its brave heart. you allies. hurling spears in volleys from their hands—still it doesn't tremble. On both sides there were steep banks along its length. But his swift-footed horses balked. led the work. as before. said: “Hector. He smoothed the shores of the fast-flowing Hellespont. he battled like a whirlwind. Even men on foot weren't confident about it. But then the din of war raged round the sturdy wall. you other leaders. his waves eroding all foundations. All this Apollo and Poseidon would do later on. Just as some wild boar or lion faced with dogs and huntsmen keeps turning. and men form in a line.

But if they turn us back. The other Trojans did not hesitate. with each one following its own leadership. two sons of Priam. with those sharpened stakes projecting from it. drive us from the ships. warlike Asius. with a third commander. especially keen to breach the wall and fight on at the hollow ships. They were the best and most numerous. along with Agenor and Alcathous. far from Argos. wipe them out completely. The men broke up in groups and organized themselves to form five companies. right by the Achaean wall.through this trench. they leapt quickly from their chariots and left them there. There's no way any charioteer could get down and fight. It's difficult to get across. Each man told his charioteer to keep the horses in good order by the ditch. Some went with Hector and worthy Polydamas. unremembered. Cebriones went with them as third commander. Achaeans will not push us back. led the third contingent. Paris led the second group. If high-thundering Zeus intends to help the Trojans and harm Achaeans. I'd prefer that happened right away. But come.” What Polydamas had just proposed pleased Hector. if it's true they're already headed for destruction. let's all agree to what I now propose— attendants should hold the horses at the ditch. and trap us in the trench. Seeing him do that. I don't think any of us will get back to our city with the news. whose huge horses had carried him all the way from Arisbe by the Selleïs river. We'll arm ourselves with heavy weapons. and if Achaeans then reorganize. There's not much room. Helenus and godlike Deïphobus. he jumped from his chariot to the ground. I think we'd get badly hurt. then all follow Hector bunched up tightly. 70 80 90 100 256 . so Achaeans all die here. son of Hyrtacus. With his weapons.

the attendant charioteer. where Achaeans used to pass with horse and chariot when returning from the plain. He found the gates unbarred— men had drawn the long bolt and were holding them ajar. They thought no one could stop them. Asius moved off to the left of the line of ships. that they'd be assaulting the black ships. Idomeneus. That's where he drove his chariot and team. shouting loudly. well skilled in all the elements of war. after himself. Before that happened an unwelcome fate took him on the spear of Deucalion's proud son. Other Trojans and their famous allies followed what excellent Polydamas had said to them. 257 . the other Leonteus. 110 then in their eagerness made straight for the Danaans. His men followed. They thought Achaeans could hold out no longer. just in case they might save one of their companions escaping from the battle to the ships.The fourth group of warriors was headed by Aeneas. Anchises' brave son. but Asius. These men linked themselves with sturdy bull's hide shields.1 One was powerful Polypoetes. proudly boasting of his chariot and horses. as they charged the ships. for they seemed clearly the best of all the others. The fool! He would not escape his grim fate and come back from the ships to windy Troy. 1 120 130 The Lapiths are a warlike tribe living near Mount Olympus. did not want to leave his horses or their driver. son of Peirithous. a warrior like man-killing Ares. The famous allies Sarpedon led. These two made their stand before the lofty gate. He'd chosen to command with him Glaucus and warlike Asteropaeus. At those gates Asius firmly aimed his horses. How wrong they were! For at the gates they found two men. He brought them with him as he went for the ships. two sons of Antenor. with Archelochus and Acamas. leader of men. son of Hyrtacus. for among them all he was pre-eminent. two of the finest—proud-hearted sons of Lapith spearmen.

their well-built ships. Thoön. trusting the power in their arms. Helmets and bossed shields rang out as they were hit with rocks the size of millstones. anchored there by huge extensive roots—just like that. so they strike the fertile earth. and Oenomaus. as great Asius approached. their huts. ripping out the roots. Like wild mountain boars taking on a confused mob of men and dogs attacking them—the beasts charge sideways. that's how thick and fast flying weapons rained down then from Trojans and Achaeans. shattering trees around them. behind lord Asius. these two men. defending themselves. the two Lapiths had been urging well-armed Achaeans from inside the rampart to defend their ships. and cried out: “Father Zeus. till someone hits them with his spear and takes away their lives— that's how the shining bronze sounded on these two. Holding bull's hide shields up high.like two high-topped mountain oak trees which defy wind and rain each and every day. relying on their strength and on those troops standing on the wall above them. how you love to lie! 170 140 150 160 I didn't think these warrior Achaeans could withstand the force of our all-powerful hands. 258 . who kept throwing rocks down from the sturdy tower. Then Asius. son of Hyrtacus. groaned in vexation. the two men hurried out to fight beyond the gates. Stones fell to earth like snowflakes which some strong wind pushing shadowy clouds drives downward in a storm. Asius' men came straight for the well-built wall. gnashing their teeth noisily. But they fought bravely. Asius' son. with loud shouts. Adamas. Iamenus. Up to now. Orestes. held their position. struck his thigh. But when they noticed Trojans charging the wall and Danaans running off and shouting. as they moved out against the flying weapons. They did not run off.

180 190 200 259 . While the two Lapiths were stripping shining armour from the dead. Achaeans had no choice but to defend their ships— gods helping Danaans in the fight were sad at heart. Iamenus. Ares' assistant. until they kill us or are killed themselves. Powerful Polypoetes. struck Antiphates. That checked his fighting fury. motionless. Then. The bronze helmet didn't stop the spear—its bronze point tore straight through his skull. on his back. pulling out his sharp sword from its scabbard. but stay there. son of Peirithous. young troops with Polydamas and Hector. but his words did not win over Zeus' mind.” Asius complained. With his spear. hitting him at close range first. Leonteus. on the all-nourishing earth. splattering his brains all through his helmet. Leonteus then struck down in quick succession Menon. in his belt. guarding their offspring from the hunting men. for in his heart he wished to give Hector glory. and Orestes— all these lay prone there. For by that stone wall blazing fires broke out everywhere. he charged the Trojan mass. That's how these men refuse to yield the gate. It would be hard for me to report all these events. even if I were a god. with his spear struck Damasus through his cheek piece. son of Antimachus. though there's just two of them. as well as Ormenus. The two Lapiths now began to kill in earnest. the most numerous and bravest of the men. Other troops were battling on at other gates. the ones most keen to breach the wall and burn the ships. So he lay there. hit Hippomachus. Though in distress.But they're like yellow-banded wasps or bees who've made their home by some rough road and won't leave their hollow house. Then he slaughtered Pylon.

breach the gates and the Achaean wall. this is how all this will end. a bird had gone above them. as they defend their ships. let the snake fall down onto the ground.still stood along the ditch in some perplexity. though I give good advice in our assemblies. you're always taking me to task. a powerful omen. with our great strength. someone who in his heart knew the truth of signs 210 220 230 240 260 . The eagle. moving past the left flank of the troops. which it let drop before it reached its nest. In my view. Then with a cry. Doubling up. thus failing in its purpose. it flew off downwind. for he should always back your leadership. like that bird. from aegis-bearing Zeus. still living. dropping it right in the middle of the crowd. we'll come back from the ships by this same route in disarray. Trojans shuddered. It hadn't lost its will to fight. Polydamas then approached bold Hector and spoke out: “Hector. then. it struck the bird that clutched it beside the neck. If that omen was sent to Trojans keen to cross the ditch. Seeing that writhing snake. a high-flying eagle. a high-flying eagle on our army's left holding in its talons a blood-red snake. and if Achaeans then retreat. For as they'd assembled. stung with pain. if we. For you maintain it's not appropriate that someone else speak out against you. still alive. still struggling. lying there in their midst. gripping in its talons a huge blood-red snake. That's how a prophet would interpret this. It was a sign. Let's not advance to fight Danaans by their ships. But now I'm going to say what seems to me the best course we should take. either in a council meeting or in war. to bring that snake back for its offspring. eager to cross the trench. leaving behind many Trojans slaughtered by Achaean bronze.

But if you're serious in what you say.and in whom the people placed their trust. hoping to undermine the wall. you need have no fear that you'll be killed. making a huge noise. for he rules all mortals. You know how to offer better comments. Thunder-loving Zeus then sent gusting storm winds down from Ida. towards the evening gloom. or with your words convince some other man to turn away from battle. Trusting Zeus' sign and their own power. struck by my spear. But if you hold back from war. they tried to force the great Achaean wall. Why are you afraid of war. I don't like what you've just said. you die right then. of battle? Even if the others are all slaughtered by Achaean ships. You're telling me to forget the plans of thunder-loving Zeus. gods themselves must have destroyed your wits. or to the left. Let's put our trust in great Zeus' counsel. whether they fly off to the right. towards Dawn's rising sun. One omen is best—fight for your country. or even notice. dragging down the tower's supporting beams. Then he led his troops away. all immortals. I don't care. You tell me to put my faith in long-winged birds. driving dust straight at the ships.” 250 260 Hector finished speaking. prying up projecting columns Achaeans had first put into the earth to shore up their wall's foundations. They dragged these back. what he himself agreed to.” Hector with his gleaming helmet scowled and said: “Polydamas. smashing parapets. Your heart is neither brave nor warlike. They followed him. 270 261 . what he promised. to disorient Achaeans and give glory to Hector and the Trojans.

shedding snow on harbours. jutting headlands. As snowflakes on a winter's day fall thick and fast. Others. so that Zeus. The noise reverberated all along the wall. grassy meadows. where waves roll in to push back snow. firing up the fighting spirit in Achaeans. repel the Trojans. “Friends. when Counselor Zeus begins to snow. Olympian lord of lightning. they taunted with abuse. So let no one here turn back towards the ships. all the rest is covered over. from above. inlets of the blue-gray sea. They repaired the parapets with leather hides.” Shouting words like these. keep shouting to each other. may grant we beat off this attack. till he's completely covered high mountain peaks. as you yourselves well know. when Zeus storms with heavy snow— that's how thick the stones fell then on both sides. the Ajaxes incited the Achaeans to fight on. and drive them to their city. some thrown on Trojans. or one of the worst—for men are not all equal when it comes to battle— there's enough work here for everyone. fertile farms of men. while. then snows steadily. the ones they saw clearly moving off. Keep pushing forward. back from the fight. then hurled out weapons from there across the rampart at the attacking Trojans. urging men on. to demonstrate to men his weapons—first he calms the winds. To some men they called out words of encouragement. 280 290 300 310 262 .But even now Danaans did not back away. The two Ajaxes moved back and forth along the wall. now you've heard from your commander. whether you're an Achaean leader. some from Trojans on Achaeans. or average.

glorious Hector and the Trojans would not have crashed the gates or long bolts in the wall. he won't leave that fold without making an attempt. break down the parapets. if we could escape this war.' Ah my friend. so then some well-armed Lycian will say. He called to Glaucus. why are we two awarded special honours. or is hit himself in the first rush. by a spear from some swift hand— that's how godlike Sarpedon's spirit drove him then to assault the wall. he hurried forward like a mountain lion long ravenous for meat. if Counselor Zeus had not stirred his son Sarpedon against Achaeans. with pride of place. like a lion going at short-horn cattle. by the river Xanthus. our wine cups always full in Lycia. brandishing two spears. beside its banks. held in place with golden wires encircling the rim. and even if he comes across herdsmen with dogs and spears guarding sheep inside. Hippolochus' son: 320 330 “Glaucus. 340 263 . Sarpedon held his round shield in front of him. those kings of ours. the inside formed of leather stitched in layers. where all our people look on us as gods? Why do we possess so much fine property. 'They're not unworthy. who fight in the Lycians' front ranks. forged by a smith of beautifully hammered bronze. the finest cuts of meat. fine men. so he springs on one. whose bold spirit pushes him to go even into the protected sheep fold to attack the flock. rich vineyards and wheat-bearing ploughland? It's so we'll stand in the Lycian front ranks and meet head on the blazing fires of battle. seizes it. It's true they eat plump sheep and drink the best sweet wines—but they are strong. Holding this shield before him. those men who rule Lycia.At that point.

trying to knock them down by force to pass on through. gates. But there was no way they'd hear him if he shouted— the noise was too intense. He saw both Ajaxes. without growing old. Here we face complete destruction any minute now. so keen for war. the ones who previously in bloody fights have demonstrated their ferocity. Menestheus. if we were ageless. Men stood outside them. They marched on straight ahead.” 350 360 370 380 264 . But now. Nearby was Teucer. Without making any move Glaucus agreed. run and call Ajax— or rather both of them. shuddered. nor would I send you to those wars where men win glory. son of Telamon. The doors were now all barred. bringing destruction with them. a thousand shapes of fatal death confront us. But if they're having trouble where they are. let mighty Ajax. Menestheus quickly sent herald Thoötes to Ajax: “Noble Thoötes. come by himself. leading their large company of Lycians. who'd just come from his huts. son of Peteos.and live forever.” Sarpedon spoke. then I'd not fight on in the foremost ranks. Seeing their advance. The din of smashed-in shields. standing there. He looked around at the Achaean tower. to give the glory to another man or win it for ourselves. hoping he might see some leader to protect his comrades from disaster. if that's possible— that would be the best solution. Lycian leaders are pressing us so hard. which no mortal man can flee from or avoid. So let's go forward. for they were aiming at his part of the wall. And let that expert archer Teucer come with him. with fights breaking out. and horsehair helmets—that sound reached heaven.

But if you're having trouble where you are. Ajax and the others jumped right into the fight. Ajax.” Thoötes finished. The noise grew more intense. then came and. And let the expert archer Teucer come with him. Great Telamonian Ajax then agreed. both from the same father. and come back quickly.Menestheus finished. Telamonian Ajax left. And he'd prefer you both come. I'll go over there. The Lycians. standing by both Ajaxes. led by powerful commanders. carrying Teucer's curving bow. once I've helped them out as best I can. He ran along the bronze-clad Achaeans' barricade. stand firm. then let mighty Ajax. That would be the best solution. Thoötes heard him and obeyed. were climbing up the parapets like some black whirlwind. spoke up at once: “You Ajaxes. the ones who previously in bloody fights have demonstrated their ferocity. deal with that fight. Rouse Danaans to battle hard. There they face an imminent destruction. is calling you to go to him and help relieve the battle strain.” That said. Here they found soldiers hard pressed in the fight. you and powerful Lycomedes. raised by gods. their kings. Pandion also went. come by himself. the son of Peteos. with fights erupting. At once he spoke winged words to Oïlean Ajax: “Ajax. leaders of bronze-armed Achaeans. Moving along the wall the three men reached the place where stout-hearted Menestheus stood. With him went Teucer. if only for a while. you both stay here. Lycian leaders are pressing them so hard. son of Telamon. his brother. 390 400 410 265 .

rallying his godlike Lycians: 420 430 440 450 266 . That stopped Glaucus' charge. near the top. but Ajax raised it high. creating a passage through for many men. from that high tower. echoed as he crashed onto the ground. striking his shield. so no Achaean man could see that he'd been hit and boast aloud about it. on a part he saw exposed. like a diver. Teucer hit him with an arrow on the gleaming strap around his chest which held his protective shield. He climbed back down the wall. all of bronze. was the first to kill a man. then hurled it. Ajax hit him with a massive jagged rock lying inside the wall. but stealthily. speared him well. So he called out. not even someone young and strong. Ajax then jumped in. but its momentum knocked Sarpedon back in the middle of his charge. and his spirit left his bones. brave Epicles. Thestor's son. He hit him on the arm. then yanked his spear back. He fell forward—his finely decorated armour. The whole construction fell apart. He lunged at Alcmaon. but did not retreat completely. Sarpedon grabbed the parapet and pulled. breaching the wall. but he did not neglect to keep up the attack. when he noticed it. as Glaucus was moving up. No man now alive could heft that stone in his two hands. Sarpedon withdrew a little from the parapet. companion of Sarpedon. for his heart was set on seizing glory. With his strong hands. smashing the man's four-ridged helmet and completely crushing his entire skull. Epicles fell. The point did not pass through.son of Telamon. Sarpedon was upset at Glaucus' departure. Teucer struck mighty Glaucus. with an arrow shot from high up on the wall. But Zeus defended his own son from deadly fates to make sure he'd not be destroyed by the ships' sterns. Ajax and Teucer now advanced together to attack Sarpedon. son of Hippolochus. which pulled Alcmaon with it.

so she can glean a pittance for her children. He raised a resounding yell. Just as an industrious and honest woman holds her scales. battle on with me. along the parapet. Danaan spearmen could not push the Lycians back. Lycians. could not break the Danaan wall and cut their way through to the ships. men's blood was spattered from Trojans and Achaeans. son of Priam. Many men were wounded. quivering targets. Then burn the ships 460 470 480 267 . But even so.” Sarpedon called. Breach that Argive wall. striving for a fair division in some narrow place. repel them from the wall. who was the first man to jump inside that wall of the Achaeans. wool on the other. until Zeus gave glory above all other men to Hector. High on the wall they hacked each other's armour— leather bucklers and large round shields across their chests. troops made a heavy push around their counselor king. you horse-taming Trojans.“You Lycians. flesh slashed with pitiless bronze. Everywhere along the wall. Fearing the censure of their leader. crying to his Trojans: “Drive forward. to breach this wall alone and carve a pathway to the ships. Why is your fighting spirit lessening? It's hard for me. a weight on one side. those who turned aside and left their backs exposed while fighting and those hit right through their shields. now they'd reached it. For both sides a major fight ensued. On the other side. until they balance. that's how evenly the battle raged. So come. the Argives reinforced their ranks inside the wall. though strong. although I'm powerful. Trojans could not dislodge Achaeans from the wall. The more men there are. As two men with measuring rods quarrel over survey markers in a common field. that's how the parapet kept these troops apart. the better the work done.

leapt inside. Just as a shepherd has no trouble carrying a ram's fleece in one hand. The bolts were sheared right off. then hurled that rock right at the centre of the doors. no one moving out to stop him could hold him back. planted himself before the doors. His men responded to his call. but Hector carried it with ease alone. except the gods. Glorious Hector.” With these words. In his hand he held two spears. Crooked-minded Cronos' son made it light for him. The bronze which covered his whole body was a terrifying glitter. Wheeling through the throng. they began to climb. 500 510 268 . gripping sharp spears. He smashed both hinges. he drove them on. Danaans were driven back among their hollow ships in a rout. his face like night's swift darkness. his legs wide apart to throw with greater force. and the noisy tumult never stopped. thick at its base but tapering sharply on the top. so Hector lifted up that rock. Once he'd jumped inside the gates. 490 Hector picked up a rock lying before the gates. he shouted to his Trojans to climb the wall. Two of the best working men now living could not lever that stone out of the ground easily into their cart. high double doors with two cross pieces holding them inside secured with a single bolt. then carried it straight to the doors guarding the strongly fitted gates. others came pouring through the hole made in the gates. hardly noticing the weight. Their ears all caught his call. From his eyes fire blazed. Some scaled the wall.with a huge fire. Hurling themselves at the wall in a dense mass. The impact of that boulder shattered all the planks. The stone's momentum took it clear through the doors. The gates groaned loudly. Hector moved up closer.

He'd come up from the sea and seated himself there. High on the tallest crest of wooded Samothrace he sat looking down upon the war going on. Aegae. and nursing a powerful anger against Zeus. Going inside. Priam's city. Mount Ida was clearly visible. who drink mare's milk. proud Hippemolgi. Idomeneus’ exploits in the fight. Poseidon came down quickly from that rocky peak. Hector insults Paris. at the land of Thracian horsemen. He took three paces—with the fourth he reached his goal. Poseidon talks with Idomeneus. as Trojans beat them back.Book Thirteen The Trojans Attack the Ships [Zeus turns away from the battle. Mysians. too. Polydamas gives advice to Hector. Poseidon secretly helps the Achaeans. pitying Achaeans. for in his heart he did not believe a single one of the immortal gods would move to give assistance to the Trojans or Danaans. He turned his shining gaze away from them. moving swiftly on his feet. looking far off into the distance. Then he left the soldiers there to carry on their strife. Idomeneus and Meriones meet at the huts. the armies resume the fight. From that point. their wretched endless war. and the Achaean ships. he harnessed to his chariot 269 20 . Ajax and Hector exchange boasts. men who fight hand to hand. Mountain peaks and woods trembled under Poseidon's immortal stride. the Abii. Menelaus on the battle field. where his famous palace had been built of eternal gold and marble deep within the sea. 10 But mighty Earthshaker Poseidon was keeping watch. Zeus no longer turned his radiant eyes toward Troy.] Thus Zeus brought Hector and the Trojans to the ships. Aeneas moves against him. then return to battle. to the most righteous men of all. talks to the two Ajaxes and other warriors. Hector keeps advancing until stopped by close-packed Achaeans.

so they'd remain secure there till their lord's return. as if he were a son of mighty Zeus. marched behind Hector. he took his well-made golden whip. then set off across the waves. both keen to fight. and threw down ambrosia. once he'd moved up from the sea. Half-way between Tenedos and rocky Imbros. shouting and screaming with excitement. Earthshaker Poseidon reined in his horses. who encircles and shakes the earth. a blazing fire. roused the Argives. because of Hector. Then Poseidon moved on to the Achaean camp. In other places. But Poseidon. who leads their charge. Trojans. In that spot. You could get other men to do the same.swift bronze-hooved horses with flowing golden manes. hoping to seize Achaean ships and kill the best men there. 30 acknowledging their king. a wide cavern sits deep within the sea. sea creatures played around him everywhere. He sped on quickly. freed them from the chariot. From the depths. he first spoke to the Ajaxes. “You Ajaxes. in a mass. like some fire or windstorm. Taking on the shape and tireless voice of Calchas. The joyful ocean parted. keeping the bronze axle dry. But I fear them here. But perhaps some god will inspire the hearts in both your chests. whose powerful arms have brought hordes of them across our wall. Dressed in gold. climbed in the chariot. where we may experience disaster. He's like a man possessed. son of Priam. food for them to eat. The prancing horses carried him to the Achaean ships. 270 50 40 60 . Around their feet he placed golden hobbles which they could not slip or break. I don't fear the Trojans. For well-armed Achaeans will check them all. not cold flight. so you two can stand firm. you must save Achaean troops. At that point. Think of your fighting power.

it’s easy to recognize the gods. one of the gods dwelling on Olympus. Just as a swift-winged hawk takes off while hovering above some high sheer rock. I feel it also in my lower limbs. swooping down over the plain to hunt another bird— that how Earthshaker Poseidon went off then. Then. even if Zeus himself is driving him ahead. son of Oïleus. who reads our omens. My upper arms have lots of energy. as he went away. My feet can now move fast. in a prophet's shape. was the first to recognize the god. Swift Ajax. So I'm eager to meet Hector. For that man was no prophet Calchas. At once he spoke to Ajax.” 70 80 90 271 . to see that from the back by the markings on his feet and legs. Besides. son of Priam. one on one— the man whose fury so desires this fight. My fighting power grows. the shaker and encircler of the earth touched both men with his staff. infusing them with power.Hector may be keen. strengthening their legs and upper arms. Then Poseidon left. So now the spirit here in my own chest is even keener than before to fight. It was easy for me. but you could push him back from our swift ships. tells us both to fight on by the ships.” Poseidon finished speaking.” Telamonian Ajax then answered Oïlean Ajax: “I’m ready to wrap my conquering hands around my spear. son of Telamon: “Ajax.

Thoas. nothing but young boys! I'm counting on your strength to save our ships. Earthshaker Poseidon moved round with ease. which in the woods are prey to jackals. heroic son of Atreus. then Meriones and Antilochus. And the reason’s this— our leadership's been bad. then brave Peneleous. their hearts weighed down with sorrow at the sight of Trojan soldiers coming over their great wall. alone and frightened. and leopards. Alas! What my eyes witness here astounds me. If you're holding back in this grim fight. and so are being cut down among them there. is to blame. But now. a dreadful thing I never thought would happen— Trojans moving up to our own ships. men who previously were shy. then now's the day the Trojans overcome us. But even if wide-ruling Agamemnon. Deïpyrus. Trojans never wished to stand confronting the fierce fighting power of Achaean arms. the Encircler of the Earth was encouraging Achaeans at the rear. When they saw that. like deer. both skilled in war shouts. they fight here. with no will to fight. He moved first to encourage Teucer and Leïtus. their limbs exhausted from their anguishing ordeals. our army slack. wolves. relishing the warlike spirit the god had put into their hearts. as they wander round. right by our hollow ships.As the two Ajaxes talked like this to one another. 100 110 120 130 272 . far from their city. Before now. bringing strength into the ranks. He spoke to them—his words had wings: “Shame on you Argives. For those who quarrel with our general won't protect our fast-moving ships from harm. not even for a moment. those whose spirits were recovering by the swift ships. if he really is the reason for all this. their eyes shed tears—they thought they'd not escape destruction.

is fighting by our ships. he would have approved of them. Round both Ajaxes soldiers made a stand and strongly held their ground. in close-packed formation. by this hanging back you'll help to make an even worse disaster. its great flood eroding what supports that lethal stone. its motion stops. Those known for their great bravery did not back off. But in you my heart is disappointed. for all its impetus. skilled at war cries. It's bad if you restrain your fighting spirit any longer. shields linked together and helmet touching helmet. horsehair crests on shining helmet ridges touched— that's how densely packed they stood in that formation. In their hearts fine men can change. Let each of you feel shame and indignation in his heart. as would Athena.because he treated swift Achilles badly. They fought lord Hector and the Trojans spear for spear. our long bolts. too. If Ares had come there. As men moved their heads. always charging forward. where. like a rolling boulder. troops shoulder to shoulder. Hector. Myself. shield with layered shield. 140 150 160 273 . The Trojans came on in a mass. Their minds were firm and fully ready for the fight. who inspires men in war. I wouldn't argue with a man not keen to fight because he is a coward.” By rousing men this way. unimpeded—then it hits the plain. Friends. In its fall. Let's fix all this—and quickly. it bounces— woods crash underneath it. Earthshaker Poseidon pushed Achaeans into action. the best of all our troops. as it accelerates in a straight line. A great battle has just started. in this battle we must hold back nothing. Their strong hands held the spears so that they overlapped. led by Hector. His force has smashed our gates. especially you. which some river in a winter flood dislodges from a cliff beside its banks.

if the greatest of the gods. not for long. He let out a piercing shout. Hector gave heart and spirit to each man. Achaea's sons faced up to him with swords. calling to his Trojans: “Trojans. 170 180 190 200 274 . He slew Imbrius. Achaeans won't keep me back. But when he ran into the tight-packed lines of men. He'd lived in Pedaeum before Achaea's sons arrived. He set off for the Achaean huts and ships. When the curved ships of the Danaans came to Troy. son of Mentor. Lycians. son of Priam. Then Meriones after taking aim. He married one of Priam's bastard daughters. his heart afraid of warlike Meriones’ spear.” Saying this. threw his shining spear at him. Hera's loud-thundering mate. under cover of that shield. But Meriones had withdrawn into the group of his companions. he stepped lightly forward. Hector had to give ground.That's how Hector threatened then to smash his way with ease down to the sea. a spearman. moved out before them. Before it could. it snapped off at the socket. full of ambitious hopes. Deïphobus. The din was constant. The first to kill a man was Teucer. I think they will retreat before my spear. hold your place. Medesicaste. He didn't miss. to Achaea’s huts and ships. who owned many horses. upset at his double loss— the victory and the spear which he'd just shattered. with double-bladed spears. Then Deïphobus. and pushed him back. to fetch another spear he'd left inside his hut. Holding his round shield in front of him. The others kept on fighting. you Dardan spearmen. Even though they've set themselves in a defensive wall. He struck that round leather shield. inspires me. Shaken. son of Telamon. he came close but was held in check. held his leather shield at arm’s length away from him. But the spear did not break through.

finely decorated bronze. as if he were his child. He didn't touch his flesh. As two lions snatch a goat from sharp-toothed hounds. eager to strip away his armour. Teucer then jumped out. His armour.he went back. for Hector was encased in terrifying bronze. He lived with Priam. who honoured him as well. about to join the battle. Actor’s son. right at Hector's feet. eager to tug away the helmet tightly bound around the temples of brave Amphimachus. Amphimachus was carried back to the Achaean troops by Stichius and noble Menestheus. then. Imbrius collapsed. seeing it coming. He fell with a crash. reverberating round him. is chopped down by bronze. but as he charged. as he came forward. Hector ran up. in the chest. as he was coming up. son of Cteatus. Teucer pulled the weapon back. threw away the head. holding it well off the ground. Just as an ash tree growing on a mountain top. his armour echoing around him. hauled Imbrius away. and his great power pushed him back. like some ball. Teucer. Oïlean Ajax hacked through the tender neck. with a swing of his body. safely dodged the bronze spear point. still full of battle rage. visible from every side. But the son of Telamon with a long spear thrust hit Imbrius below the ear. who led Athenian troops. its foliage crashing to the ground—that's how he fell. The people there thought much of him. rang out. into the crowd. But with his bright spear Ajax lunged at Hector. so Achaeans dragged them off. The two Ajaxes. 210 220 230 240 275 . But Ajax struck the central boss on Hector's shield. In his anger at the killing of Amphimachus. Hector threw a shining spear at him. It fell into the dust. But Hector's spear hit Amphimachus. Hector withdrew and left the corpses. that's how both Ajaxes held Imbrius up. They stripped off his armour. then take it in their jaws off through thick underbrush.

A sharp bronze blow had struck him in the knee.” Earthshaker Poseidon then replied: 260 “Idomeneus. then said in reply: “As far as I know. gripped by doubts. far from Argos. Cretan counselor. went through Achaea's huts and ships. For all of us are very skilled in fighting. Somehow it must please Cronos' mighty son that Achaeans perish now without a name. making his voice sound like Thoas. in times past. He met the famous spearman Idomeneus coming from a comrade who'd just left the fight. His companions brought him in. still eager to fight on. The mighty Earthshaker spoke to him. Thoas. Issue your instructions to each man. if you saw someone shirking. Don't stop now. 276 . what's happened to those threats Achaea's sons once made against the Trojans?” Idomeneus. having issued his instructions to the healers. holds back from evil war. planning trouble for the Trojans. no one's to blame. you were a man who always stood his ground and encouraged other men to do the same. rousing Achaeans.At that point. angry that his grandson Amphimachus had died in that harsh fight. was going to his hut. Cretan leader. or. who ruled Aetolians all through Pleuron and steep Calydon. and no one is timid here or frightened. son of Andraemon. honoured by his people as a god: 250 “Idomeneus. Poseidon. But Thoas. Idomeneus.

that's how. even among men worth very little. revealing in its dazzling flash a sign for mortal men. I want to fight. took two spears and then strode out. But get your armour and then come with me. never return from Troy. why have you come here. I've come to get a spear. looking like a lightning bolt which Cronos' son grips in his hand and hurls down from bright Olympus. and Idomeneus went into his well-made hut. swift-footed son of Molus. as he moved. Strong Idomeneus said to him: 270 280 “Meriones. leaving the war and giving up the fight? Have you been hurt? Or wounded by a spear? Are you in pain? Or have you come with news? Me. For courage of the highest sort comes when men combine.” Having said this. his brave attendant.may the man who will not fight today. strapped fine armour round his body. the companion I cherish most. I don’t want to stay here in my hut. Poseidon went away. Meriones.” 290 Wise Meriones then replied: “Idomeneus. although we're only two. and willingly. If we're to work well. and we two know how to battle with the best. if by any chance 277 . He'd come in search of a bronze spear. May he become a toy for dogs to play with. counselor of bronze-armed Cretans. met him close by the hut. a god among the toiling men. bronze glinted on his chest. we must work together.

with helmets. where one sees a warrior's courage most conspicuously. while a brave man's colour never changes. I never think of fighting hostile troops from far away—that's why I've got there brightly shining spears and embossed shields. too. I stand and fight with men in front. Why talk that way? If by the ships right now we were naming the best men for an ambush. then another. Cretan leader. answered Meriones: “I know your courage.there's one left in your huts.” Wise Meriones then answered Idomeneus: “In my hut. his mind preoccupied with thoughts of death. resting first on one foot. Other Achaeans might not know my fighting quality. Trojans spears I take from warriors I kill. shifting around. I think you've seen it for yourself. and body armour. Whenever battles start.” Idomeneus. For I can claim I don't neglect my fighting prowess. 278 300 310 320 330 . too. where cowards and brave men truly show themselves— for a coward's colour always changes. in those encounters where men win glory. leader of the Cretans. and in my black ship. and his teeth keep chattering in his mouth. Idomeneus. The one I had shattered in pieces when I hit the shield of that arrogant fighter Deïphobus. then replied: “Spears? As many as you want—in my hut twenty one stand against the sunny wall. But it's not close— too inconvenient. there's lots of Trojan loot.” To this. heart pounding in his chest. the man’s so nervous he just can’t sit still. but you.

like swift Ares. you'd be hit in front. or the left? To my mind. as fearless. But let's not chat about this any longer. getting your joy from fighting at the front. without listening to either side— that's how Meriones and Idomeneus. Meriones was the first to speak: “Son of Deucalion. in chest or stomach. For if. standing here as if we were young children. some flying weapon hit you. Then Meriones. he went with Idomeneus. leaders of men. or fault your battle rage or your strong arms. this last place is the one where long-haired Achaeans stand most in need. That could make some people very angry. set off to battle. quickly took a bronze spear from the hut. fully armed in glittering bronze. just as strong. as you charged ahead. that weapon wouldn't strike your neck or body in the back. Get yourself a heavy spear. No. in the middle of the fighting.” Cretan leader Idomeneus answered Meriones: “In the middle there are other men 340 350 360 279 . giving glory to one of them. no—he prays the killing will soon start. the middle. where do you think we should rejoin the fight? On the right side of the whole army. Filled with an urge to fight. having armed themselves to fight Ephyreans or brave Phlegyans. Go in my hut. or you were stabbed.he feels no great fear as he takes his place in the group selected for the ambush. who makes any man afraid. no matter how courageous he may be—the two of them setting out from Thrace. Just as man-killing Ares sets off to battle accompanied by his son Terror. In such a scene no one could challenge you.” Idomeneus finished.

to shore up the troops—the two Ajaxes, Teucer, too, the best Achaean archer, good in hand-to-hand combat as well. Those warriors will give Hector, Priam's son, all he can handle, even if he's keen to fight and really strong. He'll find it hard, though in full battle frenzy, to overcome their spirit, their all-powerful hands, and then burn the fleet, unless Zeus himself, son of Cronos, hurls a flaming firebrand on our swift ships. That son of Telamon, great Ajax, will not yield to any mortal man who eats Demeter's grain, who can be smashed by massive rocks or bronze. He'd not give way in a stand-up fight, not even to Achilles, who destroys ranks of men and is so fast— in running no one can beat Achilles. No, we should move toward the army's left, as you say, find out as soon as possible if we'll win glory or give it to another.” Idomeneus spoke. Like swift Ares, Meriones led the way until they reached the army, where Idomeneus had instructed him to go. When Trojans saw mighty Idomeneus, like some flame, and his attendant Meriones in his richly shining armour, they called out to each other in the crowd, then made a massive charge. By the ships' sterns both sides met in frantic battle. Just as keen winds sometimes whip up gusts of air, when dirt lies heavy on the roads, and stir up all the dust into huge clouds—that's how this fight gathered momentum then. In that crowd, men's hearts were set to slaughter one another with sharp bronze. That man-destroying combat bristled with long spears gripped by men to hack each other's flesh apart. As troops moved up tightly bunched, men's eyes went blind in the blaze of glittering bronze, glaring helmets,






finely polished body armour, gleaming shields. It would take a hard man to find joy in the sight of all that suffering and show no trace of sorrow. Then two mighty sons of Cronos, at cross purposes, made painful trouble for those mortal warriors. Zeus wanted victory for Hector and his Trojans, to give swift Achilles glory—not that he wished Achaea's army to be totally destroyed in front of Troy, but he did want to honour Thetis, and her great-hearted son, as well, Achilles. But Poseidon moved around among the Argives, urging action, coming out in secret from the sea, angry that Trojans were destroying Achaeans, and incensed at Zeus. Both gods had a common father— the same family, too—but Zeus was older and more wise. So Poseidon avoided giving any overt help. He did his work in secret through the army, in human form, urging men to fight. So these two looped the cords of powerful war and deadly strife around both contending armies, then pulled them taut, a knot no one could undo or slip away from, a knot that broke the limbs of many fighting men. Idomeneus, though old enough to have gray hair, called out to the Danaans and then charged the Trojans, driving them away. He killed Othryoneus, a man from Cabesus, who now lived in Troy. He'd come recently, responding to the news of war. He'd asked to marry Cassandra, most beautiful of Priam's daughters, without paying a bride price. Instead he'd promised a great action, saying he'd drive Achaea's sons from Troy. Old Priam had agreed, promising he'd give her to him. Othryoneus, trusting the king's promises, went off to fight. Aiming his shining spear at him, Idomeneus threw. The spear struck him as he was strutting forward. The bronze breastplate he was wearing didn't help him— the spear lodged in his gut. He fell down with a crash.






Then Idomeneus cried out in triumph:

“Othryoneus, of all mortal men I'd consider you the happiest, if you'd accomplished all those things you promised Dardan Priam, so he'd give you his daughter. But come, we'll make you the same proposition— and we'll deliver. We'll give you the loveliest of Agamemnon's daughters, bring her here from Argos, so you can wed her, if you, for your part, will join us to destroy the well-built city Ilion. So let's go. We can arrange the marriage contract by our seaworthy ships. We'll be generous about your marriage price.”


As he said this, warrior Idomeneus dragged him by the feet through lines of fighting men. But Asius then stepped up to guard Othryoneus. He was on foot, going before his horses, which his charioteer kept so close they breathed on Asius' shoulders. He'd set his heart on hitting Idomeneus. But Idomeneus was too quick for him. He hit Asius with a spear below his chin, forcing the bronze straight through his neck. Asius fell. Just as a mountain oak, poplar, or tall pine falls, cut down by working men with freshly sharpened axes, to make timbers for some ship, that how Asius lay, stretched out there before his chariot and horses, gagging, his fingers clawing at the bloody dust. His charioteer, scared out of whatever wits he'd had, didn't think of wheeling round his horses to escape his enemies' hands. Taking aim, bold Antilochus speared him in the stomach. The bronze breastplate he wore was no protection. The spear struck in his stomach.




He fell out of the well-made chariot gasping. Antilochus, brave Nestor’s son, then drove the horses from the Trojans over to well-armed Achaeans. Grieving the loss of Asius, Deïphobus came up to Idomeneus and hurled his polished spear. Idomeneus, seeing him clearly, dodged the spear, covering himself with the round shield he carried, one made of bull's hide and shining bronze in rings, with two cross braces fitted on. Idomeneus crouched down underneath this shield. The flying bronze grazed the metal with a rasping sound. But that throw from the strong arm of Deïphobus wasn't wasted. His spear hit Hypsenor, son of Hippasus, his people's shepherd, low down in the liver. His legs collapsed. Deïphobus gave a noisy shout, boasting aloud about his triumph:


“Now Asius is avenged! As he goes down to Hades, the mighty gatekeeper, his heart, I think, will be pleased I've given him an escort.” Deïphobus spoke. His boast depressed the Argives, and gave special pain to warlike Antilochus. Despite his sorrow, Antilochus did not forget his comrade. He came running up and stood over him, with his shield above his body. Two loyal companions, Mecistus, son of Echius, and Alastor, bent down, then carried Hypsenor groaning to the hollow ships. Idomeneus did not relent his fighting frenzy. He kept on trying to wrap some Trojan soldier in death's dark night or to fall himself, defending Achaeans from disaster. He killed Alcathous, dear warrior son of divinely bred Aesyetes, Anchises' son-in-law. He'd married Hippodamia, eldest of the daughters. Her mother and father




had set their heart's love on her when she was at home. She surpassed all girls her age in beauty, work, good sense. That's why the very finest man in Troy had married her. Now at Idomeneus’ hands Poseidon slaughtered Alcathous. The god cast a spell— he covered his bright eyes and froze his glistening limbs, so he couldn't flee or dodge the spear, but stood there, motionless, like a pillar or some high leafy tree. Warrior Idomeneus hit him with his spear square in the chest, shattering the bronze breastplate, which earlier had kept his skin untouched by death. But now it cracked aloud as the spear ripped through. He fell with a crash, the spear stuck in his chest. The power of his heart beat made that spear shaft quiver, right to the butt, until great Ares stilled its force. Idomeneus then spoke out, boasting aloud about his triumph:



“Deïphobus, since you like to brag this way, my friend, shall we now call it even, three men killed a fair exchange for one? Why don't you step out— face me here, so you can see for yourself what kind of child of Zeus confronts you. Zeus first fathered Minos to rule Crete. Minos then fathered worthy Deucalion. Deucalion fathered me, a king ruling many men in spacious Crete. Now my ships have brought me here as a destroying force, against you, your father, and other Trojans.” Idomeneus spoke. Deïphobus was of two minds— should he step back and pick out a companion from stout-hearted Trojans, or should he try to fight all on his own? As he thought about his options, he thought his best plan was to find Aeneas. He met him standing at the back, among the crowd, for Aeneas, who excelled among the warriors,




always resented Priam for not showing him enough respect. Deïphobus approached Aeneas, then spoke to him—his words had wings. “Aeneas, Trojan counselor, now you must defend your brother-in-law, if you feel any grief. It's urgent. Come with me and fight for Alcathous, who was your sister's husband. He raised you 550 as an infant in his home. Now Idomeneus, that celebrated spearman, has just killed him.”

Deïphobus finished. His words stirred the heart in Aeneas' chest. He strode off to face Idomeneus, fiercely eager for this fight. But no fear gripped Idomeneus, as if he were some pampered child. He stood his ground. Just as a wild mountain boar, trusting its own strength, stands firm against a mob, a crowd of men who chase it in some lonely place, with hair bristling along its back, its eyes lit up, like fire, gnashing its teeth ferociously, eager to toss dogs and men aside—that's just the way the famous spearman Idomeneus stood, without backing off, as swift Aeneas came at him. He called out to the companions he could see, Ascalaphus, Aphareus, Deïpyrus, Meriones, Antilochus—all famous for their war shouts. Idomeneus yelled, urging them to help him— his words had wings: “My friends—over here! I'm alone, so bring some help. I'm worried. Aeneas, who moves fast, is coming at me. He's powerful at killing men in battle. He's also in the flower of his youth, when strength is at its peak. Were I his age




and both of us had equal courage, he or I would soon win a huge victory.” Idomeneus finished. All his companions, united by a common spirit, came at his call. They stood beside him as a unit, sloping their shields down from their shoulders. On his side, Aeneas called out to those companions he'd caught sight of— Deïphobus, Paris, and Agenor—leaders, just as he was, of those Trojan warriors. Men came up behind them. Just as a flock of sheep follows the ram from pasture to their water, filling the shepherd's heart with joy, so Aeneas was happy in his chest to see that band of soldiers standing there around him. The men now battled on, close combat with long spears, over Alcathous. As they lunged at one another in the crowd of men, their bronze chests echoed with the fearful noise. Two men stood out above the rest for bravery— Aeneas and Idomeneus, equals of Ares, striving to slash each other's flesh with ruthless bronze. First, Aeneas threw a spear at Idomeneus, who, seeing it coming, eluded the bronze spear, which then impaled itself in earth, still quivering— it had flown from that strong hand but missed its target. Then Idomeneus struck Oenomaus in the stomach, smashing the front plate on his body armour. His bowels spilled out, as he dropped in the dust and clutched the dirt. Idomeneus yanked his long spear out of the corpse. But he couldn't strip away any of the lovely armour on its shoulders, for he was being attacked with flying weapons. His lower limbs were no longer fast enough for him to charge in quickly after his own spear or dodge aside. He could keep grim death at bay





in pitched battle, but that's all his legs could do— they were too slow for him to run away from combat. As Idomeneus retreated step by step, Deïphobus tried to hit him with a shining spear— he'd always hated Idomeneus—but he missed, hitting Ascalaphus instead, a son of Ares. The heavy spear passed straight through his shoulder. He collapsed in the dust, hands clawing at the ground. Loud-voiced mighty Ares was not yet aware his own son had fallen in the killing zone. He sat on the highest part of Mount Olympus, under golden clouds, confined by Zeus' will, along with the rest of the immortal gods, forbidden to participate in warfare. The close fighting over Ascalaphus continued. Deïphobus stripped off the corpse's shining helmet. But Meriones, like swift Ares, jumped out and speared him in the arm. The plumed helmet, with a clang, fell on the ground. Like a vulture, Meriones leapt out again, pulled the heavy spear out of his upper arm, then moved back to his group, But Deïphobus' blood brother Polites, with both arms round his waist, hauled him from the fight, until he came to his swift horses in the rear. They were standing there, waiting for him, with charioteer and finely decorated chariot. These took him away, back to the city, tired out, moaning heavily, blood dripping from his wounded arm. The rest kept fighting, with no let up in the noise. Then Aeneas went at Aphareus, son of Caletor, as he was facing him. His sharp spear hit his throat. Aphareus' head snapped back—his shield and helmet fell down on him, and Death, which takes the living spirit, gathered him in.





Antilochus kept


watching Thoön. As he turned, he rushed up and stabbed him, severing the vein which runs the full length of the back up to the neck—Antilochus slashed through this vein. Thoön fell, stretching his arms up from the dust, reaching to his friends. Antilochus jumped on him and began to strip the armour on his shoulders. But he kept his eyes alert, for he was surrounded, with Trojan men on every side, thrusting their spears at his broad shining shield. But their ruthless bronze could not scratch the tender skin behind that shield, for Earthshaker Poseidon was guarding Nestor's son, even in that hail of spears. So Antilochus never moved far from his enemies. He kept going, ranging around among them. His spear never stopped, always in motion, quivering, his eager heart keen to throw that spear at someone or attack him. As Antilochus went through that crowd of men, he was observed by Adamas, son of Asius, who charged close in—his sharp bronze spear struck the middle of his shield. But dark-haired Poseidon, unwilling to concede Antilochus’ life, made the spear point fail—so part of it got stuck in Antilochus' shield, like the charred end of a stick, and half fell on the ground. Adamas then withdrew, returning to the group of his companions, avoiding death. But Meriones went after him, as he moved back, and hit him underneath his navel, in the scrotum, the most agonizing way for men to perish miserably in battle. When that spear struck Adamas, he doubled up, bent down over the spear, writhing like a bull which farmers in the mountains bind with willow shoots and drag along by force, against the creature's will. That's how Adamas, once hit, twitched there for a while, but not for long. Warlike Meriones, running up, yanked out his spear. Then darkness covered up his eyes.





At close quarters, Helenus then hit Deïpyrus, striking his helmet with a massive Thracian sword, knocking it off, so it fell to earth and rolled away among the soldiers' feet. Some Achaean picked it up. Deïpyrus’ eyes grew cloudy, and darkness took him. Atreus' son Menelaus, skilled at war shouts, was overcome with grief. He stepped up, threatening and waving a sharp spear at warrior Helenus. Helenus pulled back on the centre of his bow. They both let fly together—one with a sharp spear, the other with an arrow from his bowstring. Priam's son hit Menelaus with his arrow— on the front plate of his armour, in the chest. The keen arrow bounded off. Just as black beans or peas fly off a broad shovel on large threshing floors, driven by the sharp wind or winnower's strength— that's how the arrow point glanced off the breast plate, then flew aside, away from glorious Menelaus. When Atreus' son Menelaus, skilled at war shouts, threw his spear, he hit Helenus in the hand, the one which held the finely polished bow. The bronze sliced through his hand into the bow. Helenus drew back into the group of his companions, escaping death. He let his hand hang by his side, dragging the ash spear behind him, till brave Agenor pulled it out. Agenor then bound up his hand in a strip of twisted sheep's wool and made a sling, which his attendant carried for him, his people's shepherd. Then Peisander made straight for glorious Menelaus. But an evil fate was leading him towards his death, destroyed at your hands, Menelaus, in lethal war. When the two men had approached each other, standing at close range, Menelaus threw but missed— his spear point was deflected. Then Peisander struck, hitting glorious Menelaus' shield, but his bronze could not break through. The broad shield withstood the blow, which snapped the spear off at its socket. But in his heart,






Peisander still felt a joyful hope of victory. The son of Atreus pulled out his silver-studded sword, then leapt at Peisander, who, from under his own shield, produced a fine axe of well-cast bronze, with a long shaft of finely-polished olive wood. The two men met. Peisander struck Menelaus on his helmet ridge, at the top, just underneath the horsehair crest. But as Peisander charged, Menelaus hit him— right on the forehead, just above his nose. The bones cracked. Both his bloody eyes fell out into the dirt beside his feet. Peisander doubled up and then collapsed. Menelaus stepped on his chest, stripped off his armour, crying out in triumph: “You arrogant Trojans, who can't get enough of war's destructive noise, this is the way you'll go back from these ships of the Danaans, who ride fast horses. You're not reluctant, where insults and dishonour are concerned, to go after me, you worthless mongrel dogs, without fearing in your hearts harsh anger from thundering Zeus, god of hospitality, who some day will destroy your lofty town. For you carried off the wife I married, lots of my property, and brought them here, although she'd entertained you royally in her own home. Now you're madly eager to throw deadly fire on our sea-going ships, to kill Achaean warriors. But you'll be stopped, no matter how much you now want to fight. Oh Father Zeus, people say for wisdom you exceed all others, men and gods alike. Yet all this comes from you, the way you show favours to these insolent men, these Trojans, whose aggressive spirit has no limit, who can never get enough of battle, though they're not winning in an equal fight. To all things there is a limit set—to sleep, to love, sweet songs, and gorgeous dancing.






son of king Pylamenes. soaking the earth. escaping death. Meriones shot at him. going right into the bladder. Polyidus. so no warrior's bronze would hit his flesh. Harpalion's death made Paris really angry. They set him in a chariot and took him away. The next man to charge against him was Harpalion.A man would rather have his fill of these. son of Polyidus the prophet. who lived at home in Corinth. For with the Paphlagonians he'd welcomed Paris as his guest. He sat down there. full of sorrow. not war. like some worm. But Trojans here are gluttons for a fight. pushing underneath the bone. But he never did return to his own country. had told him—he would either die in his own home from some foul disease or be destroyed by Trojans among Achaean ships. He'd set sail knowing full well his deadly fate. The bronze-tipped arrow hit his right buttock. to sacred Ilion. choking his life away. Brave Paphlagonians came up to help Harpalion.” After Menelaus spoke. His father went back with them. His dark blood gushed out. So he drew back into the throng of his companions. for many times his brave old father. Now. as he moved. there was a certain man called Euchenor. He looked around him carefully. in the arms of his dear comrades. in tears. Paris shot off a bronze-tipped arrow. he struck the centre of Menelaus' shield. He went back and rejoined those fighting in the front. brave man. who came to fight at Troy following his dear father. then gave its bloody armour to his comrades. convulsing on the ground. But on his way back. In a fit of anger. he stripped the body. With his spear at close range. for he could find no satisfaction for the slaughter of his son. but the bronze could not penetrate completely. a rich. Euchenor thus escaped 760 770 780 291 .

Locrians. Phthians. one related to Eriopis. son of Phyleus. and glittering Epeians. Medon was a bastard son of noble Oïleus and Ajax's brother. for he'd killed a man. Ionians in long tunics. By these ships the wall was lowest. who enfolds the earth. The arrow Paris shot hit this man by his jaw. But Hector. hadn't heard and didn't know how the Achaeans were killing off his army at the left end of the ships. away from them. So there the fight with men and horses was particularly fierce. right to the ships of Protesilaus and Ajax. led by Medon and Podarces. Thus the men keep fighting like a blazing fire. with their leader Menestheus. was driving Argives forward. both brave men. 790 800 810 820 292 .both the stiff penalty exacted by Achaeans and deadly sickness—he felt worthy in his heart. Podarcus was Iphicles’ son. smashing up the close-packed ranks of the Danaans. These men in their armour were fighting at the head of those brave Phthians. and brave Bias. son of Peteos. Dracius. not even the finest men of the Athenians. dear to Zeus. right on the ear. and the Phthians. Glory in this battle would soon have been awarded to Achaeans— that's how powerfully Earthshaker Poseidon. standing with Boeotians to defend the ships. as he attacked the ships. There Boeotians fought. They couldn't push him back. drawn up on the beach beside the blue-gray sea. alongside Pheidas. At once his spirit left his limbs. child of Phylaces. But he lived in Phylace. But Hector charged on from where he’d first breached the gates and wall. his stepmother. wife of Oïleus. far from his native land. with the Epeians led by Meges. as he came up. helping them with his own strength as well. and hateful darkness carried him away. But they had trouble standing up to Hector's charge. like an inferno. Stichius. Amphion.

those with glittering weapons. till the plough slices through the edges of the field—that's the way the two Ajaxes stood together then. breaking ranks of Trojans. if Polydamas hadn’t approached bold Hector. God has made you more excellent in war than other men. So one group of men. for you don't take advice. courageous soldiers. in council you want us all to think you’re better than the rest. while another shot from safe positions at the back. son of Oïleus. For some others. or playing the lyre. Hector. moving back from the ships and huts to windy Troy. who'd relieve him of his shield when his sweaty limbs grew tired. But in yourself you can't be everything at once. with nothing but a well-polished yoke between them. The gods make one man superior in warfare. all-seeing Zeus puts wisdom in their hearts— 830 840 850 860 293 . another in the dance. no round shields.Ajax. saying: “You're a difficult man to deal with. fought at the front against bronze-armed Hector and his Trojans. Telamonian Ajax had many comrades with him. Thus. firing thick volleys. son of Telamon—he fought beside him. Later they battled on with these. The arrows drained the Trojans' fighting spirit. side by side. But the Locrians had not come forward with brave Oïlean Ajax— they lacked courage for fighting in the killing zone. beads of sweat running from the bottom of their horns. and no ash spears. as they labour down the furrows. They'd come to Troy with Ajax trusting in their bows and slings of twisted sheep’s wool. Just as in a meadow a pair of wine-dark oxen strain with the same heart to pull a jointed plough. would not move away from Ajax. or singing. for they had no plumed bronze helmets. The Trojans would then have been shamed into retreat.

Hector marched through the ranks of their best warriors. 294 870 880 890 . are standing idle with their weapons. many are saved. they all came running over to Polydamas. scattered around the ships. looking for Deïphobus. But these men had not come through unscathed. keep all the best men here.and from these men many people benefit. Some were already dead. then summon here to you all our finest men.” Polydamas finished. in the hope god wants to give us victory. encouraging his comrades. His advice pleased Hector. I'm afraid Achaeans may avenge the hurt we gave them yesterday. Then we can weigh our options— whether we should assault the well-decked ships. we leave the ships. for safety’s sake. So I'll say what I think it's best to do. since by their ships there sits a man with appetite for war— I think he may change his decision not to fight. fight on— but in small groups against a larger mass. You should fall back. shouting instructions. or whether. for such men know what's right. husband of fair-haired Helen. killed at Argive hands by the sterns of Achaea’s ships. returning when I've told them what to do. All around you war's fiery circle rages.” Saying that. Hector met Paris. brave prince Helenus. On the left flank of that destructive battle. Others. kind son of Panthous. Others inside the wall had spear or arrow wounds. going by Trojans and allies. I'll go back to battle over there. Adamas. urging them to fight. son of Asius. like a snowy mountain. son of Hyrtacus. Hector strode off. having breached the wall. but some brave Trojans. He took up his weapons and spoke—his words had wings: “Polydamas. When these men heard what Hector wanted them to do. At once he jumped out of his chariot to the ground. and Asius.

Ascanius. then with a roar slicing into the sea. he can no longer continue in the war. Orthaeus. whipping up 930 295 . no matter how keen a man may be. When my mother bore me. Once that goes. All of high Ilion has been destroyed. Just like blasts of storming winds striking the earth under Father Zeus' thunder. Only Deïphobus and brave Helenus have gone back. men who'd come from fertile Ascania the day before as reinforcements. Since the moment you told your men to fight beside the ships. son of Hyrtacus? Where's Othryoneus? Tell me that. Hector taunted Paris: “You may be the best-looking man around.Approaching him. Morus. but you're a useless woman-mad seducer. we'll follow you quite willingly. 910 At other times I have held back from war. lead on where your spirit tells you.” Then noble Alexander answered Hector: 900 “Hector. she did not produce a total coward. Where are Deïphobus. noble Polydamas. and Asius. we've been in combat here. but not this time. son of Hippotion. Now Zeus incited them to war. I don’t think we’ll show a lack of courage while our strength holds out. Phalces. Your own death is certain. 920 But now. you’re now blaming someone innocent. with Cebriones. Palmys. brave prince Helenus.” Warrior Paris' words won his brother's heart. in a constant struggle with Danaans. They set off for the centre of that noisy battle. Those companions you just mentioned have been killed. The Trojans advanced. both wounded in the arm— hit by a long spear—but Zeus saved them from death. son of Asius. Adamas. godlike Polyphetes.

with lines of arching foam. The first fighter to challenge Hector was great Ajax. But Achaean hearts stood firm. one following another— that how Trojans marched behind their leaders. a high-flying eagle. when they speed through dust to get you to your city on the plain. He moved out. then covered with a solid layer of hammered bronze. son of Priam. 950 960 296 .” As Ajax spoke. and your heart now wants to break our ships. Like man-destroying Ares. in a tight formation. In fact. He held his shield in front of him. densely packed. you stupid boaster? I wish it were as certain that I was the son of aegis-bearing Zeus himself. Encouraged by the omen. you poor man. the Achaean soldiers responded with a cheer. to see if they'd retreat from him as he came forward covered by his shield. Zeus' harsh whip has lashed Achaeans back. glittering in bronze. praying to Father Zeus and other gods.a crowd of surging waves across a booming ocean. I think it’s far more likely now we’ll take your well-built city—these hands of ours will smash it long before you seize our ships. Hector. testing all parts of the Achaean lines. led them. a bird flew out on the right. who marched out with long strides and shouted: 940 “Come closer. Why try to scare the Argives? When it comes to fighting. I say the time has come when you'll run back. we're not ignorant. But we've got hands to raise in their defense. to make your horses with their lovely manes fly as fast as hawks. one behind the other. Glorious Hector then said to Ajax in reply: “What are you saying. helmet gleaming round his temples. an even circle made of hide.

Then once you fall down there.” 970 Hector spoke. They hadn't lost their courage. beside Achaea’s ships. if you dare to stand up to my long spear.with Hera for my mother. The noise from both sides went up into bright Zeus' sky 980 297 . even from soldiers at the back. It will slice your lily skin. You'll lie among the dead. making a huge din. and honoured like Apollo or Athena. the Argives raised a shout. as I am that this day brings disaster to the Argives—all of them. Trojan dogs and birds will feed upon your flesh and fat. On the other side. Then he advanced—the troops moved up behind him. They’d held their line against the finest Trojans launching their attack.

The son was fighting with his father's shield. It lay there in the hut. the Argives getting the better of the battle.Book Fourteen Zeus Deceived [Nestor leaves his hut to look around. sees the Achaeans in retreat. Odysseus responds harshly to the suggestion. At once he saw a shameful sight— Achaeans in retreat. Hera gets a Aphrodite's love charms. Hera thinks of a plan to deceive Zeus. then stood outside the hut. Hera visits Sleep and gets his cooperation. Just as the great sea heaves with a sullen purple swell. he said to Asclepius' son: “Noble Machaon. I'll go to a lookout. Nestor meets the wounded kings inspecting the field.” Nestor took the well-made shield belonging to his son. Ajax wounds Hector badly with a rock. see what's going on. Nestor took a strong spear with a sharp bronze point. Drink some sparkling wine. gleaming bronze. You should sit here for now. has sex with him. Hera visits Zeus on Ida.] As Nestor sat drinking wine. horse-taming Thrasymedes. think about how this battle will end up— the shouting from our young men by the ships is getting louder. Hector withdraws. Agamemnon advises going home. pushed back by their enemies. until some steady storm blows down from Zeus—that's how 298 10 . she prepares herself to look seductive. high-hearted Trojans. listening to the noise of war. The Achaean wall was breached. Poseidon rallies the Argives and leads them into battle. Diomedes advises them to visit the battle. Poseidon continues to encourage the Argives. anticipating the swift passage of sharp winds— but uncertainly—so its waves have no direction. till Hecamede with the lovely hair draws you a warm bath and washes the dried blood off your body. and Zeus goes to sleep. the killings continue on both sides.

20 the old man was lost in thought. kept on butchering each other. or see if he could find Agamemnon. as they thrust with swords and double-bladed spears. hauled them inland. The kings had set out in one group together. each one leaning on a spear. Should he seek out the crowd of swift-riding Danaans. dragging up their own ships first. son of Atreus. the anxiety in their Achaean hearts was even more acute. the other men kept up the fight. So they'd set the ships in rows. great glory of Achaeans. They’d drawn their ships on shore beside the blue-gray sea. Deep in their chests they were very troubled. his heart divided between two courses. The army didn't have much space to hold the boats. the best course seemed to be to find the son of Atreus. Meanwhile. why are you here? Why have you left the battle? I'm afraid that mighty Hector will make good those words 299 50 . The beach was wide. along with Agamemnon. but not long enough for all the fleet. then built the wall along the sterns. and thus filled up the whole wide coastal bay between the headlands. son of Atreus. son of Neleus. far from battle. When old Nestor met them. to see the fighting and check the progress of the war. Mighty Agamemnon spoke to him and said: 30 40 “Nestor. Around their bodies the unwearied bronze rang out. Then Nestor came across the kings the gods sustain— they were walking round among the ships—all the ones whom bronze had wounded—Diomedes and Odysseus. his people's shepherd? As he thought it over.

Whichever way you look.” Agamemnon. replied: 60 70 “Nestor. men are constantly in action by our ships. even if you really try. And now it's happening. since the men now fight at our ships' sterns. I'm not saying we should rejoin the fight—that's not expected from those who have been wounded. whose hearts had trusted they’d provide a firm defence and keep our soldiers and our ships secure— from this I gather that almighty Zeus must enjoy it when Achaeans perish without a name. That's what he said. We put our faith in it as a firm defence for ships and for ourselves. you cannot tell from what direction we are being attacked.” Geranian horseman Nestor answered Agamemnon: “What's happened so far is over. done with— not even high-thundering Zeus himself could make that something else—our wall is down. if thinking is a help. What chaos! Other well-armed Achaeans in their hearts must be angry with me. king of men. with no relief. unwilling to continue fighting by our ships. At this moment. in that speech he gave his Trojans. The killing is haphazard. like Achilles.he used to threaten us. 80 300 . far from Argos. saying he'd not return from our ships to Troy until he’d burned them and slaughtered all the men. we should consider how these events will end. As for us. right here. and since our strong wall and ditch are useless— something crushing for Danaans. The battle shouts fill heaven. It's all confused.

no one who is a sceptred king whom men obey— as many as those Argive troops you lead. and were not our leader. Then we can shift the other ships.I felt when Zeus was giving the Danaans his full assistance. one by one. moor them there with stones in deeper water. From what you've said. city of wide streets. some useless men.” In response to this. Are you really willing to leave Troy. brings no shame. But come now. when he gives the glory to the Trojans. Let's drag down those ships drawn up in line closest to the surf and pull them all into the sacred sea. so that. how can such words as these come from your mouth? I'm finished with you. I wish you ruled some other army. till. and I know it now. Odysseus scowled and said: “Son of Atreus. let's agree to what I propose. until the coming of immortal night— which may prevent the Trojans' fighting. learn what you’ve proposed in words no man should ever let pass through his mouth at all. like blessed gods. Zeus sees to it that from our youthful days to our old age we must grind away at wretched war. even at night. no man whose heart has any understanding of what's appropriate to say. you tell us now to drag our well-decked ships down to the sea. our fighting spirit. I think you've lost your mind. for whose sake we've borne so many evils? You'd better keep that quiet— another Achaean man may hear the news. To flee from ruin. while draining all our strength. we die. 90 100 110 120 301 . It's better to escape one's own destruction— to run off—than let it overtake you. In the middle of a fight. though Trojans may be winning now.

Then your plan. who lies in Thebes hidden underground. Oeneus. my father's father. you leader of the army. will destroy it. Achaeans then will never go on fighting— the whole time they'll be looking over here and pulling out from battle.” Agamemnon. with many wheat-bearing fields and orchards 140 302 .” 130 Then Diomedes. king of men. He stayed there. if you'll listen. He married a daughter of Adrestus. Melus. without any one of you resenting me because I'm younger than the rest of you. spoke up: “That man's close by. lived in a prosperous home. that harsh rebuke of yours has stung my heart.they'd get what they most pray for realized— the complete annihilation of us all. I claim worthy descent through Tydeus. But I'm not the man to tell Achaea's sons to drag our well-decked ships into the sea if they're not willing. We've no need to search too long. as well. but my father roamed around. Portheus had three fine sons in Pleuron and steep Calydon—Agrius. He was the most courageous of them all. skilled in battle shouts. replied: “Odysseus. For once we drag our ships into the sea. That was what Zeus willed— other gods. and a third. So show me someone with a better plan than mine—young or old— I'll welcome it. He came to Argos.

Well. then. let out a mighty roar— as loud as the din from nine or ten thousand men when on a battleground they first clash with Ares. Poseidon talked to him—his words had wings. to the battle. That's how loud the sound was which came out then 180 303 . You must have heard all this and know it's true. in case someone is hit and gets more wounds. We must go back there. a weakling. led by Agamemnon. Taking Atreus’ son Agamemnon by his right hand. not in the least. as he raced off to the plain. and thus demean what I advise. the blessed gods aren't angry with you over anything. even those who. though we're wounded. so Troy's kings and leaders may yet make dust while scurrying over this wide plain. we'll stand back from combat. wallowing in their feelings. Famous Earthshaker Poseidon saw all this. have stood aside. So they set off. As for you. “Son of Atreus. he may be killed anyway—some god may strike him. He was the best of all the Argive spearman. without fighting up to now. He walked among them in the shape of an old man. He's not in his right mind. Once there. king of men. beyond the range of flying weapons.planted all through his estate—and many sheep.” They listened well to Diomedes and agreed. if what I say is good.” 150 160 170 Poseidon said these words. while you watch them running to their city. to see Achaeans slaughtered and in flight. So you would never label me by birth a coward. back from these huts. But we'll urge on the others. in Achilles’ chest his destructive heart is really happy now.

infusing great strength in each man's heart to keep on going. with close-fitting doors set against their posts. 304 190 200 210 220 . and make love.from powerful Earthshaker's chest. She recognized her brother-in-law at once. then rubbed her skin with fragrant oil. for he was her brother and her husband's. to fight on there and not to pause for rest. secured with a secret lock. Then she wrapped around herself a heavenly robe. Hera's heart was pleased. adorning it with gorgeous embroidery. on a peak of Mount Olympus Hera of the golden throne was standing watching. sitting on the highest peak on top of Ida. then closed the shining doors. then arranged her hair. First. If this perfume were merely stirred inside Zeus' bronze-floored house. Hera then fixed earrings in her pierced ear lobes. In her heart the best course of action seemed to be to make herself look most attractive. So ox-eyed queen Hera then began considering how she might deceive the mind of aegis-bearing Zeus. She looked across at Zeus. go to Ida. as he kept busy in the war where men win glory. which Hephaestus. Hatred filled her heart. with its many fountains. which Athena made for her from silky fabric. each with three gemstones. She went in there. With her own hands she combed her shining locks in braids. then see if Zeus would want to lie down with her. its scent would then diffuse throughout heaven and earth. As this was happening. made specially for her. her dear son. an enchanting glitter. had made for her. Then she could pour out on his eyelids and his crafty mind a deep warm sleep. On her waist she put a belt with a hundred tassels. with ambrosia she washed from her lovely body all the stains. She used this perfume all over her fair body. embrace her. which no other god could open. divinely sweet. a stunning style for an immortal goddess. She pinned the robe around her breast with golden brooches. too. She went off to her bedroom.

she left the room and summoned Aphrodite.” Then queen Hera. if I can. they've stayed apart from one another. she said to her: “My dear child. white as the sun. forced Cronos underground. under the restless seas. taking good care of me inside their home. with her devious mind.Next the queen of goddesses placed on her head a fine new dazzling shawl. since I help Danaans and you aid the Trojans?” Zeus' daughter Aphrodite answered her: 230 “Hera. honoured goddess. once they got me from Rhea. daughter of great Cronos. And I'll resolve their endless quarrel. I'm going to visit them. which you use to master all immortals. because you're angry with me in your heart. the two who reared me. and mortal men as well. Once Hera had dressed her body in this finery. since anger fills their hearts. to see Oceanus. or will you refuse. will you agree to do what I ask of you. My heart tells me I should do what you ask. who sees far and wide. She then slipped lovely sandals over her sleek feet. Some distance from the other gods. replied: “Then give me Love and Sexual Desire. For a long time now. not sharing love there in the marriage bed. say what's on your mind. and mother Tethys. if it's something that can be carried out. I'm going to visit the limits of this all-nourishing earth. that time Zeus. from whom the gods arose. If my words 240 250 305 .

embroidered garment in which all her magic charms were fixed—for love. Ox-eyed queen Hera smiled. Zeus' daughter. coming to Lemnos.” Aphrodite spoke. Death's brother. rushed by the highest mountains of Thracian horsemen— her feet did not touch ground on those snow-covered peaks. obey me now. went back home. put the garment round her breasts. Aphrodite put this in Hera's hands.” Aphrodite finished. which steals the wits even of clear-thinking men. flirtation. erotic lust. Clasping his hand. lovely Emathia. I'll be grateful always. There she met Sleep. the greatest of the gods. I don't think you'll come back unsuccessful in getting what it is your heart desires. leaving the crest of Mount Olympus. and seduction. she spoke to him: “Sleep. Then Aphrodite. if you've ever listened to what I say. as she did so. they'd think of me with loving reverence. Everything is interwoven in the cloth. 280 260 270 306 . since you sleep in the arms of Zeus. Hera sped off. king of all men and gods. and. then said: “Take this garment. She touched down on Pieria. bring them to bed again. Tie it round your breasts.could reconcile the hearts in these two gods. then loosened from her breasts the finely decorated.” Laughter-loving Aphrodite answered Hera: “It wouldn't be appropriate for me to say no to your demand. once more in love. city of godlike Thoas. From Athos she went across the heaving sea.

Under it he'll set a stool. I ran away to her. the source of all of them. pouring my sweetness over him. asks in person. throwing gods around his house. after he'd sacked the Trojans' city.Lull Zeus' radiant eyes to sleep for me. above all. You then carried evil in your heart for Hercules. even the streams of river Ocean. unless he bids me. if Night. Your request some time ago taught me my lesson. though still enraged. Now here you are again. when I'm stretched out for sex beside him. and Zeus held back. for me. he was incensed. so you can rest your feet when drinking wine.” Ox-eyed queen Hera then answered him: 290 300 310 307 . looking. daughter of mighty Cronos. indestructible gold which my own son Hephaestus with his ambidextrous skills will make for you. I'll give you as a gift a lovely throne. who subdues gods and men. had not saved me. But I won't come near Zeus. I could with ease bring some other immortal one to sleep. on that very day when Hercules.” Sweet Sleep then said in reply: “Honoured goddess Hera. set sail from Ilion. taking him at last to well-settled Cos. lull him to sleep. When Zeus woke up. far from all his friends. asking me to do something I simply must not do. not wishing to offend swift Night. He'd have tossed me from heaven into the sea. son of almighty Zeus. driving blasts of hostile winds across the sea. That's when I seduced the mind of aegis-bearing Zeus.

1 320 330 340 The Titans are the generation of gods before Zeus. moving quickly. They walked on dry land. Sleep then stopped. why concern your heart about these matters? Do you think all-seeing Zeus feels for Trojans the same rage he felt then for Hercules. They left behind them the cities of Lemnos and Imbros. Concealed in that tree's branches. those called the Titans. that you will give me one of the Graces. climbed a high pine tree. 308 . shaking treetops underneath their feet. wrapping themselves in mist. She made the oath. They are imprisoned deep under the earth in a place called Tartarus. but people name Cymindis. then came to Mount Ida with its many springs. Cronos.” Hera finished. shaped like the clear-voiced mountain bird which gods call Chalcis.“Sleep. so all may witness our agreement. and arrived at Lectum. as he had asked. the ones he overthrew when he rebelled against his father. whom I long for every day.” White-armed goddess Hera agreed to Sleep's request. invoking all the gods under Tartarus. setting one hand on the all-nourishing earth. where for the first time they left the sea.1 Once she'd finished saying the oath. before Zeus' eyes could see him. at that time the tallest one growing on Ida. whom you long for every day. mother of wild creatures. the other on the shimmering sea. even those gods underground with Cronos. his own son? But come. Swear to me by waters of the inviolable river Styx. Pasithea. Sleep perched there. I'll give you as your wife one of the younger Graces. they both set off. then. Sleep was overjoyed and said: “All right. It stretched up through the lower air right into the sky. You can marry Pasithea.

his wise heart became suffused with sexual desire. I'll try to mediate their endless quarrel. from whom gods came. As he looked. for any mortal woman. if I say nothing about going to visit deep-flowing Oceanus in his home. It's flooding through me. they've stayed apart from one another. As for my horses. you can go there later. coming down here from Olympus? Your chariot and your horses are not here. to Oceanus. to carry me across dry land and sea. high Gargarus. lying on a couch without their parents' knowledge. and said: “Hera. they're standing at the foot of Ida. Cloud-gatherer Zeus caught sight of her. as strong as when they'd first made love together. overpowering the heart here in my chest—not even when I lusted for 309 . to stop you from being angry with me afterwards. not sharing love there in the marriage bed. But why don't we lie down and make joyful love together? I've never felt such sexual desire before for any goddess. since anger fills their hearts. down from Mount Olympus. I've come here now. Zeus stood up in front of her. with its many springs. and mother Tethys. who looked after me in their own home.” Queen Hera with her crafty mind then answered Zeus: “I'm going to visit the outer limits of this all-nourishing earth.Hera moved quickly on to Ida's peak. what are you looking for. They raised me well.” Cloud-gatherer Zeus then answered: 350 360 370 “Hera. called her. For a long time now. You should use them.

who gave birth to Hercules in Thebes. Even sun god Helios will not see the two of us. what if one of the immortal gods observes us. nor Semele.Ixion's wife. most illustrious of men. and his rays 410 310 . Let's go and lie down there. don't be afraid that any god or man will glimpse a thing. who bore that joy to mortals Dionysus. That would be scandalous. a man as wise as gods. if your heart's set on it. then goes and tells the other gods? I could not get up from this bed and go into your home. as we sleep. on Ida’s peaks. or Danaë. who gave birth to Perseus. who bore me Minos and godlike Rhadamanthus. not even for yourself— I felt for none of these the love I feel for you right now—such sweet desire grips me. nor fair-haired lady Demeter. who bore me Peirithous. since you're so keen for us to go to bed. what are you saying? If you now want us to make love lying here. with her enchanting ankles. I'll cover you up in a golden cloud. nor Alcmene. that glorious girl. a mighty hearted son. It has close-fitting doors fixed into posts. you have that bedroom your own son Hephaestus had built for you. But if that's your wish. nor the daughter of famous Phoenix. daughter of Acrisius.” Queen Hera with her cunning mind then said in reply: “Most fearsome son of Cronos. nor Leto. where anyone can see.” Cloud-gatherer Zeus then answered her: 380 390 400 “Hera.

even more so than before. Then Cronos' son took his wife in his arms. I’ve covered him with a delicious sleep.” Zeus finished. He even boasts about it— since Achilles stays beside his hollow ships. crocuses. He ran to those in front. his wife in his embrace. anger in his heart. overcome with love and sleep. the best and biggest in our whole army. Sleep left there for some well-known tribes of men. calling in a loud voice: 420 430 “You Argives. let's all follow what I suggest. They lay together there covered with a cloud. Coming up to him. Sleep spoke—his words had wings: “Poseidon. son of Priam—allow him to take our ships and get the glory? That's what he says. and hyacinths.are the most perceptive spies of all. from which fell glistening dew. to hold the lovers off the ground. if only for a while—Zeus is fast asleep. the Encircler and Shaker of the Earth. cover our heads with gleaming helmets. are we really going to give the victory to Hector. But we won't miss him much if the rest of us get fighting strength and help each other. lush and soft. Then Zeus slumbered peacefully on Mount Gargarus. But he made Poseidon want to help Danaans. to inform Poseidon. you could now assist the Argives quite readily and give them glory. 440 311 . a lovely golden mist. Hera has seduced him on a bed of love. Sweet Sleep rushed to the Achaean ships. Underneath them divine Earth made fresh flowers grow— dew-covered clover.” Saying this. Let's arm ourselves with shields. So come.

Then he and dark-haired Poseidon launched the fight. Moving among the warriors. The spear hit Ajax. a wind which at its worst makes the most piercing noise— that's how loud the shouting came from Trojans and Achaeans. one for his shield. driven there from the depths by the harsh North Wind. glorious Hector organized his men. louder than ocean surf booming on shore. no matter how much he wants to fight. as the two sides met with a tremendous noise. The soldiers heard him and obeyed. and Odysseus. they marched out. one for his silver-studded sword. than roaring fire as it jumps to burn the trees in some mountain clearing. though wounded. On the other side. and go. Glorious Hector first threw his spear at Ajax. Priam's son. as they went at each other. gripping in his powerful fist a fearful sword. organized the men— Agamemnon. I'll lead us.take in our hands the longest spears. with a long edge. which no man in grim battle could withstand—his fear would hold him back.” Poseidon spoke. Once their bodies were encased in gleaming bronze. the other leading Argives. the most destructive moments of that battle. Diomedes. too. as he'd just turned to face him. He drew back into the group of his companions. The kings themselves. But great Telamonian Ajax 312 450 460 470 . Hector was annoyed— his weapon had flown from his hand and missed its mark. they supervised the exchange of weapons. one commanding Trojans. terrifying screams. louder than the wind which howls through the highest branches of some oak tree. I don't think Hector. Earthshaker Poseidon led them. will hold. The best men put on the best equipment. The sea surged up to the Achaean huts and ships. right where two straps intersected on his chest. louder. These saved his tender flesh. the worst men got the worst. evading death. like a lightning bolt.

The finely worked bronze armour round his body rattled. With chariot and horses they took Hector. Just like those times Father Zeus uproots some oak tree with a lightning bolt—it falls. close to Hector’s neck. His spear dropped from his hand. Achaeans ran up. His eyes opened. lying on the ground. The impact spun Hector like a top. their battle fury roused. going at Trojans even more. whose father is immortal Zeus. His companions picked him up and took him out of the fighting in their arms. too. the best men rallied by him. rock wedges used to prop the ships. but no one could wound him. 480 490 500 510 313 . for Zeus' lighting bolts fill men with terror— that's how mighty Hector fell down in the dust. hoping to drag Hector back. None of the others ignored Hector. but then vomited dark blood and fell down on his back again. Aeneas. But when they reached the ford on that lovely river. Polydamas. and noble Glaucus. until they came to his swift horses waiting for him with their charioteer and richly ornate chariot behind the battle lines. Ajax picked up one of these and struck Hector's chest. for his spirit was still overpowered by that blow from Ajax.hit Hector with a rock as he was moving back— there were many of them there rolling underfoot. reeling round and round. groaning badly. Black night was covering up his eyes. Their spears flew thick and fast. They poured on water to revive him. lord Agenor. they held round shields. In front of him. just above the shield rim. Raising a loud shout. the swirling Xanthus. When Argives saw Hector carried back. Before that happened. He rose to his knees. that shepherd of his people. his helmet. they charged in. right where they fought. Lycian leader Sarpedon. with sword or spear. they lifted him out and set him on the ground. which no one close by can look at without fear. towards the city. His shield fell on him. with an awful smell of sulphur spreading from it.

It struck his spine up high. while he was tending cattle by the river banks at the Satnioeis. The spear hit Archelochus. It cut both sinews. who'd conceived him with a Naiad nymph. slicing through.Far ahead of all the rest came Oïlean Ajax. son of Telamon. he struck Satnius. Polydamas nimbly avoided his dark fate. Polydamas. But jumping to one side.” Polydamas' loud boasting pained the Argives. exulted in his triumph: “I don't think that spear flew in vain from the strong hand of Panthous' valiant son. son of Enops. and Ajax cried to brave Polydamas: “Consider this. I think as he goes down to Hades' house. his head. Some Argive has got it in his flesh. famous spearman. in his right shoulder. and nose hit the earth well before his knees. son of Panthous. For Prothoënor fell right next to him. Spearman Polydamas. Antenor's son— the gods had planned his death. came up to help. where the head attaches to the neck. Jumping out with his sharp spear. He especially roused the spirit in fierce Ajax. The heavy spear tore through the shoulder. Ajax. So Ajax quickly moved ahead and hurled his shining spear. came up and struck him in the side. He fell down— lying in the dust and clawing dirt. He threw and hit Prothoënor. he'll use it as a walking staff. He looks like 520 530 540 550 314 . mouth. and tell me the truth—is not this man here worth killing to avenge Prothoënor? He doesn't seem to be unworthy. or from inferior parents. As he fell. Satnius fell backwards. Polydamas. Trojans and Danaans then fought on around him. with a great shout. son of Oïleus. son of Areilycus.

Trojans hearts were seized with grief. Over the body Acamas shouted then in triumph: “You Argive boasters. as he was trying to drag Archelochus by his feet. who did not stay there to confront the charge of noble Peneleus. how you love to threaten! Misery like this. is not for us alone. Then Acamas. a man whom Hermes loved above all Trojans. and sliced the tendons at the nape. That's why in time of war a soldier prays he leaves at home a brother to avenge him. stretching out his arms.” Acamas shouted this. thanks to my spear. Peneleus drew his sharp sword and struck his neck. knowing very well the man he'd killed.” Ajax shouted this. chopping head and helmet. with his spear struck Promachus. Ilioneus was the only child his mother bore to Phorbas. standing above his brother's body. 570 560 so he then struck Ilioneus. The spear knocked out the eyeball. Whatever's owed to me for my brother has not been unpaid long. Ilioneus collapsed. son of Phorbas. See how your Promachus now sleeps in death. Holding it up high. He charged at Acamas. just underneath his eye. drove through his neck. like a flowering poppy. so they hit the ground. went in his eye. a Boeotian. the spear still sticking from the socket of his eye. and he'd made him wealthy. all this suffering. perhaps his son—he looks a lot like him. bringing grief to Argives. You too some day will be killed like this. below his eyebrows. who owned many flocks. But then he was hit by Peneleus.a brother of horse-taming Antenor. Peneleus shouted a loud boast at the Trojans: 315 580 . He really stirred the heart of warlike Peneleus.

then the wife of this Promachus. limbs trembling. 600 610 316 . But Ajax. when famous Earthshaker turned the tides of war. as he ran. Then Antilochus stripped spoils from Mermerus and Phalces. killed the most. while Teucer slaughtered Prothoön and Periphetes. The first for that was Ajax. a shepherd to his people. the son of Gyrtius. His life-spirit left him through the wound. Meriones killed Morus and Hippotion. you Muses living on Olympus. He hit Hyrtius. For none could match his speed on foot. swift son of Oïleus. who led the courageous Mysians. Every man looked around to see how he could evade grim death. which of the Achaeans was first to carry off bloody trophies from the men who'd just been slaughtered. The Trojans were shaken. chasing men in flight when Zeus forced them to flee. As it went through him. When we Achaean lads sail in our ships from Troy. will not be celebrating the return of her beloved husband. son of Alegenor.” 590 Peneleos finished. son of Telamon.“Trojans. the spear forced out his guts. and darkness veiled his eyes. Tell me now. you can now tell the dear father and mother of fine Ilioneus to lament all through their house. and Menelaus hit Hyperenor in the side.

Apollo knocks down the wall and fills in the ditch. gets Ares angry at Zeus. the armies fight around the ships. He stood up quickly. in full retreat. putting two anvils on your feet. Apollo helps Hector recover. Poseidon's resentment of Zeus. The warrior who'd struck him was not the weakest of Achaeans. lying on the peaks of Ida alongside Hera of the golden throne. Poseidon withdraws from battle. Don't you recall the time I strung you up on high. Ajax plays a leading role in defending the Achaeans. saw Trojans running off with Argives driving them from the back. with many slaughtered by Danaans. He saw Hector lying on the plain. But I think you may be the first to get rewarded for your wretched scheme. the battle starts again with Apollo leading the Trojans and pushing the Achaeans back. Iris goes to Poseidon with Zeus' orders. At that point Zeus. Hector seizes the stern of a ship. Watching him. the father of gods and men pitied Hector. Looking at Hera with a fearful scowl. when I flog you with my whip. looked at Trojans and Achaeans. among them god Poseidon. Zeus wakes up on Ida. passed the wall and ditch. Hector was gagging painfully. dazed and vomiting blood. Iris and Apollo go to Zeus on Ida. Zeus instructs Hera to send Iris and Apollo to him. terrified. Zeus sends Apollo to Hector. Hera. pale with fear.Book Fifteen The Battle at the Ships [Trojans are driven in retreat. devising such deceitful tricks to get lord Hector from the fight and make the army run away. tying your wrists with unbreakable gold rope? You hung there. woke up. Athena restrains Ares. Zeus said: “You're impossible to deal with. regrouping by their chariots. 10 20 317 . turns on Hera. Then they stopped. but Ajax holds Achaeans off with a long pike] Trojans. Hera returns to Olympus. his companions sitting round him.

Your evil scheming later carried him to well-settled Cos. If I'd caught one trying. on which the most binding. I'd not advise him to go against you. his strength all gone. when you came from the gods intending to deceive me.in the air among the clouds. I'll remind you of these things once more. so you'll stop your malicious trickery. but just stood there. all through Olympus. stand witnesses. most fearful oaths are made by blessed gods—let your sacred head. our marriage bed as well.” Zeus spoke. wherever you might lead. were very anxious. this couch where you lay to have sex with me. You and North Wind drove him with storm blasts over restless seas. but to follow you. unable to untie you. But even with all that. with the flowing waters of the river Styx. to help Argives— in all that I had no part. tossed him from the threshold so he hit ground. I'd have grabbed him. I couldn't ease the constant pain I felt for god-like Hercules. lord of the dark cloud.” 30 40 50 318 . things on which I'd never swear untruthfully— the harm that Earthshaker Poseidon did to Hector and the Trojans. His own heart pushed and drove him on. Other gods. I rescued him from there and brought him back to horse-breeding Argos. so you'll see the advantages you get from this seduction. He saw Achaeans being beaten by their ships and pitied them. but only after he'd endured too much. Ox-eyed queen Hera trembled as she answered—her words had wings: “Let earth and wide heaven above be witnesses.

Hera finished. so she may visit bronze-armed Achaean soldiers and instruct lord Poseidon to stop fighting and return 70 to his own house. The father of gods and men smiled and then replied— his words had wings: “Ox-eyed queen Hera. 80 killed by Patroclus. with Athena's guidance. whom glorious Hector will then kill in a spear fight right in front of Ilion. as you took your seat among immortals. Patroclus. godlike Sarpedon. until Achaeans take steep Ilion. not before Achilles' wishes have been carried out. Then. They'll run back to Achilles' ships with many oars. 60 if from now on you and I were of one mind. godlike Achilles will slaughter Hector. go now to that group of gods. Until that time. after reviving Hector for the fight. he'd quickly bring them into line with yours and mine. From that moment on. nor let any other immortal god 90 assist Achaeans here. speaking the truth. including my own son. then. after many other young men have gone down. leaving the ships. no matter how much Poseidon's views differed from our own. the famous archer. I'll make the Trojans steadily fall back. If you're being frank. and order Iris to come here with Apollo. once he's turned them into cowards. in his anger at Patroclus' death. will breathe new strength into him. And Phoebus Apollo. 319 . The son of Peleus will send out his companion. He'll forget that pain which now weighs down his spirit. He'll drive Achaeans back a second time. I'll not restrain my anger.

destroyer of cities. the son of Cronos. something. they all stood up and offered her their cups in welcome. here in the palace. and thinks “I wish I were here! I wish I were there!”— 100 that's how fast queen Hera hurried in her eagerness. Reaching steep Olympus. how he can be so harsh and overbearing. Just as the mind races in a man who's voyaged to many lands. although some may still enjoy our feast. You know his moods. why have you come? You look upset. in gods or men. nodding my assent. You'll learn about these things when all the immortals do—the evil plans Zeus is proposing. White-armed goddess Hera obeyed him. You should start the communal banquet now. Seeing her. has frightened you?” Ox-eyed queen Hera then replied: 110 “Goddess Themis. the first who came running up to meet her.” 320 . when in his fertile head he recalls everything. don't question me like this. Themis spoke to her— her words had wings: “Hera. which won't please all hearts alike. she found immortal gods together at Zeus' palace in a meeting. in my view. Hera took the cup of fair-cheeked Themis. Perhaps your husband. leaving Mount Ida for high Olympus. Ignoring all the others.as I first promised.” Zeus finished speaking. that day when goddess Thetis held my knee and begged me to bring honour to Achilles.

feelings between Zeus and other immortal gods could have become much harsher. acknowledges as his. if I go down now to Achaean ships. to avenge my son's slaughter. manifestly so. and thrown them to one side. I think bad trouble has now come to Ares—in that fight his son's been killed. Hera then burst out: “What fools we are to get incensed at Zeus so stupidly! We're still keen to get close to him. Ares struck his sturdy thighs with the flat of his hands and. more incensed. grabbed the shield from off his shoulders and the spear out of his mighty fist.” Once Hera finished. burst out: “Don't blame me. In fact. while he dressed himself in his glittering armour. in his grief.Hera finished speaking. claiming he's supreme among immortal gods. for strength and power. Irritated with them all. Then he told Terror and Flight to yoke up his horses. So you just accept whatever trouble he sends each of you. his favourite man. But he sits there. Then she sat down. but above her dark eyebrows her forehead frowned. all by himself. Hera's lips smiled.” Ares finished. fearing what might happen to the gods. hadn't jumped from the throne where she'd been sitting. without a worry. In Zeus' palace gods were angry. at that moment. you dwellers on Olympus. mighty war god. Then with these words Athena went at raging Ares: 120 130 140 150 321 . whom Ares. without a care. to lie there with the dead in blood and dust. seized Ares' helmet from his head. Ascalaphus. even if it's my fate to be struck by Zeus' lighting. so we can hold him back with words or force. Now. if Athena. rushed out the door.

the white-armed goddess who's come straight from Zeus? Do you want a belly full of trouble. Seeing them. Once you get there. queen Hera went inside the house. They found all-seeing Zeus sitting on Gargarus. It's hard to keep the families and children safe for everyone. forced to come back to Olympus. Better men with stronger hands than his have already been destroyed and will be. do what he commands.“You idiot! Have you lost your mind. He'll lay his hands on each one of us in turn. as fast as possible. to Olympus. messenger for the immortal deities. mother of wild beasts. sat on her throne. and stood there before cloud-gatherer Zeus. Flying off in a rush. Zeus felt no anger in his heart. though in pain. They'd been quick obeying his dear wife.” 160 170 Athena finished. Zeus spoke first to Iris— 180 322 . sowing seeds of danger for the rest of us? For Zeus will abandon men immediately— those proud Trojans and Achaeans—and come here. came up. The two approached. Hera called Apollo from the house with Iris. wrapped in a finely scented cloud. guilty or innocent. Hera addressed them both—her words had wings: “Zeus is ordering you two to go to Ida.” Having said this. then start to go at us. look in Zeus' face. Then she made angry Ares sit down on his throne. the two gods reached Ida with its many springs. So I'm telling you— set aside that anger for your son. gone mad? Do those ears of yours hear anything at all? Where's your common sense or your discretion? Did not you get what Hera said just now.

whom other gods all fear.his words had wings: “Go now. who holds the aegis. swift Iris. If he won't obey my orders and ignores them. child of the upper sky. and go away to the group of gods or to his sacred sea. For I can say I'm stronger than he is. swept on by gales from North Wind. to leave the battle strife. Swift Iris. report it all precisely—he's to stop.” The famous Earthshaker. If you ignore and disobey his orders. he should consider in his mind and heart this point—no matter how mighty he may be. asserting he's a stronger god than you. replied: 190 200 210 323 . Yet his fond heart thinks it's all right to claim equality with me. He orders you to stop. And I'm the first born. to the crowd of gods or to your sacred sea. obeyed. more powerful. and was born first.” Zeus spoke. dark-haired god—I've brought it here from Zeus. Yet your fond heart thinks nothing of claiming equality with him. that's how quickly swift and eager Iris moved. Just as snow or icy hail flies down from clouds. enraged. You're to go away. And Zeus says you should avoid his hands. convey to lord Poseidon these instructions. with feet like wind. She stood close by the famous Earthshaker and said: “A message for you. to leave the battle strife. She set off from Mount Ida for sacred Ilion. whom all others fear. more powerful. to stand in war against you. he threatens you he'll come in person. he can't stand up to me if I attack him. Encircler of Earth.

for all his strength. I won't follow Zeus' will. defiant words? Or will you change your mind? For the finest hearts can change. will have to listen to his orders. Hades got the gloomy darkness. Zeus wide heaven. with feet like the wind. his bluster. Let him stay. for I'm as worthy of respect as he is. born from Rhea—Zeus. It's commendable when a messenger understands things well. It would be better if he'd use his threats. as if I were some coward. 324 . happy with his third. So I won't go. third brother. myself. Let him not try to scare me with the power of his hands. and each of us received one share. what you say is right. We are three brothers.” Swift Iris. with the upper air and clouds. The whole world was divided in three parts. The Furies. ruler of the dead. sons of Cronos. as you know. I won the blue-gray sea as mine to live in for ever. replied: “Dark-haired Earthshaker. and Hades. But earth and high Olympus still remained to all of us in common. on those sons and daughters which he himself produced. if he restrains me by force against my will. They. but he speaks too proudly. these harsh.“It's unjust! He may be best.” Earthshaker Poseidon then said: 220 230 240 “Goddess Iris. Once the lots were shaken. at least. always serve the elder one. is that the message I'm to take from you to Zeus.

” With these words the Earthshaker left Achaean troops. that before we came to blows he backed off. And Apollo. Hera and Hermes and lord Hephaestus. From that point on. But take this tasseled aegis in your hand and shake it well to scare Achaean warriors. who encircles and shakes the earth. has gone back to the sacred sea and thus avoided my harsh anger. my spirit. We'd have had to sweat it out to end it. away from my hands. far-shooting god. others would certainly have heard about it. despite me. If he'd fought it out with me. too. down there with Cronos. But I'll tell you—this threat comes from my heart— if. Achaeans troops missed his presence there among them.But this business brings harsh pain into my heart. when the deity whose share is the same as mine and who's been given a common destiny. if he's unwilling to destroy it and to give great power to the Argives. Poseidon. he plunged in. for now I'll concede. even gods below. 270 280 325 . wants to abuse me with angry words. But for me this is much better. Going to the sea. let him know that with us an anger will arise that no one can appease. for all my indignation. However. Infuse him with great strength. go down to bronze-armed Hector. goddess of spoils. make Hector your special care. Athena. Cloud-gatherer Zeus then spoke to Apollo: 250 260 “Dear Phoebus. and for him. Zeus spares steep Ilion. until Achaeans run back to their ships and reach the Hellespont. despite his anger.

questioning me face to face? Don't you know that Ajax. he found lord Hector.” Lord Apollo. who's helped you before. 300 310 326 . to stand beside you as your protector. why are you having fainting spells right here. son of Zeus. I thought today my heart would breathe its last. wise Priam's son. skilled at war cries. the far worker. sitting up. . that I'd be seeing the dead in Hades' house. to recognize his comrades round him. . my lord. . Swooping down from Mount Ida like some swift hawk killing pigeons. . Apollo did not disobey his father. the fastest of all flying creatures. then answered Hector: “Take courage now.” Zeus spoke. for aegis-bearing Zeus had revived his mind. I'll go ahead and smooth the horses' path. away from all the others? Are you in trouble?” Hector of the shining helmet. still weak. He'd stopped gasping and sweating. He was just starting to recover. as I was slaughtering his companions by the ships' sterns? He got me in the chest with a rock and stopped my frenzied fighting. replied: “Which of the mighty gods are you. . Phoebus Apollo with his golden sword. son of Priam. Cronos' son has sent you a powerful defender from Mount Ida. But come now. you and your city. stood close to him and said: 290 “Hector. . . hit me. Apollo.I'll figure out how in word and deed Achaeans may get new relief from war. tell your many charioteers to charge the hollow ships with their swift horses. no longer prone.

its mane flowing across its shoulders. who scatters them. In our hearts we all hoped that he'd been killed at the hands of Ajax. But when they saw Hector moving among the ranks. Thinking of their situation. they were afraid. fully confident of its own splendour. But some god has once more rescued Hector. Each man's heart sank to his feet. the best man. Just as some horse in a stall who at the manger has eaten well. Just as dogs and country farmers chase a horned stag or wild goat. saved the man who's drained strength from many limbs 340 327 . his people's shepherd. thrusting away with swords and double-bladed spears. and men have no luck finding it. 320 exulting as it goes. despite their eagerness—that's how Danaans for a while continued to press on in groups. Then Thoas. limbs carrying it lightly to places where the mares are in the pasture. among Aetolians. Thoas said: “Here's something— My eyes are watching an amazing sight. but their shouts 330 attract a bearded lion to their path. as he urged on his charioteers. expert in the spear throw. spoke out. eager for its usual bath in the flowing river. once he'd heard Apollo's voice. but the creature saves itself in a sheer rock face or dark underbrush. Andraemon's son. and in assemblies few Achaeans could beat him when young men argued. good at fighting hand to hand. then breaks his halter and runs off across the plain at a thundering gallop. Hector's got up again.I'll turn back these Achaean warriors. that's how quickly Hector moved his feet and limbs. with head held high.” With these words Apollo breathed power into Hector. son of Telamon. by far. evading death.

confronting Hector and his Trojans. lord Idomeneus. holding the fearful aegis. many spears were thrown. arrows flew from bowstrings.among Danaans. the thunderer. But when Apollo stared directly at the swift Danaans and then shook the aegis. his shoulders covered up in clouds. Let's tell most of the men to move back to the ships. most of the troops went back to the Achaean ships. led by Hector. he bewitched them all— the spirit in their chests then lost the will to fight. closely packed. and Meges. Apollo now held this aegis in his hands. Meriones. Teucer. stood their ground. Some impaled themselves in the flesh of quick young men. as he lead on the army. If we can reach him first and hold him off with our extended spears. But come. Trojans charged in a mass assault. recommenced the battle. The Argives. Just as two wild beasts stampede a herd of cattle 350 360 370 380 328 . As long as Phoebus Apollo held the aegis steady in his hands. summoning the best men. I think. Behind them. skewered in the earth. with its double fringe glittering ominously. Those with Ajax. so keen to fight. Many fell halfway before they reached white skin. Shrill war cries came from either side. howling a horrific roar.” Thoas spoke. like the war god Ares. for all his fury I think his heart will fear to mingle with this Danaan company. That will continue now. against the will of Zeus. for he's not standing there like that. moving with huge strides. The smith Hephaestus had given it to Zeus to make men run from war. The others heard him and readily agreed. on both sides weapons hit their mark— men kept on dying. Phoebus Apollo marched in front of Hector. still longing to taste flesh. let's all follow what I propose. Those among us who claim to be the best men in the army will make a stand.

Hector swung his whip down from his shoulders. Then lord Agenor slew Clonius. Hector slew Stichius and Arcesilaus— one a leader of bronze-armed Boeotians. on the stakes. Iasus. won't be burying him. a relative of his step-mother Eriopis. forced to withdraw behind their wall. then drove the horses 390 400 410 329 . calling Trojans in the ranks. They all shouted with him. Leave the blood-stained spoils alone. that's how Achaeans. Whoever I see not moving to the ships on the other side. Polydamas killed Mecistus. and from behind Paris struck Deïochus just below the shoulder. far from his native land. Achaeans jumped in the ditch they'd dug. glorifying Hector and his Trojans. once he's dead. the dogs will rip him up before our city. Instead. His relatives. Hector then gave a great shout to his Trojans: “Charge the ships. lashing on his horses. For he'd killed someone. Apollo sent the panic. was known as a son of Sphelus. were then put to flight. with no herdsman present. Then. the battle front collapsed. as the latter fled from soldiers fighting in the front. While Trojans were stripping armour from the corpses. and Polites killed Echius fighting at the front.or large flock of sheep. Aeneas slaughtered Medon and Iasus. a commander of Athenians. but lived in Phylace. running to and fro. son of Bucolus. one a trusted comrade of brave Menestheus. He drove the bronze spear straight through the man. I'll make sure he dies right there. coming suddenly in dark night. men and women.” Saying this. Medon was a bastard son of noble Oïleus. with the proper rites of fire. wife to Oïleus. thus brother to Ajax. in their weakness. as men killed each other.

archer Phoebus. if. When Trojans heard aegis-bearing Zeus' thunder. as a child will scatter sand— in a childish game beside the sea he builds a sand wall. any man has ever burned fat thighs of bulls or sheep in sacrifice to you. making a long broad causeway. lifting up their hands to all the gods. they attacked the Argives all the more. You sent them flying back in panic. In front. Don't let Trojans destroy Achaeans in this way. remember that. with each man praying fervently. nodding your head and promising assent. holding up the priceless aegis. Geranian Nestor. hearing the prayers of that old man. Trojans poured through. The Achaean wall he easily demolished. prayed most of all. Olympian god. at that time knocked down what the Achaeans built with so much effort. Phoebus Apollo easily knocked down the banks of the steep trench—with his feet he pushed dirt into the middle. son of Neleus. hands stretched to starry heaven: “Father Zeus. in wheat-yielding Argos. wave after wave of them. came down. with Apollo leading on.pulling chariots. shouting to each other. praying for his return. Just as a great wave crashes from the wide sea onto the planking of a ship. with tremendous shouts. That's how you. 330 450 . gave a great clap of thunder. Counselor Zeus. and you answered him.” 420 430 440 Nestor prayed. The Danaans halted to regroup beside their ships. Protect us from a pitiful doom. as wide as the distance a man can throw his spear when he's showing off his strength. driven by forceful winds whipping up the waves— that's how Trojans. such hard work. A tremendous noise arose. drawing on their battle fury. then with his hands and feet flattens it for fun. Achaea's guardian.

470 480 331 . I can't stay with you any longer here. They'd climbed up on the decks to fight there with long pikes lying in place for battles out at sea. Patroclus groaned. Your companion must look after you. Who know? With god's help. Patroclus stayed sitting in Eurypylus' hut. Achaeans. I'll run to Achilles to urge him on to fight. I may rouse his spirit with my words. Striking his thighs with the flat of his hands. Just as a carpenter's line makes ship's timber straight. driving their chariots to the fighting. jointed weapons with forged bronze at the tip. As long as Trojans and Achaeans were fighting by the wall away from the swift ships. Trojans could not break through. while Danaans were crying out and in retreat. Trojans battled from their chariots. A friend's persuasion perhaps can do some good. relieving his black pain by spreading ointments on his painful wound.through the wall. the hand-to-hand combat with double bladed spears by the ships' sterns. Men fought in various groups from one ship to the next. cheering him up with pleasant conversation. But when he realized Trojans were capturing the wall. he spoke in evident distress: 460 “Eurypylus. For a fierce battle has begun. though you need help. still held firm against advancing Trojans. inspired by Athena— that's how tensely poised the fighting in that battle stood. but couldn't push them back or dislodge them from the ships. Achaeans from high up on the planks of their black ships. a skilled expert in all facets of his craft. get past Danaan ranks to assault the ships and huts. when a craftsman's hand applies it.” Patroclus finished speaking and went off on foot. with fewer numbers.

our worthy comrade. Noble Ajax hurled his spear. both men struggling over the same ship. Where are your swift lethal arrows and the bow Phoebus Apollo gave you?” 510 332 . Hector threw his bright spear at Ajax. Since he'd killed someone in holy Cythera.Hector went straight for glorious Ajax. Ajax shuddered and cried out to his brother: “Teucer. With a crash. Lycians. above his ear. he lived with Ajax. Proud Hector has now killed him. In our house we honored him just as we did our parents. and the burning torch dropped from his hands. He lived with us when he arrived from Cythera. just in case Achaeans strip his armour now he's fallen among this group of ships. Save the son of Clytius. right before his eyes. He fell into the dust. as he stood near Ajax. Then his limbs went slack. in the chest. has been killed. He hit Caletor. but missed. Hector was unable to push Ajax back and burn the ship. son of Mastor.” 490 500 Saying this. son of Clytius. he collapsed. he called out to his Trojans and Lycians with a powerful shout: “Trojans. from Cythera. while Ajax could not drive Hector off. now that Apollo had brought him so far. as he was bringing fire to the ships. don't hold back from battle in this danger. Dardan spearmen. Mastor's son. Hector's sharp bronze struck him on the head. my friend. tumbling from the stern down to the ground. Instead he hit Lycophron. When Hector saw his cousin fall there in the dirt by the black ship. one those attending Ajax.

who was holding chariot reins. noble son of Panthous.Ajax finished. He began to shoot. with a shudder. That would have stilled his heart and stopped his fighting at Achaean ships. which he'd been driving to where the ranks were most confused. Polydamas saw this right away and was the first to rush into the horses' path. Then Polydamas went back to join those fighting at the front. He robbed Teucer of that triumph by snapping the fine bow's tightly twisted string. forcing his horses to swerve aside—that made the empty chariot rattle. a companion of Polydamas. He hit Cleitus. loosing arrows in quick succession at the Trojans. The heavy bronze-pointed arrow flew awry. But the perceptive mind of Zeus guarding Hector was paying attention. The painful arrow lodged behind his neck. He then handed them to Astynous. just as Teucer was lining up a shot at Hector. if Teucer had hit him as he was showing off how brave he was. Teucer. spoke out to his brother Ajax: 520 530 540 “Look at that! Some god is thwarting all our efforts in this fight. fine son of Peisenor. as a favour to Hector and his Trojans. He'd been busy managing his horses. He tumbled from the chariot. Protiaon's son. no matter how much he desires. Teucer tried to hit bronze-armed Hector. Taking out another arrow. But he was struck by that evil no man can defend himself against. He's knocked the bow out of my hands and snapped 333 . Teucer heard him and came up running to stand there. beside Ajax. with his curved bow in his hand and a quiver full of arrows. firmly telling him to keep them close and watch. The bow fell from his hands.

On his strong head he set a well-made helmet. or how he drains men's strength. as he now saps the power among the Argives and works to help us. he called in a loud voice to Trojans and to Lycians: “Trojans. even though they're overpowering us. set a shield against your shoulder—fight the Trojans. To be killed defending 550 560 570 580 334 . while we fight by the ships. then slung a four-layered shield against his shoulder. He took a strong spear with a sharp point and set off. Should one of you meet his fate and die. So stay together. refusing to protect them. Dardan spearmen. be men. with a horsehair crest which nodded menacingly. since some god has broken them to spite Danaans. Take hold of a long spear. so let's concentrate our minds on battle. Encourage other troops to do the same. stabbed by a spear or cut down with a sword. For I've witnessed with my own eyes how Zeus has canceled out an arrow shot at us by their best man. They won't take our well-decked ships without a fight. running quickly to take his place by Ajax. leave your arrows and your bow— set them down. I strung it just this morning so it would last a while and I could shoot scores of arrows with it. my friends.my freshly twisted bowstring. those to whom he grants great victories. It's easy to see how Zeus assists men.” Ajax spoke.” Great Telamonian Ajax then answered Teucer: “My friend. Recall your warlike power among these hollow ships. let the man die. When Hector saw that Teucer's arrow shot had missed. Teucer took his bow into his hut. Lycians.

noble Antenor's son. Hector then killed Schedius. leader of Phocians. comrade of Phyleus' son. Hector roused each man's fighting spirit. Now the issue's clear— either we'll be killed or we'll be saved. For us there's no better choice or tactic than to bring our arms and warrior strength against them and keep fighting hand to hand. his children live. if Achaeans leave.” Ajax's words rallied the fighting spirit in each man. But Meges thrust his spear into Croesmus. among our ships against inferior men. if the ships are taken by Hector of the shining helmet. Are you expecting. The man's wife is safe. if we can push the danger from our ships.one's own native land is no ignoble act. Seeing this death. eluding Meges' charge. He's inviting them to fight. fighting a long grim battle. It's better to settle this once and for all— whether we live or die—than be hemmed in. Apollo would not let Panthous' son be killed among those fighting in the front. returning to their country in their ships. Meges started stripping armour 590 600 610 335 . Polydamas slaughtered Otus of Cyllene. as we are now. He fell with a crash. Ajax slew Laodamas. Meges then attacked Polydamas. not to a dance. right in his chest. son of Perimedes. who led brave Epeians. Ajax called out to his companions: “For shame.” With these words. On the other side. you'll all get to your native land on foot? Don't you hear frenzied Hector urging on his men. who led up troops on foot. Argives. He's frantic now to burn the ships. his house and land remain. who slipped away from him.

Hector called to him. a bright fresh purple. A guest of his there. which held in place the horsehair plume. While Meges fought on. who used to graze his shambling herds in Percote. striking it on top. had given it to him to wear in war. The eager spear kept going.from his shoulders. He fell on his face. But Hector shouted to his kinsmen one and all. but Dolops charged at him. Meges' thick armour with fitted breastplates saved him. out of Dolops' line of sight. Dolops moved up to Meges. or they capture Ilion completely. We've got to stay with them until we kill them off. Meges then thrust his sharp spear at Dolops' helmet. we can't fight Argives from a distance. warlike Menelaus came to his assistance. the bravest son of Lampus. then with his spear struck the centre of his shield. from the river Selleïs. Phyleus had brought this armour from Ephyre. a skilled spear-fighter. who honoured him as if he were a child of his. butchering her people. speaking some angry words: “Melanippus. Hicetaon's son. ruler of men. He sheared it off. when enemies were far away. Euphetes. son of Laomedon. driving into Dolops' chest. Once Danaans arrived in their curved ships. where Trojans held him in respect. protection from his enemies. who knew all there was to know about fighting close in. he'd gone back to Ilion. The first man he yelled at was strong Melanippus. The whole plume. fell onto the dusty ground. The two men hurried forward to strip bronze armour from his shoulders. Menelaus speared his shoulder from behind. why are you so feeble? Is that fond heart in you not worried for your slain relative? Do you not see how they're busy stripping Dolops' armour? Come on. Now this armour saved his son's flesh from destruction. Standing to one side. still expecting victory. He lived with Priam. on the bronze ridge.” 620 630 640 650 336 .

Then Menelaus. He collapsed with a crash. ahead of those fighting at the front. be men. In your hearts remember shame.” Ajax spoke. Then great Telamonian Ajax roused the Argives: “Friends. but they took his words to heart and fenced in the ships within a hedge of bronze. Melanippus. He came up on the run to face Antilochus directly. urged Antilochus: “Antilochus.” Menelaus finished speaking and moved back again. Hicetaon's son. like some wild beast intent on mischief. then led on. But his words aroused Antilochus. as he was moving up to fight. Trojans moved back. Zeus drove the Trojans at them. In the killing zone let each man shame the rest. He ran back. 670 660 680 337 . It hit proud Melanippus. no other Achaean warrior is as young as you or quicker on his feet. or as brave in battle. Those who flee help no one. He stepped forward. as he made his throw. But Hector noticed him. That how bold Antilochus went after you. The spear wasn't thrown in vain. That sense of shame saves more men than it kills. right beside his nipple.Hector finished. in the chest. and threw his shining spear. did not stand his ground. skilled at war shouts. Then Antilochus pounced on him. loosening its limbs. to strip your armour. But the latter. and darkness fell upon his eyes. and they get no glory. So jump out there— see if you can hit one of the Trojans. though an impetuous warrior. The men were already keen to fight. glanced around. like a dog leaping on a wounded fawn. which some hunter hits as it rushes from its den. Godlike Melanippus followed.

one that's killed a dog or herder with the cattle. against those ships. giving him glory and honour. Zeus drove Hector. son of Peleus. shouting loudly. for Zeus. son of Priam. though he was but one man among so many. while he drained Achaean hearts. Zeus' heart was set on glorifying Hector. was his protector. He kept on giving them great fighting strength. That's how Nestor's son scurried back. showered him with lethal weapons. When he reached the crowd of his companions. 690 700 710 But now Hector was striving to break through the warriors' ranks. son of Priam. below his eyebrows the eyes were raging fire—the helmet round his temples shook with menace. Already Pallas Athena was pushing forward that fated day when he'd die at the mighty hand of Achilles. as he drove the Trojans forward. fulfilling Zeus' will. so he might throw onto the ships a blazing tireless fire and thus fulfill completely that disastrous request from Thetis. probing them wherever he saw the largest groups. the finest armour. Counselor Zeus was waiting to glimpse with his own eyes the blaze from a burning ship. for that would be the moment he was going to push the Trojans from the ships and give the glory to Danaans. Antilochus turned round and made a stand there. as Hector battled on. With this in mind. He was foaming at the mouth. the god of heaven. In their defensive wall. for all his eagerness. Trojans attacked the ships like ravenous lions. He raged like spear-fighting Ares or deadly fire in the thickets of deep mountain forests. denying them glory. But he could not break through. 720 338 . something Hector was furiously keen to do. and scampers off before a crowd of people gather. Trojans and Hector. for Hector's life would soon cease.

blazing all over like some fire. killing him beside his dear companions. blasts of wind shrieking past the sail. Just as a huge stone cliff by the blue-gray sea stands firm against the wind howling straight at it or the surging surf which pounds it— that's how Danaans stood up to the Trojans then.Achaeans held their ground. the one he carried. which gets hidden in the foam. ran up. as he went down. he tripped against a shield rim. falling on them as a fierce wave whipped up by a storm crashes against a ship. 730 740 But Hector killed only one man— Periphetes of Mycenae. Those men were sorry for their comrade. and sailors' hearts tremble with fear as they are carried off from death inch by inch—that's how hearts in those Achaean chests were cracking. charged the throng. This dishonourable man had a son with much more virtuous qualities— he could run fast and was an excellent fighter. stood by Periphetes. Hector saw this at once. as all the others scatter—that's how Achaeans then were all driven back in awe-struck terror by Hector and Father Zeus. The helmet round his temples gave a dreadful clang. and for his mind among the best in Mycenae. dear son of Copreus. but could not help— 339 . For as he turned. He stumbled and fell. and struck him with his spear in the chest. guarded by a herdsman who still lacks the skills to fight a wild beast for the mangled carcass of some short-horn heifer—with the herd he goes always beside the first or last ones of the group. but the lion leaps into the middle and devours a cow. which extended to his feet and protected him from spears. 750 But this man then gave Hector even greater glory. Hector charged them like a vicious lion going at cattle grazing in huge numbers in the bottom wetlands of a spacious meadow. who used to take messages from king Eurystheus to mighty Hercules. But then Hector. firmly with no falling back.

all the soldiers standing idle in the rear. By now they were in among the ships. your children. but. In his fists he held a long pike used in sea fights. wives. saying: “Friends. They're not here. Don't let yourselves turn round and run away. then drives them at a gallop from the plain to some large city on a public highway. So Argives were forced to move back from the ships' first row. They called out to one another continually. on their behalf. so on both sides light streamed in. I beg you to stand firm. But Trojans kept on pouring in. The spirit in great-hearted Ajax could not bear to take up a position with Achaea's sons where there was no fighting. be men. Achaea's guardian. Just as a man well skilled in guiding horses harnesses together four chosen out of many. Nestor boosted each man's spirit. 760 770 780 790 340 . Let sense of shame from all men fill your hearts. possessions. skilled at war cries. They saw Hector. one with fitted with sockets—thirty feet in length. back to the ships and out towards the battle groups. held there by shame and fear. He kept appealing to each man's parents. all those warriors battling on by their swift ships. not scattering throughout the camp. as he keeps leaping from one horse to another. Then Athena removed the strange cloudy mist and cleared their eyes. Remember. each of you. his companions. But they stayed in a single group beside the huts.” With these words. encircled by the outer row of those they'd dragged up first. and your parents— whether alive or dead. he kept moving up and down the decks along the ships. while many men and women look at him amazed. So with his huge strides. especially Geranian Nestor.they were too afraid of godlike Hector.

The brutal fight began again among the ships. That's what they thought as they fought one another. By this point. but of fighting at close quarters—united by a common spirit— battling with sharp axes. and double-bladed spears. shouting so his voice reached heaven. never slipping as they race ahead— that's how Ajax. You'd think they weren't tired at all. from hands and shoulders of those fighting warriors. hatchets. the heart in each man's chest was hoping they'd fire the ships and kill Achaean warriors. though it didn't take him back to his own native land. as they faced each other in that battle. at the stern. but only starting— they went at each other with such ferocity. Hector did not stay in the well-armed Trojan group. the battle was no more a matter of standing at some distance. fell to earth. Each side fought for different reasons—Achaeans thought they'd never escape that danger and would be destroyed— for Trojans. Many lovely swords. but. the fine fast boat which brought Protesilaus to Troy. with dark mountings. while urging other warriors to accompany him. enduring showers of spears and arrows. Hector seized hold of that ship and would not let go— gripping the ornamental marker on the stern. Hector grabbed hold of a seaworthy ship. with huge strides.landing firmly. long swords. telling Danaans in fearsome yells to defend their ships and huts. Earth flowed black with blood. yelling to his Trojans: 800 810 820 341 . like an eagle swooping down upon some flock of winged birds feeding by a river bank— wild geese or cranes or long-necked swans—he rushed straight at the dark-prowed ships to take on Ajax. kept on moving over many decks on those swift ships. With his mighty hand Zeus pushed him from the back. In close combat by this ship. Achaeans and Trojans were hacking at each other.

Ajax could not hold his position any longer. we're here. The light that'll save us lies in our hands. not in holding back from battle. creating many troubles for us. be men. Assailed by flying spears. Raise a general shout. where we can defend ourselves or with many men turn the tide of battle. Recall your battle fury. my friends. when I was keen to fight it out at the ships' sterns. he backed off a little. held back my troops. Danaan warriors. far from our native land. Now Zeus has given us a day that makes up for everything—to seize the ships that came here. now he drives us forward. seven feet high. and looked for Trojans. because our elders in their cowardice restrained me. abandoning the deck on that well-balanced ship. Then Trojans attacked the Argives even more intensely. companions of Ares.” 850 342 . He moved to the raised platform.” 830 Hector shouted. always yelling fearful shouts at the Danaans: 840 “Friends.“Bring fire. on this plain crammed with well-armed Trojans. pushing from the ship any Trojan bearing tireless fire. now he commands us. No. Do we think we've got people to help out somewhere behind us or some stronger wall which will hold off our men's destruction? There's no nearby city fenced with walls. contravening the gods' will. our backs to the sea. always jabbing with his pike. But if all-seeing Zeus dulled our minds then.

Ajax kept on jabbing ferociously with his sharp pike. seeking to please Hector. 860 343 .Saying this. found Ajax waiting to slice him with his pike. Any Trojan who charged the ships with blazing fire. He wounded twelve men in close fighting by the ships.

Or are you feeling sad for Argives as they're being obliterated among the hollow ships for all their pride? Speak up. So he spoke to him—his words had wings: “Why are you crying. his people's shepherd. Aeacus' son. is still living. among his Myrmidons. asking to be picked up. Actor's son. Patroclus went to Achilles. and Peleus is alive. sets fire to the ship. Patroclus. like some girl. Hector kills Patroclus] While the men kept on fighting at the well-decked ships. If these two had died. Looking at him. Patroclus arms himslef. like a fountain of dark water whose stream flows over the lip of a sheer rock face. Then we'll both understand. death of Sarpedon.Book Sixteen Patroclus Fights and Dies [Patroclus begs Achilles to send him back to the war to help the Achaeans. then we'd have something real to grieve about. Achilles sends Patroclus to war with the Myrmidons. Achilles organizes the Myrmidons in fighting groups. looking up at her in tears. the fight over Sarpedon's body.” 344 10 20 . You're crying just like that girl. until the mother lifts her up. She pulls the robe and stops her mother strolling on ahead. shedding warm tears. Apollo cures Glaucus' wound. Achilles prays to Zeus. Don't conceal what's on your mind. an infant walking beside her mother. godlike Achilles felt pity. Sarpedon rallies the Lycians. swift-footed. driving Trojans back from the ships. Patroclus goes into battle. Achilles agrees but sets conditions. Is there something you need to say to the Myrmidons or me? Some news from Phthia that only you have heard? People say Menoetius. Patroclus. Trojans retreat. Trojans are driven back towards Troy. Hector breaks Ajax's spear. fights Patroclus.

Perhaps horseman Peleus was not your father. are with them now. famous spearman Odysseus with a stab wound. I could be a saving light for the Danaans. We're fresh. If your mind shuns some prophecy. Then Achaea's warrior sons could get some rest. Give me your armour to buckle round my shoulders. exceptionally skilled in various medicines. horseman Patroclus. It's disastrous! How will you be of use to anyone in later generations. For all those who used to be the bravest warriors are lying at the ships with sword and spear wounds— 30 powerful Diomedes. and quickly. with the others in our troop of Myrmidons. or your noble mother has told you news from Zeus. some tall cliff. mistaking me for you. too. hit by a spear. son of Tydeus. and Agamemnon. Many healers. at least send me. Achilles. may stop the fight. An arrow struck Eurypylus in the thigh. you then replied: “Achilles. But it's impossible to deal with you. Peleus' son. War doesn't offer much relief. Such great despair has overcome the Argives. nor Thetis your mother— the gray sea delivered you. tending their wounds. They're worn out. I hope anger like this rage you're nursing never seizes me. by far the strongest of Achaeans. if you won't keep shameful ruin from the Argives? You're pitiless.With a heavy sigh.” 345 40 50 . so we should easily repulse the Trojans tired of the battle noise back from our ships and huts towards the city. for you've an unyielding heart. so Trojans. don't be angry with me.

with some heat. to protect Danaans from disaster. filling the gullies with their dead. given that I've suffered in this war so many pains here in my chest. That really hurt. and Argives stand crammed in by the sea shore. my spirit didn't mean to stay enraged for ever. replied: “My dear divinely born Patroclus. as if I were some stranger without honour. For there's no spear raging in the fists of Diomedes. nor has my noble mother said a thing from Zeus. But let that be— it's over. But dreadful pain came in my heart and spirit when that man wished to cheat someone his equal and steal away that prize. done with. 60 70 80 90 346 . although I thought I wouldn't end my anger until the cries of warfare reached my ships. because they don't see near them my helmet with its glittering front. Soon enough. and just because he's got more power. his dreadful fate. since black clouds of Trojans now surround the ships. Come. out of my hands. Besides. How wrong he was! He was praying for his own death. if mighty Agamemnon treated me with kindness—but now they fight all through our camp. I won her with my spear. Lord Agamemnon took her back. while a city full of Trojans comes at them without fear. expecting victory. once I'd destroyed her strong-walled city. with little space. what are you saying? I'm not concerned with any prophecy I know about.Patroclus finished his entreaty. put my famous armour on your shoulders and lead war-loving Myrmidons to battle. they'd be running back. Achaea's sons chose that girl as my prize. Swift-footed Achilles. son of Tydeus.

you must stave off disaster from the fleet. So make sure you come back here again. the far-worker. don't keep on battling those war-loving Trojans with me absent. so all Danaans will send back to me that lovely girl and give fine gifts as well. You would decrease my honours. Apollo. Once you push Trojans from the ships. who kept throwing weapons. Now. once your saving light has reached our ships. as they defeat Achaeans in this battle. and just we two alone were not destroyed.I've not heard the voice of Agamemnon crying out in his vile head. Ajax was losing ground. Patroclus. who fill all the plain with their noise. and Apollo— if only no single Trojan or Achaean could escape death. who loves his thunder. Athena. Let others keep on fighting in the plain. O Father Zeus. loves his Trojans. As for Hector. Even so. Hera's mate. His left shoulder was worn out from always holding up 100 110 120 130 347 . gives you the glory. If Zeus. so that by ourselves we could take Troy's sacred battlements!” As these two were talking on like this together. that man-killer's voice echoes everywhere. shouting at Trojans. Don't let the joy of fighting and of killing Trojans lead you on to Ilion. so you'll win me great honour and rewards. under attack from spears. overcome by the will of Zeus and Trojans. Many hits landed on the well-made armour on his cheeks. come back. just in case some deathless Olympian god attacks you. Go after them in force—they may fire those ships and rob us of the journey home we crave. The bright helmet on his head rattled dangerously as it was struck. pay attention to what I tell you about the goal I have in mind for you.

Still. Then onto that swift ship the Trojans threw untiring fire.” Achilles spoke. how the fire first got tossed onto Achaean ships. He cut straight through it. slapping his thighs. then with his great sword hacked at Ajax's ash spear. fitted with silver ankle clasps. Ajax backed off. divinely born Patroclus. He'd had no time for any rest. In every way. he fixed on his shins the beautiful leg armour. he was in trouble. Tell me now. Trojans must not seize our ships and leave us with no way to escape. The ship's stern started to catch fire. breathing heavily. Patroclus dressed in gleaming bronze. He came up close to Ajax. Achilles. and quickly. which fell some distance off. The heart in mighty Ajax recognized gods' work. First. I'll collect the soldiers.his shining shield. It was Hector. but it was useless without its bronze spear head. Around his chest he put on the body armour of Achilles. In the ships I see destructive flames going up. which spread itself immediately in a fiery blaze that no one could extinguish. sweat pouring down in rivulets from every limb. Telamonian Ajax still gripped the spear. clanging on the ground. 140 150 At that moment. master horseman. out of range. Put armour on. his desperate plight was getting worse. said to Patroclus: “Up now. But for all the onslaught with their spears. He shuddered. 160 348 . wanting the Trojans to prevail. you Muses living on Olympus. right behind the point. for he perceived how high-thundering Zeus was denying completely all his fighting skill. the Trojans couldn't budge him.

On his powerful head he set the famous helmet with its horsehair crest. like flesh-eating wolves. For Patroclus Automedon put swift horses in the harnesses. That's how the leaders and commanders of the Myrmidons rushed around brave Patroclus. and pale. getting all his Myrmidons to arm themselves. 1 170 180 190 349 . huge. The plume on top nodded full of menace. Meanwhile Achilles went to and fro among the huts. while in their chests their hearts are resolute. He'd didn't choose Achilles' spear. the man he most esteemed after Achilles. jaws all dripping blood. except for brave Achilles. He helped to train many important heroes. vomiting up clots of blood from their crammed bellies. had conceived with West Wind. and strong. These horses Podarge. hungry expressions.1 Patroclus told Automedon to yoke the horses quickly.2 In the side traces he set Pedasus in harness. when he'd captured the city of Eëtion. It was made of ash wood from the peak of Pelion. and the one he trusted most to carry out his orders in a battle. They rushed out. to lap black surface water with their slender tongues in some dark spring. On his shoulders he then slung his bronze silver-studded sword and a large strong shield. it kept pace with his deathless horses.swift-footed descendant of Aeacus—finely worked and glittering like a star. Cheiron is the most famous of the centaurs. creatures that are half man and half horse. Xanthus and Balius. Then Patroclus took two strong spears well fitted to his grip. Cheiron gave it to Achilles' father to kill warriors. beasts which in the mountains have caught and ripped apart some huge antlered stag. 2 The harpies are flying monsters with the faces of young women. who flew along as swiftly as the wind. as she grazed in a meadow beside the stream of Oceanus. hearts full of unspeakable fury. a fine horse Achilles had taken for himself. Then in a pack they charge off. long claws. for no Achaean man could wield that weapon. so heavy. Though mortal. breaker of men. the harpy.

The third commander was warlike Peisander. He looked after him. son of Spercheius. The god who slaughtered Argus. Phoenix led the fourth contingent. Actor's son. with his flashing breastplate.comrade of swift Achilles. fell in love when he noticed her among the singing maidens in the chorus dancing for Artemis. Achilles had brought fifty ships to Troy— in each were fifty men. a woman copulating with a god. But when Eileithyia. a bastard child of Polymele. outstanding as a warrior and speedy runner. Peleus' daughter. took Polymele to his home. going at once into her upper room in secret. and Alcimedon. after paying out a huge price for the bride. as if he were his son. mighty Hermes. a man pre-eminent among the Myrmidons for spear fighting. He'd picked five leaders whom he trusted to give orders. had conceived Menesthius with timeless Spercheius. His great power gave him overall command. who stood among them there. son of Maemalus. who'd married her in public. second only to Patroclus. surrounding him with love. She bore him a fine son. brought him into the light and he saw sunshine. then strong Echecles. goddess of labour pains. Eudorus. The second group was led by warrior Eudorus. Aeacus' descendant. Old man Phylus was very kind to the young boy. a lovely dancer. splendid son of Laerces. 200 210 220 230 350 . was leader of the fifth. son of Perieres. urging on the horses and the warriors carrying their shields. the river fed from heaven. his own companions. Phylus' daughter. the golden-arrowed goddess in the echoing hunt. had sex with her. Lovely Polydora. But in name Borus was his father. after giving an enormous bride price. Hermes the helper. The first contingent was led by Menesthius.

Now a great work of war awaits you. She'd packed it with cloaks and tunics. helmet against helmet. the sort of enterprise you used to love. There he kept an ornate goblet. As they heard their king. horsehair plumes touched when warriors moved their heads. In the front. two men stood fully armed— Automedon and Patroclus—sharing a single urge. shield pressing against shield. since evil rage has fallen on your heart?' That's what you men complained about me in your meetings. 351 270 . With this cup Achilles poured libations to no god but Father Zeus. that's how close their helmets and bossed shields lined up. too—protection from the wind. Achilles went into his hut and opened up the lid on a beautifully decorated chest placed on board his ship by silver-footed Thetis for him to take. Other than Achilles no one used it to drink gleaming wine. Each of you blamed me: 'Cruel son of Peleus. using well-fitted stones to keep out forceful winds. who keeps his comrades by their ships against their will. let none of you forget those threats you spoke about by our swift ships.Once Achilles had set all the ranks in order behind their leaders.” With these words. to fight in the forefront of their Myrmidons. Achilles stirred the spirit in each man. and woollen blankets. as you go to battle with these Trojans. while I was angry—you'd go on and on against the Trojans. So make sure each man's heart is resolute. the ranks bunched up more closely. 260 240 250 That's how close they were to one another. ahead of all of them. On the bright ridges of the helmets. surely your mother suckled you with bile. Just as a man constructs a wall for some high house. Why don't we go home in our seaworthy ships. you pitiless man. man against man. he addressed them sternly: “My Myrmidons.

you heard me when I prayed to you before. Send glory with him. ruling cold Dodona. all-seeing Zeus. your prophets. with unwashed feet. Pelasgian. then rinsed it out in streams of water. But when he's pushed the fight and battle noise back from the ships. but I'm sending out my comrade and my many Myrmidons. still wishing in his heart to see the fatal clash of Trojans and Achaeans. Once Achilles had made his libation and prayed to Father Zeus. around whom live the Selli. he went back into his hut. came out. and stood there. I intend to stay beside this group of ships. Strengthen the heart inside his chest. king. So grant me now what I still desire. before his hut. He granted part of it. “Zeus. let him return to me. with all his weapons and companions. but not that he'd return in safety from the war. Father Zeus agreed that Patroclus should drive the battle fighting from the ships. He washed his hands and drew some gleaming wine. part he denied. men who battle in the killing zone.Taking this out of the chest. you who live far off. Counselor Zeus heard his prayer. Standing in the middle of the yard. in the centre of the havoc Ares brings. he poured it out. Thunder-loving Zeus looked on. so Hector sees if Patroclus can fight on alone or if his hands are always conquering only when I'm with him in the raging war.” 280 290 So Achilles prayed. lord of Dodona. put the goblet in the chest. first he purified it with sulphur. You gave me honour then by striking hard at the Achaean army. here at my hollow ships. 300 352 . gazing up at heaven. without a scratch. who sleep upon the ground.

When Trojans saw the brave son of Menoetius with his attendant. the best of the Achaeans. Atreus' son. they fell upon the Trojans. all their hearts were shaken and their ranks fell back.The armed warriors who went with brave Patroclus marched out in formation. with the finest comrades in a close combat. In a loud shout. If some man going past along the road upsets them by accident. like wasps beside a road. which young lads love to torment. Terrifying cries came from Achaeans by their ships. so we may honour the son of Peleus. with daring hearts. 330 353 . constantly disturbing them in their roadside nests— those fools make mischief for all sorts of people. will see his folly in not honouring Achilles. in a massed group. Wide-ruling Agamemnon. companions of Achilles. by far the best Achaean at the ships. They thought Peleus' swift-footed son by his ships had set aside his anger and made friends again.” 310 320 With these words. checking how he might escape his own complete destruction. Each man glanced around. they all swarm out with fearless hearts to guard their young—with that same heart and spirit the Myrmidons then poured out from their ships with a ceaseless roar. recall your fighting strength. both in glittering armour. Then. until. be men. Patroclus spurred the strength and heart in every soldier. my friends. they charged the Trojans. immediately swarming out. Patroclus called out to his companions: “You Myrmidons. son of Peleus.

and mountain glades. saw Amphiclus charging at him. He drove the bronze straight through. since the fighting was not over yet. ran off—Patroclus terrified them. by the stern part of the ship of great-hearted Protesilaus. while from heaven the huge bright sky breaks open—that's how Danaans saved their ships from fire and could rest. First. Just as from a high peak of some massive mountain. Areilycus fell face down in the dirt. facing the Achaeans. as he was turning. The blow collapsed his limbs. who gathers lightning. and darkness closed his eyes. Comrades round him. high headlands. who'd led Paeonian charioteers from Amydon. Danaans poured out from among the ships throughout the constant uproar. but hit him first. once more revealing all the peaks. by the broad flowing Axius. Meges. He hit a man. Achaean troops had not fully pushed the Trojans from the ships. Then warlike Menelaus hit Thoas in the chest. now he'd killed their leader and best fighter. breaking the bone. Zeus. The leaders then began to kill each other in the scattered fighting. At this point. Antilochus jabbed his sharp spear 354 340 350 360 370 . where a man's muscle is the thickest. spearing the top of his leg. making a tremendous noise. but they still stood there. He drove them from the ships and doused the blazing fire. Then the sons of Nestor went into action. The spear point sliced his tendons. he fell down screaming on his back there in the dust. The half-burnt ship he left there. The Trojans scattered. Phyleus' son. They'd been forced back from the sterns. his Paeonians.Patroclus was the first to throw his bright spear right at the central mass where most troops clustered. in a place where it was open right beside his shield. Struck by that spear in his right shoulder. if only for a moment. Menoetius' brave son with his sharp spear struck Areilycus in the thigh. shifts a bulky cloud. Pyraechmes.

as he was climbing in his chariot. captured him alive. The spear point sheared off muscle at the bottom of his arm and broke the bone in two. went off to Erebus. Before Maris could thrust. So they went at one another once again with swords. driving the bronze point in his side. wasting the throw. then hit him with his spear in his right shoulder. Idomeneus' pitiless bronze then struck Erymas right in his mouth—the spear forced itself straight through. Then Peneleus slashed Lycon's neck below the ear. with quick strides. stuck in that confusion. 400 caught up with Acamas. He tumbled out. charged Antilochus holding his spear. and darkness veiled his eyes. son of Oïleus. Maris. 355 . so Lycon's head hung over. Even so. these two. But godlike Thrasymedes moved too quickly for him. A mist descended on his eyes. who'd killed so many men.at Atymnius. slaughtered by two brothers. below his brain. 380 390 Meriones. The sword bit deep. spearmen sons of Amisodarus—he'd reared the raging Chimera. Ajax struck him with his sword across the neck. jumped out at Cleobulus. Then Peneleus and Lycon charged each other. angry about his brother. splitting his white skull apart. His limbs gave way. Each had thrown his spear and missed. he lunged out at his shoulder. Maris fell with a crash. He didn't miss. so he fell forward. and strong Fate embraced him. but his sword shattered at the hilt. who was close by. Ajax. sinking the entire blade. held up on one side only by the uncut skin. Dark death closed up his eyes. They'd been Sarpedon's brave companions. The sword grew warm with blood. Thus. His eyes filled up with blood. Lycon struck the helmet ridge on its horse-hair crest. and then stood by his brother's body. smashing out his teeth. draining his fighting strength.

yelled fierce orders to Danaans. 410 Great Ajax kept on trying to throw his spear at bronze-armed Hector. against their will. leaving the huts and ships and rushing for the city. for they'd lost their will to battle on. Just as ravenous mountain wolves suddenly attack young goats or lambs and seize them from the flock. as sure-footed horses strained to get away. Just as those times a cloud comes from Olympus. trying to save his loyal companions. leaving behind. the Trojans held up at the trench dug by Achaeans.More blood spurted from his nose and open mouth. But Hector's battle skills kept his broad shoulders hidden 420 behind his bull's hide shield. In pursuit. shouting and scattering in panic. whose minds now turned to shameful flight. for those young lack the heart to fight— that's how Danaans then went after Trojans. crossing the ditch again in complete disorder. Meanwhile. Bodies kept rolling underneath his axle. Hector realized the tide of victory in that fight was changing. 356 440 . were jammed up in every pathway. Thus these Danaan leaders each killed his man. when in the mountains an inattentive shepherd lets them wander off—once the wolves see them. intent on killing Trojans. In that ditch many swift horses lost their master's chariots when poles snapped at the end. Under the clouds a high dust storm rose. as he watched arrows and thudding spears flying past. with a yell he charged at them. Wherever Patroclus saw the biggest crowd of soldiers in retreat. Patroclus. they attack at once. Then death's black cloud enveloped Erymas. Hector's swift-footed horses 430 carried him and his weapons back. moving from the upper air across the sky. when Zeus brings on a rain storm—that's how Trojans fled yelling from the ships. the Trojans. but he stood there.

smashing through his teeth. their torrents carving many hillsides. He threw him down. charging forward. and he fell down with a thud. and the lofty wall. killing them. dragging Thestor out across the chariot rail. But Hector's own swift horses carried him away. eager to strike him down. face first. in that middle ground. using a line and bright bronze hook— that's how Patroclus dragged Thestor from his chariot. As Thestor fell. keeping them from the city they were trying to reach. when he's enraged with men who have provoked him with their crooked judgments. avenging deaths of many comrades. where Pronous' shield had left his chest exposed. destroying the works of men— that's how. Between the ships. His limbs gave way. reins slipping from his hands. flew straight on across the ditch. as they roar down from the mountains in a headlong rush toward the purple sea. corrupting their assemblies and driving justice out. the dark earth is all beaten down. Then Erylaus rushed up. paralyzed with terror. There he first struck Pronous with his shining spear. Just as in late summer rainstorms. the Trojan horses screamed. those immortal beasts the gods gave as a priceless gift to Peleus.as men fell out when chariot cars rolled over. who just sat crouching in his polished chariot. Patroclus next rushed at Thestor. his spirit abandoned him. so all the rivers crest in flood. His swift horses. Just as a man sitting on a rocky point hauls up a monstrous fish out of the sea. he pushed them back again towards the ships. Patroclus' heart was set on finding Hector. Patroclus struck him with his spear right on the jawbone. When Patroclus had cut the Trojans' front ranks off. Coming up. son of Enops. mouth skewered on the shining spear. Patroclus pulled his spear back. when Zeus pours out his waters with utmost violence. he kept charging at them. not thinking of gods' vengeance. as they sped on. but Patroclus struck him 450 460 470 480 357 . the river.

When Sarpedon observed his Lycian companions. On the other side. screaming like vultures fighting with hooked talons and curved beaks. when Patroclus saw him. who brings with him so much destruction for the Trojans. killed by Patroclus. one by one. dearest of all men. Looking down on the two men. Pyris. he called out to reprimand his godlike Lycians: “Shame on you Lycians! Where are you running? Now's the time for you to fight on bravely. which nourishes all men. son of Damastor. and Polymelus. Ipheus. breaking the limbs of many fearless soldiers. He jumped out of his chariot down to the ground holding his weapons. so I'll find out who it is that fights so well. Death. who destroys men's hearts. Echius. is fated now to die. his sister and his wife: “Alas—Sarpedon. Amphoterus.” Sarpedon finished. he leapt from his chariot. Erylaus collapsed face down in the dirt. He spoke to Hera. as he slaughtered Erymas. the son of crooked-minded Cronos pitied them. on the earth. I'll stand up to this man. Tlepolemus. 500 490 358 . son of Argeas—all these Patroclus laid out. Epaltes. screeching on some rocky height. Then they rushed at each other. flowed all around Patroclus. smashing the entire skull inside his heavy helmet.with a rock right on his head. Euippus. being cut down by the hands of Menoetius' son Patroclus. who wear no belt around their tunics.

And I'll tell you something else—make sure you remember it. back to the spacious land of Lycia. Should I snatch him up while still alive and place him somewhere else. Once his living spirit has abandoned him. My heart's divided. tribute to his dear son Patroclus was about to kill in fertile Troy. send Death and sweet Sleep to carry him away.” Ox-eyed queen Hera then replied to Zeus: 510 “Dread son of Cronos. doomed long ago by Fate. son of Menoetius. Now you desire to rescue him from miserable death. But we other gods will not all agree with you. many men. You'll enrage those gods and make them bitter.” Hera spoke. Do as you wish. But he shed blood rain down upon the ground. But if Sarpedon's dear to you. sons of the immortals. far distant from this wretched fighting. If you send Sarpedon home alive. 520 530 540 359 . The father of gods and men agreed. The two approached within range of each other. how can you say this? The man is mortal. as I think this over. in his rich land of Lycia. where his brother and his kinsmen will bury him with a mound and headstone. are now fighting. or have him killed at the hands of Menoetius' son. then let him be killed in a fierce combat at Patroclus' hands. Around Priam's great city. if your heart feels pity for him. That's what appropriate for those who die.son of Menoetius. take care some other god does not desire to send his dear son from the killing zone. far from his native land.

The horse screamed. First. in his turn. I'll be a source of misery to you. But famous spearman Automedon cleared the tangle. Then Sarpedon charged Patroclus. gasping for life. he dashed in and. Then Patroclus. Sarpedon toppled over. struggled as he died. which bellows as it dies right in the lion's jaws— that's how Sarpedon. lord Sarpedon's brave attendant. Just as a lion moves into a herd. without a pause. as an oak tree falls. and their reins got intertwined with the trace horse Pedasus lying in the dust. Pedasus. leader of the Lycian spearmen. threw his bronze spear. which did not leave his hand in vain. moaning as the spirit left him. His limbs gave way. to harvest timber for a ship— that's how he lay there stretched out before his chariot and horses. groaning and clawing at the bloody dust. You must now embrace this evil war. And then. cut the trace horse loose. you warrior among men. you fight over me in person with your bronze. Pulling out the long sword on his powerful thigh. 550 560 570 580 360 . then pulled together in their harness. then kills a bull. then fell down in the dust. missing him. The two other horses straightened out. low in the gut. a true courageous fighter. a sleek great-hearted steer among the shambling cattle. move around and urge the Lycian leaders to make a stand here by Sarpedon. Once more Sarpedon failed with his bright spear.Patroclus threw and struck renowned Thrasymelus. The two men kept going. The two other horses reared. their yoke cracked. but it struck a horse. It struck right between Sarpedon's midriff and his beating heart. His bright spear missed him. now you must really show yourself a spearman. or poplar or tall mountain pine which craftsmen cut with sharpened axes. my friend. taking up again their heart-destroying combat. Its bronze point sailed past Patroclus' left shoulder. calling to his dear companion: “Glaucus. in its right shoulder. if you're brave enough.

my lord. And our finest man has perished—Sarpedon. Bitter grief has now come in my heart. 590 When Glaucus heard Sarpedon's voice. Spur on the army. 600 610 361 . who would not assist his son. Sharp pains run up and down my arm. snorting in their eagerness to bolt. for all your days to come. Give me strength. or here in Troy. So in the same moment he tugged out the spear point and took Sarpedon's life. somewhere in that rich land. Myrmidons reined in the horses. the flow of blood won't stop. The guts came with it. or move to fight against our enemies. his heart dismayed that he could not have come to his assistance. still painful from being hit by Teucer's arrow. death's final end covered Sarpedon's eyes and nostrils.and shame as well. So Glaucus prayed then to Apollo: “Hear me. You may be in Lycia. Teucer had been defending his companions from disaster. The wound wears out my shoulder. For I have this cruel wound. heal my savage wound at least. as he'd attacked him on that high defensive wall. my lord. With his hand he grabbed and squeezed his wounded arm. so I can't grip my spear with any force. urge them on to war.” As he said this. he was overcome with savage grief. Then Patroclus set his foot upon Sarpedon's chest. if Achaeans strip my armour now I'm down among the fleet of ships. But. But you can hear a man's distress from anywhere. So hold your ground with force. pulled his spear out of the body. child of Zeus. and ease my pain. so I can call my Lycian comrades. now they'd left their master's chariot.

Approaching him.” Glaucus finished. Full of furious passion. lies dead. men who for your sake are far away from friends. Phoebus Apollo heard him. in their anger at the dead Danaans. For Sarpedon had always fought to guard their city. Sarpedon. He searched out Aeneas and Hector dressed in bronze. they went at Danaans. he spoke—his words had wings: 620 “Hector. son of Panthous. stand by him. leader of Lycian spearmen. and filled his chest with fighting strength.” So Glaucus spoke in prayer. 362 630 640 . he went among the Trojans—to Polydamas. wasting their lives away. First. in case the Myrmidons strip off his armour and mutilate his corpse. the man who protected Lycia with his judgment and his power—slaughtered by Ares on the bronze spear of Patroclus. stopped the dark blood flowing from the cruel wound. He eased the pains at once. and brave Agenor. Then. keep in your hearts your sense of shame. You've no desire to bring assistance. now you're neglecting all your allies. In his heart Glaucus recognized with joy that the great god had quickly heard his prayer. Trojans were completely overwhelmed with grief—unendurable and inconsolable. and he was pre-eminent in war. the ones killed by our spears at their fast ships. their native land. My friends. he moved around and spurred on Lycia's leading men in every spot to rally round Sarpedon. with long strides. although he was a distant stranger. Many soldiers followed him.and I can fight in person by the corpse of our Sarpedon now he's dead.

to seize and strip armour off its shoulders. But Patroclus. spread ominous darkness over that fierce battle. a noble relative. Epeigeus collapsed. to sail with him to Troy and fight the Trojans. So he came a suppliant to Peleus and silver-footed Thetis. for they hit a man who was by no means the worst among the Myrmidons—noble Epeigeus. as you've done before. but he'd killed a man. These forces struggled. He spoke first to the Ajaxes. with terrific shouts across the dead man's corpse. angry about Sarpedon. but even better. 650 660 At first the Trojans pushed bright-eyed Achaeans back. now you must get your joy protecting us. The warriors' armour rang out harshly. The Ajaxes both were fiercely eager to fight off the enemy in person. who'd sent him to follow man-destroying Achilles.Hector in the lead. Menoetius' son. slaughtering with our pitiless bronze any of his comrades who defend him. Glorious Hector struck him as he grabbed the corpse—with a rock he hit his head and split the skull completely open inside his heavy helmet. Achaeans and Myrmidons. Then both sides reinforced their ranks—Trojans and Lycians. son of great-hearted Agacles. We must try to mutilate the body. He'd once been king of populous Boudeum. The man who was the first to jump inside Achaea's wall lies dead—Sarpedon. both eager for the fight: “You two Ajaxes. with his strong heart. rallied the Achaeans.” Patroclus spoke. to make the fight for his dear son more difficult. 670 363 . Then Zeus.

you charged the Lycians and Trojans then. looking right at Aeneas. His spirit swiftly left his limbs. who lived at home in Hellas. Death. Patroclus. Glaucus turned suddenly. honoured by his people as a god. including glorious Hector. evaded that bronze spear 364 680 690 700 710 .face down on the corpse. and he was carried off by hateful darkness. or in a battle with a murderous enemy— that's how far Achaeans forced the Trojans to move back. That's how fast. leader of the Lycian spearmen. as Bathycles came up in pursuit. Achaeans did not forget their courage— they brought their fighting spirit to the Trojans. a priest of Zeus at Ida. like a swift hawk swooping down on daws or starlings. Those fighting in the ranks in front. Meriones threw and hit him underneath the jaw. But Trojans. moved back somewhat. He killed great-hearted Bathycles. snapping the tendons. daring son of Onetor. Achaeans felt keen sorrow that such a worthy man had fallen. Glaucus. With his spear. Then Aeneas. squarely in the neck. hoping to hit Meriones as he advanced under his shield. who destroys men's hearts. He moved through those fighting in the front. with anger in your heart for your companion. elated. With a rock he hit Sthenelaus. But Meriones. then struck him in the middle of his chest. a man pre-eminent among the Myrmidons for a wealthy and successful life. Meriones killed a well-armed Trojan warrior. Chalcon's dear son. Laogonus. was the first to turn around. master horseman. threw his bronze spear at him. He fell down with a crash. gathered in a crowd to make a stand around him. Grief for his dead companion filled Patroclus. dear son of Ithaemenes. as far as a long javelin flies when it's been thrown by a man in competition showing off his strength. flowed over him.

then no matter what your courage. your dancing days would have ended for all time to come. until strong Ares took away its power. and Meriones. you'd quickly give me glory. that godlike man. too. Patroclus led off. Then the turmoil started— just like the din woodcutters make in mountain forests. If I threw. or how much trust you place in your strong hands. Our task here is to battle with our hands. the clamour rising from the widely traveled earth. went too. 365 740 . talk on like this? My friend. Trojans won't move back from the corpse because someone abuses them with words.” Saying this. For you.” 720 Meriones spoke. The long spear impaled itself behind him in the ground. if my bronze spear hit you in the middle of your body. and your life to famous horseman Hades. We don't need more talk. are made of mortal stuff. but it's hard for you to crush the fighting strength of every man who stands to defend himself against you.” Famous spearman Meriones then replied: “Aeneas. With anger in his heart. The assembly is the place for speeches.by bending forward. you're a lovely dancer. They won't budge until the earth holds many men. you may be brave. a noise heard far away—that's how it sounded then. Aeneas then called out: “Meriones. but if my spear had hit you. But then Menoetius' noble son reprimanded him: “Meriones. its shaft still quivering. 730 an honorable man. We need to fight. why do you.

as they fought there with two-edged spears and swords. for he knew that Zeus' sacred scales were changing. They all fled back.a clash of bronze and leather. The Lycians. pulling the gleaming bronze from off his shoulders. so that he jumped into his chariot and turned in flight. Not even a man who knew Sarpedon very well could recognize him then. did not hold their ground. So the Achaeans stripped Sarpedon. brave companion of Achilles. As Zeus pondered. he thought the best plan would be to let Patroclus. calling to other Trojans to run back. cloud-gatherer Zeus spoke to Apollo: 760 770 366 . though brave. drive the Trojans and bronze-armed Hector back again towards their city. lying there in the pile of bodies. So Zeus first took the courage out of Hector's heart. destroying the lives of many men. For men were swarming round the corpse like farmyard flies clustering by buckets full of milk in springtime. At that moment. covered with blood and dirt and weapons. gazing down and thinking in his heart of many different things about how lord Patroclus ought to meet his death. well-made ox-hide shields. son of Peleus. Many men had fallen down on top of him. or whether he should multiply grim misery for still more men. from the soles of his feet up to his head. when milk overflows the pails—that how those warriors buzzed around Sarpedon then. 750 Zeus' bright eyes never once glanced from that brutal combat. once they'd seen their king struck through the heart. wondering whether glorious Hector should cut him down with his bronze in that bitter fighting there over godlike Sarpedon and then strip the armour from his shoulders. Menoetius' brave son gave it to his companions to carry to the hollow ships. when Cronos' son intensified fierce conflict.

he'd have missed his evil fate. They quickly set him down in spacious Lycia. his own rich land. dear Phoebus. as he did then. putting desire to fight into Patroclus' chest. as well. twin brothers. They'll quickly place him in his own rich land. He can make even a brave man fearful. swift messengers. Descending from Mount Ida to that lethal war. take him somewhere far away and wash him in a flowing river. And Zeus can rouse a man for battle. rob him of his victory with ease.“Up now. Apollo did not disobey his father. he carried lord Sarpedon quickly out of range. poor fool! If he'd done what the son of Peleus had told him. twin brothers. and put immortal clothes around him. Next. and move Sarpedon out of range. Then you must hand him over to those swift messengers Sleep and Death. Once he'd taken him a long way off. anoint him with ambrosia. When you've cleaned the dark blood off his body. his own dark death. Then Apollo gave Sarpedon up to Sleep and Death. 367 . to take with them. as is appropriate for those who've died. Who was the first warrior you killed.” Zeus finished. to carry off with them. How blind he was. 800 the Lycians. where his brothers and kinsmen will bury him with mound and headstone. he washed him in a flowing river. wide Lycia. 780 790 Patroclus then called to his horses and to Automedon to pursue the Trojans. But Zeus' mind is always stronger than a man's. he anointed him with ambrosia and put immortal clothing round him. Next.

at Patroclus' hands. the far shooter. evading the anger of Apollo. intending to destroy Patroclus and assist the Trojans. In that shape. according to its fate. But when Patroclus. This city of proud Trojans. At that point Achaea's sons would have captured Troy and its high gates. Meanwhile. shouted these winged words at him: 810 820 “Go back. Three times Patroclus started to climb up a corner on that high wall. a far better man than you. divinely born Patroclus.” Apollo spoke. each and every one of them. Phoebus Apollo approached in the form of Asius. a strong young man. but for Phoebus Apollo. Zeus' son.Patroclus. his immortal hands repelling the bright shield. set their minds on flight. Epistor. The other Trojans. Apollo. nor even by Achilles. then Autonous. son of Megas. that time the gods called you on to death? Adrestus was the first. Hector pulled his sure-footed horses up beside the Scaean Gate. will not be ravaged by your spear. and who the last. Dymas' son. Perimus. As he was thinking. Patroclus drew back a little. and Melanippus. or tell his soldiers to gather there inside the walls. uncertain what to do— drive back to the confusion and then battle on. Echeclus. with a terrific cry. Then Patroclus killed Elasus. as he raged with his frenzied spear. Mulius. who stood there on the well-built wall. Apollo. Hecuba's blood brother. Three times Apollo shoved him back. spoke out: 830 368 . who lived by the river Sangarius in Phrygia. horse-taming Hector's uncle. for the fourth time. came on like some god. and Pylantes.

who. Taking a firm stance. He threw the rock and didn't waste his throw—he hit Cebriones. horseman Patroclus. Apollo left. and then Apollo can give you glory. I wish I were more powerful than you. His two eyes dropped down onto the ground. His sure-footed horses were heading at Patroclus. he'd feed a lot of men by catching oysters. breaking through the skull. Apollo slipped into the throng of fighting men. he gripped a stone. a god among the toiling men.“Hector. Like a diver. for his part. he went for Hector right away. He totally confused the Argives. in the dust right at his feet. Then. a bastard son of famous Priam. so you can kill him. bashing in his eyebrows. But come on. why withdraw from battle? That's not worthy of you. there's an agile man! What a graceful diver! If he were on the fish-filled seas somewhere. In his right hand.” Saying these words. Then you'd quickly leave this battle in disgrace. jumped from his chariot onto the ground. out of the well-made chariot. a large jagged rock. drive your strong-footed horses at Patroclus. his fingers wrapped around it. not killing any of them. Cebriones toppled over. The sharp rock struck him on the forehead. His spirit left his bones. holding a spear in his left hand. Hector's charioteer. The rest of the Danaans Hector left alone. 870 369 . as he held onto the reins. as much as you're superior to me. conferring glory on Hector and his Trojans. drive them to battle. Glorious Hector then told fiery Cebriones to lash the horses on. you made fun of him: 840 850 860 “Well now.

Hector leapt from his chariot down to the ground. just lay there in the swirling dust. Hector grabbed the corpse's head. so his own courage kills him. But the great man Cebriones. But when the sun came to the point 880 890 900 370 . shaking up deep stands of oak. over Cebriones. ash.jumping over in the roughest water. hurling slim branches one against the other. is hit in the chest. At the other end. rushed at Cebriones. Patroclus. I suppose these Trojans must have acrobats as well. as men kept fighting round him. proud of his glory. his horsemanship now quite forgotten. like two lions struggling on a mountain peak over a slaughtered deer. Around Cebriones many spears were driven home. The two men then battled over Cebriones. many boulders crashed on shields. both keen to slash each other's flesh with pitiless bronze. Neither side had any thought of ruinous flight. refusing to let go. Patroclus gripped the feet. in your killing frenzy. A desperate struggle then ensued among the Trojans and Danaans fighting there. moving like a lion who. weapons from both sides found their mark— men kept on dying. while savaging some farm. and tapering cornel trees. Opposing him. Patroclus. with tremendous noise as the branches snap—that's how Trojans and Achaeans collided with each other in that conflict. Patroclus rushed at warrior Cebriones. both ravenous. and glorious Hector. That's how you. Menoetius' son. many winged arrows flew from bowstrings. judging from that easy dive he made out of his chariot onto the plain.” This said. As long as the sun kept moving through the middle sky. Just as East and South Winds challenge one another in mountain forests. both filled with fighting fury— that's how those two masters of the war shout fought.

Zeus' son. then Achaeans. away from shouting Trojans. he struck Patroclus on his back. Euphorbus. with its bronze point. with a sharp spear between the shoulder blades.which shows the time has come to unyoke oxen. you saw your life end. Euphorbus surpassed all men the same age as him in spear throwing. He'd already knocked twenty men out of their chariots. horseman Patroclus. and stripped the armour off his shoulders. But when he attacked a fourth time. as he moved through the confusion. Apollo. In Patroclus' hands. his fine limbs grew limp—he stood there in a daze. intent on slaughter. was completely smashed. as his death loomed. Later Zeus awarded it to Hector to carry on his head. too. son of Panthous. his noble forehead. and that was the first time he'd come with his own chariot to learn something of war. Up to that time. loosened the body armour on Patroclus. thick and strong. on his broad shoulders—that made his eyes lose focus. Pulling the spear out of Patroclus' flesh. Three times he killed nine men. His mind went blank. a Dardan warrior. in that grim fight came up against you. hit him in the back. Patroclus failed to see Apollo. Then with the flat of his hand. for he advanced towards him hidden in thick mist. for it was always guarding godlike Achilles' head. with terrific shouts. Patroclus. The dust and blood then stained the helmet's plumes. a terrible god. like war god Ares. Phoebus Apollo knocked the helmet from his head. then. horsemanship. For Phoebus. contravening Fate. The horsehair crest rolled with a clatter under horses' feet. Next. Next. They dragged warrior Cebriones out of range. Three times he assaulted them. From close behind. Euphorbus was the first to strike you. Then Patroclus charged the Trojans. gods had not let that helmet with its horsehair plume get smudged with dirt. his heavy long-shadowed spear. His tasseled shield and strap fell from his shoulders down on the ground. but he failed to kill you. were stronger. Apollo stood behind him. and speed on foot. 910 920 930 940 371 .

and the lion's strength brings down the panting boar—that's how Hector. even though Patroclus had no weapons for a fight. when both beasts fight bravely in the mountains over a small spring where they both want to drink. at the hollow ships. was no use to you. Patroclus fell with a crash. So Patroclus. overwhelmed by the god's blow and spear.” Then you. driving the bronze straight through.Euphorbus ran back again to blend in with the throng. Hector's horses. Just as a lion overcomes a tireless wild boar in combat. your strength all gone. he moved up through the ranks. Then Hector spoke winged words of triumph over him: “Patroclus. You poor wretch. horseman Patroclus. and Achaea's army was filled with anguish. horseman Patroclus. taking them in ships to your dear native land. even Achilles. He didn't stand his ground. destroyed the life of Menoetius' noble son. replied: 950 960 970 372 . back to the group of his companions. Now vultures will eat you here. With the spear I'm the very best war-loving Trojans. swift of foot. for all his courage. who'd killed so many men. Though he stayed behind. avoiding death. stood close to Patroclus and struck him with his spear. 'Don't return to me. wounded by sharp bronze. But when Hector noticed brave Patroclus going back. until you've slashed blood all over man-killing Hector's tunic from his own chest. robbing our women of their life of freedom. moving close in with his spear. withdrew. came out to fight. low in the stomach. he must have given you strict orders as you left. you thought you'd raze our city. You fool! In front of them.' That's what he must have said to win you over to such foolishness. and I've saved them from their fatal day.

for the moment. slaughtered by my spear. As Patroclus died. Hector set his foot down on the corpse. why predict my own death for me? Who knows? It may happen that Achilles. descendant of Aeacus. and pushed the body backwards. splendid Hector spoke to him: “Patroclus. a fatal power. all would have died. But I'll tell you something else— bear this in mind—you'll not live long yourself. Then with that spear he set off at once. just like you. So you're the third in line at my death. godlike attendant to the swift-footed kinsman of Aeacus. pulled the bronze spear from the wound. the loss of youthful manhood. going after Automedon.“Boast on.” As Patroclus said these words to Hector. For you'll be destroyed at brave Achilles' hands. They overcame me easily. 980 Zeus. But he'd been carried off by those swift immortal horses. Hector. lamenting its own fate. the finality of death flowed over him. 990 1000 373 . the priceless gift presented by the gods to Peleus. son of fair-haired Thetis. and Apollo have given you victory. son of Cronos.” As he said this. But deadly Fate and Leto's son have slain me— and Euphorbus. eager to strike at him. for they personally removed the armour from my shoulders. If twenty men came to confront me. His spirit fluttered from his limbs and went to Hades. is hit first by a spear of mine and gives up his life. Your death is already standing close at hand.

eager to kill anyone who might come at him. Automedon takes them into battle with Zeus' help. but are pushed back. refusing to move. warlike Menelaus. like a mother beside her calf. Athena rouses Menelaus to fight on. But Euphorbus. Abandon these battle trophies. Moving up close to the dead body.” 374 10 20 . I'll steal your sweet life with one spear throw. So let the Trojans give me the honour and the fame. with Zeus' support. If not. son of Atreus. then made a stand over the corpse. the battle goes back and forth over the body. Zeus spreads fog over the battle field. the Achaeans move off with the body of Patroclus. Apollo does the same for Hector. tells him to give Achilles the news of Patroclus' death. lowing over her first born. Apollo rouses Hector to attack. he spoke out. Leave this corpse. Zeus lifts the fog from the battle. In front of him he held his spear and a round shield.Book Seventeen The Fight Over Patroclus [The men fight over the body of Patroclus. noticed that the Trojans had just killed Patroclus. Menelaus goes to Antilochus. fair-haired Menelaus stood above Patroclus. with no experience of giving birth till then. he strode through the ranks of those fighting in the front. Hector and Aeneas go after Achilles' horses. the horses of Achilles mourn Patroclus. Achaeans are driven back. with his ash spear. the exploits of Menelaus in that fight. Hector attacks again. Glaucus upbraids Hector. leader of men—go back. No Trojan and no famous ally hit Patroclus before I struck him with my spear in that murderous fight. back towards the ships] In that battle. Ajax and Menelaus then move up over the body. addressing warlike Menelaus: “Divinely raised Menelaus. Menelaus retreats. son of Atreus. also knew that brave Patroclus had been killed. son of Panthous. In just that way. Apollo rouses Aeneas to fight. Dressed in gleaming armour.

divinely raised Menelaus. lion. get back to your companions. as he waited when I came against him. fair-haired Menelaus then replied: “By Father Zeus. it seems.” 30 40 Menelaus spoke. whom you killed. You speak in triumph about widowing his wife in her new bridal home. can match the arrogance in sons of Panthous with their long ash spears. just as I did his. Hyperenor. who replied: “Now. in case you run into something unwelcome. if I bring home your head and armour and toss them in the hands of Panthous and queen Phrontis. But not even horse-taming Hyperenor. From experience there are lessons even fools can learn. got much enjoyment from his youthful vigour. Let's start— fight on. strong as he was.With a great scowl. I don't think he went home to cheer up his dear wife and worthy parents on his own two feet. indeed. calling me the most unworthy warrior among Danaans. we won't delay our struggle long. Don't oppose me. such arrogant boasting has no great merit. or ferocious boar.” 50 375 . whose chest contains the fiercest and the strongest fury— none of these. to his parents. whether for victory or flight. but he failed to sway Euphorbus. I'd advise you to retreat. once he'd mocked me. grief beyond enduring. I may provide them with a way of easing their sad misery. In fact. So if you stand here against me. I'll drain your strength as well. In any case. you'll surely make up for my brother's death. bringing sorrow. The spirit in a leopard.

The powerful shield bent back the point. trusting its own strength.Saying this. His hair. Euphorbus of the fine ash spear. son of Atreus. charged in clutching his spear. Then Atreus' son would have easily carried off the celebrated armour of the son of Panthous. was soaked in blood. putting his full weight behind the blow. The spear point drove straight through Euphorbus' soft neck. Apollo addressed Hector with these winged words: 60 70 80 90 376 . so it bursts out in white blossoms— but then a sudden stormy wind arising rips it from its trench and lays it out prone on the earth— that's how Menelaus. Then Menelaus. Taking on the likeness of a man. Mentes. as lovely as the fine curls on the Graces. Just as a man tends a flourishing olive shoot. no Trojan's heart was brave enough to move up and fight against splendid Menelaus. swift Ares' equal. to challenge Menelaus. He struck him at the bottom of his throat. as Euphorbus was moving back. cut down Panthous' son. snatches the finest heifer from a grazing herd. gorging itself on blood and all the entrails. He urged Hector. seizing her first by the neck in its powerful jaws. praying to Father Zeus. but at a distance. a lovely vigorous sapling stirred with the motion of every breeze. unwilling to confront the beast. with confidence in his strong fists. again and again. pale in the grip of fear— in just that way. his armour clanging round him. Just as a mountain lion. Atreus' son. leader of the Cicones. while around it dogs and herdsmen cry out in distress. But the bronze did not break through. in some lonely place with a rich source of water. if Phoebus Apollo had not been offended. He then began to strip the armour off. Euphorbus struck Menelaus' round shield. then breaks the neck and savagely rips that cow apart. with braids in gold and silver clips. He fell with a thud.

fighting a man the gods are honouring. Looking through the ranks of men. then some disaster soon rolls over him.” With these words. Hector marched ahead through those fighting in the front. who lies here because he tried to avenge my honour. No mortal man. descendant of Aeacus. blood flowing from his open wound. Atreus' son grew worried. except Achilles. has just killed the best man of the Trojans. now you're going after something you'll not catch. like the inextinguishable fires of Hephaestus. But if I fight Hector and his Trojans all by myself out of a sense of shame. standing by Patroclus. warrior Menelaus. then they'll surround me—many warriors against one man. will call me a disgrace. Hector's gleaming helmet is bringing all the Trojans straight at me. can control or drive them. Armed in his gleaming bronze. he quickly noticed Menelaus stripping off the famous armour. son of Panthous. Hearing that penetrating yell. some Danaan. with Euphorbus on the ground. ending his brave fight. chasing the horses of warrior Achilles. But why's my fond heart debating about this? When a man wants to cross what gods have willed. a god among the toiling men. with a piercing shout. Meanwhile. lying there. He spoke to his courageous heart: “Here's trouble.“Hector. Euphorbus. A bitter cloud of sorrow darkened Hector's heart. seeing this. Atreus' son. Apollo withdrew again. If I leave this fine armour and Patroclus. for an immortal mother gave him birth. So none of the Danaans seeing me here 100 110 120 377 .

my friend. But if I could find Ajax. Once Hector had stripped off the famous armour from Patroclus.” 130 As Menelaus thought these matters over in his mind and heart. With him went fair-haired Menelaus. for Achilles' sake. drawing on our fighting strength. He kept looking round. He looked for mighty Ajax. who moved up among those fighting in the front. and soon observed him on the left flank of the army. leaving the corpse behind. come here. standing firm. the son of Peleus. the Trojan ranks moved forward. The beast's heart. even against god's will. seeing that Hector fights with gods' assistance. so with his sharp bronze 160 378 . we can at least retrieve the naked corpse. moving from that farmyard against its will—that's how fair-haired Menelaus backed off from Patroclus. urging them to fight. so we could find a way to save this corpse. Let's see whether. Menelaus came up to Ajax. 140 like a bearded lion which dogs and men chase off— with spears and shouts they drive it from the farm. Hector with his bright helmet already has the armour. the two of us. though brave. rallying his companions. with Hector in the lead.moving back from Hector will find that shameful. grows cold. In this bad situation. then spoke out: “Ajax. he then tried to drag away the body. for Achilles' sake.” Menelaus spoke. that's what's best. Let's hurry over to defend the dead Patroclus. Menelaus then backed off. son of Telamon. rousing the heart in warlike Ajax. might come back. He turned round. once he'd reached the company of his companions. For Phoebus Apollo had made them all fall back 150 in an amazing panic. Going off on the run. skilled in war shouts.

son of Hippolochus. when Sarpedon. looking at Hector with a frown. stood war-loving Menelaus. He gave the splendid armour to some Trojans to carry to the city. to look at you. how are you going to save your city only with those soldiers born in Ilion? For no Lycian will set out to fight against Danaans for your city's sake. Ajax then covered Menoetius' son with his broad shield and made his stand there. Then Glaucus. but in battle you're sadly lacking. then jumped up in his chariot. So Hector gave ground. heart filled with utmost sorrow. your guest. like a wall. their trophy. With him there. on the other side. you abandon to the Argives. How can you rescue a lesser warrior from the thick of battle. something that would bring him special glory. criticized him harshly: 170 “Hector. withdrawing to the company of his companions.he could hack Patroclus' head from off its shoulders. once your companion. since there's apparently no gratitude for taking on our enemies without a rest. then pull back the corpse to give to Trojan dogs. you're the finest man we've got. You're a man who runs away. He often served you well—both your city 180 190 379 . commander of the Lycians. son of Atreus. Consider now. like a lion over its cubs. ungrateful man. The lion shows off its power and contracts its brows into fine slits which conceal its eyes—that's how Ajax defended warrior Patroclus. That fame you have as a courageous warrior is misplaced. to become their battle spoils. But Ajax moved in close with his shield up. a beast which hunters run across in the forest as it leads its young along.

or in person rouses men to fight. But come. while he was alive. stealing their victory with ease. I find your thinking questionable. 200 210 220 230 380 . So now. or confront him one on one. my friend. then replied: “Glaucus. But you don't dare stand up to Ajax in the thick of battle. whether I'm a coward all day long. stand here beside me. on the basis of what you've just said. If we pulled him from the battle and brought the corpse to Priam's mighty city. and Troy will witness its utter devastation. if any Lycian man will listen to me. Zeus makes even brave men run away. looking angry. Their dead man attended on the greatest of the Argives. but there's always something more powerful. a resolute and dauntless spirit. the din of chariots. Look at what I do. then we'd haul Patroclus back to Ilion at once. the mind of Zeus. I thought you had a better mind than any other man living in fertile Lycia. since he's a better man than you. look that brave warrior in the eye. who leads the best spear fighters by their ships. struggling hard against a hostile army. why would a man like you speak out so arrogantly? My friend. If Trojans now could fill themselves with courage.and you personally. I'm not afraid of war. But now you lack the courage to protect him from the dogs.” Hector of the gleaming helmet. we'll go home. You say I didn't stand to fight great Ajax. the sort men have when they defend their native land. who bears the aegis. and we could then take his body back to Troy. But now. Argives would quickly trade the lovely armour belonging to Sarpedon.

he called out to his Trojans: “Trojans. with a great shout. Then. or whether I'll prevent Danaans. from defending dead Patroclus. he changed his armour. sacred Ilion. once I'd killed him. Dardan spearmen. you're not considering your own death at all— it's getting closer. Shaking his head. Once he'd grown old. until I can put on the lovely armour of great Achilles. my friends. which heavenly gods had given to Achilles' well-loved father. Recall your battle fury. standing apart from that dreadful fight. which I stripped off the great Patroclus. then put on the immortal armour of Achilles. Zeus then spoke to his own heart: 240 250 “You poor wretch. Then. He caught them a short distance off. the men taking the famous armour of Achilles towards the city. So you're putting on the immortal armour of the finest man. He gave his own equipment to war-loving Trojans to carry to the city. cloud-gatherer Zeus gazed down on Hector. son of Peleus. Hector of the shining helmet left that furious conflict and strode quickly off with rapid strides. for all their fighting frenzy. From far away.as you allege.” Hector spoke.” With these words. did not reach old age. who makes other men afraid. You've just killed 260 381 . Peleus gave it to his son. be men. following his companions. for all his father's armour. who. as he dressed himself in the battle armour of Peleus' godlike son. Lycians.

dazzling them all with the armour of the great-hearted son of Peleus. So now let everyone turn round and face the enemy directly. as he paraded there in front of them. I called you here. filling his limbs with strength and courage. then nodded his dark brow. with food supplies and presents. to compensate you. Then the fearful war god Ares entered Hector. to strengthen hearts in each of you. With this in mind. and Ennomus. since you'll not be coming back from battle. Patroclus is dead. or handing over to Andromache the glorious armour of the son of Peleus.his comrade. each from your own city. but whoever pulls him to horse-taming Trojans here and makes Ajax move away—I'll give him half the spoils. but so you might help me rescue Trojan wives and little children from warrior Achaeans. Deisenor. Hector urged them on— his words had wings: 270 280 “Listen to me. I squander the resources of my people. Thersilochus. courageous man. Phorcys. whether to survive or die. 290 382 . Hippothous. to the tremendous shouts of all his famous allies. But for the moment. you countless tribes of allies. a kind. He set off. He changed the armour so it suited Hector's body. I'll give you great power. who read omens found in birds. Medon. Hector moved around with words of encouragement to everyone—Mesthles. and then vainly stripped the armour off his head and shoulders. For in that choice we find the joy which we derive from war. you neighbours. Glaucus.” The son of Cronos spoke. Chroraius. Asteropaeus. not because I wished a large display or needed it.

for you'll feel shame and anger in your hearts. Menelaus. But all of you must come here. all you who drink your wine at public cost with Agamemnon and Menelaus. all you who rule your people. which soon enough will be food for Trojan dogs and birds. but I fear for my own head. What fools! By that corpse Ajax took many of their lives. He shouted to Danaans with a piercing yell: “Friends. their hearts hoping they would drag that body away from Ajax. which may be in danger. even if not called by name. my friend. rulers and leaders of Achaeans. One of them may hear.” 300 310 Ajax finished. Trojans then threw their full weight straight at the Danaans. 320 383 . holding spears up high. son of Telamon. I'm not concerned so much about Patroclus' corpse. skilled at war shouts.” Hector finished. sons of Atreus. and he'll get a share of glory equal to my own. as well. Hector's become a war cloud which envelops everything. and yours. it's difficult for me to see precisely what each of you is doing—this conflict rages on so fiercely. So come. skilled at war shouts: “Divinely reared Menelaus. followed his advice. to whom Zeus has given honour and glory. Then Ajax said to Menelaus. And our complete destruction's plain to see. I don't expect we two will be returning from this battle. call out to Achaea's finest men.keeping the other half myself.

Still. After him came others— Idomeneus and his companion Meriones. He was the first to come running through the battle to meet Menelaus. the man-killing war god's equal. heard him clearly. Just as a huge wave roars into a flowing stream at the mouth of a river fed from heaven. Swift Ajax. At first the Trojans drove bright-eyed Achaeans back. though confident with their long spears. Thus. So Zeus did not want Patroclus to become merely a plaything for the dogs of his Trojan enemies.if Patroclus should become a toy for Trojan dogs to play with. behind a fence of their bronze shields. he encouraged Patroclus' companions to defend him there. Achaeans held firm around Menoetius' son. united by a common spirit. did not kill anyone. But the Trojans. Of all Danaans 340 350 360 384 . for all their eagerness. for Zeus had not felt hostile to Patroclus in earlier days. when he was alive and comrade to Achilles. leaving it behind. But the Achaean pull back was only temporary. with headlands on both sides of the shoreline echoing the boom of salt water surf beyond— that's how Trojans roared as they came on in attack. so they retreated from the body.” 330 Menelaus stopped. they did begin to drag away the body. son of Oïleus. and others. But what man has a mind which could name all those who came up behind these warriors in that conflict to reinforce Achaeans? Trojans then drove forward in a single group with Hector leading them. for Ajax quickly rallied them. too. The son of Cronos cast a thick mist down on their glittering helmets.

easily pushed back the Trojan ranks. driven on by the force of Ajax's mighty fists in that huge spear. It hit Schedius. They stood there. no matter how much he might want to. began to drag the body by the feet back through the crowd. as he moved among them. Then Hippothous. falling face down on the body. The bonze point drove on through 370 380 390 385 . Blood and brains gushed from the wound and oozed together along the socket of the spear. Then he collapsed. But he was directly facing Hector. Hippothous let go the feet of brave Patroclus. and win glory for themselves. wanting desperately to haul him off. far away from rich Larissa. He'd tied his shield strap round both ankle tendons. eager to please Hector and the Trojans. struck him at close range on the bronze cheek piece of his helmet. Ajax strode around through those fighting in the front. slaughtered on the spear of great-hearted Ajax. The spear point smashed through the helmet with its horsehair crest. who lived at home in celebrated Panopeus. by far the best of men from Phocis. Hector then threw his shining spear at Ajax. son of great-hearted Iphitus. Hector's spear struck this man right on the collar bone.he was the finest in his looks and actions after the son of Peleus. over Patroclus. as it wheels through forest clearings—that's how Ajax. moving quickly through the throng. He did not repay his parents for the work they'd done to rear him— he did not live long enough. noble son of Pelasgian Lethous. splendid son of noble Telamon. For Ajax. allowing them to fall and lie there. like a mountain boar who scatters dogs and strong young men with ease. back to their city. Ajax dodged the weapon. so he saw it coming. ruling many men. The strength drained out of him where he was standing. but only just. But right away he faced a danger which no one could avert.

conquered by their own cowardice. spoke up: “Aeneas. But Apollo himself stirred up Aeneas. through their own strong power.and came out by his shoulder. it would be shameful if war-loving Achaeans drive us back all the way to Ilion. Argives dragged off the bodies of dead Hippothous and Phorcys. Some god's just told me— he came and stood beside me—that even now 400 410 420 430 386 . Then Ajax struck. can you not defend steep Ilion in defiance of some god? I've seen other men who trusted their strong power and courage and with their numbers held their country against Zeus' will. Breaking the plate on body armour. the bronze sliced out his innards. if we're beaten by our cowardice. and you all suffer countless fears and won't keep battling on. addressing Hector: “Hector and the rest of you commanders. At that point glorious Hector and his foremost men drew back. Aeneas then shouted out. son of Epytos. They began to strip the armour from their shoulders.” He finished. He was wise and well-disposed towards Aeneas. Aeneas recognized Apollo. in the gut. with Argives winning glory beyond what Zeus decreed. Phaenops' son. Right then war-loving Achaeans would have driven Trojans back to Ilion. But Zeus wants us to win far more than the Danaans. who'd grown old serving as herald to Aeneas' old father. the herald. son of Zeus. the far shooter. both Trojans and allies. taking on the form of Periphas. With a tremendous shout. Phorcys fell in the dust. his armour rattling round him. once he'd looked into his face. fingers clawing at the earth. In this man's form. as he stood over Hippothous. Apollo. He fell with a crash. hitting warlike Phorcys.

with their spears extending outward. their best man in a fight after Asteropaeus. the courageous companion of Lycomedes. and not let them carry dead Patroclus back to their ships without a battle. giving orders. You couldn't tell whether sun and moon still shone.” Aeneas finished. Dark blood soaked the earth. So they fought on. right in the liver. That's what mighty Ajax ordered. fighting hand to hand. below his abdomen. But that was now impossible. As he fell. stood there. So let's go straight at these Danaans. war-loving Lycomedes pitied him. proud allies. The pile of dead bodies grew. He charged ahead. But far fewer of them died. they shed their own blood also. It hit Apisaon. in a group around Patroclus. son of Arisbas. for they were careful to protect each other from complete destruction in that fighting crowd. a son of Hippasus. Danaans. too. He moved in close. Ajax moved around among them all. for in that fight a mist surrounded all the best men standing there 440 450 460 387 . Apisaon's limbs collapsed. For they stood there. and his fall filled warrior Asteropaeus with sorrow. and threw his shining spear.in this fight high counselor Zeus is helping us. He strode far ahead of all the fighters at the front. Aeneas then struck down Leocritus. For as Danaans fought. He'd come from fertile Paeonia. They must all stand firm around the body. telling them that no man should move back from the corpse or stride out to fight in front of massed Achaeans. shepherd of his people. With his spear. ready to fight Danaans. all together. holding up their shields on every side. like blazing fire. as they fell—Trojans. then stood there. facing the Achaeans. Trojans rallied round and made a stand.

and they stand. The men kept toiling on without a pause. if they'd seen that fight. hearts full of hope— Trojans seeking to drag it back to Ilion. They thought he was still alive. once they've picked it up. keeping track of who was killed or fleeing back. staying out of range of each other's painful weapons. Just as a man gives his people a huge bull's hide to stretch. as the fat soaks in under the tension of so many hands stretching the entire skin as far as it will go— that's how those men on both sides pulled at the corpse. after soaking it in fat. under their feet. So they fought more casually. when he'd urged them into battle by their black ships. That's how destructive Zeus made 480 490 500 388 . sweat dripping on their knees and legs. back and forth in a narrow space. Achaeans to their hollow ships. no clouds above the entire earth or on the mountains. not even if they'd been intensely angry. in a circle pulling hard. bright sunshine all around them. 470 But two warriors. Meanwhile. Neither Ares nor Athena. watching their companions. had not yet learned about the death of lord Patroclus. as both sides battled over swift-footed Achilles' brave companion. well-known men. keeping their distance. so the moisture quickly leaves the hide. Throughout that entire day the great combat raged. Thrasymedes and Antilochus. under a clear sky. other Trojans fought other well-armed Achaeans undisturbed. fighting the Trojans in the front ranks of the throng. as Nestor had instructed. a bitter conflict. would have disparaged it. Around Patroclus the conflict grew intense.beside Menoetius' dead son. and running down men's eyes and hands. But soldiers in the centre were suffering badly in the fog and fighting. These two were fighting some distance off. The pitiless bronze was wearing down the finest men. who incite warriors to battle.

there'd be no glory for us if we went back to the hollow ships. his dearest friend by far. But those beside the corpse kept holding their sharp spears. He thought he was alive and would return once he'd reached the gates. 520 530 389 . But the horses of Achilles. Godlike Achilles.the conflict for men and horses that day men fought over Patroclus. listening to her in private. knew nothing of Patroclus' death. if we're all fated to be killed together by this man. He didn't think he'd lay waste the city with him or without him. spoke words like these: “Friends. The mutual slaughter continued on. away from the fast ships. Then they fought on. That would be better for us all by far than if we leave this corpse for horse-taming Trojans to carry off. let no one leave the battle. too. with no pause in the fighting.” Men talked like this to strengthen their companions. Thetis said nothing of the evil which had taken place. Bronze-armed Achaeans talked together. the death of his companion. He'd never imagined in his heart that Patroclus was dead. But at that time. winning glory.” Great-heated Trojans. for often Achilles had learned this from his mother. So let the black earth open here for each of us. the smash of iron rising up through the bronze sky. back to their city. when she'd told him what great Zeus had planned. for they were fighting under the walls of Troy. using words like these: 510 “My friends. at this time.

Priam's son. But at least Hector. brave son of Diores. heads bowed down to earth. nothing is more miserable than man. For I'll still grant glory to the Trojans.descendant of Aeacus. weeping from the time they first learned their charioteer had fallen in the dust at the hands of Hector. or go towards Achaeans locked in battle. the son of Cronos pitied them. Looking at those horses. The two shook out their manes. as they cried. stood some distance from the fight. when sacred darkness comes.” Saying this. often lashed them with a stroke of his quick whip. at sunset. like a pillar standing on the tomb of some dead man or woman. Is it not enough he wears his armour and then brags about it? I'll put strength into your legs and hearts. trailed down below their harnesses on both sides of the yoke. to keep on killing till they reach the ships. so you can carry Automedon safely from this battle to the hollow ships. for you're immortal. Zeus spoke to his own heart: “Poor horses! Why did we give you to king Peleus. Zeus breathed great strength into those horses. Warm tears flowed from their eyes onto the ground. longing for their driver. as they mourned. Shaking his head. won't mount you or drive your finely decorated chariot. 540 550 560 390 . immobile. a mortal man. Automedon. but the two weren't willing to withdraw back to the ships by the broad Hellespont. That I won't permit. and often spoke to them with soothing words or threats. ageless? Was it so you'd experience sorrow among unhappy men? For the truth is this— of all the things which breathe or move on earth. Their thick manes. They stayed beside their ornate chariot. covered in dirt. so the dirt fell on the ground. killer of men.

for in the sacred chariot he was by himself. Behind them Automedon joined the fighting. what Achaean warrior is better able to control and guide these strong immortal horses than yourself. glorious Hector at once spoke to Aeneas.They then set off towards the Trojans and Achaeans. He couldn't wield a spear and manage those swift horses. quickly grabbed the reins and whip. in the front ranks of the crowd. except Patroclus. who was close by: “Aeneas. Standing behind the chariot. what god put inside your chest this useless plan. counselor to bronze-armed Trojans. quickly pulling the fast chariot along with them. and on his shoulders Hector is now wearing the armour of Achilles— he celebrates his glorious triumph. he cried to Automedon: “Automedon. So take the shining reins and whip. as he rushed to chase them down. swooping down in that chariot like a vulture on a flock of geese. I'll get down from the chariot and fight.” Automedon spoke. son of Diores.” Automedon. It was impossible. Your comrade has been killed. son of Laerces. while he was alive? Now he's met his death. springing up into that fast chariot. though still grieving for his comrade. Seeing this. But in these attacks he didn't kill a man. 570 580 590 600 391 . his fate. replied: “Alcimedon. But at last one of his companions noticed him. Alcimedon. Haemon's son. Automedon jumped out. Then Alcimedon. a man as wise as gods. He easily escaped the Trojan battle noise and then with ease charged into the large crowd once more. stealing your common sense? You're fighting against the Trojans by yourself.

his loyal companion: 610 “Alcimedon. or to stand and fight against us both. since those men lack the courage to confront the two of us. son of Priam.I see the two-horse team of swift Achilles coming to this fighting with poor charioteers. fully hoping in their hearts they'd kill the men. Protect the two of us from ruthless fate while we're still living. For Hector and Aeneas. What fools! They would not return from Automedon without shedding their own blood. guarding their shoulders under bull's hide shields. and his dark heart was filled with strength and courage. That pair I'd like to capture. I don't think Hector. with thick bronze hammered out on top. until he's killed the pair of us and climbed behind the fine manes of these horses belonging to Achilles. then driven in flight the Argive ranks. then shouted to both Ajaxes and Menelaus: “You Ajaxes. So the two moved straight ahead. Then Automedon prayed to Father Zeus.” Hector spoke. then drive those strong-necked horses off. leave that corpse to the rest of our best men. who'll stand firm around it. if your heart is willing. Menelaus. if we attack. so they breathe right on my neck. or himself been slaughtered among the front-line fighters. Immediately he spoke out to Alcimedon. Anchises' strong son was not unwilling. will check his fury. With them went Chromius.” 620 Automedon finished. tanned and tough. Troy's best men 630 392 . both Argive leaders. make sure you keep the horses close to me. and godlike Aretus.

it's all up to Zeus. Automedon hefted his long-shadowed spear and threw it. and godlike Chromius. Hector. leaving Aretus lying there with a mortal wound. But these things lie in the lap of the gods.” Saying this. slicing clean through sinews. They came up through the crowd answering their comrade's shout. swift Ares' equal. severed his belt. its shaft trembling until great Ares 650 stilled its force. though the man I've killed is a lesser man than he. Once that sharp spear impaled itself. so I'll attempt a throw—whatever happens. then drove low in his stomach. afraid of both Ajaxes. The bronze went straight on through. boasting in triumph: “I've managed here to ease somewhat my heart's grief for the death of Menoetius' son. Now they would have charged each other and fought hand to hand with swords. stripped the armour. moved back once again. Just as a strong man 640 with a sharp axe strikes a farm ox right behind its horns. but since he was directly facing Hector. quivering in his organs. he saw the bronze spear coming and evaded it by leaning forward. are coming hard against us.” 660 With these words. The long spear stuck in the ground behind him. but the Ajaxes made them move apart for all their battle fury.in this harsh fight. Aeneas. Then Hector threw his bright spear at Automedon. hitting the round shield of Aretus. which didn't stop it. his limbs gave way. so the ox stumbles forward and falls down—that's how Aretus jerked forward and then fell onto his back. Automedon. 393 .

” Menelaus. His death has touched my heart. like a lion that's just gorged itself on cattle. if Achilles' fine and loyal companion is ravaged by swift dogs beneath Troy's walls. But Hector has the power of deadly fire. I'd be happy to stand above Patroclus. defend me from this shower of weapons. son of Atreus. you'll be disgraced. who was close by her. sent by wide-seeing Zeus to urge on the Danaans. Then he got in. Just as for mortal men Zeus bends his coloured rainbow down from heaven. for Zeus is giving him the glory. in his untiring voice she said: 670 “Surely. So be brave. Menelaus. She stirred up all the men. For his mind had changed. expert in war shouts. you venerable old man. have to hang your head in shame. protecting him. if only Athena would give me strength. Stand firm. upsetting flocks and stopping men from work upon the earth—that's how Athena then placed herself in the Achaean throng. Athena. an omen prophesying war or some harsh storm. giving encouragement first to courageous Menelaus. 680 690 394 . feet and upper arms all bloody. Encourage all your men. wrapped in a purple mist. Athena stirred up the conflict. for he'd first prayed to her of all the gods. answered her: “Old Phoenix. Then once more over Patroclus the bitter fight resumed—fierce and full of sorrow.he took the blood-stained spoils and put them in the chariot.” Menelaus' words pleased the bright-eyed goddess. coming down from heaven. Taking the form of Phoenix. He won't stop cutting men down with his bronze.

He's killed your trusty comrade Podes. all glittering. of all Hector's guests the one he liked the most.She put strength into his shoulders and his knees. who so far has been a feeble spearman? But all by himself he's snatched a body from the Trojans and gone off with it. Apollo came up close to Hector to reinforce his spirit. with a tremendous peal of thunder. which of the Achaeans will now fear you. Then Menelaus. spoke out: 710 “Hector. Phaenops lived at home in Abydos. hid Ida behind clouds. Fair-haired Menelaus struck him with his spear.” As he spoke. to whom Hector gave a special honour among men as his companion. Podes fell with a thud. Among the Trojans was a rich. black clouds of grief enveloped Hector. his good friend at a feast. He strode by the foremost fighters. which. brave man called Podes. a noble front-line warrior. he hurled his shining spear. son of Zeus. Eëtion's son. He took the form of Phaenops. 720 395 . Then the son of Cronos took his tasseled aegis. since you're afraid of Menelaus. In his shape. 700 At that point. Standing over Patroclus. keeps on biting—it finds human blood so sweet—with that stamina she filled up his dark heart. He hit him on the belt. dragged the corpse away from Trojans into the crowd of his companions. Apollo. son of Eëtion. son of Asius. no matter how much one brushes it away from someone's skin. Then in his chest she set the persistence of a gnat. then flashed his lightning. armed in gleaming bronze. Atreus' son. The bronze drove straight on through. as he began to flee.

but not by much. if Coeranus hadn't quickly driven up with his swift-footed horses. The spear smashed his teeth. Hector attacked Leitus. roots and all. who struck him underneath his jaw and ear. Looking around him anxiously. He did hit Coeranus. For you recognize yourself that Achaeans will not win this victory. a Boeotian. For Idomeneus he came as a saving light. Standing there facing the enemy. The Trojans gave a shout. he had no hope of fighting Trojans. Coeranus tumbled from the chariot. The first to begin the rout was Peneleus. It was a glancing blow. But the act cost him his life at the hands of man-killing Hector. Then Idomeneus whipped the fair-maned horses back to the hollow ships. his charioteer. as usual. Hector sliced his wrist. splitting his tongue in half. The reins fell on the ground. Then at close quarters. Meriones stooped down and scooped them from the plain with his own hands. Idomeneus had come from the curving ships that day on foot and would've given the Trojans a great triumph. But the long spear broke at the socket. son of great-hearted Alectryon. but the point of the spear sliced quite near the bone. Then Hector threw a spear at Idomeneus. who'd followed him from well-built Lyctus. Deucalion's son. then spoke to Idomeneus: “Now lash these horses on until you reach our swift ships. Leitus drew back— he knew that if he couldn't grip his spear. and so his fighting ended. As Hector went at Leitus. Idomeneus threw and struck his body armour on the chest. right beside the nipple.as he shook the aegis. who'd come in close to throw. he was hit in the shoulder by a spear from Polydamas. awarding victory to Trojans and making Achaeans run away.” Meriones finished. He missed him. Meriones' comrade. protecting him from ruthless fate. 396 730 740 750 760 .

Even a fool can see that Father Zeus is now personally helping Trojans. Father Zeus pitied him. Since it gives you pleasure. But come. Ajax wept. make the sky clear. but do in the light of day. see if you can spot Antilochus alive. and all the fight came into view. let us see with our own eyes. for I don't think he's learned the dreadful news of his dear comrade's death. The sun shone down. his all-conquering hands. Father Zeus. Then Ajax spoke to Menelaus. kill us. 770 780 790 397 . divinely raised Menelaus. all our throws fall wasted on the ground. rescue these Achaean sons from this fog. All their flying weapons hit a target. so we both can drag the corpse and then get back in person to bring joy to our companions. scattering the haze. and we'll withdraw to our black ships. They must be anxious as they watch us here. thinking we can't check the fighting frenzy of man-killing Hector.for by now a fear had fallen on his heart. giving victory to the Trojans. I wish some comrade would report back quickly to Peleus' son. Great-hearted Ajax and Menelaus also knew that Zeus had turned the tide of battle now. let's sort out the best course of action. whether a brave man throws them or a coward— Zeus makes them all fly straight. skilled at war shouts: “Look now. But I can't see any Argive who could do that. The first one to speak was Telamonian Ajax: “Here's a problem. In our case. Men and horses are all shrouded in this mist.” As he finished. At once he dispersed the mist. as well.

like an eagle. expert at war shouts. Now fatal death has overtaken him. fair-haired Menelaus went away. He went off like some lion moving from a farm. so he slinks away at dawn in disappointment— that's how Menelaus. has just been killed. knew how to treat every man with care. exhausted by his attacks on dogs and men. which. He issued many orders to Meriones to the Ajaxes. men say. swooping low. quickly seeing him on the left flank of the battle 820 830 398 . as well: 800 810 “You two Ajaxes. and then tears out its life—that's how. agreed. seeking Nestor's son. when he was alive.” Ajax spoke. doesn't miss the swiftly running hare crouched down under a leafy bush. Argive leaders. Meriones. Menelaus. and you. left Patroclus. leaving the corpse a trophy for the enemy. who. make him afraid. let each man bear in mind the kindnesses of poor Patroclus. raised by gods. and. glancing warily in all directions. the man he loves the most by far. thrown by keen hands. Menelaus. your bright eyes kept searching all around through groups of many comrades. which. skilled at war cries. while soaring high. for spears rain down. the beast keeps charging in without success. much against his will—he feared Achaeans might be pushed back in painful flight. Get him to go with speed to rouse up fiery Achilles. Then Menelaus. then burning sticks. by telling him his companion. to see if he was still alive.” With these words. for all his fierce desire. who prevent it tearing flesh out of some cow.son of great-hearted Nestor. keeping their watch all night—but ravenous for meat. has the sharpest sight of all the animals flying in the sky—a bird which. seizes it at once.

” Menelaus finished speaking. You must run quickly to Achaean ships to tell Achilles. for your own eyes can see it. his swift feet took him from the battle. bearing the bad news to Achilles. divinely raised Menelaus. But to assist them. so you can learn the painful news. I think. And then your heart. he set off on the run. his strong voice failed. Antilochus was overwhelmed. came up to him. to swift Achilles. I don't expect 840 850 860 399 . a huge loss for the Danaans. Then fair-haired Menelaus said: “Divinely raised Antilochus. The best Achaean. come here. giving victory to the Trojans. something I wish had never happened. Still. Hearing that news. how some god is rolling this disaster over the Danaans. You already know.encouraging his companions. Menelaus sent godlike Thrasymedes. Patroclus. For a long time he stood in shock. has been slaughtered. he took up a position by both Ajaxes and said: “I've sent Antilochus to our fast ships. for now Hector of the gleaming helmet wears his armour. Giving his armour to his noble comrade Laodocus. he did not neglect what Menelaus told him. Then he went in person to stand by warrior Patroclus. who miss him badly. who drove the horses close beside him. urging them to fight. had no desire to help defend the hard-pressed comrades left there by Antilochus. speechless. so he can bring the corpse in safety to his ship—the naked body. But even so. who felt his loss severely. His eyes filled up with tears. men of Pylos. Running over. As he wept. son of Peleus.

” Great Telamonian Ajax then answered him: “Glorious Menelaus. standing behind you with a single heart. their colour changed.he'll come out now. no matter how enraged he is with godlike Hector. just as we share one name. and no one dared rush forward to battle for the dead. scattering in all directions— that's how groups of Trojans kept following them a while. sure of its strength. So you and Meriones stoop down and lift the body quickly. Then they raised the body off the ground. holding our positions by each other. Behind them. the fierce god of war. 400 . Trojans soldiers gave a shout. as they chase some wounded wild boar. in the face of a fierce conflict. But now we should consider for ourselves the best thing we should do. so we'll be able to haul off the corpse and leave this Trojan tumult. they run back in fear. but when both Ajaxes turned round to stand against them. He can't fight at all against the Trojans without armour.” Ajax spoke. We've stood firm before. escaping our own death and our destruction. lifting it high with one great heave. They went after them like hounds charging ahead of youthful hunters. Take it from this fight. as fast possible. everything you say is true enough. in the face of Ares. but once it wheels around on them. 870 880 890 So these men worked hard to bring that body from the battle to the hollow ships. as they saw Achaeans hoisting up the corpse. like some fire suddenly rushing at a city full of people. keen to rip it into pieces. thrusting at them with swords and double-bladed spears. We'll hold off the Trojans and godlike Hector.

bringing death to all small birds— that's how the young Achaean soldiers ran off then. Behind them. screaming in panic. That's how the din of chariots and spearmen coming up against them kept resounding as they moved along. 900 910 920 401 . as winds whip the inferno on. But Trojans kept up their pursuit. for the strength of their current cannot rupture it— that's how both Ajaxes held back the Trojans then in that fight. both Ajaxes held off the enemy. and glorious Hector. as they work on covered in sweat—that's how these men strove hard to carry off the corpse. hearts worn out with the strain. But there was no let up in the war. away from Hector and Aeneas.setting it alight. forgetting all their fierce desire for battle. plenty of fine weapons fell around the ditch. once they see a falcon as it comes after them. especially two of them—Aeneas. But like mules throwing their great strength into their work. Just as a flock of daws or starlings flies off in screaming fear. pushing their waters back to go across the plain. even the strong flow of some harsh rivers. Just as a wooded ridge which cuts across a plain holds back a flood. so houses fall among the flames. as they haul a beam or huge ship timber on an uneven path down from the mountains. As Danaans fled. Anchises' son.

Book Eighteen The Arms of Achilles [Antilochus brings the news to Achilles of Patroclus' death.” As Achilles in his mind and heart was thinking this. Polydamas advises retreat. promises to bring him new armour from Hephaestus. especially a new shield. talks to her sister Nereids. swift-footed Antilochus came to Achilles with his news. He told him the agonizing truth: 10 20 “Son of warlike Peleus. when she told me that while I was alive the best man of the Myrmidons would leave the sun's light at the hands of Trojans. speaking with a troubled mind to his own great heart: “Why are long-haired Achaeans once again retreating to their ships. Hector opposes him. that reckless man. Achilles displays himself to the Trojans by the ditch and wall. then visits Achilles. Thetis visits Hephaestus. Hephaestus makes new armour. being beaten back across the plain in terror? I hope the gods have not done something that will break my heart. shedding warm tears. Achilles collapses in grief. once he'd saved them from consuming fire. Thetis leaves with the armour] As the men fought on like a blazing fire raging. requests new armour for Achilles. I told him to return back to the ships. Achaeans take Patroclus' body back to the ships. Trojans debate what to do. Iris visits Achilles with a message from Hera. 402 . and not face up to Hector man to man. He found Achilles by his beaked ship. noble Nestor's son approached. So it must be the case that the fine son of Menoetius is dead. begin their laments over Patroclus. Thetis hears his grief. My mother told me once they'd do that. sensing in himself what had already happened.

Thoe. as he held Achilles by the hand. She began to wail. Apseudes. Amphithoe. Achilles' noble heart moaned aloud. The women slaves acquired as battle trophies by Achilles and Patroclus. Iaera. His noble mother heard it from the ocean depths where she was sitting by her ancient father. began to scream aloud. Pherousa. he tugged at his own hair. Across from them. Actaia. and they fell down. hearts overwhelmed with anguish. With both hands he scooped up soot and dust and poured it on his head. Ianassa. 30 40 50 403 . lovely Galatea. Cymothoë. Nemertes. Achilles gave a huge cry of grief. Amphinome. Proto. Doris. Then all the women's legs gave way. Antilochus feared he might hurt himself or slit his throat with his own sword.you must hear this dreadful news—something I wish weren't so—Patroclus lies dead. Speio. Callianeira. Doto. Orithyia. eyes full of tears. Also there were Clymene.” Antilochus finished speaking. Cymodoce. Maera. ox-eyed Halië. Thaleia. Dexamene. covering his handsome face with dirt. Limnoreia. Men are fighting now around the body. Nesaea. He's stripped. Panope. Agave. He lay sprawling—his mighty warrior's massive body collapsed and stretched out in the dust. Then around her gathered all the divine daughters of Nereus deep in the sea— Glauce. Amatheia with her lovely hair. covering his sweet-smelling tunic with black ash. Melite. With his hands. Callianassa. Hector with his gleaming helmet has the armour. They rushed outside and beat their breasts around warlike Achilles. Antilochus lamented. and others. Ianeira. disfiguring himself. Dynamene. A black cloud of grief swallowed up Achilles.

Thetis led them all in their laments: “Sister Nereids. Her sisters went with her in tears.Nereus' daughters living in the ocean depths. she cradled her son's head. 60 so all of you. I can provide no help. one after another. when he'd grown as tall as some young sapling. Around them sea waves parted. beating their breasts. When I go to him. he lives in sorrow. as he was groaning bitterly. listen. Hide nothing. 80 404 . hearing what I say. will understand my heart's enormous sorrow. With a sharp cry. she talked to him—her words had wings: “My child. until they came to fertile Troy. As she grieved. for I'd raised him like a lovely orchard tree. 70 I'll never welcome him back home again. They emerged. that to my grief I bore the best of men. why are you crying? What sorrow now has come into your heart? Speak out. While he's still alive and sees the sunlight.” With these words. Then his noble mother moved beside him. But I shall go to look on my dear child. For when I gave birth to a fine strong boy to be an excellent heroic warrior. to war against the Trojans. Thetis left the cave. I sent him out in the beaked ships to Ilion. returning to the house of Peleus. right where the Myrmidons had dragged up their ships in close-packed formation near swift Achilles. then spoke. climbing up on shore. They filled the glistening cave. to hear what grief has overtaken him while he remains detached from all the fighting. Alas. But now. for my unhappy misery.

above all my comrades. the man I honoured as my equal. that massive armour. My own heart has no desire to live on. for your doom comes quickly as soon as Hector dies.” Through her tears. has been destroyed. to continue living among men. If only you had stayed among the eternal maidens of the sea and Peleus had married a mortal wife.” With a heavy groan. once he'd killed him.” 90 100 110 120 405 . Patroclus. desperate for your help and suffering a terrible ordeal. which Hector took. from what you've just been saying. Thetis then answered Achilles: “My son. But what pleasure's there for me. But now there'll be innumerable sorrows waiting for your heart. you're fated to an early death. losing his life and paying me compensation for killing Menoetius' son. Mother. unless Hector is hit by my spear first. so wonderful to look at. which the gods gave as a priceless gift to Peleus on that day they placed you in the bed of a mortal man. Olympian Zeus has indeed accomplished what I asked. once your child is killed. when Patroclus.Zeus has given you what you begged him to when you stretched your hands out to him— all Achaea's sons by their ships' sterns are hemmed in there. swift-footed Achilles then answered Thetis: “Yes. my beloved companion. I've lost him and the armour. You won't be welcoming him back home again.

killer of the man I loved. Though you love me. So now I'll go to meet Hector. I'll just lie there. the man lord Zeus. He's fallen far from his homeland. king of men. He needed me there to protect him from destruction. As for my own fate. although in council other men are better— so let wars disappear from gods and men and passionate anger. escaped his death. let me seize great glory—let me make so many Trojan and Dardan matrons weep. 130 140 150 406 . let it come to me when Zeus and the other deathless gods determine. He was destroyed by Fate and by malicious Hera's anger. For not even strong Hercules. all those killed by godlike Hector while I sat here by the ships. too. too.Swift-footed Achilles answered her with passion: “Then let me die. And so for me. as Agamemnon. loved the most. Don't keep me from battle. so that they'll know I've long refrained from war. sweeter than trickling honey in men's throats. which builds up like smoke inside their chests. But we'll let that pass. since I'm not returning to my own dear land. which incites even the prudent man to that sweet rage. But for now. a useless burden on the earth—and I'm unmatched in warfare by any other Achaean armed in bronze. made me enraged. just now. since I could not prevent the death of my companion. as I must. I'll suppress the heart within my chest. and with both hands wipe tears from their soft cheeks. So now. son of Cronos. For all the pain I feel. and for Patroclus was no saving light or for my many other comrades. If a like fate has been set. then once I'm dead. and set them on to constant lamentation.

all your glittering bronze.you'll not convince me. But you must not rejoin Ares' conflict until with your own eyes you see me in the morning here again.” Saying this. what you say is true— 160 it's no bad thing to protect companions when they're in trouble from complete disaster. But now the Trojans have your lovely armour. I'll go to high Olympus. since his death is coming closer. Tell him everything. It's on the shoulders of Hector with the shining helmet— he boasts about it. to see if he is willing to give my son some splendid glittering armour. 170 I'll return at sunrise.” Thetis spoke. to that famous artisan Hephaestus. and I'll bring you lovely armour made by lord Hephaestus. Then the silver-footed goddess Thetis went away to fetch that lovely armour from Olympus for her beloved son.” Silver-footed Thetis then said to Achilles: “My child. Her sisters quickly plunged under the waves. Thetis turned away from her own son to address her ocean sisters: “Now you must plunge into the broad lap of Ocean and go find the Old Man of the Sea in our father's house. But I don't think his triumph will last long. As Thetis' feet carried her 180 407 .

Standing by Achilles. but he never yielded any ground. beat him from the corpse. Priam's son. Your heart will be disgraced if Patroclus 190 200 210 220 408 . whose heart is set on hacking off the head from its soft neck. Achaeans were running back. the Trojans. keen to drag it off.towards Olympus. And now Hector would have seized that corpse. dead Patroclus. unknown to Zeus and other gods. But those well-armed Achaeans couldn't extricate Achilles' comrade. with a message that he should arm himself for war. confident of his fighting power. Sometimes he charged right at them in the frenzied crowd. But Hector kept on coming without a pause. Defend Patroclus. fleeing man-killing Hector. for they'd been overtaken by Trojan warriors and chariots once again. Just as shepherds are unable to drive off from their farmyard a tawny ravenous lion by some carcass— so the two warrior Ajaxes could not push Hector. from the spears. shouting furiously to his Trojans. For on his behalf a deadly conflict rages by the ships— men are butchering each other. He'll fix it on a stake set in the wall. Iris spoke—her words had wings: “Rouse yourself. charge in to carry it away to windy Ilion. most feared of men. Hera had sent her. as furious as fire. No more lying here. while others. Sometimes he just stood there and gave a mighty yell. The one most eager to haul the body off is glorious Hector. seized the corpse's feet. son of Peleus. back from that body. So get up. clothed in their full battle strength. the two Ajaxes. Three times. Priam's son. some trying to protect the dead man's corpse. if swift Iris with feet like wind had not come down. until they reached their ships beside the Hellespont. winning infinite glory. Three times glorious Hector. with a huge noise. speeding from Olympus to the son of Peleus. from behind. with Hector.

who sits on high. not until my own eyes see that she's come back.” Swift-footed godlike Achilles then asked her: “Goddess Iris. She promised to bring me splendid armour from Hephaestus.” Wind-swift Iris then answered Achilles: “We know well enough your lovely armour is in Trojan hands. It may happen that the Trojans. just as you are.becomes a plaything for the dogs of Troy— his mutilated corpse will be your shame. Show yourself to Trojans. doesn't know. nor do any other immortal gods dwelling on snow-capped Olympus. which of the gods sent you with this message to me?” Swift Iris. then said to Achilles: “Hera sent me. I don't know anyone whose glorious equipment I could use. Cronos' son. will pull back from battle. afraid of you. Zeus' glorious wife. with feet like wind. My dear mother has told me not to arm myself for war. giving Achaea's exhausted warlike sons 230 240 250 409 . But I expect he's out there with his spear among the front-line warriors in that conflict over dead Patroclus. to the ditch. son of Telamon. with the exception of the shield of Ajax. But you should go now.” Swift-footed Achilles then questioned Iris: “But how can I rejoin that conflict? Those men have my armour.

He strode from the wall. moved into action. beacons flaming upwards to attract attention from those on near-by islands. Three times Trojans and their allies were thrown into confusion. As thrilling as a trumpet's note when it rings clearly.” With these words. when rapacious enemies besiege a city—that's how sharp and piercing Achilles' voice was then. Pallas Athena added her voice. Achaeans then. Charioteers were terrified. seeing the fearful inextinguishable fire blazing from the head of the great-hearted son of Peleus. with stronger hearts. Then Achilles. loved by Zeus. where men fight all day long in Ares' hateful war. swift-footed Iris went away. anticipating trouble in their hearts. too. they light fires one by one. so their ships will come to save them from destruction—that's how the light blazed then from Achilles' head right up to heaven. As he stood there. causing great consternation among the Trojans. For Athena. When the Trojans heard it. Around his powerful shoulders Athena set her tasseled aegis. he cried out. he didn't mingle with Achaeans. that brazen shout Achilles gave. Three times godlike Achilles yelled across that ditch. Their horses with the lovely manes turned back the chariots. From far away. But recalling what his mother said to him. For rests in war are rare. twelve of their best men were killed by their own chariots and their own spears. goddess with the glittering eyes. all their hearts were shaken. At that moment. kept it burning. Then the lovely goddess wrapped his head up in a golden cloud. 260 270 280 410 . Just like those times when smoke from a city stretches all the way to heaven. pulled Patroclus out of spear range and laid him on a cot. rising in the distance from an island under siege by an enemy.a breathing space. then stood there by the ditch. struggling for their city— then at sunset. so from him a fiery light blazed out.

waiting for dawn beside the ships. No one dared sit down. There everyone stayed standing. Achilles with them. I advise us to return into the city—we should not stay here. But now I really have a dreadful fear of Peleus' swift-footed son. While Achilles kept up his anger at lord Agamemnon. Godlike Achaeans now could pause for some relief from the destructive killing of impartial war. consider both sides of this issue. shedding hot tears when he saw his loyal companion lying on a death bed. all terrified because Achilles had appeared. the only one who weighed with care the past and future. The first to speak was Polydamas. mutilated by sharp bronze. 290 300 310 320 411 . before they thought of food. For their part. they untied swift horses from their chariots and then. but never welcomed him at his return. he was the better of the two. Panthous' son. go down into the stream of Ocean.His dear companions gathered mourning round him. called for a meeting. Achaeans were easier to fight against. Our walls are far away. He'd sent him out to war with chariot and horses. but Hector far surpassed him with a spear. on the plain. So the sun set. For my part. Then ox-eyed queen Hera made the unwearied sun. He was Hector's comrade. hoping then we'd capture those curved vessels. Polydamas addressed them: “My friends. a prudent man. Bearing in mind their common good. against his will. I was glad to spend the night by their swift ships. after his long absence from that savage conflict. Personally. both born on the same night. As a public speaker. once Trojans drew back from that harsh fight.

Hector of the flashing helmet then replied: “Polydamas. then take up our positions on the walls. Anyone who gets away and makes it back to Ilion will be a happy man. once he's worn out his strong-necked horses with too much running. I don't want to hear that such events have happened. where Trojans and Achaeans have a share of Ares' battle fury. all mortal men would claim that Priam's city was rich in gold and bronze. Trust me when I say that's how things will go. what you say displeases me— you tell us to run back into the city and stay inside it. sacred night has stopped the swift-footed son of Peleus. polished and bolted shut. and he'll not lay waste our city. 330 340 350 412 . he'll fight on for our city and our women. tonight we'll collect our forces in one group. will guard the city. But now those splendid treasures are all gone. If Achilles comes from the ships keen to fight for our walls. not before our swift dogs eat him up for dinner.” With a scowl. Walls. return into the city. and doors with fitted planks. scampering around below our city wall. He'll go back to his ships. we'll recognize him well enough. high gates. But if tomorrow he moves into action fully armed and encounters us still here. No.He has a reckless heart—he's not a man to rest content in the middle of the plain. But in the morning early. If we all follow my advice. His heart won't let him force his way inside. although reluctantly. So let's go back. then he'll be disappointed. For dogs and vultures will eat many Trojans. Haven't you already been cooped up long enough within those walls? In earlier days. For now. we'll arm ourselves.

360 370 380 390 413 . with every man awake. No one praised Polydamas. Peleus' son began the urgent lamentations. They all applauded Hector's disastrous tactics. whether great victory goes to him or me. right at dawn. Tomorrow morning early. hemming the Achaeans in beside the sea. who'd advised them well. Better that one of us gets use from it than that Achaeans do. Any Trojan too concerned about his property should gather it up and give it to the men for common use. But come. then take keen battle to those hollow ships. placing his murderous hands on the chest of his companion. when crooked-minded Cronos’ son allows me to win glory by the ships. turned against us. we'll fully arm ourselves with weapons. Meanwhile. If indeed it's true that lord Achilles is returning to that battle by the ships. But now. and the man who seeks to kill may well be killed himself. In war the odds are equal.” Hector spoke. to say such things before the people. Among them. making sure you watch. this is no time. you fool. The fools! Pallas Athena had robbed them of their wits.Many goods from our own homes we've sold. but stand against him. I won't permit it. They went to Phrygia or fair Maeonia. Not a single Trojan will take your advice. in anger. You must take your dinner at your stations all through the army. so much the worse for him. Then throughout the army they ate their dinner. once great Zeus. I won't run from him in painful battle. The Trojans roared out in response. let's all follow now what I suggest. Achaeans mourned Patroclus all night long with their elegies. fighting face to face. if he wants that.

in Opoeis. On the blazing fire. But Zeus does not bring to fulfillment all things which men propose. poured water in it. in my anger at your killing.with frequent heavy groans. as bitter anger overwhelms the beast—just like that Achilles. you courageous man. when a deer hunter in dense forest steals its cubs— the lion comes back later. like a bearded lion. the day I tried to cheer Menoetius up at home. I'd bring his splendid son back there to him. since I'm journeying under the earth after you. And now. then brought split wood to burn below the water. by looting prosperous cities of mortal men. to redden the same earth right here in Troy. Till that time. Now both of us share a common fate. and round you Trojan and Dardanian women will keep lamenting night and day. tracking the man's footprints. Patroclus. his armour. so they could wash the blood clots from his comrade's corpse. the very women we two worked hard to win with our strength and our long spears. addressed his Myrmidons: “Alas. 400 410 420 430 414 . they set a cauldron with three legs. I'll postpone your burial till I bring here Hector's head. too. Old horseman Peleus will not be welcoming me at my return back to his home. I'll cut the throats of twelve fine Trojan children on your pyre. shedding tears. nor will my mother Thetis. what a useless promise I made then. in hopes of finding him. and with his share of trophies. amid his groans. you'll lie like this with me by my beaked ships. the man who slaughtered you. For in this place the earth will cover me. godlike Achilles told his comrades to place a large tripod on the fire.” After these words. then sick at heart roams through the many clearings in the forest. telling him when I'd sacked Ilion.

Made of eternal bronze and gleaming like a star.Fire licked the cauldron's belly and made the water hot. She found him working with his bellows. And men say I'm the finest of all goddesses in a double sense—both by my lineage and my marriage to the ruler of the gods. though mortal and ignorant of what I know. they washed him. his sister and his wife: “You've got what you wanted. it stood out among the homes of the immortals. rubbed oil thickly over him. can achieve what he intends for someone else. silver-footed Thetis reached Hephaestus' home. From your own womb you must have given birth to these long-haired Achaeans. So why should I not bring an evil fortune on these Trojans when they've made me angry?” Thus these two conversed with one another then. covering him with a fine woolen cloth from head to foot and a white cloak on the cloth. moving round. 450 460 415 . and filled his wounds with ointment nine years old. Once it had boiled inside the shining bronze. ox-eyed queen Hera. Meanwhile. Then they placed Patroclus on a bed. Then Zeus spoke to Hera. Swift-footed Achilles you've spurred into action. the Myrmidons around swift-footed Achilles mourned Patroclus with their lamentations. The crippled god had constructed it himself. Then all night long.” 440 Ox-eyed queen Hera then replied to Zeus: “Most dread son of Cronos. what are you saying? Even a human man.

silver-footed goddess Thetis approached more closely. thanks to my mother. Then she called the famous artisan Hephaestus: “Come here. and said: “Long-robed Thetis. that shameless one. so every tripod might move all on its own into a gathering of the gods at his command and then return to his own house. came forward— she was wife to the celebrated crippled god. with a footstool under it. I would have suffered heartfelt agonies. eager to conceal me. Let me show you our hospitality. for nine years 470 480 490 416 . the goddess led her inside the house. why visit our house now? You're a welcome and respected guest.” The celebrated lame god then replied to Charis: “Here's a fearful honoured goddess in my home. if Thetis and Eurynome. had not taken me into their hearts. she called her name. Thetis needs to see you. Under the legs of each one he had fitted golden wheels. but to this point you haven't come by very much.” With these words. forging the rivets. At that time. Hephaestus. daughter of circling Ocean stream. lovely goddess with the splendid veil. after my great fall. beautifully finished. to stand along the walls of his well-built house. As he was working on them with his great skill. Charis. They were wonderful to look at. She asked Thetis to sit in a silver-studded chair. With those two. Do step inside. He was forging twenty tripods in all. Noticing her. because I was a cripple. His work on them had reached the stage where finely crafted handles had still not been attached.sweating in his eager haste. He was making these. the one who saved me when I was in pain. Taking Thetis by the hand.

show her now our hospitality. if I can accomplish it. My heart tells me I shall do it. At once he was helped along by female servants made of gold. why have you come here. necklaces— inside their hollow cave. always with the roar of surf. vocal chords. to our house. But Thetis and Eurynome—the ones who rescued me—they knew. he spoke: “Long-robed Thetis. clasping her hand. and strength. He was lame. neither god nor mortal man. They learned to work from the immortal gods. Hephaestus. But Charis. The Ocean stream flowed round me. but his thin legs moved quickly under him. earrings. These women served to give their master detailed help. 500 510 520 530 417 . who moved to him. But say what's on your mind.” Thetis answered him in tears: “Oh. if it's something that can be carried out. And now Thetis has come into my home. They look like living servant girls.” Huge god Hephaestus got up from the anvil block with laboured breathing. possessing minds.I made many lovely things—brooches. and hairy chest. he wiped his face. then stored them in a silver chest. an honoured welcome guest? To this point. Hephaestus come limping up to Thetis and sat down in a shining chair. Then. He placed his bellows far from the fire and collected all his work tools. So I must give her full recompense—fair-haired Thetis saved my life. thick neck. spiral bracelets. I'll put away my bellows and my tools. With a sponge. gripping a sturdy staff. you haven't come here often. hearts with intelligence. both hands. No one else knew. Then he pulled on a tunic and came limping out.

But he refused. I'll never welcome him returning home to the house of Peleus. if Apollo had not killed Menoetius' son. he made me subject to a mortal man. asking at your knees if you'd be willing 540 550 560 418 . his heart has pined away. The senior men among the Argives pleaded with my son. whom great Agamemnon seized right out of his arms. When I visit him. I cannot help him. Achaea's sons chose for him as his prize a girl. loads on me more than any other god? Of all goddesses living in the sea. They promised splendid gifts. In grief for her. son of Cronos. But then he sent Patroclus to the war. when I had reared him like a tree in an abundant garden. worn out by harsh old age. He killed him at the front. I sent him off in the beaked ships to fight in Ilion against the Trojans.is there any goddess on Olympus who's suffered so much painful sorrow in her heart to equal the unhappiness that Zeus. So I had to put up with a man in bed. though much against my will. Peleus. He gave me a son to bear and raise as an outstanding warrior. And I have still more pain. They fought all day around the Scaean Gates. Now he lies there. dressing him in his own armour. declining to protect them from disaster. That's why I've come here now. Then. not letting them come out. son of Aeacus. And while he still lives to glimpse the sunlight. The boy grew up as quickly as a sapling. giving Hector all the glory. Then the Trojans penned Achaeans in by their ships' sterns. in his home. after he'd inflicted bloody carnage. and that very day would have utterly destroyed the city. he lives in sorrow. providing a force of many men.

and body armour. There he hammered out the earth. along with every constellation which crowns the heavens— the Pleiades. attaching to it a silver carrying strap. so his work could go ahead. the moon at the full. precious gold and silver. too. Now my son lies in the dust. which some people call the Wain. the Hyades. Around its outer edge. I wish I could hide him from distressful death. who is fated to die soon. whatever way Hephaestus wished. sometimes gently. 570 580 590 600 419 . the untiring sun. the sea. he fixed a triple rim. mighty Orion. and the Bear. He threw on the fire enduring bronze and tin. glittering in the light. each one emitting just the right amount of air. Hephaestus left her there.to give my son. twenty in all. helmet. took up a massive hammer in one hand and in the other his tongs. started blowing on the crucibles. when his cruel fate arrives. Don't let these things afflict your heart. then told them to start working. the heavens. he placed the great anvil on its block. So the bellows. all wonderfully crafted. sometimes blowing hard to help when he was busy.” The famous crippled god then answered Thetis: “Cheer up. Next. as surely as I know there'll be fine armour for him— such splendid armour that it will astound all the many men who chance to see it. The shield had five layers. On the outer one. The first thing he created was a huge and sturdy shield. heart filled with pain.” With these words. His previous equipment was all taken when Trojans killed his loyal companion. going to start his bellows. He directed them right at the fire. a shield. good leg armour fitted with ankle clasps. with his great skill he fashioned many rich designs.

By the light of blazing torches. Meanwhile. each one pleasing some of them— whether to attack that city and plunder it. along with those too old to fight. people were leading the brides out from their homes and through the town to loud music of the bridal song. each in his turn. They were discussing two alternatives. some the other. there were feasts and weddings. to be awarded to the one among them all who delivered the most righteous verdict. soldiers with glittering weapons. In one. staring in admiration. but the other was refusing any compensation. Their dear wives and children stood up on the walls as a defence. while heralds kept the throng controlled. One claimed he'd paid in full. Then he created two splendid cities of mortal men. 620 The crowd there cheered them on. whirling to the constant tunes of flutes and lyres. setting out his case before the people. holding in their hands the staffs they'd taken from the clear-voiced heralds. some supporting one. 610 Then the people gathered in the assembly.always circling in the same position. for a dispute had taken place. In the centre lay two golden talents. the only stars that never bathe in Ocean stream. while all the women stood beside their doors. There were young lads dancing. Both were keen to get the judgment from an arbitration. or to accept as payment half of all the goods contained in that fair town. The second city was surrounded by two armies. Two men were arguing about blood-money owed for a murdered man. watching Orion. 630 420 . elders were sitting there on polished stones in the sacred circle. But those under siege who disagreed were arming for a secret ambush. With those they'd stand up there and render judgment.

while pulling the feet of one more corpse out from the fight. who seized one wounded man while still alive and then another man without a wound. looking as though it had just been ploughed. both made of gold. Two scouts were stationed some distance from that army. They stood out above the smaller people with them. dressed in golden clothes. Strife and Confusion joined the fight. a place beside a river where the cattle came to drink. they stopped there. they turned. When the besiegers sitting in their meeting place heard the great commotion coming from the cattle. eager to move through that deep soil and reach the field's edge once again. led on by Pallas Athena and Ares. As they reached the field's edge. fertile spacious farmland. beautiful. Then they'd turn back. followed by two herdsmen playing their flutes and not anticipating any danger. They even joined the slaughter as living mortals. fighting there and hauling off the bodies of dead men which each of them had killed. killing the herdsmen with them. quickly cutting off the herds of cattle and fine flocks of white-fleeced sheep. Many labourers were wheeling ploughs across it. Then they organized themselves for battle and fought along the river banks. On that shield Hephaestus next set a soft and fallow field. The land behind them was black.The rest were leaving. men hitting one another with bronze-tipped spears. moving back and forth. These soon appeared. When the soldiers reached a spot which seemed all right for ambush. large. they quickly climbed up behind their prancing horses and set out. though it was made of gold—an amazing piece of work! 640 650 660 670 421 . and a man came up to offer them a cup of wine as sweet as honey. along with cruel Death. They soon caught up with those attackers. The clothes Death wore around her shoulders were dyed red with human blood. down the furrow. waiting to catch sight of sheep and short-horned cattle. which had been ploughed three times. covered in shining bronze. But those lying in ambush saw them and rushed out. and armed—as is suitable for gods.

four of them. a fence of tin. full of grapes made of splendid gold. Nine swift-footed dogs ran on behind. Armfuls of corn were falling on the ground in rows. Then he set on the shield a herd of straight-horned cattle. saying nothing. The dogs and young men were chasing after them. he made a ditch of blue enamel. They were lowing as they hurried out from farm to pasture land. there by the stubble. 1 680 690 700 710 The song of Linos is a traditional harvest song. with cows crafted out of gold and tin. Around it. The herdsmen walking by the cattle. Hephaestus placed on that shield a vineyard. the poles supporting vines throughout were silver. a sceptre in his hand. under an oak tree. bringing it to sheaf-binders. Behind the reapers. but with pleasure in his heart. were also made of gold. Some distance off. Young girls and carefree lads with wicker baskets were carrying off a crop as sweet as honey. a boy with a clear-toned lyre played pleasant music. where the grape pickers came and went at harvest time. singing and dancing. boys were gathering the crop. Among them stood the king.Then he pictured on the shield a king's landed estate. in his delicate fine voice. 422 . The lions. one after the other. heralds were setting up a feast. Binders were tying them up in sheaves with twisted straw. But there. A single path led in. beside a rippling river lined with waving reeds. at the front of the herd. Next. keeping them occupied. dressing a huge ox which they'd just killed. They were dragging him off. two fearful lions had seized a bellowing bull. Three binders stood there. Women were sprinkling white barley on the meat in large amounts for the workers' meal. In the middle of them all. around that. singing the Song of Linos.1 His comrades kept time. where harvesters were reaping corn. using sharp sickles. beating the ground behind him. The grapes were black. after ripping open the great ox's hide. as he roared aloud.

and whirling. fearing the lions. and pens. the mighty river. for Ariadne with the lovely hair. to make sure that it runs smoothly. Then they would line up and run towards each other. an open ground for white-fleeced sheep. with a gold crest on top. 423 740 720 730 . he took it and set it there before Achilles' mother. On that shield. Hephaestus then depicted Ocean. the celebrated lame god made an elaborately crafted dancing floor. But. When the famous lame god had made all the armour. roofed huts. the men lightly rubbed with oil wore woven tunics. holding onto one another by the wrists. as herdsmen kept trying in vain to chase them off. on its black blood. he fashioned body armour brighter than blazing fire. On that floor. like a hawk. The girls wore fine linen dresses. When he'd created that great and sturdy shield. close by but out of reach. testing it. and stood there barking. sheep folds. A large crowd stood around. enjoying the dancing magic. like the one Daedalus created long ago in spacious Cnossus. the dogs kept turning back before they nipped them. They turned with such a graceful ease on skillful feet. On their heads the girls had lovely flower garlands. Then the famous crippled god created there a pasture in a lovely valley bottom. Then. and tumbling. just as a potter sits with a wheel between his hands.were gorging on its entrails. young men and women whose bride price would require many cattle were dancing. The men were carrying gold daggers on silver straps. she sped down from Olympus. setting their swift dogs on them. a heavy helmet shaped to fit Achilles' temples. flowing all around the outer edge. Next on that shield. beautiful and finely worked. springing. Then he made him leg guards of finely hammered tin. as in the middle two acrobats led on the dance.

424 .carrying the gleaming armour of Hephaestus.

like a fire— a terrifying light. Agamemnon explains the origin of his folly. The wonderfully crafted metal rang out loudly. His eyes glared underneath his eyelids. the elders continue to mourn Patroclus. crying bitterly. They shrank away. for all our grief. Not one of them dared look directly at those weapons. who prophesy his death] When Dawn in her yellow robe rose from Ocean's stream. filling his heart with pleasure at the rich designs. 425 20 . He gazed at them. Standing by Achilles. Odysseus urges Achilles to eat. then said: “My son. Now you must accept this splendid armour from Hephaestus— no man has ever had such gorgeous armour to wear around his shoulders. we must let this man lie here. he felt great joy. She found her dear son lying beside Patroclus. bringing her light to immortal gods and mortal men. Briseis laments over the corpse of Patroclus. Achilles speaks to his horses. Many of his companions mourned around him. his anger grew. Fear gripped all the Myrmidons. Achilles summons an assembly of Achaeans. Agamemnon swears he has not touched Briseis.Book Nineteen Achilles and Agamemnon [Thetis brings the divine armour to Achilles. He's dead once and for all. Achilles refuses. It's the gods' will. the troops move out to battle again. Zeus sends Athena to help Achilles deal with his hunger.” 10 With these words. the goddess set the armour down before Achilles. Thetis reached the ships bearing Hephaestus' gifts. But when Achilles saw them. Agamemnon gets his gifts for Achilles brought to the assembly. But as his hands went over the god's priceless gifts. Achilles and Agamemnon are reconciled. she clasped his hand. The noble goddess went to them.

But you must summon the Achaean warriors to assembly. all his flesh will fester. I'll make the effort to protect him here from those cruel swarms of flies which feed on warriors who've been killed in battle. defile his corpse. I'll arm myself for war. After that. raising fearful shouts. If so. stirring Achaean warriors into action. goddess with the silver feet. Even if he lies here an entire year.” 30 Then Thetis. In the meantime. so his flesh would stay uncorrupted.Then he spoke to his mother—his words had wings: “Mother. don't let such things distress your heart. So even those who up to now used to remain with the assembled ships—helmsmen who worked 426 50 . this armour the god has given me is a work fit for the immortals. They may breed worms in him. through his nostrils. Then she inserted ambrosia and red nectar into Patroclus. I have a dreadful fear that flies may burrow in those wounds carved by the slicing bronze into the body of Menoetius' noble son. 40 But Achilles. now that the life in him is gone.” Saying this. Thetis filled him with fearless power. strode down along the seashore. answered Achilles: “My child. something no living human could create. like a god. his flesh will stay just as it is or better. to renounce your anger with Agamemnon. arm yourself for battle quickly— clothe yourself in all your fighting strength. his people's shepherd. So now.

Last to arrive was Agamemnon. to continue squabbling in a heart-rending quarrel full of grief for both of us. the ones who escape this deadly war and who evade my spear. quickly urge long-haired Achaeans on to battle. But Achaeans.ships' steering oars and stewards who stayed with the ships rationing provisions—these men all showed up for the assembly. I end my anger.” 60 70 80 427 . king of men. So now. Antenor's son. over some girl? I wish she'd been killed by Artemis' arrow right beside my ships. who in deadly conflict stabbed him with his bronze-tipped spear. They came and sat down at the front of the assembly. I think many of them will be glad to get some rest. we should let all this pass. still suffering from the wound Coön had given him. But come. after we destroyed Lyrnessus. will. though it hurts. long recall this argument you and I have had. the day I got her as my prize. leaning on their spears—their wounds still pained them. I think. repressing hearts within our chests—we must do that. Two associates of the war god Ares came in limping. if I'd not been so angry. so I may go out once again to face the Trojans and see if they still wish to spend the night beside our ships. Fewer Achaeans would have sunk their teeth into this wide earth at enemy hands. That's really helped lord Hector and his Trojans. because Achilles had appeared after his long absence from that painful war. has it been good for us. for you and me. Once all Achaeans were assembled. Still. swift-footed Achilles rose to speak: “Son of Atreus. the brave offspring of Tydeus and lord Odysseus. It's not appropriate for me to remain enraged for ever.

who walk in darkness. It's Zeus' fault and Fate—those Furies. in Thebes. but you other Argives pay attention— let every one of you mark my words well. who they say is the greatest of the gods and men. Agamemnon. But what was I to do? It is a god who brought all this about. companions of the war god Ares. that day when on my own I took away Achilles' prize. deceived him that very day Alcmene was to give birth to mighty Hercules. But I'm not to blame. king of men. When men all shout at once. Her feet are soft. not on the ground. she walks. Zeus' eldest daughter. Even Zeus. seducing them at random. addressed them: “My friends. In our assembly. Danaan warriors. You Achaeans have often criticized and spoken ill of me. blinds all men with her destructive power. with her cunning tactics. was blinded by her. 90 100 110 120 428 . I'm going to address the son of Peleus. even for a man skilled in speaking. Zeus then boasted openly to all the gods. when Hera.Achilles finished speaking. it's good to listen to a man who's standing up to speak and not to interrupt him. too. they cast a savage blindness on my heart. city with the splendid walls. and she brings folly onto humankind. Next. The well-armed Achaeans then were full of joy that Peleus' great-hearted son had set aside his anger. a mere female. That makes things difficult. but on men's heads. Ate. how can any one speak up or listen? Even a clear-voiced speaker gets upset.

'Listen to me. His heart was furious. lord of bright lightning. sharp pain seized Zeus deep in his heart. in Achaea. Zeus didn't see the trick.' But then that deceitful lady Hera said to Zeus. You don't really mean what you now say. Olympian. She quickly landed among toiling men. The goddess of childbirth. He seized Ate at once by the shining hair wound round her head. Then she brought the news to Zeus. then flung her clear out of the star-filled skies. was pregnant with a son. So come. in her seventh month. He swore a binding oath in his great blindness. Just now. So it's fitting he should become king of all the Argives. saying. 'You're not being candid. Perseus' son. He swore a great oath that Ate. Darting off. would no more come to Olympus or to starry heaven.' That's what she said. She then delayed Alcmene's childbirth. a noble man was born who'll rule the Argives. in fact. today brings into the sun's light a man who will rule all those who live around him. Cronos' son. 'Father Zeus. Hera then left that peak on Mount Olympus. she quickly came to Argos. in one hand he swung her round. where she knew the strong wife of Sthenelus. you gods and goddesses. Eileithyia. so I can say what the heart inside me bids. one of the race of men with my blood in them. I'll tell you my heartfelt news. Eurystheus. rule those who live around him. That said. This child Hera induced into the light before its term. who blinds everyone. swear a binding oath for me that the man who falls out today between a woman's feet will. 130 140 150 160 429 . of your own lineage. getting the Eileithyiae to hold it back. Perseus' son.' When Hera said that. one of the race of men with your blood in them. son of Sthenelus.

or to withhold them. destroying the Trojans' ranks with his bronze spear. if you wish to give me presents. don't turn right now to war. Now we must think of war. That's how I was. too. when great Hector of the shining helmet was killing Argives off at the ships' sterns. so you can see if you approve of them. the fight won't last for long if troops engage right now. But since I was blind. since Zeus robbed me of my wits. Though you're keen to go. rouse up all your other men. don't encourage Achaea's sons to fight against the Trojans on empty stomachs. that's up to you. if you prefer. as is appropriate. I will agree to make amends.” Resourceful Odysseus then addressed Achilles: “Though you're a brave man. We have great work to do.” Swift-footed Achilles then answered Agamemnon: “Most glorious son of Atreus. god-like Achilles. Agamemnon. to give priceless gifts. I'm ready to give every gift which lord Odysseus promised you in your hut yesterday. who blinded me when all this started. so once again men see Achilles with the front-line warriors. We should not be wasting time in conversation or with such delays. But prepare yourself for battle.Whenever Zeus saw his dear son Hercules carrying out menial work in all his labours for Eurystheus. I could not forget Ate. Or. Keep this in mind when you confront your man. thinking of Ate. king of men. and with all speed. once some god infuses strength 170 180 190 430 . let my servants fetch those presents from my ship and bring them here. If so. he'd always groan aloud. As for me.

so there'll be nothing due to you which remains unsatisfied. No. as my heart bids. swear an oath to you he's never climbed in that girl's bed to have sex with her. exploring all these matters very fairly. For they give strength and courage. my lord. son of Atreus. Then. I'm prepared to swear the oath. But the man who's had sufficient food and wine fights all day long against his enemies with a courageous heart. his knees get tired as he moves. his limbs grow heavy without his knowledge. Let him stand up there among the Argives. and. though he desires to fight. present his gifts. But let Achilles stay here a little while. Tell them to make a meal. answered Odysseus: “Son of Laertes. if the king was the first to lose his temper. so all Achaeans here in our assembly can see them first hand and delight your heart. You've explained this well. king of men. with men and women. I'll not swear falsely. So dismiss your men. and let others 200 210 220 230 431 . as is usual. Once thirst and hunger overtake him. Let the heart in your own chest be open to reconciliation. No soldier can fight the enemy all day till sunset without some food. king of men. There's no shame when a king pays someone compensation. As for you.” Agamemnon. before the gods. Agamemnon should offer you a fine and pleasing dinner in his hut. However fierce his heart may be for battle. Let Agamemnon.into both sides. you should be more righteous with others from now on. Instruct Achaeans to have some food and wine by their swift ships. His limbs don't tire until all warriors have left the battle. I am glad to hear what you've just said.

when Zeus gave him glory. with empty stomachs. and you are urging us to eat! For my part. only with killing. then at sunset make them a great dinner. all mangled. with his feet still pointing at the door. are lying there. resourceful Odysseus then replied: “Achilles. ruler of men. Peleus' son. more than a little better with your spear. son of Priam. Let Talthybius at once prepare for me in the middle of this wide Achaean camp a sacrificial boar to offer up to Zeus and Helios. it would be far better to worry about all this some other time. while his companions mourn there around him. until the gifts are brought out of my hut and we can sacrifice to seal our oaths. To you I assign this task— select from the entire Achaean force the five best young men to carry from my ships all those gifts we promised yesterday to give Achilles—that includes the woman. 240 250 260 270 432 . while my dead comrade lies inside my hut. no drink or food will pass my throat. Until that time. mutilated by sharp bronze. all those killed by Hector.stay gathered here. I'd lead Achaea's sons to war right now. For now.” To this. unfed. of all Achaeans the mightiest by far. You're stronger than me. That's why my heart cannot concern itself with what you've said. god of the sun. when the heart here in my chest is less enraged. Agamemnon. when we've avenged our shame. blood. at least. men's dying groans. when there's a let up in the fight.” Swift-footed Achilles then replied to Agamemnon: “Mighty son of Atreus.

Then he took along with him splendid Nestor's sons. waiting for another call to war. 280 290 300 433 . and Melanippus. for there bronze slices piles of straw onto the ground. all well skilled in lovely handiwork. This is the call. was there. as he'd promised. They went off to the huts of Agamemnon. the dead we must bury. Meriones. Let's all set off together as one army. in the middle of them all. As soon as they gave out the order. son of Phyleus. twenty gleaming cauldrons and twelve horses.but I might say I'm far better with advice. In battle men quickly have enough. whose voice was like a god's. Thoas. Then he led them back. the task was done. once Zeus lifts up his scales. hardening our hearts. one after another. So let no soldier hang back. Creon's son. and things will not go well for anyone left at Achaean ships. then mourn a single day. since I'm older and know more. Too many men are dying every day. But those who do survive grim battle must remember food and drink. Odysseus weighed out a sum of ten gold talents. Achaeans cannot mourn a corpse by eating nothing. When would anyone get some relief from fasting? No. They quickly led out seven women. and Lycomedes.” Odysseus finished. Talthybius. Meges. From the hut they took seven tripods. These they placed in the assembly. taking cruel war to those horse-taming Trojans. So your heart should listen now to what I have to say. Atreus' son. Eighth came the fair Briseis. with the young Achaean men carrying the gifts. but there's a slender harvest. Agamemnon stood up. covering our flesh with bronze which never tires. establishing for men the outcome of the battle. on and on incessantly. so we can fight our enemies once more.

each one going off to his own ship. Achilles quickly ended the assembly. For Atreus' son would never make my heart so totally enraged here in my chest. food for fish. you should all eat.by Agamemnon's side. then let gods punish me with many painful sorrows. so arbitrarily against my will. saying this prayer: “Let Zeus. Then Achilles. either for sex or any other reason. the loftiest and finest god. Great-hearted Myrmidons looked after all the gifts. so we can start the fight. if Zeus did not somehow desire the deaths of Argives in large numbers. you keep afflicting humans with great blindness. then Sun and the Erinyes. Lifting up his arms. first witness.” This said. But now. nor would he take that girl away from me. the sort they give to men who in their oaths blaspheme them. Argives all sat in silence. taking them to godlike Achilles' ship and storing them 330 340 434 . his hands gripping a boar. he prayed to Zeus. If what I say is not the truth. listening to their king with suitable respect. Agamemnon drew out the knife he always wore by his sword's scabbard. those Furies under the earth who punish men who've made false oaths—I hereby swear I've never laid a hand on that girl Briseis. then threw it in the vast gray sea. standing up. he cut the boar's throat with the ruthless bronze. He cut hairs from the boar to start the ritual. In my huts she stayed untouched. addressed war-loving Argives: 310 320 “Father Zeus.” Saying this. The men dispersed. as he gazed up to spacious heaven. Talthybius swung the body round.

You told me then you'd make me lord Achilles' wedded wife.” As Briseis said this. My brothers. she wept. With a cry. The women joined her in wailing for Patroclus. I left you here alive. I'll remain like this till sunset. then I beg you don't ask me to satisfy my heart with food or drink when painful sorrow grips me. But now. Again for me. for a marriage feast among the Myrmidons. she threw herself on him. You were always gentle. though each of them had her own private sorrows. That's the reason I'll never stop this grieving for your death. as always. 435 350 360 370 . But when swift Achilles killed my husband. at my return. have all met their fatal day.inside his huts. whom my own mother bore. evil follows evil. taken from these huts. whom I loved. hands tearing at her breast. the people's leader. three of them. her tender neck. when I went off. he'd take me in his ships to Phthia. then saw Patroclus mutilated by sharp bronze. But he refused. I find you dead. looking like golden Aphrodite. as well. Briseis. I saw the husband I was given to by my father and my noble mother killed by sharp bronze before our city. you wouldn't let me weep. lamenting: “Patroclus. They left the women there. her lovely face. you. The Achaean elders gathered round Achilles. urging him to eat. continuing to mourn: “If any of my dear companions here wishes to obey me. His noble attendants drove the horses to his herd. fair as a goddess. you who brought the utmost joy to my sad heart.

Thinking of Patroclus. But some remained— both sons of Atreus. where horses breed. or just barely living. he sighed repeatedly. whom I detest. godlike Neoptolemus. I could suffer nothing worse than this. then said: 380 “Poor man. not even if I learned my father's died— he must be shedding gentle tears in Phthia. in the past you used to set out tasty meals right here. each trying to console him in his painful grieving. You'd return to Phthia. possessions. if. when we Achaeans were in such a rush to set out against horse-taming Trojans in wretched war. Then he sent away the leaders. Up to now.” Achilles finished speaking. making them well and quickly in my hut. and old horseman Phoenix. servants. who's being raised for me on Scyros. Idomeneus. or if I heard my dear son had died. fighting Trojans over Helen. But his heart would find no joy until he'd entered the bloody mouth of war. in fact. the heart here in my chest hoped I alone would perish here in Troy. lord Odysseus. while I stay here among strange people. my high-roofed palace. Nestor. show him all my things. most loved of all my comrades. missing a son like me. For by now Peleus is either dead and gone. though both are in this hut. because I miss you so. he's still alive. so far from Argos.enduring everything. my heart refuses meat and drink. Now you lie disfigured. taking my child in your swift black ship away from Scyros. I must assume. 390 400 436 .

A noise like thunder rose. She swooped down through the air.” As he spoke. Does your heart no longer care for him at all? There he sits in front of his beaked ships. waiting all the time for distressful news of me. armed themselves throughout the camp. driven by the raging sky-born North Wind—that's how crowds of them streamed out then. 430 440 437 . Other men have all gone off to dinner. but he's fasting and won't eat. earth chuckled to see that gleaming bronze. Achilles wept. Zeus spurred Athena. Then she left for her mighty father's well-built home. when he finds out that I have died. The elders also mourned. As they lamented. the son of Cronos saw them. strong-plated body armour. Just as freezing snowflakes fall thick and fast from Zeus. Go now. like a broad-winged hawk. All around.afflicted with hateful old age. Feeling pity for them. with all speed. pouring from the ships— brightly gleaming helmets. Zeus spoke to Athena— his words had wings: “My child. so hunger won't consume him. into action. already eager. Put into his chest some nectar and beautiful ambrosia. each one remembering what he had left at home. a special favourite of yours—Achilles. so his limbs would not suffer pangs of hunger. here's a man you seem to be neglecting totally. Achaeans then came swarming out from their fast ships. screaming shrilly. Then as Achaeans. she inserted nectar and beautiful ambrosia in Achilles' chest. mourning his dear companion.” 410 420 With these words. ash spears and embossed shields—the glitter of it all flashed up to heaven.

so he could kill heroic warriors. he set it on his head. and strong. fully armed. First. so finely crafted. Then on his chest he fixed the body armour. It glittered like a star. Achilles. his teeth clenched. Noble Achilles. Then from its case. heavy. He was the only one with skill enough to wield it. eyes blazing with a fiery light. he took his father's spear. It was like his own set of wings. trying out the armour for himself. he strapped on his leg armour. this shepherd of his people. like the moon. shone everywhere. huge. setting bits inside their jaws. fitted with silver ankle clasps. Amid them all. noble Achilles armed himself for battle. and aligning reins back in the well-made chariot. taking them against their will over the fish-filled seas away from loved ones—that's how Achilles' shield. that spear had been given to own his dear father by Cheiron. as winds blow them further out. Just like the blazing light that sailors glimpse at sea from a fire burning in some isolated farm.drummed by the soldiers’ marching feet. his heart filled with a sorrow not to be endured. then picked up his huge strong shield which. beautifully made. he raged against the Trojans. Around his shoulders. adorned with the golden hairs Hephaestus placed so thickly round the crest. lifting him up. that helmet with its horse-hair plumes. 450 460 470 438 . he slung his bronze silver-studded sword. No other Achaean could control that spear. Automedon jumped in the chariot. Taking the shining whip which fit his grip. climbed up beside him. tying fine chest straps round them. made sure it fit him so his splendid limbs could move with ease. As he pulled on the divine gifts which Hephaestus had made for him. high in the mountains. Then raising the great helmet. Made of ash wood from the top of Pelion. Automedon and Alcinous kept themselves occupied yoking the horses. burned out far into the sky.

this time make sure you bring your charioteer back safely to the Danaan army. but some mighty god and a strong fate. Balius. ducking his head down quickly. so all his mane streamed down from underneath his shoulder harness beside the yoke towards the ground. Don't leave him out there slaughtered. 1 490 500 Hyperion (or Helios) is god of the sun. then gave Hector glory. killed by a mortal and a god. Then Achilles. The two of us could run as quickly as the West Wind's blasts— men say they are the fastest thing there is— your fate still stays the same. as you did Patroclus. to die in war. in a terrifying voice: “Xanthus.” Once Xanthus had said this. his swift-footed horse called Xanthus spoke to him. 439 . on this occasion we will bring you safely back. We won't be the cause. But the day you'll die is fast approaching. the Erinyes removed his voice. A powerful god born to Leto killed him among those fighting at the battle front. Goddess Hera gave Xanthus power to speak: 480 “Mighty Achilles. once we've had enough of battle.his armour gleaming like dazzling Hyperion.” From under the yoke. you famous children of Podarge. It was not our laziness or lack of speed which helped the Trojans strip that armour from Patroclus' shoulders.1 Then he called out to those horses of his father.

why do you prophesy my death? There is no need. said to his horse: “Xanthus. he drove his sure-footed horses off. screaming as he went. speeding forward to the front.in a fury. 510 440 . No matter. I will not stop till I have driven the Trojans to the limit of what they can endure in war. I know well enough I'm fated to die here. far from my loving parents.” With these words.

Aeneas and Achilles fight.Book Twenty Achilles Returns to Battle [As the armies ready for battle. son of Peleus. Zeus told Themis to summon gods to an assembly. Hector confronts Achilles. Poseidon saves Aeneas. asking about Zeus' purposes: “Lord of bright lightning. tells them they can join the fight on either side. Poseidon also answered Themis' summons. why have you called gods to this assembly? Are you concerned for Trojans and Achaeans? Right now their fight is close to flaring up into a total war. calling them to Zeus' home. Apollo persuades Aeneas to fight Achilles. None of the rivers was left out. He sat in the middle of them all. except Oceanus. All those who live in lovely woods. Zeus summons an assembly of gods. coming from the sea to join them. seating themselves on porticoes of polished stone. At that very moment. Aeneas and Achilles confront each other. Aeneas explains his ancestry. Achilles starts his slaughter of Trojans. The gods gathered there in Zeus' house. Achilles continues his slaughter] Then. higher up the sloping plain. feeding your boundless appetite for war. and grassy meadows came together at cloud-gatherer Zeus' home. river springs. She raced around.” 10 20 Cloud-gatherer Zeus then said to Poseidon in reply: 441 . Achaeans armed themselves around you. built there by Hephaestus' cunning arts for his father Zeus. the Trojans did the same. On the other side. the gods leave Olympus for the battle. Apollo saves Hector. from the summit of many-ridged Olympus. nor any nymph.

after staying away from war so long. Hephaestus also went along with them. Xanthus. his feet moved quickly under him. Yes. the reasons why I've summoned you. taking with him long-haired Phoebus. the plans here in my chest. The gods charged off to battle. like man-killing Ares. I fear he may go beyond what Fate ordains and storm the walls. their fear would make them shake.” With these words. swift son of Peleus in that blazing armour. Hera went to the assembled ships. I am concerned for them. as your spirits each dictate. who shakes the earth. if they saw him. sitting on a ridge of Mount Olympus. their hearts divided in two groups. As long as the gods were far away from mortal men. since Achilles had come back. For every Trojan's limbs were seized with trembling fear when they observed him there. archer Artemis. exulting in his power. not even briefly.“You understand. and now his heart's so terribly enraged for his companion. Achaeans won the glory. they'll not hold out against the swift-footed son of Peleus. the god with the most cunning mind of all. 30 40 50 442 . Though he was lame. But once Olympians mingled in the crowds of soldiers. Leto. and laughter-loving Aphrodite. But all the rest of you can go away to join Trojans and Achaeans. with Pallas Athena and Poseidon. Though they are being destroyed. Ares with the shining helmet joined the Trojans. For if we leave Achilles there alone to fight the Trojans. Helper Hermes accompanied them as well. helping either side. From here I'll look on to my heart's content. I'll stay here. In earlier days. Earthshaker. Cronos' son then launched relentless war.

god who shoots from far away. goddess of the noisy hunt. glittery eyed Athena going against a mighty god. but all men name Scamander. sometimes standing by the ditch they'd dug beyond the wall. on Hector's blood. warrior god with the bull's hide shield. inciting cruel conflict. 1 2 60 70 80 90 Callicolone (literally “fair mountain”) is a location near Troy. was terrified. while Athena kept on shouting. Strong Helper Hermes was opposed by Leto. sacred gods spurred both sides on. the father of gods and men thundered ominously. with its many springs. urging them to war. sister of Apollo. His spirit urged him to glut Ares. god of the dead. So the gods went out to battle other gods. 443 . But of all warriors in that fighting crowd. went into action. sometimes as he raced along the banks of Simois to Callicolone. with Poseidon matched against Apollo with his feathered arrows. Achilles was most eager to meet Hector. while Poseidon shook the vast earth under them and lofty mountain crests. On the other side. like a black whirlwind. Ares Enyalius. Ares kept shouting out his piercing orders to the Trojans. the king of the dead. and Achaean ships. sometimes from the city heights. who stirs men up in battle. From on high. Under the earth. and Hephaestus by that huge and swirling river the gods call Xanthus. so massive was the shock when gods collided in that war. Aidoneus is another name for Hades.1 Thus.2 He leapt up from his throne afraid and shouting. with her golden arrows. and Hera against Artemis. Aidoneus. sometimes yelling out beside the roaring sea shore. All the lower slopes of Ida. which even gods detest.then mighty Strife. trembled. more so than on the blood of any other man. But Apollo. son of Priam. as did the peaks. frightened that Earthshaker Poseidon would split up the earth above him and reveal to gods and men the dark and dreadful habitations of the dead. the Trojan city.

you. If some god made sure our fight was equal. But then Zeus saved me—he gave me strength and made my legs run faster. spoke out: “Aeneas. as you drank your wine and promised them you'd fight Peleus' son. Apollo. then said to Aeneas: “But. Achilles. as well as Trojans. taking on that man's shape. Otherwise. The god placed great force within him. man to man?” Aeneas then said to Apollo in reply: “Son of Priam. even though he boasted he's completely made of bronze. bore you. saving him and making sure his spear flies always straight. when I don't wish to? This isn't the first time swift Achilles and I have come to blows.” Apollo. 100 110 120 444 . Zeus' son. Zeus' daughter. Then she told him to kill off the Leleges with his bronze spear. as a warrior. a son of Priam. when he destroyed Lyrnessus and Pedasus. She went on ahead of him to make things safe. too.who inspires men to fight. No man can face Achilles in a fight— some god is constantly beside him. Making his voice like Lycaon's. he'd not easily defeat me. son of Zeus. why are you telling me to fight the arrogant son of Peleus. For people say that Aphrodite. sent out Aeneas to confront the son of Peleus directly. Trojan counselor. where are now those threats you used to make to Trojan princes. Athena and Achilles would have killed me. not stopping till it's hit some human flesh. Once before he chased me away from Ida with his spear—he'd come for our cattle. should pray to the immortal gods.

Apollo breathed great power then into that shepherd of his people. so Achilles will not come to any harm from Trojans. so that his heart won't flinch. Your mother is great Zeus' daughter. he did not go unnoticed. Later. Aeneas.” With these words. For the gods are terrifying when they reveal themselves. but his a daughter of the Old Man of the Sea.while he comes from a lesser goddess. both your hearts should think about what's going on. armed in gleaming bronze. Through the front lines Aeneas strode. expressing his contempt or making threats. he'll suffer everything which Fate spun with her thread for him that very day his mother bore him. or else one of us should help Achilles.” Earthshaker Poseidon then answered her: 130 140 150 160 445 . But if Achilles doesn't learn this from a god who speaks to him. then he may be fearful if some god appears against him in the battle. Don't let him hold you back with words. going after Peleus' son among those crowds of men. Hera gathered her companion gods and said: “Poseidon. Seeing Anchises' son. And then he'll know the gods who love him are the best of the immortals and those gods who up to now have guarded Trojans in this war's battles have only little power. is going to meet the son of Peleus. at Apollo's urging. We've all come here. As he moved. So go straight at him with your tireless bronze. at least not in the fight today. as feeble as the wind. armed in gleaming bronze. down from Olympus. to join this conflict. give him great strength. So let's work to turn him back at once. Athena.

” With these words.“Hera. making threatening taunts. not allowing him to go on fighting. he brandished his bronze spear. beside the other gods. the high rampart Pallas Athena and the Trojans had built for him. Zeus stayed in control. Poseidon sat there. Soon enough. and godlike Achilles. Anchises' son. who destroys whole cities. to the company of other gods whom our strong hands have conquered. as men charged each other. leaving this war to men. the dark-haired god Poseidon led the way to the remnants of the wall of godlike Hercules. when it forced him to move in from the shore. The son of Peleus. wrapping a concealing cloud around their shoulders. then we'll get in the conflict right away. and Ares. making plans. join in the battle. Holding his strong shield across his chest. both prepared for combat— Aeneas. returning to Olympus. those two will remove themselves from warfare. his heavy helmet nodding as he moved around. There's no need. So these gods sat there on either side. Sitting high above them. The ground shook underfoot. The whole plain by now was filled with men and horses. all in gleaming bronze. But if Phoebus Apollo or if Ares begins to fight or holds Achilles back. so he could protect himself and escape that monster from the sea. around you. The other group of gods sat on the crest of Callicolone. Aeneas strode out first. Two of the finest men then came at one another in the middle ground between the armies. from the other side. 170 180 190 446 . For I have no desire that gods should fight each other in this battle. don't let your rage defeat your common sense. We should move off to one side and sit down where we can watch. archer Phoebus. both groups holding back from fighting painful war. I think.

if you kill me? You'll find that hard to do. Don't you remember? You were alone. Its tail twitches to and fro against its ribs and flanks. down Mount Ida's slopes. he's healthy. thanks to Zeus and other gods. and he is no fool. swift-footed Achilles yelled: “Aeneas. that won't make Priam put his regal power in your hands. driven by his furious proud heart. I don't think he'll save you. as well as Father Zeus. you ran and never once looked back. as its brave heart roars inside. At first. the lion gathers itself. then hid yourself inside Lyrnessus. That's how Achilles. charging straight ahead with furiously glaring eyes to kill someone or die there in the first attack. You were saved. came on then against the brave Aeneas.charged up against him like a murderous lion which a whole community is keen to slaughter. You scampered off. Or have the Trojans given you some land better than all the rest—a fine orchard. As they approached each other. Then it drives itself to fight. 200 210 220 230 447 . as well as land to plough—yours to keep. That time we met. but when some quick young hunter hits it with a spear. Besides. coming to close quarters. So I'm telling you to move back now. I chased you away from your own cattle. opens its jaws wide. why have you stepped forward. as your heart hopes. But I destroyed that city— I attacked it with help from Athena. But today. and quickly. seized their women and took away their freedom. too. standing here so far in front of all your men? Does your heart prompt you to fight against me in the hope you'll win Priam's royal honours among horse-taming Trojans? If you kill me. My spear has sent you running once before. For he has his own sons. the beast moves on and leaves the group alone. foaming at the mouth.

I claim I'm great Anchises' son. who built Dardania. daughter of the sea. For I don't think that you and I will leave without a fight. and Aphrodite is my mother. your mother fair-haired Thetis. then listen to me. When these foals played. They conceived. Well. or you'll come up against an evil time. His people settled there. People say you're noble Peleus' son. Today. Don't stand against me. We've heard the famous tales of mortal men. First cloud-gatherer Zeus fathered Dardanus. too. in turn. But if you wish. so you'll understand my lineage well. Many people know it. as if I were a child. Taking on the form of a dark stallion. We both know each other's parents and our ancestry. 240 250 260 270 448 . he copulated with them. possessing three thousand horses grazing in the fens. by the slopes of Ida with its many springs. delivering twelve foals. was father to a son. king Erichthonius. A man who doesn't face the facts is stupid. once we've exchanged some childish conversation. one of them will mourn a dear dead son. told long ago.retreat into the crowd. all mares happy with their foals.” Aeneas then said in response: “Son of Peleus. and he became the richest of all mortals. was not yet built here in the plain. though your eyes have not seen my parents. know well enough how to hand out threats and insults. city of mortal men. don't try to scare me off with words. nor mine yours. Then North Wind fell in love with them as they pastured there. for sacred Ilion. Dardanus. I.

So come. and godlike Ganymede. the handsomest man among all mortal men. Ilus had a noble son. so he'd live among immortals. Laomedon. so many that a cargo ship with a hundred oars could not take on the load. go out into the street to scream at one another with facts and lies. so beautiful. who had Anchises. gliding the surface of the breaking waves. But come. not before we've fought it out with bronze. like little boys standing in the middle of a battle. Assaracus fathered his son Capys. and the sorts of words one speaks will be the sorts of words one has to listen to. and Tros then fathered three outstanding sons—Ilus. Assaracus. Clytius and warlike Hicataon. with various languages— words can go here and there in all directions. then. well. or they'd race across the sea's broad back. let's no longer talk this way. gods kidnapped him and made him cup bearer to Zeus himself.running across the fertile farmland. each one gripped by anger. But what's the point? Why should the two of us be squabbling here and fight by trading insults back and forth. that's up to Zeus. Let's start this now 280 290 300 449 . who ruled the Trojans. man to man. But as for courage. Both of us have insults we could utter. lots of them. That. they'd skim the highest ears of corn and never break them. Priam's son is godlike Hector. Men's tongues are glib. who. like two irritated women. the blood I boast of. in some heart-wrenching raging spat. who fathered Priam and Tithonus. for he's the mightiest one of all. is my ancestry. I want to fight—your words won't send me off. This Erichthonius had a son Tros. who makes it less or greater as he wills. He is my father.

stopped by the golden armour. The gold one stopped that ash spear from Aeneas. With that rock Aeneas would have struck Achilles. the spear point made the shield ring out. a present from the god. Then he threw his heavy spear at Achilles' wondrous. with a gold one in between. which rattled from the blow. Drawing his sword. Aeneas cowered down. on his helmet or the shield which had rescued him from death. Aeneas picked up a rock. hitting Aeneas' round shield right on the rim. It drove on through two layers. eyes glazed with shock. a heavy lift. then drove itself into the ground. are not so easily defeated. He spoke up immediately. The spear flew high. nor do they fail. fearing the long-shadowed spear from brave Aeneas would easily go through.” 310 Aeneas finished. frightened that the spear had come so close to him. which no two men now alive could do.and test each other with our bronze-tipped spears. holding the shield out away from him in terror. The spear of Pelian ash drove straight through the shield. for crippled god Hephaestus had hammered out five layers. two made of bronze. 450 320 330 340 . Achilles launched a frenzied charge with a blood-curdling scream. in his turn. But it ripped apart two layers on that protective shield. As it hit. where bronze and leather backing were the thinnest. That was a foolish thought! His heart and mind were not aware that gifts like that. hurled his long-shadowed spear. and then Achilles in close combat with his sword would have taken Aeneas' life. So the mighty spear of warrior Aeneas did not break the shield. but there were still three more. splendid presents from the gods to mortal men. although he managed it with ease all by himself. dreadful shield. Aeneas straightened up. two inner ones of tin. Having escaped the spear. had not the Earthshaker Poseidon been paying attention. Then Achilles. Peleus' son held the shield away from him in his big fist. as he charged at him. above his back.

let's carry him away from death. the far shooter. slain by Peleus' son. because Apollo. We two. who'll be going down to Hades quickly. “Here's trouble. though he's come to hate the family of Priam. his children's children born in years to come. so the Dardanian race will not die out and leave no seed alive. So now Trojans will be ruled by powerful Aeneas. in your own heart and mind you must decide whether to save Aeneas. 380 451 . have often sworn among immortals not to rescue Trojans from wretched death. for all his nobleness. Achilles. For Fate ordains that he'll escape. Pallas Athena and myself. just because of other people's troubles? With all his gifts.” Ox-eyed queen Hera then said to Poseidon: “Earthshaker. blazing fire. or to leave him. For the son of Cronos did love Dardanus above all other children born to him from mortal women. I feel sorry for Aeneas. set off by Achaea's warrior sons.” 350 360 370 Hearing her words. So come. without doing wrong.addressing the immortal gods beside him. talked him into it. if he's killed by Achilles. But why should an innocent man like him suffer such misfortune. he's bringing pleasure to the gods who live in spacious heaven. to be killed by Peleus' son. the fool! Apollo won't protect him from grim death. not even when all Troy is being engulfed in all-consuming. in case the son of Cronos grows enraged.

then you may fight in full confidence among those at the front. flying from Poseidon's hand.Earthshaker Poseidon went down into the battle. Then Earthshaker Poseidon. Then he removed the wondrous mist over Achilles' eyes. a stronger man and more loved by the gods? When you run into him. you must move back. coming up beside Aeneas. spoke to him— his words had wings: 390 “Aeneas. where the Caucones were arming for the fight. But when Achilles has met his fate and died. and then came down on the fringes of that battle. what god brought on such foolishness in you— fighting man to man with proud Achilles. testing his eyesight. Aeneas 410 452 . pulled the ash spear of Peleus' son out of the shield of brave Aeneas and set it at Achilles' feet. among the flying spears and came right to the place where Aeneas stood with glorious Achilles. contravening what destiny ordains. passionately confused: 400 “What's happening? My eyes are playing amazing tricks on me. for of all Achaeans no one else will kill you. but I don't see the man I threw it at in my eagerness to kill him. above the many ranks of warriors and chariots. swinging him far above the ground. Poseidon then raised Aeneas up. At once he cast a dense mist on Achilles' eyes. or you'll end up in Hades' house. I see my spear lying here upon the ground. Poseidon left. Aeneas soared high up. once he'd explained these matters to Aeneas.” With these words. He looked out. and spoke to his great heart.

calling with a shout. let him go. But with a spear. too. I'll do. But what I can do with my hands and feet and my own power. Well. that's more difficult—they're so much stronger. announced that he'd come forward to confront Achilles. He'll have no heart to try me once again. I'll give a shout to these Danaans to fight more Trojans—put them to the test. Then splendid Hector. though I'm a powerful man.” Achilles finished. calling each man: “Don't just stand there any more. He'll be delighted to escape being killed. Then he leapt in among the ranks. Come. I'll not hold back. I don't think a Trojan who gets within my spear range will have reason to feel happy. I.must be really dear to the immortal gods. It's hard for me. can battle anyone with words.” 420 430 With these words. even the immortals. Achilles urged them on. though I thought those things he boasted of were merely idle talk. “You proud-hearted Trojans. to attack so many men and battle with them all. Even deathless gods like Ares and Athena could not fight them in the jaws of war in such a conflict and keep on going. don't be afraid of that son of Peleus. Achilles won't accomplish everything 440 453 . Let each of you go up against your man in full warrior fury. you fine Achaeans—don't stay away from Trojans. but go straight at their lines.

sacker of cities. his strength like glittering iron. First he killed Iphition. on your father's land. his heart wrapped in battle fury. seized with fear at hearing a god's voice talk to him. Hector pulled back into the crowd of soldiers.he says he will. Don't let him hit you with his spear or slash you at close quarters with his sword. A Naiad nymph bore him to Otrynteus. below snow-covered Mount Tmolus. who commanded many men. Both sides joined battle in a terrific frenzy. Some of it he'll manage. then turned to face Achaeans. son of Otrynteus. Otrynteus' brave son. spoke to him: “Hector. of all men the one we fear the most. some he'll leave undone. godlike Achilles struck Iphition with his spear squarely in the head. Then Phoebus Apollo. though his blazing hands are like a fire. Giving a blood-curdling scream.” 450 Apollo spoke. Achilles leapt among the Trojans. I'll go against him. As he charged right at him.” 460 470 454 .” With these words he roused them into action. Trojans held their spears up high. a fertile land. He fell with a crash. Godlike Achilles then cried out in triumph: “Lie there. Here you die. You were born beside the Gygaean lake. in Hyde. don't step out to face Achilles openly. splitting his skull apart. by the fish-filled Hyllus and the swirling Hermus rivers. Wait for him in the noisy crowd of men. moving close to Hector.

Then Achilles with his spear attacked noble Polydorus. swift-footed godlike Achilles threw his spear into the middle of his back. After him. That stopped his fighting charge. going straight through. waving his sharp spear. panting his life away. With a scream. But that didn't check the spear—it smashed through. as his noble spirit slipped out from his bones. Then black cloud enveloped him. When Hector saw his brother Polydorus there. Antenor's son. Achilles. a brave defensive fighter. he screamed—just as a bull roars. a mist flowed right across his eyes. where the golden belt clasps joined together on the overlapping body armour. splattering all his brains inside. he fell onto his knees. and then. hitting the bronze cheek armour on his helmet. But Achilles speared him in the back. The spear point. son of Priam. collapsed and holding his own entrails. he was showing off his speed. Then Hippodamas jumped down out of his chariot to flee Achilles. He was the fastest runner. His father would not let Polydorus fight. the one most loved. just like a flame. like a fool. down on the ground. Achaean wheel rims on the chariots ripped him up. jumped out and roared in triumph: 480 490 500 455 . sprinting through front lines until he lost his life. too. As he ran past. As he died. He moved against Achilles. who delights in those young lads who drag the beast—in just that way Hippodamas bellowed then. lord of Helice. when it's pulled around the altar of Poseidon.Achilles triumphed. in the first attack. for of all his children he was the youngest born. As he collapsed. the Earthshaker. when he saw him. breaking his skull. But down on Iphition's eyes the darkness fell. Now. his guts spilled out into his hands. He could no longer bear to keep his distance. came out his navel. Achilles went for Demoleon.

Though I'm the weaker man. But these things are in the lap of the gods. stronger than me by far. It landed there beside his feet. don't try to frighten me with words. Swift-footed. with a terrifying shout. with one throw of my spear. Hector raised his spear and threw it. I know you're brave. then cried out to Achilles: “Son of Peleus. know well enough how to shout out taunting words and insults. blew it aside. so you can meet your fatal doom more quickly. We won't be evading one another in the battle lanes much longer. for in the past it's proved it's sharp enough. away from glorious Achilles. something a god can do with ease. striking hard each time with his bronze spear. Then. Achilles scowled at godlike Hector. godlike Achilles charged that cloud three times. I.“He's getting closer—the very man who scarred my heart more than all other men. lusting to kill. Achilles charged. too. When for the fourth time he came on like a god with a terrific shout. But Athena. I'll take your life. 530 456 . then yelled at him: 510 “Come closer.” 520 With these words.” As he said this. turning it back to godlike Hector. as if I were some child. then hid him in thick cloud.” Hector of the shining helmet. But Apollo snatched up Hector. with the slightest puff of breath. quite unafraid.

desperate to plead for mercy. Then darkness veiled his eyes. taking his life. a big brave warrior. driven in hard. I'll surely finish you. After that. to capture him alive. fell at Achilles knees. any man I chance to meet. But he left him there. Achilles moved up to Mulius and with his spear struck him on the ear. Phoebus Apollo has saved you one more time. clutching them. Next. Philetor's son. Then Tros. too. if some god is there to assist me. moved by pity for a man the same age as himself. but Achilles' sword struck him in his liver. both sons of Bias. but full of fighting rage. Black blood. begging him to spare his life. instead of killing him.Achilles cried out these winged words to Hector: “You dog—once more you're evading death for now. throwing them out of their chariot onto the ground. Achilles stopped Demouchus. What a fool! He did not know there was no way to change Achilles' mind—he was not a tender man with a soft heart. 550 560 457 . No doubt you always pray to him as you go out into the sound of thudding spears. Then he hit him with his massive sword. Next. The bronze point. and his spirit left him. Next time we meet. Alastor's son. But you've narrowly escaped disaster. With his hands Tros tried to clutch Achilles' knees. pouring from the gash. with a spear thrust in his knee. Then he struck Dryops with his spear right in the neck. For now I'll fight the others. He hit one of them with his spear and slashed the other at close quarters with his sword. filled up his lap. he went at Dardanus and Laogonus. Dryops fell at Achilles' feet. which slid out from the wound.” 540 Achilles finished shouting.

stretched out on the ground. Then dark death. The chariot axle underneath got sprayed with blood. his powerful fate. Next. fixing the bronze firmly in his belly. but Achilles' sharp spear struck him in the back and threw him from the chariot. as the driving wind blows flames to every spot. that how brave Achilles drove his sure-footed horses to trample on the dead and on their shields as well. Deucalion stood there waiting. and lowing oxen quickly flatten all the grain. as his body lay there. hit him with a spear throw in the gut. wide in the shoulder. The horses bolted. after chasing the noble son of Peires. His arm now useless. wheeled the horses round. He knocked the head and the helmet far away. who'd come from fertile Thrace. Achilles hit him with his sword blade in the neck. Areithous. Achilles. But Peleus' son pushed on to win more glory. blood spattered over his all-conquering hands. came down across his eyes. His attendant. raged with his spear. burning dense stands of trees. From Deucalion's spine the marrow spurted out. attacking and killing men all through the fight. Blood soaked the chariot rails. Just as a man yokes oxen. Just as a terrifying fire rages through deep woods on a parched mountain. Rhigmus fell from his chariot. The dark earth ran with blood.came out his other ear. slicing off his head. Agenor's son. Then he hit Echeclus. Next. to grind barley on a well-built threshing floor. 570 580 590 600 458 . Rhigmus. thrown up in gouts from horses' hooves and wheel rims. with his hilted sword right on his head. Achilles hit Deucalion—his bronze spear point struck him in the arm where tendons meet the elbow. like a god. big bulls. that how Achilles. The blood made the whole blade hot. staring death right in the face.

when glorious Hector had prevailed. then slaughters many Paeonian leaders. Hephaestus launches his fire against the flooding river. trapped by its deep currents and its silver eddies. They fell in there. Just as fire drives flights of locusts to seek refuge in some river.Book Twenty-One Achilles Fights the River [Achilles attacks the Trojans hiding in the river Xanthus (also called Scamander). the river objects to the slaughter. the river rises against Achilles. when the tireless flames attack them in a sudden onrush and they sink below the water— that's how. Achilles meets Lycaon. Hera and Artemis fight. armed only with his sword. Poseidon offers to fight Apollo. But half the Trojans were crammed in along the river. who begs for mercy. Men thrashed around. 459 10 20 . back and forth. where the previous day Achaeans had fled in terror. a confused mass of chariots and men filled up the deep and swirling waters of the river Xanthus. Some Trojans fled back there in panic. enabling many Trojans to reach the city] When the Trojans reached the ford across the Xanthus. who appeals to the gods for help. so Hephaestus withdraws his fire. Hera sent fog in front of them to slow them down. Achilles replies and then kills Lycaon. Apollo moves into Ilion. his heart intent on killing. who declines. Apollo deceives Achilles. takes twelve young men alive to sacrifice for Patroclus. Achilles split them in two groups. faced with Achilles' attacking charge. Turning in all directions. the river gives up. Hera tells Hephaestus to fight the river. like an inhuman thing. Athena fights Ares and then Aphrodite. chasing one across the plain towards the city. Then divinely born Achilles left his spear beside a tamarisk bush and jumped into the stream. making a huge commotion. lovely swirling river born of immortal Zeus. the gods begin to war against each other. as they were sucked down in the current screaming. Achilles fights and kills Asteropaeus. The noise roared down along the rushing river banks amplifying the din.

back to his father's house. Eëtion. fearful because the beast eats all it captures— that's how Trojans huddled then. where the son of Jason had paid the purchase price. That time. had ransomed Lycaon. without his helmet. using belts they wore around their woven tunics. tied their hands behind them. and gave them to his men to lead back to the ships. He'd escaped from there in secret and gone home. exhausted after he'd escaped the river. worn out and sweating in all his lower limbs—Achilles. He'd had the bad luck to meet godlike Achilles. Just as other fish swim off from a huge dolphin filling safe corners of some sheltered harbour. he plucked out of the river twelve young men alive. The water turned blood red. taking him against his will from his father's orchard. Then he jumped in again. against Lycaon's wishes. The men his sword slaughtered cried out in terror. a friend and guest from Imbros. like stupefied fawns. When Achilles' arms grew weary from the killing. On the twelfth. under hanging banks. down to dwell with Hades. paying a huge sum. When swift-footed. then sent him on to Arisbe. From there. Achilles took him in his ship and sold him in well-built Lemnos. as blood payment for the killing of Patroclus. eager to keep killing. all along the stream edge of that murderous river. Menoetius' son. But then Achilles met someone fleeing the river— Lycaon. 30 40 50 60 460 . With his sharp bronze Lycaon had been cutting young shoots from off a fig tree to make chariot rails. some god threw him back again into Achilles' hands. much surprised. a son of Dardanian Priam. who was about to ship him. Once he returned from Lemnos. or spear— for he'd thrown these on the ground. shield. whom he'd captured once before in a night attack. for eleven days his heart enjoyed his friends. godlike Achilles saw Lycaon totally unarmed. He led them up onto dry land.he kept on striking.

His other clutched the spear. But Lycaon. With one hand. stooping down. then clasped Achilles' knees. let him taste my spear point. refusing to let go. as he stood there waiting. hungry for human flesh. approached Achilles. because it was at your table I first ate Demeter's grain the very day you seized me in that well-built orchard. slipped underneath the spear. after I'd sold him off in sacred Lemnos. I claim that sacred right. which keeps even strong men down. 70 80 90 461 . will hold him. The gray sea. Lycaon. prepared to strike. But come. hasn't seemed to stop him. He begged for mercy. heart desperate to escape dark fate and evil death. Achilles. returned like this. my lord. Have pity on me.spoke to his own courageous heart: “What's this? My eyes are witnessing something amazing. Great-hearted Trojans I've just slaughtered will rise again. as he's just done. if this man's avoided death. or if life-giving earth. Flying above his back.” That's what Achilles thought. which holds many people back against their will. I beg you to respect me as a suppliant. dazed with fear. eager to clasp his knees in supplication. Godlike Achilles raised his long spear. For me you got the value of a hundred oxen. up out of murky darkness. Lycaon grabbed Achilles' knee. addressing Achilles with these winged words: “By your knees. I'll see— and in my heart confirm—if he'll return. then sold me off in sacred Lemnos. You led me far from father and my friends. the spear stuck in the ground.

I'm not from the same womb as Hector. Altes rules over war-loving Leleges. don't offer me a ransom or some plea. So now. I took many overseas and sold them. But the response he got was brutal: 100 110 “You fool. Now death comes for me. Laothoë. deadly Fate has placed me in your hands. You killed fine Polydorus with those men fighting at the front. Before Patroclus met his deadly fate. here in front of Ilion. you too must die. It's now twelve days since I reached Ilion. as well. my friend. Why be sad about it? Patroclus died. Once more. But I'll say one more thing—take it to heart— don't kill me. by the river Satnioeis. since some god has guided me right to them. not one— not a single Trojan. the man who killed your comrade. But now not one of them escapes his death. a better man than you. in steep Pedasus. no one whom god delivers to my hands. when your sharp spear sent him to die. who has many other wives. She had two sons. that kind and powerful warrior. after my ordeal. My mother. 120 462 . I don't expect to escape your hands this time.” So Lycaon begged for mercy from Achilles. daughter of old Altes. sparing Trojans pleased my heart much more. Now you'll have slaughtered both. His daughter married Priam. gave birth to me to live a shortened life.but I was ransomed for three times that price. to give me to you for a second time. especially none of Priam's children. I do believe Father Zeus must hate me.

the mother who gave birth to me a goddess. His dark blood flowed out and soaked the ground. for all those bulls you've sacrificed all these years. Your flowing river with its silver eddies won't help. right behind you. You see how fine I am. The whole two-edged blade sliced into him. or noon. lamenting over you. all you fleeing Trojans. No matter—you'll suffer an evil fate. both his hands stretched out. his heart collapsed. So die. the swirling river. Achilles pulled out his sharp sword and struck. hitting him on the collar bone. until we reach that sacred city Ilion. fighting and killing you. He let go of the spear and crouched there. as well. beside his neck. No. Then Lycaon's knees gave way. all the sure-footed horses you've thrown alive into its swirling pools. when some man will take my life in battle— he'll strike me with his spear or with an arrow shot from his bowstring. shouting out in triumph— his words had wings: 140 “Lie there. Your mother won't set you on your funeral bed. how tall. Scamander. among the fish. There'll come a dawn. Achilles seized him by the foot. Lycaon fell. Yet over me. lying face down on the earth. will carry you away to the broad lap of the sea. or evening.” 130 Achilles finished.And look at me. hangs Fate—my death. then flung him in the river. with me there. till every one of you has paid in full 150 160 463 . They'll lick blood from your wound with no respect. how handsome? My father's a fine man. Many fish will swim up to the darkly rippled surface to eat white fat from Lycaon.

let us fight.” Achilles' words enraged the heart in river Xanthus. showing no pity. holding two spears. gripping his long-shadowed spear. why ask me my lineage? I come from Paeonia. The deep swirling river had had sex with her.” The glorious son of Pelegon then said in reply: “Great-hearted son of Peleus. born to the broad river Axius and Acessamenus' eldest daughter. who stood there. men carrying long spears. But now. splendid Achilles. facing him. moving close together. In his anger at the slaughter of young soldiers in the battle. whose son they say I am. But when the two men had approached each other. whose waters are the loveliest which flow upon this earth. a fertile country far from here. It's now eleven days since I came here. for Achaea's dead. Xanthus then put fighting strength into Asteropaeus. son of Pelegon. who wondered how he might stop godlike Achilles from his slaughter and protect the Trojans from disaster. I'm born from Axius. the wide-streaming river. Meanwhile. leading Paeonians. when I was not among them there.” 170 180 190 464 . Peleus' son. Periboea. godlike Achilles was the first to speak: “Who are you that dares to come against me? Where are you from? Children who confront me leave their parents full of sorrow. Axius fathered a famous spear man. whom Achilles kept butchering along the stream. still eager to kill more. Achilles went at Asteropaeus. charged Asteropaeus.for Patroclus' death. Pelegon. to Ilion. the men you slaughtered by our swift ships.

had checked it. still eager to taste flesh. Peleus. who was trying to pull the spear Achilles threw out of the river bank with his huge fist. Drawing the sharp sword by his thigh. went after Asteropaeus.In response to that speech from Asteropaeus. but three times he had to abandon the attempt. rules many Myrmidons. Look beside you— there's a great stream there. One hit Achilles' shield. so Zeus' line is stronger than all those descended from a river. But he missed the man. driving half that ash spear deep in the ground. but I boast a family coming from great Zeus. boasting aloud: “Lie there. an ambidextrous man. Achilles himself charged in and took his life with a sword thrust in the belly by the navel. and Zeus is stronger than rivers flowing to the sea. Achilles stripped his armour off. son of Aeacus. threw two spears at once. 200 210 220 230 465 . in his turn. hoping to kill him. Then Achilles. Aeacus came from Zeus himself. godlike Achilles raised his Pelian ash spear. The fourth time his heart was keen to bend and break the ash spear of Achilles. But then Asteropaeus. But the spear passed over him and struck the ground. threw a straight-flying spear at Asteropaeus. enraged. Jumping on his chest. darkness veiled his eyes. hitting the high river bank. As he lay gasping. The other hit Achilles a glancing blow on his right arm at the elbow. Dark blood flowed out. You claim your family stems from a broad flowing stream. Peleus' son. It's hard to compete with children of the mighty son of Cronos. He failed. Three times he shifted it in his frantic haste to grab it. even though you are descended from some river. gift of a god. but he can't help you. but did not break through. For there's no way to battle against Zeus. but before he could. The gold. The man who is my father. His guts fell out onto the ground.

Come.” Saying this.” 260 466 . Mydon. Now corpses fill my channels. at least drive them off far from my stream. terrified once they'd seen their best man butchered in that desperate conflict on the powerful sword of the son of Peleus. nor the great power of deep flowing Oceanus. Mnesus. he pulled his bronze spear from the river bank. Thrasius. the gods are always there to help you. There Achilles killed Thersilochus. Aenius. from whom all rivers. while you keep up these harsh atrocities. but the deep-flowing river. you may be the most powerful of men. you leader of your people. Astypylus. and deep wells derive their water—even Oceanus is afraid of lighting from great Zeus and his thunder when it crashes in the skies. Achilles moved away. speaking from a deep swirling pool: 240 250 “Achilles. and Ophelestes. I'm choking on the dead. in its anger. I can't let my waters flow through anywhere to reach the glimmering sea. but you're inflicting too much damage here. Fish and eels then went at him. Even lord Achelous cannot equal him. nibbling and chewing off the fat around his kidneys. Yes. attacking the Paeonian charioteers still crouched beside the flowing river. I find your actions here astounding. called out. Swift Achilles would have killed still more Paeonians. Carry out your work— this butchery—out there on the plain. Achilles left the corpse of Asteropaeus lying there in the sand. let me be. And if Cronos' son is now enabling you to kill all Trojans. taking on a human form. seas.son of Cronos. dark water lapping round him. fountains.

casting its shadows on the fertile farm land. Then Scamander. to defend them until evening comes. roots and all. In terror. damming its flow. Achilles scrambled up out of the raging waters. 270 280 290 467 . stirring all his waters into seething turmoil. trying on his swift feet to run out to the plain. men slaughtered by Achilles. As it fell in the river.” Saying this. it shall be as you request. lord of the silver bow. but the tree came loose. and he kills me or I kill him. Achilles lost his footing. Then famous spearman Achilles jumped from the bank into the middle of the stream. His hand reached out to grab a large elm tree. child of Zeus? You're not following Zeus' plans. He clearly told you to assist the Trojans. its thick branches blocked that lovely stream. sweeping up many corpses crowded in the shoals. the river hurled these bodies up onto the shore. huge waves towered threateningly.In reply. Roaring like a bull. The river attacked him with a rising flood. cried out to Apollo: “What's happening. Around Achilles. Achilles fell upon the Trojans. fully grown. like something superhuman. beating down his shield. tearing the whole river bank away. The breaking waters pushed him backwards.” The river spoke. preserving in its lovely stream those still alive by hiding them in deep wide pools. the deep-flowing river. But I'll not stop killing these proud Trojans till I have them cornered in their city and have tested Hector in a fight. swift-footed Achilles then addressed the river: “Divinely raised Scamander.

and the water. why is no god standing by me here. in this pitiful state. since gods have much more strength than men. He'd jump clear. moving as fast as a black eagle plummets. telling me I'd die from the swift arrows of Apollo. gaining momentum. The bronze armour on his chest was clanging fearfully as he swerved out from underneath the flooding river. heart panicking.But the great god wasn't done. rescuing me from this river? After this. But with a tremendous roar. to see if all the gods who live in spacious heaven were forcing him to flee. desperate to escape. I can endure everything. washing out the ground beneath his feet. as it starts to run. mattock in hand. I don't blame any Olympian as much as I blame my own dear mother. With a dark wave. he went after godlike Achilles. godlike Achilles tried stopping to fight back. 330 468 . removing what obstructs the flow. Just as a man laying out a ditch from a dark spring to his plants and gardens digs a water channel. under Trojan walls and fully armed. and then. to prevent the killing and to rescue Trojans from destruction. but the river kept tugging at his legs with a strong undertow. Then gazing up into the wide sky the son of Peleus cried out: 300 310 320 “Father Zeus. who led me astray with lies. Scamander's flood rushed on in pursuit behind him. Peleus' son ran off as far as one spear throw. flows down and overtakes the man who's guiding it— that's how the flooding wave kept clutching at Achilles for all his speed. the hunting bird which is the strongest and the fastest of all flying things—that's how Achilles ran. Every time swift-footed. pushes aside the pebbles. a tremendous wave from that heaven-fed river would crash down around his shoulders.

the two gods went away. which will soon recede. and with their words they pledged their help. Achilles. They joined their hands with his. But Scamander did not hold his fury back. striving against the current. Then a fine man would have done the killing. We have advice for you. return back to the ships. swept away while trying to cross a torrent in a rain storm. Poseidon spoke out first: 340 “Son of Peleus. 350 360 469 .Now I wish that I'd been killed by Hector. running across the plain. As he went. like some child in care of pigs. don't be so afraid. now full of flooding water. the best man of those native to this region. and Zeus approves. Once you've taken Hector's life.” With these words. set off. The broad flowing river couldn't slow him down. greatly moved by what the gods had said. But now it's been ordained that I'm to suffer an ignoble death. if you'll listen. with many lovely weapons of the slaughtered men floating there among their corpses. as you will see. here to help you— me and Pallas Athena. It's not ordained that you're to die here.” Achilles spoke. coming up quickly. stood in human form beside him. Then Poseidon and Pallas Athena. killed by some river. We giving you a chance for glory. another fine man would have been destroyed. You need have no fear. once Athena had put great power in Achilles. he raised his legs high. caught by this great river. Don't hold back your hands in murderous warfare till you've cornered inside the famous walls of Troy those men now in retreat before you. We two come from the gods.

growing even more enraged at Peleus' son. He raised himself up in a high-crested wave and called out with a shout to Simoeis:


“Dear brother, let's both together counter this man's power, since he'll soon demolish Priam's city. Trojans will not stand up to him and fight. Come quickly. Help me. Fill your streams with water from your springs. Whip up your torrents. Then stand in a huge wave, raising a din with rocks and tree trunks, so we can stop this violent man, now in a conquering rage, like some god. I don't think his strength will help him, or his beauty, or that lovely armour— that will lie somewhere underneath the flood, buried in slime. I'll cover him in sand, with an massive layer of silt on top, beyond all measurement. I'll hide him there with so much mud, Achaeans will not know how to collect his bones. There where he'll lie, I'll make him a tomb—he won't need a mound when Achaeans organize his funeral.” Saying this, Scamander crested high against Achilles, then charged, seething with foam and blood and corpses. The dark wave of the heaven-fed river rose, towering above Achilles, about to overwhelm him. But Hera, afraid for Achilles, cried out, fearing the great, deep, swirling river would sweep him off. She called out to Hephaestus, her dear son:



“Rouse yourself, my crippled child. We think that you're a match for swirling Xanthus in a fight. Come quickly. Help Achilles with a giant outburst of your flames. I'll stir up some winds—



West Wind's harsh sea blasts and white South Wind— to whip on your destructive fires, so they may burn dead Trojans and their weapons. You must go along the river banks, burning trees, attacking river Xanthus with your flames. Don't let him slow you down in any way, not with gentle words or making threats. Don't check your fury till I tell you to. I'll give you a shout. Then you can pull back your inexhaustible fire.”

Hera spoke. Hephaestus then prepared a prodigious blaze. First it burned up all the plain, incinerating corpses, the many bodies of men slaughtered by Achilles scattered everywhere. The entire plain dried up. The shimmering river waters were held back. Just as at harvest time North Wind quickly dries well-watered orchards, to the farmer's great delight, that's how the whole plain then grew dry, as Hephaestus burned up the dead. Then he turned his blazing flames against the river, burning elms, willows, tamarisks, clover, rushes, sedge, all growing in abundance along that lovely stream. In the river pools, eels and fish were much distressed—they jumped everywhere in that fine river, suffering the fiery blasts prepared by that resourceful god Hephaestus. The river, too, was burned. So Xanthus cried out, calling to the god: “No god, Hephaestus, can stand against you. I can't fight you when you burn with flames like this. So stop. End this strife. Godlike Achilles can continue. Let him drive the Trojans from their city. What do I care about assisting in this war?”





The river spoke, still burning from the fire, his lovely waters seething. Just as a cauldron with hot flames heating it boils inside and melts the fat from off a well-fed hog, bubbling over, once dry split wood is set down under it—that's how the fire burned that lovely stream. Its seething waters would no longer flow down river, held up there, defeated by the power of that fiery blast made by the skill of god Hephaestus. Then the river, with a strong appeal to Hera, spoke these winged words: “Hera, why's your son burning up my stream, doing it more injury than any other? I'm not as much to blame as all the rest, the ones who help the Trojans. If you say so, I'll stop, if Hephaestus stops as well. And I'll swear this oath—never again will I protect a Trojan from his evil death, not even when all Troy itself is burning, ablaze with all-consuming fire, started by Achaea's warlike sons.” White-armed goddess Hera, as soon as she'd heard this, spoke to Hephaestus, her dear son: “Hold off, Hephaestus, splendid child. It's not right to hurt a deathless god like this, just for the sake of mortal men.”



When Hera spoke, Hephaestus extinguished his stupendous fire at once. The river's stream flowed once more in its channel. When the fighting spirit in Xanthus had been broken, the two gods fought no longer. Hera had stopped them, though she was still enraged. But now the other gods began a heavy conflict and a cruel fight



among themselves. The spirits in their hearts pushed them in various directions. As they clashed, with a tremendous din, the wide earth cried out, and mighty heaven pealed, just like a trumpet. Sitting on Olympus, Zeus heard the sound—his heart laughed with delight to see these gods go at it in mutual conflict. They no longer stood aloof. Shield-breaker Ares started it, attacking Athena first with his bronze spear, taunting her: “You dog fly, why is it you're once again inciting gods to fight each other, heart prompted by your own foolhardiness? Don't you recall the moment you provoked Diomedes, Tydeus' son, to wound me? We all saw it—you grabbed his spear yourself and drove it at me, scratching my fair skin. Well, now I think you'll pay for all you've done.”


Saying this, Ares struck Athena's tasseled aegis, that fearful aegis which not even Zeus' lightning can overcome. Bloodstained Ares' long spear struck it. Drawing back, Athena picked up in her strong hand a large, black, jagged rock, lying there on the plain. In earlier ages men had set it there to indicate the boundary of a field. With this rock Athena struck raging Ares in the neck. His legs collapsed. Ares fell. Stretched out he covered seven hundred feet. His hair was dirtied with the dust. His armour rang. Pallas Athena laughed, then cried in boastful triumph— her words had wings: “You fool, still so ignorant of how much stronger I can claim to be than you, when you seek to match my power. This is the way you'll answer now in full your mother's vengeful rage. She's angry,




planning nasty things for you, since you left Achaeans to support the arrogant Trojans.” With these words, she turned her glittering eyes away. Zeus' daughter Aphrodite then took Ares and led him off by hand, as he kept groaning— he found it difficult to get his spirit back. When white-armed goddess Hera saw Athena, she spoke, addressing her with these winged words: “Look there, child of aegis-bearing Zeus, you tireless one, that dog fly once again is leading man-killing Ares through the crowd, away from battle. Go after her.” Once Hera spoke, Athena dashed off in pursuit, delighted in her heart. Charging Aphrodite, she struck her in the chest with her powerful fist. Aphrodite's knees gave way, her heart collapsed. So both gods lay there, on the all-nourishing earth. Athena then spoke out winged words of triumph: “Let all those who assist the Trojans end up like this in warfare with Achaeans, with all the fortitude and boldness Aphrodite showed in helping Ares, standing up against my fighting power. We'll then soon end these hostile fights, once we've destroyed well-peopled Ilion.” As Athena spoke, white-armed goddess Hera smiled. Then the mighty Earthshaker spoke to Apollo: “Phoebus, why do we two stand aloof? That's not right, now that others have begun. It would be shameful if we both went back to Olympus, to Zeus' bronze-floored home, without a fight. Since you're the younger one, you must begin. It's not fair play if I do,





since I'm your elder and I thus know more. How foolish you are with your thoughtless heart! Don't you recall the trouble we two had around Troy, just the pair of us alone, with no other gods, that time when Zeus made us come here to work for a whole year at a fixed wage for proud king Laomedon? He was our master and told us what to do. I built the Trojans a wide and splendid wall around their city, to make it impregnable. You, Phoebus, worked with his cattle herds, taking his shambling bent-horned livestock through Ida's wooded spurs and valleys. When the joyful seasons stopped our working there, that despicable Laomedon robbed us. He kept our wages and sent us off with threats. He promised he'd tie up your hands and feet, then in some distant island sell you as a slave. He said he'd slice off both our ears with bronze. We came back really angry in our hearts, enraged about those promised wages he'd withheld. That's the man whose people you're now keen to favour. You don't join us, so we destroy these arrogant Trojans once and for all, along with all their children and their honourable wives as well.” Lord Apollo, who shoots from far, answered Poseidon: “Earthshaker, you'd never call me prudent, if I fought with you over human beings— those pitiful creatures are like the leaves, now full of blazing life, eating nourishment the earth provides, then fading into death. No, let's quickly end our quarrel, leaving these mortal men to fight amongst themselves.” Saying this, he turned away, thinking it shameful






to fight in battle against his father's brother. But his sister, forest goddess Artemis, queen of all wild beasts, was furious with him. She spoke to him with scorn:

“So, far worker, you're running off, ceding total victory to Poseidon, giving him an easy glory. You fool! Why do you carry such a bow, as useless as the wind? From now on, I never want to hear you boasting, as you used to among the deathless gods, how you could fight Poseidon face to face.” Artemis spoke. Far-shooting Apollo did not answer. But Hera, Zeus' honoured wife, was angry. She went at the archer goddess, insulting her: “You shameless bitch, you dare stand against me? You'll find it hard to match my power, even if you have your bow and Zeus made you a lion among women, allowing you to kill whichever one of them you please. I say it's better to be slaughtering wild beasts, deer in the mountains, than to fight all out with those more powerful. Still, if you're keen to learn about this war, to understand how much more powerful I am, let's fight, since you are challenging my strength.” With these words, Hera caught both arms of Artemis in her left hand. With her right she grabbed the bow, snatching it and its quiver off her shoulders. Then she slapped her with those weapons. As she did so, Hera smiled to see Artemis twist away and squirm. The swift arrows tumbled out. Artemis ran off, crying like a pigeon speeding from a hawk, flying to some hollow cleft among the rocks,





for she's not fated to be caught—that's how Artemis escaped, in tears, leaving her bow lying there. Then Hermes, the guide, killer of Argus, spoke out, addressing Leto: “I'll not fight you, Leto.

It's dangerous to come to blows with those married to cloud-gatherer Zeus. So you can tell immortal gods your great strength conquered me— and you can even boast about it.”

Hermes finished. Leto then collected the curved bow and arrows, which had fallen here and there down in the swirling dust. Then she left, taking her daughter's weapons with her. Artemis returned then to Olympus, to Zeus' home, with its bronze floor. The girl sat on her father's lap, her immortal garments shaking as she wept. Her father, Cronos' son, holding her to him, asked her with a gentle laugh:


“My dear child, which of the heavenly gods has treated you so nastily, as if you were committing some evil act in public?”

Then Artemis, with her beautiful headband, answered Zeus: “It was your wife who hit me, father, white-armed Hera. Now, thanks to her, immortal gods engage in fights and quarrels.” As these two talked together in this fashion, Phoebus Apollo went to sacred Ilion.

He was concerned about that well-built city wall, afraid Danaans might breach it that very day, contravening what Fate ordained. The other gods, who live forever, went back to Olympus, some incensed and others relishing their triumph. They sat down by Zeus, lord of the dark cloud. Meanwhile, Achilles still kept on killing Trojans, both soldiers and their sure-footed horses, too. Just as smoke rises up, reaching spacious heaven, when a city burns from fires set by wrathful gods— that's how Achilles brought the Trojans death and danger. Then old Priam stood on that wall built by gods, observing huge Achilles as he drove the Trojans ahead of him in total panic, their spirit broken. With a groan, he left the wall, came down to the ground, and summoned the well-known sentries at the gates. “Hold the doors wide open with your hands, until the fleeing troops come to the city. For Achilles is coming closer, driving them in panic. I think disaster looms. When the men have gathered here inside the wall, able to get relief, then close the gates, these tight-fitting doors, once more. I'm afraid this murderer may jump inside our walls.” Then the men pushed back the bars, opening the gates, and gave a saving light for those men on the run. Then Apollo charged out to meet Achilles, seeking to protect the Trojans from destruction, as they fled straight for the high-walled city, suffering from thirst and dusty from the plain. Still in a rage, Achilles chased them with his spear, his heart filled with strong and unremitting fury, still eager to win glory. At that moment, Achaea's sons would have captured Troy's high gates,





if Phoebus Apollo had not intervened, by stirring up noble, godlike Agenor, Antenor's son, a powerful warrior. In his heart Apollo instilled courage and then stood by him, leaning against the oak tree, covered in thick mist, so he might ward off the heavy hand of death. When Agenor saw Achilles, sacker of cities, he made a stand, his heart pondering many things, as he stood there. In his agitation, he spoke out, addressing his proud heart:


“Here's trouble. If I rush away before Achilles where other men are running in their panic, he'll catch me, then kill me as a coward. But what if I let Achilles, son of Peleus, drive them on, then dash away myself to some other place, far from the wall, out in the Trojan plain, until I reach Ida's spurs, where there's a bush to hide in? When evening comes, I could wash in the river, get rid of all the sweat and then go back, return to Ilion. But why's my fond heart debating all these options? He might see me, as I moved off from the city for the plain, and catch me with a sprint of his swift feet. I'd no longer have a chance to get away from death, my fate. The man is really strong, much more powerful than other men. What if I go out to stand against him before the city? My sharp bronze, I think, can slice up his flesh, too. He's got one life, no more. And men say that he's a mortal, although Zeus, Cronos’ son, gives him glory.” Saying this, Agenor stood up straight and waited, the heart within him prepared for war and keen to fight. Just as a leopard emerges from thick undergrowth, to face a hunter, with no fear in its heart,




no hint of flight when it hears the baying hounds— even if the hunter first hits it with his spear, the wounded beast won't lose its fighting spirit, until it closes with him or is killed itself— that's how godlike Agenor, noble Antenor's son, refused to run before fighting Achilles. Holding his round shield in front of him, he aimed his spear directly at Achilles, then shouted out: “Glorious Achilles, I'm sure you've set your heart on destroying the city which proud Trojans hold this very day. What foolishness! Much pain must still be suffered in that enterprise. We who live in Troy are men with courage, and there are lots of us. We'll guard Ilion, in front of our dear parents, wives, and sons. Here you'll meet your doom, though as a fighter, you are so formidable and brave.”

Agenor spoke. Then he threw his sharp spear from his massive hand. He hit Achilles on the shin, below the knee. The spear did not miss its man. The armour on his leg, newly hammered tin, gave out a fearful clang. But the spear just struck the metal and bounced off, without going through. The god's gift had protected him. Then Peleus' son, in turn, went for godlike Agenor. But Apollo didn't let him win the glory there. He snatched Agenor up, hid him in dense mist, then sent him quietly away from battle. After that, he led the son of Peleus astray, far from Trojan soldiers. The far shooter tricked him, by standing right before Achilles' feet, looking exactly like Agenor. Achilles charged off in pursuit, chasing Apollo out across the plain, past wheat fields, turning him towards the river, the deep, swirling Scamander. Apollo raced on, only a little bit ahead, using his cunning




happy to be there. cramming the gates.to trick Achilles with his pace. 730 They didn't dare to wait outside the wall. the other Trojans fleeing in confusion. came crowding in the city. throngs of them. to check who made it back and who had perished in the fight. They streamed into the city in an eager rush. Meanwhile. all whose legs and knees had brought them safely in. 481 . so he'd think he could catch up.

the Achaeans mutilate Hector. But you will never kill me. Hector remains outside the gates. Zeus holds up his golden scales. an immortal god? You're still ignorant. You keep coming at me with such anger. Achilles chases Hector around Troy.Book Twenty-Two The Death of Hector [The Trojans retreat into the city. Priam and Hecuba see the corpse of Hector being dragged past the city. running so hard in an attempt to catch me. resting by its sturdy walls. Athena takes on the form of Deïphobus to get Hector to fight Achilles. Priam and Hecuba appeal to Hector to come inside the walls. of the fact that I'm a god. while you chase off on a diversion here. it seems. in a towering fury.” 10 Swift-footed Achilles. Athena intervenes to advise Achilles. their shields held up against their shoulders. why are you. But Hector was forced by deadly Fate to stay right where he stood in front of Ilion. drying their sweat and taking drink to slake their thirst. Hector debates what to do. Apollo reveals his deception to Achilles. Andromache reacts to the sight of her dead husband] At this point. But what about your battle with those Trojans you put to flight? They're crowding in the city. then answered Apollo: 482 . Achaeans were moving to the walls. then panics and runs away. having fled like deer. outside the Scaean Gate. the gods look on. the Trojans. a mere human. I'm not someone whose fate it is to die. and Achilles dishonors the corpse. Meanwhile. spread out through the city. Hector is killed. Then Phoebus Apollo spoke out to Achilles: “Son of Peleus. Hector and Achilles fight.

pleading with his son. but an unwelcome sign. firmly resolved to fight Achilles. if only I were powerful enough. as he dashed across the plain. The bronze on Achilles' chest glittered like that star. appealed to Hector's sense of pity: “Hector. 20 30 Meanwhile. then. who's much more powerful. his heart full. who was still standing there before the gates. sprinting with his legs and feet. for it brings wretched mortals many fevers. don't stand out there alone. he called out. as he ran forward. facing that man with no one else to help you.” With these words. Otherwise. slaughtered by Peleus' son. I'd make you pay. 40 50 483 .“You've tricked me. blazing like that star which comes at harvest time—its light shines out more brightly than any of the countless lights in night's dark sky. my dear son. People call this star by the name Orion's Dog. old Priam was the first to catch sight of Achilles. god who shoots from far away. deadliest of all the gods. The old man. since you don't have to be afraid of future retribution. reaching up. saving them with ease. hands outstretched. or you will quickly meet your death. before reaching Ilion. old Priam struck his head with his hand. many men would have sunk their teeth in earth. Achilles set off towards the city. If only the gods would love Achilles just as much as I do. You've turned me from the wall. charging on like a prize-winning horse pulling a chariot at full speed across the plain with little effort—that's how fast Achilles ran. With a cry. with many groans. It's the brightest of the stars. You've robbed me of great glory. Don't be obstinate.

then dogs and vultures would soon gnaw at him as he lay there. Though full of misery. Polydorus and Lycaon. I can't see two of my young sons. robbing my limbs of life—the same dogs I raised at home beside my table to guard the doors. we'll ransom them. their hearts gone mad. that's a sorrow to my heart. I'll be ripped by ravenous dogs. their parents. killed by Achilles. among those who've gathered with the Trojans in the city. queen among women. their little children tossed down on the ground in this murderous war. Have pity on me. so you can help to save Trojan men and women. inside the walls. great glory. If they're still alive in the Achaean camp. He'll take your own dear life. too. my child. too. Others he's sold in islands far away. in front of my own doors when some man strikes me with his sharp bronze or throws his spear in me. For famous ancient Altes gave many gifts when he gave me his daughter. their houses ransacked. unless you die as well. Right now. But if they're dead and already in that dwelling place of Hades. my daughters-in-law led off captive in hard Achaean hands. then lie there at the gates. their mother's. with bronze and gold we have stored at home. And then my heart might shed its dreadful sorrow. for he's taken from me many valiant sons. But that's a briefer sorrow for other people. 60 70 80 90 484 . I still can feel. once I've seen so many dreadful things—my sons slaughtered. Father Zeus will kill me with a cruel fate on the threshold of old age. In the end. Come here. Some he's butchered. They'll drink my blood. my daughters hauled away. both delivered to me from Laothoe. that son of Peleus. Don't give that man. When a young man dies in war.

Then she undid her robe. that's all right. Beside Priam. He stood awaiting huge Achilles. Just as a mountain snake waits for some man right by its lair. if he kills you. But when the dogs disfigure shamefully an old man. and. If I ever gave these breasts to soothe you. and with her hands pushed out her breasts.” As the old man spoke.” So these two. chewing his gray head. both crying. Far away from us. he shows us his nobility. calling him—her words had wings: “Hector. But Hector's heart would not budge. my child. addressing his courageous heart: 110 120 485 . that's the saddest thing we wretched mortals see. remember that. Protect yourself against your enemy inside these walls. shedding tears. But then he leaned his bright shield up against the wall where it jutted out. as he coils beside his den with a fearful glare— that's how Hector's dauntless heart would not retreat. respect and pity me. But he could not sway Hector's heart. Though dead. his beard. who was getting closer.lying there murdered by sharp bronze. dear child. Stubborn man. Don't stand out there to face him. spoke up. after eating poison herbs so that a savage anger grips him. my dearest offspring—nor will your fair wife. I'll never lay you out on your death bed or mourn for you. Hector's mother wept. their swift dogs will eat you. pleading with him incessantly. 100 She cried out. beside Achaean ships. his hands tugged his gray hair and pulled it from his head. his sexual organs. with a groan. my child. spoke to their dear son.

promising that Helen. kill him. things would have been much better. Polydamas will be the first to blame me. just as I am.' That's what they'll say. for he told me last night to lead the Trojans back into the city. dying in glory.“What do I do? If I go through the gates. Once I'd set aside my armour. leaning my spear against the wall. if I set my bossed shield and heavy helmet to one side. Trojan men will make me feel ashamed— so will Trojan women in their trailing gowns. to take away with them—in addition. to give the Achaeans an equal share of all this city holds. every treasure our lovely city owns. unarmed. that all would be divided equally. my own foolishness has wiped out our army. inside that wall. But why's my dear heart having this debate? If I went out to meet him in that way. But I didn't listen. I'm afraid someone inferior to me may say. and went out to meet noble Achilles. Then later on. like some woman. destroyed his people. I'd get Trojan elders to swear on oath that not a single thing would be concealed. But what would happen. would be given to the sons of Atreus. once godlike Achilles rejoined the fight. and go home. He wouldn't pity me. trusting his own power. or get killed before the city. he'd show me no respect. As it is. For me it would be a great deal better to meet Achilles man to man. the origin of our hostilities. There's no way I can bargain with him now. If I'd done so. he'd kill me on the spot. 'Hector. along with all the goods shipped here to Troy by Alexander in his hollow ships. 130 140 150 160 486 . when many died.

limbs working feverishly.like a boy and girl chatting by some rock or oak tree. Peleus' son went after him. The men raced past there. They ran on past the lookout and the wind-swept fig tree. swoops down easily on a trembling pigeon as it darts off in fear. On his right shoulder he waved his dreadful spear made of Pelian ash. for this was no contest over sacrificial beasts. The man running off in front was a brave warrior. We'll see which one wins victory from Zeus. like Enyalius. as cold as hail or freezing snow or melting ice. From one of them hot water flows. heart driving it to seize the prey—in just that way Achilles in his fury raced ahead. he started running. No. cold water comes. By these springs stood wide tubs for washing. the warrior god of battle with the shining helmet. But Achilles was coming closer. the hawk speeding after it with piercing cries. he could no longer stand there. leaving the gate. even in summer. where. From the other. The bronze around him glittered like a blazing fire or rising sun. His courage gone. They were competing 170 180 190 487 . sure of his speed on foot. the other one pursuing him. made of beautiful stone. the fastest creature of all the ones which fly. as they flirt with one another. Hector began to shake in fear. Hector ran under the walls of Troy. some distance from the wall.” That's what Hector thought as he stood there waiting. and out of it steam rises up. one in full flight. Trojan wives and lovely daughters used to wash their brightly coloured clothing. Terrified. as if there were a fire burning. They reached the two fair-flowing well springs which feed swirling Scamander's stream. before Achaea's sons arrived. the usual prizes for a race. They ran fast. as he watched. along the wagon track. in peace time. but the man going after him was greater. At that moment. it's better to clash in battle right away. Just as a mountain falcon.

for horse-taming Hector's life.” Cloud-gatherer Zeus then answered Athena: “Cheer up. who's often sacrificed to me. or kill him now. He's mortal—his fate doomed him long ago. goddess with the glittering eyes. at the hands of Peleus' son. going three times round Priam's city on their sprinting feet. for all his bravery. How my heart pities Hector. my dear child. but we other gods will not all approve your actions. godlike Achilles is pursuing him on his quick feet round Priam's city. Well. I'm not saying how my heart intends to act. lord of lightning and dark clouds. replied to Zeus: “Father. Just as some horses. father of the gods and men: 200 “What a sight! My eyes can see a fine man being pursued around the walls. Among them the first one to speak was Zeus. burning many thighs of oxen on the crests of Ida with its many spurs and valleys. 220 488 . And now. as well. think hard and offer your advice— do we wish to rescue him from death. do as you wish. Tritogeneia. Come. what are you saying? How can you want to snatch the man back from his wretched death. All the gods looked on. sure-footed. you gods. make the turn around the post and race quickly as they strive to win some splendid prize—a tripod or a woman honouring a man that's died—that's how these two men raced. Achilles?” 210 Then Athena. prize-winning creatures. on the city heights.

always making sure he kept running a line between Hector and the city.I want to please you. At once Phoebus Apollo abandoned him. in case some other man hit Hector. always running till he finds it—that's how Hector could not shake off the swift-footed son of Peleus. Father Zeus raised his golden scales. Don't hold back. one for Achilles. Zeus raised his balance. moving down to Hades. one for horse-taming Hector. while Hector was unable to evade Achilles. Seizing it in the middle. setting there two fatal lots for death's long sorrow. Swift Achilles was still pressing Hector hard in that relentless chase. Achilles would intercept him and turn him back towards the plain. She rushed down from Olympus' peak. the dog tracks it down. just as the first man can't catch up—that's how Achilles. Hector's fatal day sank. to give him strength and make his legs run faster? Godlike Achilles. then goes after it through glens and valley gorges— and even if the fawn evades it for a while. 230 240 250 260 489 . But when they ran past those springs the fourth time. for all his speed. if Apollo had not for one last time approached. So you can do whatever your mind tells you. Like a dream in which a man cannot catch someone who's running off and the other can't escape. cowering in some thicket. prevented his own troops from shooting Hector with their lethal weapons. was spurred on by Zeus' words. Just as in the mountains a hound startles from its cover some young deer. Every time he tried to dash for the Dardanian gates to get underneath the walls. could not reach Hector. who was already eager. But how could Hector have escaped death's fatal blow. so men on top could come to his assistance by hurling spears. robbed him of the glory. with a shake of his head.” Athena. and left him to come too late.

the far shooter. swift Achilles is really harassing you. and beat off his attack. in the past you've always been the brother I loved the most by far of children born to Hecuba and Priam. to help me. who bears the aegis. suffers every torment. rejoicing in his heart. Catch your breath. Standing beside him. Come. leaning on his bronze-tipped ash spear. beloved of Zeus. for all his love of war. Athena left him. while others all remained inside. Now he can't escape us any longer. since you have dared to come outside the wall. She came to Hector in the form of Deïphobus. as he stood there. she spoke— her words had wings: “Glorious Achilles. when you saw me in distress. Achilles obeyed. even though Apollo.” Once Athena had said this. I'll go to Hector and convince him to turn and stand against you. I think I now respect you even more. as he grovels before Father Zeus.Then Athena.” 290 490 .” Then Hector of the shining helmet answered her: “Deïphobus. Stay still now. with his fast running around Priam's city in this pursuit. she spoke—her words had wings: 270 280 “My brother. by killing Hector. Standing close to him. now I hope the two of us will take great glory to Achaean ships. stay put. came to Peleus' son. with his tireless voice and shape. goddess with the glittering eyes. we'll both stand here.

for they're the best ones to observe our pact. or you kill me. don't talk to me of our agreements. Let's fight and not hold back our spears. But here inside me my heart felt the pain of bitter anguish. Athena seduced him forward.Goddess Athena with her glittering eyes replied: “Dear brother. Achilles. great Hector of the shining helmet spoke out first: “I'll no longer try to run away from you. Now. son of Peleus. with a scowl. and my comrades begged me repeatedly to stay there. And you'll do the same. whether I kill you. so we can see if Achilles kills us both. So come here. I lacked the courage then to fight with you. Let's call on gods to witness. If Zeus grants me the strength to take your life. I'll strip your celebrated armour off. at close quarters. then give the body back again to the Achaeans.” Swift-footed Achilles. I'll not abuse your corpse in any way. my noble mother. That's idiotic. as you attacked. let's go straight for him. or whether you'll destroy him on your spear. Wolves and lambs don't share a common heart—they always sense 300 310 320 491 . like a faithful promise between men and lions. to supervise what we two agree on. replied: “Hector. They all so fear Achilles. When they'd approached each other. as I did before. But my heart prompts me now to stand against you face to face once more.” With these words. then takes the bloodstained trophies to the ships. going three times in flight around Priam's great city. my father.

” With these words. Right now you'll pay me back. it's not possible for us. without Hector. for you and me. for there to be sworn oaths between us. godlike Achilles. But Pallas Athena grabbed it and returned it to Achilles. So it seems you learned nothing from Zeus about my death. You'll have to drive it through my charging chest. a fearless warrior. as I come right at you. indeed. then threw it. Well. that shepherd of his people. seeing what she'd done. to be friends. 330 340 350 360 492 . Hector then called out to Peleus' noble son: “You missed.a mutual hatred for each other. warrior with the bull's hide shield. It struck the shield of Peleus' son. Hector balanced his long-shadowed spear. for you're their greatest danger. although you said you had. Soon Pallas Athena will destroy you on my spear. he hefted his long-shadowed spear. This war would then be easier on Trojans with you dead. That was just talk. glutting Ares. if a god permits. You'd best remember all your fighting skills. However. Now. Now you must declare yourself a spearman. so I might forget my strength and courage. In just that way. then struck the ground. the full price of those sorrows I went through when you slaughtered my companions. I hope you get this whole spear in your flesh.” With these words. or. on blood. so the bronze spear flew over him. You were telling lies to make me fear you. with your spear you won't be striking me in my back as I run away in fear. see if you can cope with my bronze point. till one or other of us falls. splendid Hector saw it coming and evaded it by crouching down. anticipating the throw. You've got no escape. then hurled it.

that strong and massive weapon hanging on his thigh. Achilles attacked. stood dismayed. calling to Deïphobus. That spear didn't miss its mark. who carried a white shield. For a long time now. for he had no substitute ash spear. then swooped like some high-flying eagle plummeting to the plains down through the murky clouds to seize a tender lamb or cowering rabbit— that's how Hector charged. covering his chest with that richly decorated shield. but in some great action which those men yet to come will hear about. So now I meet my fate. and all those who willingly gave me help in earlier days.right in the centre. Then Hector in his heart saw everything so clearly—he said: 370 “This is it. heart full of savage anger. Now evil death is here. I thought warrior Deïphobus was close by. gathered himself. this must have been what Zeus desired. Just like that star which stands out the loveliest among all those in the heavenly night sky—the star of evening— 380 390 493 . not somewhere far away. right beside me. There's no escape. then. his shining four-ridged helmet nodding on his head. angry that the spear had flown from his hand and missed. So he shouted out. But it bounced some distance off the shield. Even so. He pulled out his sharp sword. let me not die ingloriously without a fight.” Hector finished speaking. as well. asking him with a yell to pass him his long spear. and Zeus' son. and Athena has deceived me. the golden plumes Hephaestus had set there shimmering around the crest. brandishing his sharp sword. the god who shoots from far. Hector. The gods are summoning me to my death. But Deïphobus was nowhere to be seen. But he's inside the walls.

you should accept all the bronze and gold you want. As Hector charged. Hector of the shining helmet answered Achilles: “By your life. He inspected his fine skin. your parents—don't let dogs eat me by Achaean ships. since I was far away. intent on killing noble Hector. while Achaeans are burying Patroclus. gifts my father and lady mother give you.” His strength fading. That was foolish! By our hollow ships he'd left me behind. by your knees. to take out my revenge. driving the spear point through his tender neck. I beg you. so he could still address Achilles and reply to him. noble Achilles struck him there. But the heavy bronze on that ash spear did not cut his windpipe. once he'd killed him. if you'll send my body home again. except for that opening where the collar bones separate the neck and shoulders. No. Hector fell down in the dust. so Trojans and Trojans' wives can bury me.that's how the sharp point then glittered on the spear Achilles hefted in his right hand. 430 494 . where a man's life is most effectively destroyed. at the gullet. But Hector's entire body was protected by that beautiful armour he'd stripped off powerful Patroclus. I suppose you thought you could safely strip Patroclus. to see where it was vulnerable to a blow. Lord Achilles then cried out in triumph: 400 410 “Hector. I've drained strength from your limbs—now dogs and birds will tear you into miserable pieces. 420 a much greater man. without giving me a thought.

So there's no one who'll keep the dogs from going at your head.with all the necessary funeral rites. says he'll pay your weight in gold. I recognize in you what I expected— you'd not be convinced. swift-footed Achilles then replied: “Don't whine to me. For your heart and mind are truly iron. in spite of all your courage.” Scowling at Hector. not even if they bring here and weigh out a ransom ten or twenty times as much. death's final end slid over him. mourning his fate to have to leave such youthful manliness. with promises of more. flying off to Hades. I wish I had the heart and strength to carve you up and eat you raw myself for what you've done to me. But think of this—I may bring down on you the anger of the gods that very day when Paris and Phoebus Apollo. you dog. slaughter you at the Scaean Gate. son of Dardanus. Not even then will your mother set you on a funeral bed and there lament the son she bore. the dogs and birds will eat you up completely.” 440 Then. or if Priam. Hector of the shining helmet said to Achilles: “I know you well. Instead.” 450 As Hector spoke. His life slipped out. as he died. Over dead Hector. godlike Achilles then cried out: “Die 495 . about my knees or parents.

as long as my dear limbs have motion.” 460 Saying this. unburied—Patroclus. All the men who came up to the corpse stabbed it. 470 480 490 496 . his handsome body. let's test these Trojan by attacking them with armed excursions round their city. since gods have granted that this man be killed. As for my own death. it's easier for us to deal with Hector now than when his fire burned our ships. Come. set it aside. I'll not forget him. When swift-footed godlike Achilles had stripped the corpse. standing among Achaeans. They gazed at Hector's stature. sing a victory song. still keen to fight without him. Then the rest of Achaea's sons came running up. as long as I remain among the living. leaders and rulers of the Argives. and stripped the blood-stained armour from the shoulders. If down in Hades men forget their dead. to see what they intend—whether they'll leave their lofty city now that Hector's dead.there. saying: “Look here. who's done much damage. He pulled his bronze spear from the corpse. more than all the rest. or stay there. even there I will remember my companion. young Achaeans. But why's my fond heart discussing this? By our ships lies a dead man—unwept. as we're returning to our hollow ships. he spoke these winged words: “My friends. looking at each other.” With words like this. I accept it whenever Zeus and the immortal gods see fit to bring it to me. they came up close and wounded Hector.

Then on noble Hector's corpse he carried out a monstrous act. The people then had trouble restraining the old man in his frantic grief. too. They sped off eagerly. 500 510 520 497 . was covered by the dust. calling out. his mother pulled her hair. and Hector's head. He cut through the tendons behind both feet. who sired and raised him to butcher Trojans. For he. all over the summit of that towering rock. It was as if all Ilion were engulfed in flames. that ruthless man. He begged them all. his dark hair spread out round him. dragging Hector. as if he were a god. go to the Achaean ships. for Zeus had given him to his enemies to dishonour in his own native land. When she saw her son. Around them. and then tied these onto his chariot. leave me alone. people were overwhelmed with wailing and laments throughout the city. He may pity my old age. We've won great glory. So all his head grew dirty. threw off her shining veil. one just like me. has a father. threaded them with ox-hide thongs. and began to shriek. once so handsome. killing noble Hector—Trojans prayed to him in their own city. I know you care for me. naming each of them: “My dear friends. his desperate wish to go through the Dardanian gate. He may feel shame in front of comrades. groveling in the dirt. brought on the splendid armour. leaving the head to drag behind. A dust cloud rose above him.We'll take the body. His dear father gave a pitiful groan. that violent monster. from heel to ankle.” Achilles finished. but let me leave the city by myself. then lashed his horses. then beg him. Peleus. He climbed up in his chariot.

all in their prime. Priam wept. we could have had our fill of weeping. laments coming from the walls. But. despite that sorrow. for no messenger had come to tell her clearly that her husband had remained outside the gates. Poor fool! She'd no idea that a long way from that bath. night and day.” Hecuba spoke through her tears. embroidering flowers on it. The shuttle fell out of her hands onto the floor. Hecuba led Trojan women in their loud laments: “My child. Now Death and Fate have overtaken you. Her limbs began to shake. now that you are dead? You were my pride and joy. The townsfolk mourned. who gave birth to him. a blessing to us all.” As he said this. for Hector. so Hector could have a hot bath when he came home from battle. Athena with the glittering eyes had killed Hector at Achilles' hands. of lamentation—me and his mother. such wretched sorrow. to her own sorrow. to Trojan men and women in the state. weaving purple fabric for a double cloak. how can I live with this misery. Then she heard the wailing. He's killed so many of my sons. I don't grieve for all of them as much as I do for one. She spoke out once more to her well-groomed housemaids: 530 540 550 560 498 . She'd told her well-groomed servants in the house to place a large tripod on the fire.On me especially he's loaded sorrow. To them you were great glory when you were alive. more than on any other man. who received you like a god. and in the city. She was in a room inside their lofty home. But so far Hector's wife knew nothing of all this. The sharp pain I feel for him will bring me down to the house of Hades. If only he had died here in my arms.

She saw Hector as he was being dragged past before the city. Once she reached the wall crowded with men. once he'd paid an immense price for his bride. stood there. cap. Hector. the veil that golden Aphrodite gave her when Hector of the shining helmet led her from Eëtion's house as his wife. For I've just caught the sound of my husband's noble mother's voice. and looked out from the wall. how miserable I am. I hope reports like these never reach my ears.” Saying this. gasping her life away. Let's see what's happened. she stopped. driving him into the plain all by himself. When she’d recovered and her spirit had returned. accompanied by servants. woven headband. We both seem born 499 . second to none in fury. she started her lament. In my chest. but I'm dreadfully afraid that godlike Achilles may have cut off my bold Hector from the city. she cried out to the Trojan women: 570 580 590 “Ah. Something disastrous has taken place to Priam's children. she hurried through the house. with swift horses pulling him ruthlessly away to the Achaeans' hollow ships. heart pounding. my heart leapt in my mouth. At the sight.“Come here you two and follow me. From her head she threw off her shining headdress—frontlet. well in front. like some mad woman. In a sobbing voice. Around her stood her husband's sisters and his brother's wives. almost dead from shock. black night eclipsed her eyes. then ended that fearful courage which possessed him. my lower limbs are numb. They all helped pick her up. She fell back in a faint. He's never one to hold back or remain within the crowd of men—he always moves ahead.

plucking one man's cloak. No good will come to him from you. another's tunic. who. For other men will take away his lands. Another man whose parents are still living pushes him out of the feast. Our son's an infant.to a single fate. In his need. because you alone kept their gates safe from harm. 600 610 620 630 500 . Some pity him and then hold out a cup. You've no father at our feast. without moistening his palate. and I in Eëtion's home in wooded Thebe. his heart full of happy dreams. The day a child becomes an orphan all his friends are gone. in tears. Now you go to Hades' house deep underground. But now. nor will he help you. you in Priam's house in Troy. now that you're dead. He raised me from childhood. the child returns to his widowed mother. born to wretched parents. his life will always be a constant pain and sorrow. an ill-fated father and a child who's doomed. hitting him with his fist. He cannot hold up his head for anyone.' So. widowed in our home. Hector. in his nurse's arms—on a soft couch. now that he's missing his dear father. he'd lie in his own bed. our dear son Astyanax. Lord of the City. Trojans called him this. insulting him: 'Go away. letting him for a moment wet his lips. That child is our son Astyanax. just as you are. How I wish he'd never fathered me. Even if he gets through this dreadful war with the Achaeans. the child goes to his father's comrades. his cheeks are wet from crying. ate only marrow and rich fat from sheep. you and me. When sleep overpowered him and he'd stopped his childish play. in earlier days on his father's knees. abandoning me to bitter sorrow. he'll suffer much.

produced by women's hands. wriggling worms will eat you.their towering walls. far from your parents. The women added their laments. she wept. on behalf of Trojan men and women. So I'll honour you. In your home are lovely well-made clothes. But now by the beaked ships.” Saying this. 501 . once dogs have had their fill of your bare corpse. since you can't wear them. They're no use to you. In a blazing fire I'll burn them all.

too. Their tears made the sands wet. Patroclus' ghost visits Achilles. boxing. untying them from their chariots. for I'm completing here all I promised you before—to drag in Hector. foot-racing. Achaeans gather wood and prepare Patroclus' funeral pyre. even though you're in Hades house. Peleus' son led their loud lament. Once we've had our fill of sorrowful tears. archery. for they were mourning the loss of a great warrior. let's not loose our sure-footed horses yet. We must go with horse and chariot up to Patroclus. Thetis stirred up in them a strong desire to weep. which then take place in series: the chariot race. For that's a dead man's right. He spoke out to his warrior companions: “Fast-riding Myrmidons. as Trojans were lamenting in the city. and spear throwing. men's armour. we'll unyoke our horses. Achilles cuts the hair dedicated to the river Spercheus. who'd made men flee. Achilles awards Agamemnon the prize for the last event without any contest] Meanwhile. Achilles gets the help of the winds to get the fire to light under Patroclus. Achaeans reached their ships beside the Hellespont. Three times around the body they drove their well-groomed horses. But Achilles didn't let his Myrmidons disband. Achilles brings out prizes for the Funeral Games. requesting a burial. throwing a weight.” At these words. Achilles sacrifices animals and humans on Patroclus' pyre. There they scattered. armed combat. each man going to his own ship.Book Twenty-Three The Funeral Games for Patroclus [Achilles keeps his troops together to mourn Patroclus. to mourn for him. 502 10 20 . led by Achilles. Patroclus. placing his man-killing hands on his comrade's chest: “Rest in peace. mourning as they went. then all eat here. wrestling. they all began their group lament. trusty comrades.

then sat down. highest and most excellent of all gods. king of men. In his stubbornness. Reaching Agamemnon's hut.then give him to the dogs to eat up raw. All around the corpse. son of Peleus. beside the bier of Menoetius' son. They had trouble convincing him to go there— his heart was still so angry for his comrade. stretching his body out face down in the dirt. He prepared a funeral feast to ease their spirits. Then each man took off his glittering bronze armour. bleating goats. in my rage that you've been slaughtered. piled up a burial mound. blood ran so thick men scooped it up in cupfuls. to lord Agamemnon. splendid children. to rinse off the spattered blood. he refused to do that. to see if they could persuade Peleus' son to wash. as they were butchered. and cut the throats of twelve young Trojans. by swift-footed Achilles' ship. it's not right that water touch my head. thousands of them. though I hate to eat.” He finished. In the morning. 50 503 . Then he continued to dishonour noble Hector. They untied their loud-neighing horses. Agamemnon. But for the moment. and white-tusked pigs rich in fat were laid out to roast over Hephaestus' fires. swearing this oath: 30 40 “By Zeus. and shaved my hair. on your funeral pyre. Many sleek oxen bellowed underneath the knife. not while I still remain among the living. until I've laid Patroclus on his fire. let's agree to dine. they issued orders for clear-voiced heralds to heat up a large cauldron. Many sheep. since such grief will never reach my heart a second time. Then Achaean leaders led the swift-footed prince.

70 80 90 504 . The ghost spoke to Achilles. with many Myrmidons. You've forgotten me. body covered with the same clothes he used to wear over his skin. so tireless fires can cremate him quickly and remove him from our sight. handsome eyes. Once they'd satisfied their need for food and drink. But Peleus' son lay moaning loudly on the shore. once you've given me what's due. and voice. He stood there. They don't let me join them past the river. ghosts of the dead. each man returned to his own hut to get some rest. as he goes below to murky darkness. Then I can pass through the gates of Hades. you never did neglect me. I beg you. Give me your hand.” 60 Achilles spoke.you must urge men to gather wood. So I wander aimlessly round Hades' home by its wide gates. and dined. When sleep took hold of him and eased his aching heart by sweetly flowing round him—for his splendid limbs were tired out from chasing after Hector by wind-swept Ilion—then poor Patroclus came to him as a ghost. So bury me as quickly as you can. arrange all things required for a man who's died. eating to their heart's content and sharing equally. where waves washed up on shore. in an open spot. prepared a meal. beside the crashing sea. Achilles. But now I'm dead. my funeral fire. keep me away. Then soldiers can resume their duties. looking exactly like him in all respects—in stature. While I was alive. saying: “You're asleep. for I'll never come again from Hades. They all listened to him and readily agreed. above Achilles' head. Men all rushed out. The spirits.

Let them remain together. enjoying a shared lament together. don't lay your bones apart from mine. to die under the walls of wealthy Troy. in my foolishness. one last request. going underground like vapour. too. attend to your request. then made me your attendant. muttering faintly. The jaws of dreadful Fate are gaping for me. Achilles. I'll say one more thing. Horseman Peleus welcomed me into his home. The spirit had departed. separated from our dear companions. ready to consume me—my destiny from the day that I was born.” Saying this. You. if you will listen. But come closer. godlike Achilles. raised me with love. So let the same container hold our bones. Let's hold each other one short moment more. that gold two-handled jar your mother gave you.We'll no more sit together making plans. and then spoke out in sorrow: “How sad! 100 110 120 505 . I didn't mean to. Achilles reached out with his arms. why have you come to me here.” Swift-footed Achilles then said in reply: “Dear friend. just as they were when we grew up in your home. once Menoetius brought me as a youngster into your land from Opoeis. you have your own fate. but I was enraged over some game of dice. Achilles jumped up in amazement. but he grasped nothing. clapped his hands. telling me everything I need to do? I'll carry out all these things for you. for I'd done a dreadful murder on that day I slaughtered Amphidamas' son.

brave attendant to kind Idomeneus. whose feet ploughed up the ground as they strained through thick underbrush towards the plain. tied logs behind the mules. lamenting. The mules went on ahead. in every detail amazingly like him. under orders from Meriones. sometimes tracking sideways. They leapt up to get armour on. The men kept going. where Achilles planned a massive burial mound for Patroclus and himself. At once they started working— cutting high-branched oak trees with their long-edged bronze.” Achilles' words stirred the desire to keep mourning in all of them. up and down the slopes. They set off. Men worked hard. ordering each man to get his horses harnessed in their chariots. In the middle. Achaeans then split the trees into convenient lengths. some spirit or ghost remains. they were still lamenting by that cheerless corpse. his companions bore Patroclus. Men threw these logs down in a line along the shore. grasping axes to chop wood and well-woven rope. Then came the men on foot in their thousands.It seems that even in Hades' house. When rose-fingered Dawn appeared. till they reached Ida's foothills with their many springs. When they'd piled up immense amounts of wood on every side. they sat all together there and waited. asking me to do things. falling each tree with a mighty crash. The man who supervised was Meriones. Woodsmen all carried logs as well. sometimes doubling back. Then Achilles quickly told war-loving Myrmidons to dress in bronze. The warriors and charioteers climbed in their chariots and moved out first. from huts in every quarter. For this entire night the ghost of poor Patroclus stood beside me. weeping. attendant to kind Idomeneus. Then mighty Agamemnon sent out men and mules. but our being is not there at all. to gather wood. whose corpse they covered with the hair 130 140 150 160 506 .

once I came back home to my dear native land. he cut a lock of his own fair hair. Looking out over the wine-dark sea. It's what the old man swore. where you have your own estate and fragrant altars. Achaean troops will listen to your words more than to anyone. Now they would have mourned till sunset. one he'd grown as a rich offering to the river Spercheus. I'd cut my hair for you. cradling Patroclus' head and grieving. So dismiss them from the pyre for now. but you failed 180 to bring about what he desired.they'd cut from their own heads and thrown onto the body. Standing some distance from the pyre. So now. Achilles placed his hair in the hands of his dear comrade. let me give this lock to warrior Patroclus to carry with him. Godlike Achilles came behind them. since I'll not be returning home again. he spoke out in passionate distress: 170 “Spercheus.” Having said these words. but Achilles soon got up and said to Agamemnon: “Son of Atreus. That oath was useless. For he was sending down to Hades' home a comrade without equal. Then swift-footed lord Achilles thought of something. stirring up in each of them desire to lament. then make a holy sacrifice. offering up fifty uncastrated rams to your waters. they set the body down and quickly piled up wood as he directed. When they reached the spot Achilles chose for them. Men can grieve too much. my father Peleus promised you that. 190 507 .

Slitting the throats of two of them. After that. though you're in Hades' house. with his bronze. leaning them against the bier. he butchered those twelve noble sons of the courageous Trojans. he lit the fire to work its iron force and burn up everything. king of men. The chief mourners stayed behind. Flames will burn twelve noble sons of great-hearted Trojans. Patroclus. Then. Achilles threw four strong-necked horses quickly on the pyre. But as for Hector. For I'm now completing everything I promised you before. Achilles tossed them on the pyre.” When Agamemnon. They piled up wood. On that pyre's highest point they laid out the corpse. hearts full of sorrow. Those of us with special cause to mourn will take care of this. With a groan he called out. piling skinned carcasses around it. each side one hundred feet in length. in front of the pyre. his feelings grimly set on this atrocity. using it to cover up the corpse from head to foot. From all these.” 220 Achilles made this threat. Patroclus had owned nine dogs who ate beside his table. Then. but to the dogs. he quickly sent the troops off to their balanced ships. But let the leaders remain here with us. Next. they flayed and made ready many sturdy sheep and shambling cattle with twisting horns.Tell them to prepare a meal. great-hearted Achilles took the fat. heard these words. he placed on top two-handled jars of oil and honey. making a square pyre. 508 . Priam's son. Then. addressing his companion: 200 210 “Rest in peace. all cremated with you. I'll not feed him to the fire. crying with grief.

so flames might incinerate the corpses quickly. Their eyes soon saw her. Phoebus Apollo brought a dark cloud from the sky across the plain. Pouring frequent libations from a golden cup. I'd like to be there for that sacred feast. Hearing his prayer. so they burn up the pyre where Patroclus lies. So swift-footed Achilles thought of something else. day and night. They all jumped up. back in the land of Ethiopians.” After saying this. whipping up waves 250 509 . driving clouds before them. Iris sped up. then stood on the stone threshold. he begged them to come quickly to ignite the wood.but dogs would not touch Hector. Standing away from the pyre. But now Achilles prays that North Wind and loud West Wind will come. shadowing the entire place where Hector lay. But now the pyre of dead Patroclus would not catch fire. I must return to Oceanus' stream. kept them away. 230 to stop Sun's power from shriveling up the flesh on limbs and sinews. Zephyrus of the west—promising fine offerings. they quickly stormed across the sea. With an astounding roar. Iris left. saying to them: “I can't sit down. The two winds rose up. so Achilles would not wear away his body by dragging him around. where there's a sacrifice to the immortals. For Aphrodite. He's promising you splendid offerings to stir the flames. whom all Achaea mourns. Iris declined their invitation. he prayed to the two winds—Boreas of the north. each one inviting her to sit beside him. Zeus' daughter. Iris at once took his message 240 to the winds. who were feasting all together in blustery West Wind's home. She covered him with immortal oil of roses.

Then Peleus' son. moving away from the smouldering pyre. you must first douse the smouldering pyre with gleaming wine— everything the powerful flames have touched. when he burns his bones. for he lay in the centre of the pyre— the others burned some distance from him on the edges. the star after which Dawn in her yellow robe moves out across the sea. whose death brings parents dreadful sorrow—that's how Achilles kept crying then. soaking the ground and calling on the spirit of poor Patroclus. The flames went out. They're easy to distinguish. And all night long with a two-handled cup in hand swift Achilles kept drawing wine from a golden bowl and pouring it upon the earth. announcing that light is coming to the earth. his newly married son. lamenting endlessly. blowing their shrill blasts together on the flames. Then we'll collect bones from Patroclus. all together. The noise they made. as they marched in. lay down exhausted. back to their homes. by then the fire was dying. then fell upon that pyre. as he burned his companion's bones. where a seething storm roared out. Sitting bolt upright. Menoetius' son. separating them with care from all the rest. All night long they howled. in a double layer of fat. going across the Thracian Sea.with their howling breath. Sweet Sleep quickly slipped around him. the humans and the horses. They came to fertile Troy. So the winds returned once more. he said: “Sons of Atreus and you other leaders of Achaean forces. Just as a father mourns his son. The fire crackled up into a prodigious blaze. But then the troops came up with Agamemnon. woke up Achilles. dragging himself round and round the pyre. until the time 260 270 280 290 510 . Let's place his bones inside a golden urn. But at that hour when the Morning Star appears.

unbroken and with a mule foal in her womb. When they'd made the mound. they did as the swift-footed son of Peleus wished. they started to return. he set out a cauldron untouched by fire. mules. once I'm gone. using stones to mark its base around the pyre. and then piled earth on top. horses. You Achaeans must build it high and wide.I myself am hiding there in Hades. he set out prizes for swift charioteers— for the winner. Then he brought prizes from his ship— cauldrons. but later. Then they traced out the dimensions of a mound. They placed the urn under soft linen in a hut. a fine piece which held four measures. keeping soldiers there. Then Achilles stood up and spoke directly to the Argives: 300 310 320 511 . tripods. nothing excessive—what seems appropriate. First. they doused the smoking pyre with gleaming wine. powerful oxen. But Achilles checked them. I'm asking you to build a burial mound. For second place he led out a mare six years old. while the fifth-place prize was a two-handled bowl. He asked them to sit down in a wide group. First. they picked the white bones of their comrade out and put them in a double layer of fat inside a golden urn. those who still remain beside our ships with many oars.” Once Achilles spoke. wherever flames had reached or ash was deep. Weeping. For the man who came in third. a woman skilled in fine handicrafts and a tripod with handles holding twenty measures. For fourth place he set a prize of two gold talents. as well as fine-dressed women and gray iron. not yet put on the fire.

driving a yoked team. so kind he'd often pour soft oil all through their manes. First to move. had given to Agamemnon as a gift. for they're immortal. so he wouldn't have to go with him to wind-swept Ilion. Their hearts feel too much grief. my horses are far better than the rest. But you others. They stand there mourning him. but could remain at home. for Zeus had given him great wealth. while washing them in clean water. my father. well before the rest. 330 340 350 512 . brave man. Poseidon's gift to Peleus. swift charioteers rushed into action. for they've lost their charioteer. since. any Achaean who has faith in his own horses and his well-made chariot. which Echepolus. Anchises' son. royal son of Atreus. driving those yoked horses from Tros' herd.“Sons of Atreus. manes trailing on the ground. After Diomedes came fair-haired Menelaus. who gave them to me.” Once Achilles finished speaking. though Apollo had snatched away their owner. son of Tydeus. get yourselves prepared all through the camp. was Eumelus. you other well-armed Achaean warriors. enjoying himself. dear son of Admetus and excellent with horses. If Achaeans were now hosting these games for someone else. But I and my sure-footed horses now will stand down. a strong. as you know. So they won't race. then I myself would surely win first prize and take it to my hut. which he'd just taken from Aeneas. these prizes lie set out here for a contest among the charioteers. After him came forward mighty Diomedes. two fast creatures—his own horse Podargus and Agamemnon's mare Aethe. king of men.

though he's got worse horses. drive them carelessly. But a cunning man. you may still be quite young. that makes one charioteer go faster than another. right at the start. Some racing drivers. so clear you cannot miss it. You know. using leather reins. The others' horses may be faster runners. His mind doesn't wander. So. a wise man speaking to one who could appreciate another's skill: “Antilochus. keeps his eye on that turning point. too. so there's no need to issue you instructions. so those prizes don't elude you. It's skill that lets a helmsman steer his course. They've taught you all sorts of things with horses. But he keeps control. got his fair-maned horses ready. but the drivers are no better skilled than you. He was a noble son of proud king Nestor. This was the mare Menelaus now led up in harness. fix your mind on all that skill. but Zeus and Poseidon have been fond of you. skill in a woodsman matters more than strength. guiding his swift ship straight on wine-dark seas. And it's skill. dear boy. Antilochus. a racehorse filled with a desire to run. always watching the man in front. But your horses are the slowest in the race. trusting their chariot and horses. son of Neleus. They don't control their horses. Swift-footed horses bred at Pylos pulled his chariot. Now I'll tell you something— there's a marker. The fourth contestant.He lived in spacious Sicyon. weaving on the course. moving back and forth. His father came up to him to give him practical advice. You understand well how to wheel around beside the turning post. and so I think you've got some problems here to deal with. It's a dry stump of oak or pine standing 360 370 380 390 513 . cutting the pillar close. Such a man also understands how to urge his horses on.

the finest ones bred here. You should lean out from that well-sprung platform. much less overtake you. but the ground is smooth. You need to shave that post.about six feet high. so the well-built wheel hub seems to scrape the pillar. Mighty Eumelus was next. drive in really close as you wheel around your chariot and horses. which Achilles shook. Then Meriones. and all the racers climbed in their chariots. while with your hands you let him take the reins. which will delight the others but shame you. the fifth contestant in the race. 400 410 420 430 514 . or perhaps men placed it there to serve as a racing post in earlier times. The first to tumble out was for Antilochus. to your horses' left. not even if he were driving godlike Arion behind you.” Nestor. Neleus' son. so a team can wheel around that stump. because if you do. At that spot the race course narrows. But be careful— don't touch the stone. you'll smash the chariot. If you can pass them by as you catch up right by the turning post. spoke and sat down in his place. then none of them will reach you with a sudden burst of speed. So. calling to him with a shout. two white stones are firmly fixed against it. They gathered up the lots. from heavenly stock. dear boy. Swift-footed lord Achilles has made that stump his turning point. giving the right-hand horse the lash. then came spearman Menelaus. you'll hurt the horses. Nestor's son. On both sides of that stump. that swift horse of Adrestus. or the very horses of king Laomedon. It may be a memorial to some man long dead. The inside horse must graze the post. take care and pay attention. no. Rain hasn't rotted it. harnessed his fine-maned horses. once he'd gone over all the details with his son.

lashed them with the reins. angry at him. they raised their whips above their horses. in another. their pace grew strained. they leaned right into him. then. She came running at top speed after that shepherd of his people. once he saw Eumelus' team running even faster than before. Beside it he'd placed an umpire. But Athena had observed Apollo as he fouled the son of Tydeus. for. would skim across the nourishing earth. racing back to the gray sea. would bounce high in the air. After him. They took their places in a line. Tydeus' son drew for his horses' lane. hadn't struck the shining whip out of his hand. running with no whip. almost as if they'd charge right up the back of Eumelus' chariot. Their drivers stood up in the chariots. When the swift horses were starting the last stretch. calling his horses. as they strove for victory. Then from Diomedes' eyes tears of rage streamed out. godlike Phoenix. Their breath felt hot on his broad shoulders and his back. Now Tydeus' son would have passed Eumelus. and by far the best. if Phoebus Apollo. Under their chests dust came up. Each man shouted out. followed by Diomedes' team from Tros' breed not far behind—really close. and shouted words of encouragement to urge them forward. his father's follower. 440 450 460 470 515 . or made the issue doubtful. Last of all.son of Atreus. at one moment. Then Achilles showed them the turning point far out on the plain. Meriones drew his place. as they flew along that dusty plain. The chariots. to observe the racing and report back truthfully. galloping swiftly from the ships. hanging there like storm clouds in a whirlwind. while his own were at a disadvantage. putting strength into his horses. then gave back his whip. Then the drivers each revealed his quality. The swift-footed horses of Eumelus raced ahead. Then all together. The horses raced off quickly. hearts pounding. In the rushing air their manes streamed back. as they ran ahead.

He'll take out his sharp bronze and kill you both. his forehead had a bruise. Move up now. fair-haired Menelaus. So keep on after them. Above his eyebrows. to give Diomedes glory. who's just a mare.Then. in anger. frightened by their master's threat. His horses. Tydeus' son swerved aside. his strong voice failed him. You don't want to suffer shame from Aethe. I won't miss my chance. ran faster for a stretch. where the road narrows. you strong horses? Let me tell you something which is sure to happen—if you slack off now and I win some inferior prize. as fast as you can go. she went after the son of Admetus. Pick up the pace—as fast as you can run! My task will be to think of something. Behind him came Atreus' son. outdistancing the rest. whom Athena has just helped run faster to give their driver glory. Suddenly brave Antilochus saw up ahead a place where the road was hollowed out and narrow. His two eyes filled with tears. then drove his sure-footed horses far ahead. Push yourselves. 480 490 500 510 516 . But overtake those horses of the son of Atreus— quick now—don't let them get too far ahead. will stop feeding you. The horses swerved. here and now. I'm not asking you to try to beat those horses up ahead. The goddess snapped his chariot yoke. for Athena had put strength into his team. Why are you falling back. mouth. devise a way of getting past them there. and nose the skin was badly scraped. then Nestor. his people's shepherd. On his elbows. running all around the course. you two. The shaft dropped down and hit the ground—this threw Eumelus from the chariot beside the wheel. the team of that warlike son of Tydeus.” Antilochus finished. But then Antilochus called to his father's horses: “Get going.

Menelaus was coming to this spot. Then fair-haired Menelaus. yelled out: 520 530 “Antilochus. then called out to his horses: “Don't slow down or stand there sad at heart. charging up a little to one side. but Antilochus kept going.” Menelaus yelled this. in anger at Antilochus. as if he hadn't heard. Their feet and limbs will tire before yours do. you still may not win the prize. for all their eagerness to win. They raced on like this about as far as a discus flies when tossed with a shoulder swing by a powerful young man testing his strength. It gets wider soon—you can pass me there! Watch you don't hit me. in case the sure-footed teams somehow collided and overturned their well-sprung chariots in the road. Atreus' son. you're more reckless than any man alive! Damn you! Achaeans were all wrong to think you were a man with some intelligence. without the need to swear you won it fairly. moving even faster and laying on the whip. reined in deliberately. sprawling in the dust.with a channel in the ground where winter rains had backed the water up. But even so. shouted at Antilochus: “Antilochus. washing out some of the road and making all the ground subside. 540 517 . leaving no space at all for a second chariot to move along beside him. But then the son of Atreus' team slowed down and fell behind. you're driving like an idiot! Pull your horses back! The road's too narrow. leaving their drivers. But Antilochus guided his sure-footed horses off the track. You'll make us crash!” Menelaus shouted. alarmed.

with a mark on his forehead as round and white as a full moon. The first to spot them was Idomeneus. but they must have run into some trouble out there. but when he called his horses. his horses ran on even faster. or can you glimpse them. mighty Diomedes. Eumelus' mares were in the lead. I saw them wheeling round the turning post in front. I think he fell out there somewhere and smashed his chariot. leader of the Cretans. Look for yourselves.for those two horses are no longer young. son of horse-taming Tydeus. with another charioteer approaching. in a higher spot. Going out. but the man seems to be of Aetolian descent. The man in front was still far off. too? It seems to me that another team is now in front. His horses must have panicked in their hearts and run away.” 550 560 570 518 . sitting all together. Now I can't see them anywhere. somewhere on the plain.” Menelaus spoke. Idomeneus stood up and called out to the Argives: “My friends. Perhaps the charioteer let go the reins and couldn't guide his chariot round the post and failed to make the turn. Excited by their master's shout. leaders and rulers of Argives. Meanwhile. a fine lookout. an Argive king. I can't see all that clearly. though my eyes keep searching the entire Trojan plain. He sat some distance from the crowd. the Argives. kept watching for the horses racing on the dusty plain. am I the only one to see those horses. Idomeneus recognized his voice and could see quite clearly the horse in front—it was all brown. But stand up.

you’re the most useless Argive of them all. swift Ajax. with a lot more ground to race across. Come on then. son of Atreus. you still chatter on. then replied: “You're great at insults. let's have Agamemnon. And of all the Argives here you're not the youngest—those eyes in your head don't have the keenest vision. as well.At that point. jumped up at once. As our umpire. swift Ajax. son of Oïleus. Ajax.” At Idomeneus' words. But for all that.” 580 The leader of the Cretans. mocked Idomeneus with these insulting words: “Idomeneus. In everything. their quarrel might have got much worse. holding the reins. At that point. let's bet a tripod or a cauldron on it— which horses are in front—so you'll learn by having to pay up. and he's standing there. why are you always nattering? Those prancing mares are still far distant. but really stupid. son of Oïleus. You don't need to babble. ready to answer with more angry words. but Achilles himself stood up and said: 590 600 519 . when there are better men than you around. Eumelus' team. furious with Ajax. Those same mares as before are out in front. in a rage. because your mind is dull.

who's in the lead and who's behind. Idomeneus and Ajax. who left behind only a slight trace of wheel rims in the dust. Tydeus' son came charging in really close to them. leaning the whip against the yoke. The space between the two was as far as a horse is from the chariot wheel. raising their hooves up high as they ran the course.“No more of this. Diomedes pulled up right in the middle of the crowd. Clouds of dust kept falling on the charioteer. so his horses raced ahead. You'd both feel angry if another man behaved this way. no more insults—that's not appropriate. when it strains to pull its master fast across the plain— its tail ends touch the spinning wheels behind it— there's not much space between them. Then you can both see the Argive horses. He kept swinging his whip down from the shoulder. as they move at top speed on the plain—that's about how far 610 620 630 520 . Next in came the horses driven by Antilochus. Then he untied the horses from their harnesses. It won't be long before their eagerness to win brings them here. as the team flew speeding by. But Menelaus was bringing his swift horses in very close behind. So sit down with the group and watch for horses. no more angry words. drawn by swift-running horses. not by his horses' speed. grandson of Neleus. Streams of sweat dripped from the horses' necks and chests onto the ground. who just beat Menelaus— he won by cunning. He jumped down from his gleaming chariot. Strong Sthenelus didn't wait for long to get the prizes—he retrieved them right away. as his chariot made of gold and tin raced on. giving the woman to his proud comrades to lead off and the two-handled tripod to carry with them.” As Achilles spoke.

if you carry out what you've proposed. Had the course been longer for both contestants. swift-footed lord Achilles felt sorry for him. I'll be angry with you. as seems fitting—the award for second place. kept getting stronger.Menelaus lagged behind noble Antilochus. driving his horses in front of him and pulling his chariot behind. If you're feeling sorry for Eumelus. but Antilochus. he'd have surely passed him. the fair-maned Aethe. for the spirit in Agamemnon's mare. His horses were the slowest. son of Peleus. and he himself had the least skill at driving in a chariot race. he said: “Achilles. Standing among Argives. They all agreed with his suggestion. The next one in was Meriones. he'd been about a discus throw behind. Let Diomedes take the first-place prize.” Achilles spoke. Seeing Eumelus coming in. let's give him a prize. At first. claiming that his chariot and swift horses ran into trouble—as he did himself. You've got bronze. So now he would have given Eumelus the mare. he spoke—his words had wings: “The best man brings up his sure-footed horses in last place. great-hearted Nestor's son. Addressing Achilles. as Achaeans had agreed. well behind the rest. though he's an excellent charioteer. a spear-throw length behind splendid Menelaus. For you want to rob me of my prize. in your hut there's lots of gold. without leaving the result in doubt. Last one in was Admetus' son. Come. stood up to claim his right. 640 650 660 670 521 . if he's someone your heart is fond of. Idomeneus' brave attendant. But he should have prayed to the immortals— in the race he would not have finished last. but he was quickly catching up.

It's made of bronze.sheep. if you're telling me to give Eumelus some other prize inside my huts. and sure-footed horses. then shouted out for silence among the Argives. you used to have good sense. A herald put the sceptre in Menelaus' hand. If someone wants her. I'll do it.” Antilochus finished speaking. hand to hand. But I won't give up the mare. You've brought my skills here into disrepute. before all this. he spoke these winged words: 680 “Antilochus. fouling my horses when you hurled your team in front of me out there. But then Menelaus stood up before them all. Come now. who was a close companion. God-like Menelaus spoke: “Antilochus. let him try doing battle with me. his close companion. I'll give him the breastplate I took away from Asteropaeus. to fetch the breastplate from the hut. Achilles ordered Automedon. He went and brought it back and gave it to Eumelus. god-like Achilles smiled. In reply. with a casting of bright tin around it.” After saying this. who was delighted to receive the armour. 690 700 522 . that team of yours which is far inferior to mine. women slaves. Swift-footed. Achaeans will applaud you. His heart was bitter with unremitting anger against Antilochus. delighted with Antilochus. Why not take some of that and then give him an even greater prize sometime later on? Or do it now. Now look at what you've done. For Eumelus it will have great value.

he used his influence. then placed it in the hands of Menelaus. but his judgment's suspect. judge between the two of us—and fairly. He spoke to Antilochus— 720 730 523 . You know how a young man can do foolish things. as our customs state. whose heart melted like the dew on ripening ears of corn. 'Menelaus beat Antilochus with lies. I claim. I'm a younger man than you—you're my senior and my better. Menelaus.” 710 Antilochus. king Menelaus. He led out the horse. when fields are bristling with the crop—that's how. I'd want to give it to you right away. that you didn't mean to block my chariot with some trick. Antilochus. my lord. His mind works quickly. so Achaeans armed in bronze will never say. when he received that mare. a prudent man. for justice will be done. your heart softened in your chest. With your hand on your horses. come here. will find fault with me in any way. Though his horses were much slower. his rank and power. That mare I was awarded I freely give you. And if you requested something greater from my own possessions.” The son of great-hearted Nestor finished speaking. So be patient in your heart. rather than lose your good will. stand there before your chariot and horses. replied: “Don't let me offend you. swear an oath. I myself will judge the case. by the god who surrounds and shakes the earth. holding that thin whip you used before. for ever and offend against the gods. and.you leaders and rulers of the Argives. my lord.' In fact. and no Danaan.

But the prize for fifth place. you haven't been too reckless or a fool. he stood beside him. Antilochus. in memory 760 of Patroclus' burial. So Achilles awarded it to Nestor. But you've worked very hard. Achilles placed the jar in Nestor's hands. so all these people here will recognize my heart's not arrogant or unyielding. indeed. and your brother— in my cause. Let it be your treasure. Meriones then collected the two talents for his fourth-place finish. Nor will you be running in the foot race. the two-handled jar. In future. endured a lot— you.his words had wings: “Now. Then Achilles said: “Take this now. you shouldn't try to do such tricks against your betters. Menelaus carried off the shining cauldron. Another Achaean would not have won me over quite so fast. went unclaimed. For you won't be competing as a boxer. Before now. This prize I'm giving you without a contest. 740 750 524 . to lead away. or in wrestling.” With these words. your noble father. Carrying the prize into the crowd of Argives. or the spear throw. I'll give you the mare.” Saying this. I'll give up my anger with you. What's more. old man. This time your youth overcame your judgement. For old age now has you in its cruel grip. a comrade of Antilochus. For you'll see him no more among the Argives. though she's mine. Menelaus gave the mare to Noëmon. So I'll agree to your request.

I was beaten only in the chariot race by the two sons of Actor. you've made a valid point. who was outstanding. my son. both really keen to win. It delights my heart that you think of me always as your friend. They were two twins. No man could match me. I outran Iphicles. nor any of the brave Aetolians. Would that I were young. my own Pylians. my strength as firm. They pushed ahead. In boxing I defeated Clytomedes. But come. who fought against me. Enops' son. none of the Epeians. Nor do I find it as easy to extend my arms out from my shoulders. for there were two of them. in wrestling Ancaeus. For my limbs and feet are no longer firm. May the gods grant you. His sons awarded prizes in honour of their king. though as a warrior I once excelled. but now let younger men compete in events like these. back then. I beat Phyleus and Polydorus. Once he'd heard all of Nestor's story. because they'd set the greatest prize for that particular race. One always held the reins—he was the driver. my friend. you must continue with these games to honour your companion. as I did before. You don't forget the honours due to me among Achaeans. In the footrace. For I must follow the dictates of a cruel old age these days. The other used the whip. saying these winged words to Achilles: “Indeed.He was happy to accept it. Then Nestor spoke. That's the man I was. As for this gift. I accept it gladly.” Nestor finished. from Pleuron. as a reward for that your heart's desires. 525 770 780 790 800 . and in the spear throw. as it was that day Epeians buried lord Amarynceus at Bouprasium.

well skilled in boxing—Epeius. For the loser. all you other well-armed Achaeans.Peleus' son moved through the large Achaean crowd. he put out a cup. The beaten man gets this two-handled cup. once my fists have thrashed him.” Epeius' words reduced them all to silence. The one to whom Apollo gives endurance and Achaeans all acknowledge winner. The only one to stand up to oppose him was godlike Euryalus. Then he set out prizes for the painful contest— the boxing. the best there are. six years old. Putting his hand on the mule.” Achilles' words at once stirred into action a strong. son of Mecisteus. the hardest to break in. Those close to him had better stay here in a single group to help him off. So what? A man can't be well skilled in everything. Then Achilles. But I'll say this—and what I say will happen— 830 I'll break apart the skin and crush the bones of the man who fights me. I may not be the best in battle. To the group he led out a sturdy mule. to put up their fists and box. one with two handles. an unbroken female. son of Panopeus. 820 526 . I claim I'm the winner. For I say this— no Achaean will beat me with his fists and take this mule. brave man. Epeius said: “Let whoever's going to get the two-handled cup step forward. standing up. for these prizes here we need two good men. let him then take this mule back to his hut. addressed the Argives: 810 “Son of Atreus.

his close comrades gathered. There he'd triumphed against all the sons of Cadmus. Then Euryalus feinted. encouraging Euryalus with his words— he really wanted him to win the contest. Standing up among the Argives. From their limbs sweat ran down everywhere. But great-hearted Epeius grabbed him and set him on his feet. then gave him leather thongs. then went themselves to collect the two-handled cup. First. His splendid limbs collapsed there on the spot— as a fish jumps through the rippling surface water in a forceful North Wind breeze near a weed-filled shore. He'd once come to Thebes. The winning prize was a huge tripod to place above a fire. still semi-conscious. Euryalus could not keep his feet for long. they strode into the middle of the group. their powerful fists. but godlike Epeius moved and punched his cheek bone. before a black wave hides it—that how Euryalus jerked up as he was hit. Into the middle of the crowd he then brought out the loser's prize. Around him. landing with painful crunches on their jaws. for the funeral games of fallen Oedipus. They led him through the crowd spitting gobs of blood.son of Talaus. Their hands exchanged some heavy punches. he set the loin cloth on him. they went at each other. a woman skilled in every kind of work. Raising their arms. worth four oxen. whose value among themselves Achaeans set at twelve oxen. the hard-fought wrestling match. They took him off. set him down with them.” 527 840 850 860 870 . For the Danaans. dragging his feet behind him. with his head down on one side. When the two men had laced up their hands. Achilles said: “Step up now the two who'll try this contest. Famous spearman Diomedes helped him prepare. Peleus' son then set out a display of prizes for the third contest. fine-cut hide from a farmyard ox.

Their backs cracked as their strong hands applied the pressure. the crafty master of deceit. They strapped on their belts and strode out to the crowd. with Odysseus falling on his chest. The spectators got excited then. and red blood welts appeared across their ribs and shoulders. Then Ajax hooked him with his leg around the knee. Don't let the pain exhaust you. as did Odysseus. Ajax tried a lift. resourceful Odysseus—try lifting me. But Odysseus did not forget his various tricks. “You two need not continue wrestling. Now they would have jumped up to wrestle a third fall. And we'll let Zeus decide the outcome. godlike Odysseus tried a lift. But when well-armed Achaeans started to get bored. for Odysseus' strength prevented him from that. He kicked Ajax behind the knee. so the two men fell close together on the ground. 900 but couldn't lift him. with their powerful hands gripped each other's elbows— locked together like rafters on some lofty house. or I'll try lifting you. fitted by skilled craftsmen to keep out blasts of wind. then. but Achilles himself came up and held them back. But it was impossible for Odysseus to trip up Ajax or throw him down. covered both in dust. He managed to move Ajax off the ground a bit. or for Ajax to do the same thing to Odysseus. as both contestants kept up their struggle to prevail and get the prize. Ajax toppled backward. Next resilient.At these words. great Telamonian Ajax said to Odysseus: “Divinely born son of Laertes. For both of you 528 .” 880 890 Saying this. Streams of sweat poured down. taking out his leg. that well-made tripod. great Telamonian Ajax got up.

Priam's son. as Achilles pointed out the turning post— the race course was the distance there and back. he offered half a talent. unpacked it in the harbour. Then Phoenician men had brought it over the dark sea. As prize for second place. Next came resourceful Odysseus and Nestor's son Antilochus.” Hearing these words. of all the young men there. This bowl Achilles set out as a prize to honour his companion. Then Achilles stood up and announced to the Achaeans: 910 920 “Up all those of you who want to make the effort for this prize. and given it as a gift to Thoas. other Achaeans can compete. both men agreed. as close as the weaving bar comes to the breast of a well-dressed woman when she deftly pulls it in her hands to pass the weaving spool through thread. son of Jason. he led out a huge ox. keeping the rod against her chest—that's how close 930 940 529 .” At that. ransom for Lycaon. The son of Oïleus quickly raced in front. It was very beautiful. The two of them cleaned their bodies of the dust and put on tunics. Sidonian experts in skilled handicrafts who made it had shaped it well. rich in fat. You must take equal prizes. swift Oïlean Ajax jumped up at once. Peleus' son quickly set out other prizes for the footrace—a finely crafted silver mixing bowl. For third place. paid by Euneus. to warrior Patroclus.are winners. holding six measures. who. After that. a trophy for the man who in the footrace proved he was the fastest. These men stood in line. the loveliest object in the world by far. could run the fastest. with godlike Odysseus really close behind. Once you leave.

530 . He stood there. as he spoke to the Argives: “Friends. Be good to me.” Odysseus prayed. Help me. and Pallas Athena heard him. and won the prize. then said. Speed up my feet. He smiled.Odysseus ran behind.” 950 960 Ajax spoke. Antilochus took the prize for coming last. hands on the horn of that farmyard beast. taking care of him. his feet hitting Ajax's footprints before the dust could settle there. as resilient Odysseus raced on ahead. Odysseus in his heart prayed to Athena. She made his legs. Then. I'll tell you this. came in first. All the Achaeans were cheering on Odysseus. his breath touched the back of Ajax's head. goddess with the glittering eyes: “Hear me. spitting out cow dung. yelling at him to push his energy right to the limit. They all had a good laugh at him. So Ajax finished with his mouth and nostrils full of dung. Ajax got the ox. Godlike Odysseus ran so close. as he strove to win the race. While they were running the last section of the course. and upper arms feel lighter. just like a mother. feet. as they were about to sprint in for the prize. and then said to the Argives: “So the goddess played tricks with my feet— the one that always helps Odysseus out. the ones which swift Achilles had killed in honour of Patroclus. Ajax slipped in mid stride—for Athena fouled him— right where the bellowing cattle had dropped their dung as they were slaughtered. goddess.

Next. under the armour. clothed in armour. 980 990 531 . He'd acknowledged the swift-footed son of Peleus. to battle for these prizes. testing each other here before this crowd. Achilles then said to the Argives: “We're calling for two men. drawing his dark blood. wielding their sharp bronze. He set it down. even today.” With these words. Achilles handed him the gold. so people say. and with it a shield and helmet. But his greater age. sharing it in common. but Odysseus comes from another time. the son of Peleus brought to the gathering a long-shadowed spear. Both men will take this armour here. It was Sarpedon's armour. Standing there. Antilochus was very pleased to get it. so Achilles answered him and said: 970 “Antilochus. which Patroclus had taken from him. an older generation. will get from me this silver-studded sword.” Antilochus finished speaking. two of the best. is green. So it's difficult for Achaeans to beat him in a race— all except Achilles. you've not paid that tribute here for nothing. Ajax is just a little older than myself.something you already know—immortal gods still honour older men. Whichever man hits the other's fair skin first. which I seized from Asteropaeus. I'll add a gold half-talent to your prize. a lovely one from Thrace.

which. So Achilles gave the great sword to Diomedes— the scabbard and the well-cut strap as well.” 1000 1010 1020 532 . both glaring fearfully. Achilles then stood up. called for a halt and an award of equal prizes. All Achaeans were then gripped with anxious expectation. even though his rich fields are far away. three times going at it hand to hand. Eëtion had used for throwing. prepared to fight. His herders and his ploughman will not need to travel to the town through lack of iron. The breastplate kept his body guarded from the spear.” Achilles finished. in earlier days. Then Peleus' son put out a lump of rough-cast iron. son of Tydeus. charging three times. then both strode to the middle. But then Achaeans. On each side of the crowd they armed themselves. then taken his iron and all his other goods away in his swift ship. in their fear for Ajax. they attacked. to get Ajax in the neck. Then great Telamonian Ajax moved out front. and strong Diomedes. swift-footed Achilles had slaughtered him. but did not touch his flesh. got up. Godlike. and addressed the Argives: “Step up all those who want to try this competition. Tydeus' son was trying to aim his gleaming spear point over the huge shield. Once the two men approached each other at close quarters.And in my hut we'll get a banquet ready for both of them. This will give them all that they require. Whoever wins this iron can use it to serve his needs for five successive years. Ajax struck through the even circle of the shield of his opponent.

he placed a quivering dove with the cord tied to its foot. but he'll take as prize these single-bladed axes.Achilles spoke. far off in the sands. and godlike Leonteus. and godlike Epeius. was third to throw. The Achaeans all laughed at the result. so it flies spinning in among his cattle herd. They stood there in a line. The crowd all shouted. Great Ajax. offshoot of Ares. 1060 533 . Then up came Polypoetes. and Meriones. “The man who hits it. He can take them home. can carry off all these double axes. Teucer's lot gave him first attempt. Attached to it with a slender cord. then threw. The second one to throw was Leonteus. Then he set up. hurling it beyond the marks of all the others. that quivering dove. Next. son of Telamon. They took lots and shook them in a helmet made of bronze.” 1030 1040 1050 Achilles finished speaking. courageous attendant to lord Idomeneus. swung it round. a strong fighter. he'll be less successful. Achilles set out the prizes for the archers. Godlike Epeius gripped the weight. His strong hand tossed the weight. But then that strong warrior Polypoetes picked up the weight and threw it even further than all those in the contest. If he misses the bird and hits the cord. the mast of a dark-prowed ship. Powerful lord Teucer then got up. things made of blackened iron—ten double axes and ten with single blades. He loosed an arrow. then Telamonian Ajax. He then told competitors to shoot the dove. a powerful man. by the same distance a herdsman throws his staff. Then the comrades of strong Polypoetes stood up and carried off their king's prize to the hollow ships.

Its value was one ox. her wings drooped. The arrow passed straight through. godlike Achilles spoke: 1090 “Son of Atreus. while Teucer took back to his hollow ships the single-bladed ones. her head hung down.a powerful shot. As she circled there. The keen arrow sliced right through. we know how you surpass all others. She fell from the mast a long way to the ground. So Meriones carried off ten double axes. But Meriones quickly snatched the bow from Teucer. wide-ruling Agamemnon. promising he'd make a splendid sacrifice of new-born lambs. But then swift-footed. and Meriones. courageous attendant to lord Idomeneus. He saw the trembling dove high up. flying up into the sky. 534 . falling back to earth again. he shot her through the middle. under the wing. as life fled quickly from her limbs. the far shooter. 1070 1080 Then Peleus' son brought out a long-shadowed spear and set it down before the gathering and a brand new cauldron. It struck by Meriones' foot. with a floral pattern on it. as Teucer aimed. He'd been holding an arrow ready for some time. So he failed to hit the bird— Apollo wouldn't give him that. But he hit the cord tethering the bird near its foot and cut it. chord dangling down towards the ground. Then warriors got up for the spear-throw competition—the son of Atreus. not yet touched by fire. Achaeans then all cheered the shot. but he'd made no promise to Apollo that he'd give a splendid offering of new born lambs. He offered up a rapid prayer to Apollo. The dove fluttered to the mast of the dark-prowed ship. The crowd looked on amazed. The dove escaped. under the clouds.

Agamemnon. then handed his own prize. king of men. agreed.how in the spear throw you're much stronger. The warrior king gave the spear to Meriones. better than anyone. if your heart is pleased with that. So take this prize. Let's give the spear to warrior Meriones. as you go to your hollow ships. 1100 535 . his herald.” Achilles spoke. over to Talthybius. the lovely cauldron. It's what I'd like to do.

the women lament over Hector. Iris goes off to fetch Thetis. guarded his skin from any lacerations. then he'd harness his fast horses to their chariot. each one going to his own ship. Achilles agrees to give up Hector's body for ransom. All-conquering Sleep could not overcome him. Hermes takes Priam to the Achaean camp. telling him to go to the Achaean ships. But Achilles kept on weeping. he did not tear his skin. the Trojans bury Hector] Once the funeral gathering broke up. leaving Hector stretched out. strong Patroclus. Priam sleeps overnight outside Achilles’ hut. so as Achilles dragged him. 536 10 20 . covering his whole body with the golden aegis. to wander in distress. remembering his dear companion. though he was dead. Zeus resolves to deal with the problem. all the pain they'd suffered. Priam and Idaios return to Troy with Hector's body. courageous. Iris visits Priam. Thetis tells Achilles Zeus' instructions. then collects the ransom and leaves with Idaios. he cried heavy tears. tie on Hector and drag him behind. But Apollo. Achilles and Priam have dinner. Hermes meets Priam on the road. back and forth along the shore. sometimes lying on his side. Hecuba objects to the trip. Then he'd get up. thinking of all he'd done with him. He'd see Dawn's approach across the sea and beaches. the men dispersed. feeling pity for Hector. face down in the dust. the herald. As he kept remembering. as they'd gone through wars with other men and with the perilous sea. Then in his hut he'd rest again. as he tossed and turned. driving three times around the tomb of Menoetius' dead son. Priam meets Achilles.Book Twenty-Four Achilles and Priam [Achilles continues to mourn and to dishonour Hector's corpse. Achilles agrees to give back Hector. Zeus sends Priam an omen and tells Hermes to guide Priam to Achilles. Zeus instructs Thetis to visit Achilles. longing for manly. the gods debate his action. concerned to eat and then enjoy sweet sleep. Priam insults his sons. sometimes on his back or on his face.

Phoebus Apollo spoke out to the immortals: “You gods are cruel and vindictive. his father. burning thighs of perfect bulls and goats? And can't you now rouse yourself to save him. Like some lion. choosing the one who volunteered to serve his dangerous lust. a man can suffer loss of someone even closer than a friend— a brother born from the same mother or even a son. pitied Hector. for Alexander's folly— he'd been contemptuous of those goddesses. and Athena. and for Priam. who'd burn him with all speed and give him burial rites? No. and the people. Then the blessed gods. as it goes out against men's flocks. the girl with glittering eyes.Still Achilles kept dishonouring godlike Hector. you want to help ruthless Achilles. Poseidon. seeking a feast of cattle—that's how Achilles destroys compassion. he thinks savage thoughts. In that chest his mind cannot be changed. which can help a man or harm him.1 But after the twelfth dawn had come since Hector's death. his mother. This event is the origin of the war and helps to explain how the gods align themselves. rather than to Hera or Athena. and his child to look at. He pays his tribute 1 30 40 50 This is a reference to the famous Judgment of Paris. an idea that pleased them all. So they urged keen-eyed Hermes. Did Hector never sacrifice to you. And in his heart there's no sense of shame. too. for his wife. to steal the corpse. because Aphrodite had offered him the most beautiful woman in the world if he gave her the prize. though he's a corpse. looking on. except for Hera. Priam and his people. when they were visiting his sheep-fold. 537 . killer of Argus. whose heart has no restraint. its own proud heart. No doubt. a beast which follows only its own power. who kept up the hatred they'd felt when they first started to loathe Ilion. when Paris awarded the apple “for the fairest” to Aphrodite.

you friend of evil men. what you say may well be true. a man dear to the hearts of the immortal gods. don't get so angry with the gods. yes. For Fates have put in men resilient hearts. He should take care he doesn't anger us. once he took Hector's life.” Cloud gatherer Zeus then answered Hera. saying: “Hera. Hector was the favourite of the gods. He never failed to offer me fine gifts. But this man here. ties him behind his chariot. too. then drags him around his dear companion's burial mound. while Achilles is the child of a goddess I raised myself. of all mortal men in Ilion. Though he's a fine man. I brought her up and gave her to Peleus to be his wife. when they got married. spoke up in reply: “Lord of the silver bow.with his tears and his laments—then stops.” 60 Then Hera. All of you were there. You. 70 80 538 . were with us at the banquet. indeed. libations and sacrificial smoke. as slippery as ever. if you gods give Hector and Achilles equal worth. angry at Apollo. He's done nothing to help or honour him. At least that's what he was to me. my own altar never went without the proper offerings. At their communal feasts. clutching your lyre. But Hector is a mortal man. suckled at a woman's breast. Still. in this rage of his he's harming senseless dust. These two will not both share equal honours.

then set off on her way. As waters roared above her. Swift Iris. In the middle of them all. 539 120 . so I can put a useful plan to her. just as a plummet sinks when fastened to a lure. who would die in fertile Troy. one fashioned out of horn from some farmyard ox to bring death to hungry fish. took a dark veil. storm-swift Iris rushed away. brave Hector's body. swift-footed Iris spoke: “Rouse yourself. went on ahead. Thetis. be taken secretly. whose thoughts endure forever. And no matter what he says. But one of the gods should tell Thetis to come here before me. Half way between Samos and rocky Imbros she plunged into the sea. But we'll not let this corpse. queen of goddesses. Zeus. is calling for you. bearing Zeus' message. she sank way down. since his mother sees him all the time.” Silver-footed Thetis then said in reply: “Why is that mighty god now summoning me? I'm ashamed to associate with immortals. my heart holds such immeasurable grief. Standing right beside her. She met Thetis sitting in a hollow cave with other sea gods thronging there around her.as is our right. with feet like wind. the blackest of her garments.” Once Zeus had spoken. The surging sea parted round the two of them. his words will not be wasted. Thetis. both day and night. Achilles would for certain learn of it. far from his home. But I'll go.” 90 100 110 Saying this. Thetis was lamenting the fate of her fine son. how Achilles can get gifts from Priam and then give Hector back to him.

to steal the body. Thetis sat with Father Zeus. The father of the gods and men spoke first: “You've come here to Olympus. because. I know that. then spoke to him. They keep urging Hermes. then handed back the cup. though you're grieving. his close companions were all busy. Once Athena had made room for her. that of all immortals I'm especially angry. Tell your son what I say. She found him there.” Silver-footed Thetis did not disagree with Zeus. in his heartfelt fury. he keeps Hector at his beaked ships. bearing presents for Achilles to delight his heart. they raced on up to heaven. For nine days immortals have been quarreling about Achilles. and Hector's corpse. sacker of cities. I'll tell you the reason why I've called you here. maintain my respect for you in future. But even so. still mourning endlessly. Around him. But I want to give honour to Achilles. keen-eyed killer of Argus. to beg for his dear son. Tell him the gods are annoyed at him. with endless sorrows in your heart. and keep our friendship. saying: 130 140 150 540 .When they emerged on shore. telling him to go to the Achaean ships. They found the wide-seeing son of Cronos in the midst of all the other blessed gods. Through fear of me. in a hurry to get their morning meal prepared. I'll also send Iris to great-hearted Priam. with words of welcome. goddess Thetis. She went speeding from Olympus' peak to her son's hut. he may hand Hector over. So you must leave quickly. She drank. Inside the hut they'd butchered a large woolly sheep. Go to the army. caressed him with her hand. who live forever. won't give him back. Hera placed a gold cup in her hand. His noble mother sat close by him.

swift Iris. But quickly. Leave your home here on Olympus. Give him back. if that's what the Olympian in his own heart truly desires.“My son.” 160 Swift-footed Achilles then replied to Thetis. 180 541 . inside Ilion—tell him he must visit Achaean ships to ransom his dear son. and for that corpse accept a ransom. among the assembled ships. So come. your powerful fate. He told me this— the gods are angry with you. with this grieving. I won't see you still alive much longer—for at this moment. To have sex with a woman would do you good. let that man have the corpse. mother and son spoke to each other many winged words. you keep Hector by your beaked ships. because. Whoever brings the ransom. is standing close at hand. Cronos' son urged Iris to be off to sacred Ilion: “You must go right away.” Thus. in your heartfelt fury. how long will you consume your heart with tears. listen to me. Meanwhile. now. won't return him. saying: 170 “So be it. For I'm here as messenger from Zeus. Zeus himself is the angriest of all immortals. not thinking about food or going to bed. Death. Take this message to great-hearted Priam.

” Zeus spoke. One herald. or disrespectful of the gods. Take presents to Achilles. she found him weeping there and mourning.taking gifts to please Achilles' heart. No other Trojan man is to accompany him. but to do good. He'll spare a suppliant. A fitting escort will accompany him— Hermes. wetting garments with their tears. killer of Argus—as a guide. His daughters and sons' wives were crying through the house. Zeus' messenger approached. Both his head and neck were covered with the dung he'd groveled in and grabbed up by the handful. but nonetheless his limbs began to tremble. an older man. I am a messenger to you from Zeus— he may be far off. Reaching Priam's house. His sons were sitting with their father inside the courtyard. Once he's led him to Achilles' hut. Storm-footed Iris rushed off with the message. “Let your heart be brave. cloak tightly wrapped around him. The Olympian is telling you to ransom godlike Hector. and feels pity for you. until he brings him to Achilles. I've not come with news of any harm to you. Don't be afraid. she spoke in a soft voice. The old man sat with them. thinking of many noble warriors who'd been killed at Achaean hands. to drive the mules and sturdy wagon and bring back to the city the body of the godlike man Achilles killed. He mustn't think of death or be afraid. He must go alone. that man will not kill him—he'll restrain all other men. fine things his heart will find delightful. Standing beside Priam. can make the journey with him. 190 200 210 542 . Priam. For he's not stupid. but he looks out for you. cares very much. son of Dardanus. treat him kindly. blind.

too? 543 . Then she replied: “Where's your mind gone. may make the journey with you.” With these words. blind. Once he's led you to Achilles' hut. taking gifts for Achilles to delight his heart. until he brings you to Achilles. killer of Argus—to guide you. which held many of his treasures. his wife cried out. So come. that wisdom you once had. an older man. then said: 220 230 240 “My lady.You must go alone. He summoned Hecuba. 250 for which in earlier days you were well known among your subjects and with strangers. in a strange and fearful way. For he's not stupid. Priam told his sons to prepare a sturdy mule cart and lash on a wicker box. or disrespectful of the gods. instructing me to ransom our dear son. No other Trojan man is to go along with you. Then he went in person down to the sweet-smelling vaulted storage chamber lined with cedar. My own heart and spirit are urging me. You mustn't think of death or be afraid. He'll spare a suppliant. I'm to go to the Achaean ships. treat him kindly. tell me what you feel about this. swift-footed Iris went away. that man will not kill you—he'll restrain all other men.” At Priam's words. his wife. to drive the mules and sturdy wagon and bring back to the city the body of the godlike man Achilles killed. to the ships and wide Achaean camp. a messenger has come to me from Zeus. A herald. to go there. A proper escort will accompany you— Hermes.

that man's so savage. But this time I heard the goddess for myself. Don't be a bird of ill omen in our house. that's what I wish. sitting far away from Hector. when I gave birth to him— that swift-running dogs would devour him far from his parents beside that powerful man. godlike Priam. No. had told me this. a prophet who interprets sacrifices or some priest. then eat it. some earthly mortal. he was standing there.How can you want to visit the Achaean ships. once I've embraced my son and satisfied my desire to mourn. If I'm fated to die by the bronze-clad Achaeans' ships. he'll show no pity. You won't convince me. not thinking of his safety or running off in flight. then said in response to Hecuba: “I want to go. That would be some satisfaction for my son. If he captures you. in our home. He'll not respect you. so unreliable. Let Achilles kill me. Her message won't be wasted. So I will go. I stared her in the face. That's what mighty Fate spun out for him when he was born.” 280 544 . who wasn't playing the coward when he killed him. How I wish I could rip out that man's heart. to go alone. If some other man. reject it. Don't try to stop me. we'd think it false. let's mourn here. before the eyes of the very man who's killed so many of your noble sons? You've an iron heart. No. once he sees you.” 260 270 The old man. defending deep-breasted Trojan women and Trojan men.

Then he began shouting at his sons. Polites.” With these words. so you come here tormenting me like this? Isn't it enough that Zeus. Then he threw open fine lids on the storage chests. gives me this grief. Have you nothing to cry about back home. Now he's been killed. the old man yelled his orders. To these nine. beyond the old man's rage. Even this cup the old man didn't leave at home— he was so eager to pay ransom for his son. Paris. it will be easier for Achaeans to kill you. 300 310 545 . that I must lose my son. Antiphonus. as many blankets. the best in spacious Troy. the best one of them all? Well. a splendid one given to him by men of Thrace. a fine treasure. too. From there he took twelve lovely robes. Deïphobus. noble Agathon. Priam went at the people with his staff. weighing out a total of ten talents. cursing them— Helenus. white coverlets. then two gleaming tripods. As for me. Pammon. I wish you'd all been killed instead of Hector by those swift ships—the entire bunch of you! My life's so miserable and empty. Cronos' son. four cauldrons. He brought gold. I fathered sons. and a cup. and tunics. “Hurry up. Hippothous. you wretches! You ought to be ashamed. you'll soon find out. They moved off. shaming them with angry words: 290 “Go away.Priam finished speaking. Then Priam chased the Trojans from his courtyard. skilled in war shouts. lashing out. you useless children. when he'd gone there as an envoy. twelve single cloaks. before I see this city plundered and destroyed. and proud Dios. may I go down to Hades' home. my shame.

they brought out from the storeroom and stowed in the well-polished cart the huge ransom to be paid for Hector's head. so the men could pour libations before setting out. Then to Priam's chariot they yoked up the team the old man kept for his own personal use. then took down from its peg a box-wood yoke to fit a team of mules. Next. Ares destroyed all those sons of mine. who steal lambs and goats from their own people. underneath the yoke. a splendid gift which Mysians once gave Priam. They lashed the wicker basket on it. or horseman Troilus. two men with wisdom in their hearts.” Priam finished. but of a god. They lashed it to the pole. Hecuba approached.I don't think a single one of them is left— not Mestor. 320 330 340 350 546 . that god among men. He didn't seem to be the child of any mortal man. They placed the yoke with care across the polished pole at its front end. The sons. shaken by their father's torrent of abuse. Will you not prepare a wagon for me— and quickly? Put all those items in it. strong-footed beasts. prancing masters of the dance floor. twisting the end below the hook. They brought out with the yoke the lashing for it. In her right hand she held out in a golden cup some honey wine. The ones still left here are disgraceful— liars. The mules they then put into harness. furnished with guiding rings and with a knob on top. a new one. She came up to them with her heart in great distress. While harnessing these animals went on this way in the lofty courtyard for Priam and his herald. or Hector. brought out the sturdy. a strap five metres long. well-made wagon. so we can start out on our way. then set the rope's eye on the peg and bound it up securely with three twists round the knob. taking care of them in his own gleaming stables. Standing there beside their horses.

She came out. back from your enemies.she addressed them. he poured out some wine. the mightiest. saying: 380 “Father Zeus. I'd not urge you or advise you go there. Gazing up to heaven. bringing with her a basin and a water jug. But should Zeus. Priam washed his hands. 547 . who sees far and wide. so. to Achaean ships. Taking the cup from his wife. saying: “Take this wine. not send that messenger. and pray that you'll come home again. standing in the middle of the courtyard. then spoke aloud.” Godlike Priam then said in reply to Hecuba: “Wife.” 360 370 Priam spoke. for all your eagerness. lord of dark clouds and god of Ida. I'll not disregard what you advise. that fast messenger which is to him the favourite of all birds. if he's inclined to pity. It's good to extend one's hand to Zeus. who sees the land of Troy. So pray to Cronos' son. once you witness it with your own eyes. and ask him to send a bird of omen. Then the old man ordered his servant woman to pour pure water on his hands. Pour a libation out to Father Zeus. as you go to the ships of those fast-riding Argives. Let that bird appear over to your right. he prayed. you can have faith. since your heart urges you against my will to those swift ships.

they did not go unobserved by wide-seeing Zeus.lord of Ida. of all flying things the surest omen. All his family followed him in tears. with wings as wide as doors on some rich man's vaulted store house. in a hurry. once I witness it with my own eyes. a swift messenger. so. a dark one. Zeus pitied him. Counselor Zeus heard him. The old man. Guide Priam to Achaeans. urging them swiftly through the city. Hearts in their chests felt great relief. his sons and sons-in-law turned back to Ilion. Send me a bird as omen. the strongest. the one that is your favourite. Let it appear to my right overhead. then drove out through the gate and echoing courtyard. When they'd passed the gate and reached the plain.” 390 So Priam prayed. I'll be welcomed kindly and with pity. to their hollow ships. which people call black eagle. as if Priam were going off to his death. I can have faith as I go to those ships of the fast-riding Danaans. At once he sent an eagle. appearing on the right. The old man kept laying on the whip. speeding across the city. go down there. most glorious and great. so no one sees him. climbed in his chariot. they all rejoiced. When they saw that bird. The horses came behind. his dear son: “Hermes. since your favourite task by far is acting in a friendly way to men and listening to any man you like. grant that when I come to Achilles' hut. In front the mules drew on the four-wheeled wagon. 400 410 548 . Looking down on that old man. one fitted well with bolts—that's how wide this eagle spread its wings on either side. At once he spoke to Hermes. But as those two men came out into the plain. led by wise Idaios.

But Hermes the Helper came up by himself. where are you going with these horses and these mules through this immortal night. 549 .” Hermes the Guide. He may feel pity for us. until he comes to the son of Peleus. took the old man's hand. He said to Priam: “Be careful. the hairs stood out. looking that age when charms of youth are at their loveliest. When the two men had passed the burial mound of Ilus. did not disobey. let's go in your chariot. hearing Zeus. stopping there beside the river for a drink. or at least clasp him by the knees and beg for mercy. On his bent limbs. Looking round. and he stayed there in a daze. For by this time darkness had come down over the earth. I see a man.” 420 430 440 Idaios spoke. the herald saw Hermes approaching. With this rod in hand. At this point. we need to think with prudence. killer of Argus. son of Dardanus. The old man's mind was very troubled.so no Danaan even is aware of him. At once he laced up on his feet his lovely sandals. There he walked on in the form of a young prince with his first hair on his lip. Come. they reined in the mules and horses. mighty Hermes flew away. He was dreadfully afraid. With him he took the rod which puts to sleep the eyes of any man he wishes or wakes up others who are slumbering. He quickly came to Troy and to the Hellespont. immortal golden shoes which carry him across the seas and boundless earth as fast as winds can blow. and it seems we may be cut to pieces soon. then asked him questions: “Father.

tell me—and tell me truly— are you sending so much treasure out for foreign people to keep safe for you.” Messenger Hermes. to send me here a traveler like you who comes to meet us. I will protect you from other men. fury-breathing. now that the finest man's been killed. or are you leaving sacred Ilion in fear.when other living men are fast asleep? Aren't you afraid of those Achaeans. In fact. But as for me. what you say is very true.” Old godlike Priam then said to Hermes in reply: 450 460 “My dear child. an auspicious sign. Things are indeed just as you say. Those parents of yours who gave birth to you are surely fortunate. killer of Argus. what would you do then? You're not that young. Your escort here is elderly. If one of them should see you bearing all this treasure in the swift black night. who never was reluctant in any battles with Achaeans. then said: “Old man. your own son. But some god holds his hand over me. too old to defend himself against someone who wants to start a fight. with your handsome shape and your fine common sense. I'll not harm you. because in you I see my own dear father.” Old godlike Priam spoke again to Hermes: 470 550 . hostile. But come now. ruthless soldiers— they're not far off.

He has six other sons—I'm the seventh. just sitting idly there. They're restless. For twelve days he's lain there. I've come now from our ships here to the plain. do serve with Achilles. good sir? Who are your parents? You speak so fairly of my doomed son's fate. the same as when he died. killing and butchering them with his sharp bronze. then replied: “You want to test me. we stood there astonished. would not let us fight. son of Peleus. old man. killer of Argus. At dawn bright-eyed Achaeans will organize for battle round the city. My father's Polyctor.” Hermes the Guide. For Achilles. still in a furious rage with Agamemnon. By casting lots with them I was selected to sail here. answered: “Old man. birds and dogs have not yet fed on him. I attend on him. He's lying still beside Achilles' ship. but his flesh has not decayed. then tell me the whole truth— is my son still beside the ships. among the huts. a man of substance. My eyes have seen him many times in fights where men win glory. And it's impossible for Achaea's kings to keep in check their eagerness for war. Worms are not eating him. one of the Myrmidons. 551 480 490 500 510 . or has Achilles already carved his body limb from limb and thrown him to the dogs to eat?” Hermes the Guide. about as old as you. by asking me of godlike Hector. The same ship brought us here.” Old godlike Priam then said to Hermes: “If you. And when he drove the Argives to their ships. indeed. I'm a soldier. killer of Argus.“Who are you.

as true as that my son was once alive. in case something bad comes to me later. answered Priam: “You're testing me. That's the reason they now remember him for what he did. He replied: “My son. You won't convince me when you ask me to take your gift without Achilles' knowledge. Each dawn. Hermes jumped up in the chariot 520 530 540 552 . No man will fight against you because he's thinks too little of your guide. Protect me. he never once neglected in our home the gods who hold Olympus. Be my guide with the gods' help. even his dead body after death.” Messenger Hermes. Come now. All the wounds he got have closed completely. until I reach the hut of Peleus' son. Achilles drags him ruthlessly around his dear companion's burial mound. but that does not lacerate the corpse. killer of Argus. But I'll be your guide— even all the way to famous Argos— attending to your every need on a swift ship or else on foot. it's good to pay immortal gods what's due to them. My heart fears that man. the old man felt joy. It's certainly the case. because I'm younger. It would amaze you. to see how he lies there as fresh as dew. no stain on him. But that's how blessed gods care for your son.” At these words. and many people stuck their bronze in him. with all blood washed away.as they do with men who die in battle. though he's a corpse.” With these words. take this lovely goblet as my gift to you. For their hearts loved him. if you went in person. old man. but I respect him too much to rob him.

his child. strongly fenced with stakes. his mother with her lovely hair. He left Idaios there to tend the mules and horses.behind the horses. then opened up the gates at once. When they reached the ditch and towers round the ships. quickly grabbing reins and whip. He breathed great strength into those mules and horses. then brought in those splendid gifts for swift Achilles. killer of Argus. an immortal god. three of the rest of the Achaeans. appeal to him in his father's name. which Myrmidons had built there for their king. But I'll go back now. for Achilles could push it into place alone.” 570 With these words. But you should go inside. Hermes. so you may stir his heart. They then reached the lofty hut of Peleus' son. They'd built around it a large courtyard for their king. back to high Olympus. cutting pine beams for it. A single beam of pine kept the gate securely closed. It needed three Achaeans to push it into place. 553 . Hermes went on his way. Priam then climbed from his chariot to the ground. I won't approach within sight of Achilles. the sentries there were starting to prepare their meal. I am Hermes. Helper Hermes opened the gate himself for old man Priam. then roofing it with downy reeds gathered from the meadows. He climbed down from the chariot and said: 550 560 “Old man. and three to draw that great bolt from the door. There'd be anger if an immortal god greeted mortal men face to face. poured sleep on all of them. He led in Priam with the wagon load of priceless gifts. pulling back the bars. I've come. because my father sent me as your guide.

Angry Ares drained the life of most of them. Then Priam made his plea. and no one's there to save him from ruin and destruction. guardian of our city. It may well be that those who live around him are harassing him. then runs off to a land of strangers. for every day he hopes he'll see his dear son come back home from Troy. those dreadful hands. Just as sheer folly grips a man who in his own land kills someone. so those who see him are seized with wonder—that's how Achilles then looked on godlike Priam in astonishment. But when he hears you're still alive. But I had one left. man-killers. who's as old as me. on the painful threshold of old age. but the table was still there. I had fifty when Achaea's sons arrived— nineteen born from the same mother's womb. entreating: 580 590 “Godlike Achilles. with only two companions. then with his fingers clasped his knees and kissed his hands. 600 610 554 . to the home of some rich man. yet I say now not one of them remains. He'd just completed dinner. He found Achilles there. for I fathered the best sons in spacious Troy. usually sat. protector of its people. dear to Zeus. But I'm completely doomed to misery. The men did not see great Priam as he entered. remember your own father. offshoot of the war god Ares— busy attending him. his heart feels joy. others the women of the palace bore me. He'd had food and drink. The others were amazed. You've just killed him.The old man went directly in the hut where Achilles. He came up to Achilles. as he was fighting for his native country. sitting some distance from him—warrior Automedon and Alcimus. which had slain so many of his sons. They gazed at one another.

That's the way the gods have spun the threads for wretched mortal men.I mean Hector. feeling pity for that gray head and beard. he gently moved him back. And I've brought a ransom beyond counting. For his sake I've come here. Priam. show deference to the gods and pity for myself. Of the two old men. sit on this chair. Though we're both feeling pain. I'm more pitiful. So Achilles. then with his hand helped the old man to his feet. when I've killed so many noble sons of yours? You must have a heart of iron. How could you dare come to Achaea's ships. wept aloud for man-killing Hector. Taking Priam's hand. Then Achilles spoke— his words had wings: “You unhappy man. So the two men there both remembered warriors who'd been slaughtered. to Achaea's ships. to rest your eyes on me. and come alone.” Priam finished. When godlike Achilles had had enough of weeping. your heart's had to endure so many evils. and Achilles also wept for his own father and once more for Patroclus. he stood up quickly from his seat. But come now. to win him back from you. 620 630 640 555 . so they live in pain. The sound of their lamenting filled the house. we'll let our grief lie quiet on our hearts. His words roused in Achilles a desire to weep for his own father. because I have endured what no living mortal on this earth has borne— I've lifted up to my own lips and kissed the hands of the man who killed my son. when the need to mourn had left his heart and limbs. For there's no benefit in frigid tears. remembering your own father. lying at Achilles' feet.

they say that you surpassed all men for wealth and children. You must endure it all. In all the lands from Lesbos to the south. In wealth. On Zeus' floor stand two jars which hold his gifts— 650 one has disastrous things. sitting here in Troy. in all these lands. I'll not look after him as he grows old. then. without a constant weeping in your heart. old man. he surpassed all men. You won't bring him to life again. man-killing battles round your city have never ceased. old man. too. But even to him the gods gave evil. and east to Phrygia. A wicked frenzy drives him all over sacred earth—he wanders without honour from the gods or mortal men. where Macar ruled. And he was king over the Myrmidons. to the boundless Hellespont. bringing pain to you and to your children. The gods gave him gifts. not before you'll have to suffer yet another evil. for in his palace there sprang up no line of princely children. the gods gave him a goddess for a wife. When Zeus' gift comes only from the jar containing evil. Think of yourself. that man will. doomed to an early death. splendid presents. You achieve nothing by grieving for your son. right from birth.though gods themselves live on without a care. He had one son. with good. the other blessings. When thunder-loving Zeus hands out a mixture. in his possessions. some other time. We hear that you were fortunate in former times. Though he was mortal. at some point.” Old godlike Priam then answered Achilles: 660 670 680 556 . he makes the man despised. But from the time you got disaster from the heavenly gods. Consider Peleus. meet with evil. since I'm a long way from my native land.

the mother who bore me. though you're a suppliant here in my hut. so Achilles could wrap up the corpse before he gave it back for Priam to take home. They freed the mules and horses from their harnesses. And may you get back to your native land. don't provoke me. So don't agitate my grieving heart still more. ordering his servant women to wash the body. And take the enormous ransom we've brought here for you. no living man would dare to make the trip to our encampment. old man. leaving there two cloaks and a thickly woven tunic. But quickly give him back. No matter how young and strong. Then from the polished wagon they brought in that priceless ransom for Hector's head. I myself intend to give you Hector. I recognize— it's no secret to me—that some god led you here to the swift Achaean ships. Priam. Not alone—his two attendants went out with him. while Hector lies uncared for in your huts. afraid. so my own eyes can see him. Achilles then called out. or I might not spare even you. May it give you joy.“Don't make me sit down on a chair. since you've now let me live to see the sunlight. And in my heart. 690 700 710 720 557 .” Achilles spoke. Zeus sent me here a messenger. like a lion. sat him on a stool. my lord. I could transgress what Zeus has ordered. led in the herald. Then Peleus' son sprang to the door. swift-footed Achilles snapped at Priam: “Old man. obeyed him. The old man. daughter of the Old Man of the Sea. warrior Automedon and Alcimus. He could not evade the sentries or push back our door bolts—that would not be easy.” With an angry look. the old man's crier. whom he honoured the most of his companions after dead Patroclus.

with twelve of her own children murdered in her home. your son has been given back. when you take him. Achilles himself lifted it and placed it on a bier. Then together he and his companions set it on the polished wagon.and then anoint it. if you learn. We should think of eating. Apollo was so enraged at Niobe. Then he spoke to Priam: “Old man. with his silver bow he killed the sons. 558 . her six young daughters and her six strong sons. after moving it away. as is appropriate. I'll be giving you your full share of it. He's brought to me a fitting ransom. Achilles. then went back once more into the hut and sat on the richly decorated chair he'd left by the opposite wall. anointed it with oil. You'll see him for yourself at day break. He's lying on a bier. Even fair-haired Niobe remembered food. and put a lovely cloak and tunic round it.” Godlike Achilles spoke. called to his dear companion: 730 “O Patroclus. Servants washed the corpse. disobeying Zeus' orders. that I gave back godlike Hector to his dear father. then. even in Hades' house. be unable to contain his anger at the sight. so Priam wouldn't see his son. The daughters 750 740 Artemis the Archer slaughtered. for Niobe had compared herself to lovely Leto. don't be angry with me. Achilles' own spirit might then get so aroused he could kill Priam. with a groan. heart-stricken. as you requested.

godlike Priam: “My lord. he killed a white-fleeced sheep. marveling at his royal appearance and the words he heard. When they'd satisfied their need for food and drink. slicing it skillfully and putting it on spits. among the lonely mountains. Taking bread. His companions skinned it. Then. men say. son of Dardanus. the first to speak was the old man. Achilles looked at Priam. when you have taken him to Ilion. like gazing face to face upon a god. looked at Achilles. then Priam. That's when. though turned to stone. They cooked it carefully. though only two. let's think of food. those gods killed all her children. show me my bed now with all speed. not once. there Niobe. worn out with weeping. For nine days they lay in their own blood. But come. Achilles served the meat. for there was no one there to give them burial. the ones that dance beside the Achelous.saying the goddess only had two children.” Swift Achilles finished. still broods. jumping up. Then their hands went to it. then pulled spits from the pieces. the gods in heaven buried them. goddess nymphs lie down to sleep. And now. For since your hands took my son's life away. 760 770 780 559 . Later you can lament for your dear son. Niobe had thoughts of food. royal old man. so we may lie down and enjoy sweet sleep. taking the food prepared and set beside them. Automedon set it in fine baskets on the table. while she had given birth to many. somewhere in the rocks in Sipylus. wondering at his size and beauty. The tenth day. Cronos' son had turned the people all to stone. Even so. Once they'd had their fill of looking at each other. my eyelids have not closed my eyes. thinking of the pain the gods have given her. then prepared the meat. where. where you'll shed many tears for him.

in a joking tone: “Sleep here outside. Women slaves went from the hall with torches. If one of them saw you on this pitch black night. Before this. there is something you could do for me. You know how we're restricted to our city.I always weep. my endless grief. Achilles. placing above them wool-lined cloaks for clothing. laying on them fine purple rugs with blankets spread on top. 560 . Now I've eaten. as is our custom. Then swift-footed Achilles spoke to Priam. Achilles told his comrades and the servants to set beds out on his portico. he might run off to tell Agamemnon. They always come to see me to make plans. tasted meat. I grovel in the dung inside my closed-in courtyard. as a personal favour. I'd eat nothing. my dear old man. his people's shepherd. so I can stop that long and keep the troops in check?” 800 810 Old godlike Priam then said in answer to Achilles: “If you're willing for me to give lord Hector a full burial. in case some Achaean counselor arrives. brooding on my sorrows. Right away they spread out two beds. tell me—and speak truthfully— how many days do you require to bury godlike Hector.” 790 Priam spoke. then. But come. working quickly. Then giving back the corpse might be delayed. and let myself drink gleaming wine.

son of Atreus. But slumber did not grip the Helper Hermes. So by that house on the porch they lay down to sleep. as you sleep like this among your enemies. Achilles took the old man's wrist on his right hand. all conquered by sweet sleep. At his words. the old man grew afraid. we'll make his burial mound. other gods and warrior charioteers. both men of wisdom. as he considered in his heart what he might do to guide king Priam from the ships in secret. Your dear son is ransomed for that huge amount you paid. I'll suspend the fighting for the length of time you've asked for. old Priam. On the eleventh. we'll go to war. without the strong guard at the gate observing. or all Achaeans learn that you are here. the Trojans are especially fearful. Priam and his herald. Besides. Meanwhile. with lovely Briseis stretched out there beside him. Then there'll be a banquet for the people.” As he said this. We'll mourn Hector for nine days in our home. those sons you've left behind will have to pay a ransom three times greater for your life. So standing above Priam's head. you're not expecting any harm. slept the whole night through. But if Agamemnon. in case his heart was fearful. if we must. On the tenth day we'll have his funeral. since Achilles spared your life. Achilles slept in a corner of his well-built hut. he said to him: “Old man.It's a long way to the mountains to get wood.” Swift-footed Achilles then said to Priam: “All right.” Hermes spoke. 820 830 840 850 561 . things will be arranged as you request. The twelfth day.

There in the city all were overcome with grief beyond anyone's control. Hermes harnessed mules and horses. a girl as beautiful as golden Aphrodite. First Hector's dear wife and his noble mother. men and women of Troy. come and see— look on Hector. but from the chariot 880 the old man cried out to the crowd: 860 562 . She'd climbed up Pergamus. while he was still alive. the two men drove their horses inside the city. tearing their hair. you would rejoice when he came back from war. for he was a great joy to all our city and its people.He woke up the herald. immortal Zeus' child. weeping and groaning. In the mule cart she saw the corpse lying on the bier. Hermes left them and returned to high Olympus. they met Priam bringing home the body. The mules pulled in the corpse. 870 no man or woman was left unaffected. together with his herald. no well-dressed woman. the town crier. Close to the gates. attracting no attention. all weeping. As Dawn spread her yellow robes over all the earth. then guided them himself quickly through the camp. But when they reached the ford across the swirling river Xanthus. Cassandra cried out to all the city: “See. No one noticed them.” At Cassandra's shout. They would have stayed there by the gates. ran to the sturdy wagon. if. no man. She saw her father standing in his chariot. trying to touch Hector's head. except Cassandra. People crowded round. shedding tears for Hector the entire day until the sun went down. With a scream.

So in our city they now weep for him. they'll all be carried off in hollow ships. inside their great house. once I've got him home. to some place where you'll be put to work at menial tasks. What painful sorrows will remain for me. As you were dying. soon enough. They sang a mournful funeral dirge. my child. are dead. you didn't reach your hand out from the bed. The wagon pushed on through. I'll be there among them. Or else some Achaean man will grab your arm and throw you from the wall—a dreadful death— in his anger that Hector killed his brother.“Make way there— let the mules get through. the crowd moved back. your father was not gentle. keeping its noble wives and little children safe. led by white-armed Andromache. making room. for everyone to weep. who held in her arms the head of man-killing Hector. Then the women began their wailing. especially for me. For you. Once they'd got him home. the child born to you and me in our wretchedness. You used to protect our city. Now. what untold grief you've laid upon your parents. what sorrow. Before that. to lead their songs. O Hector. For Hector's hands made great numbers of Achaeans sink their teeth into the broad earth. or give me some final words of wisdom. “My husband—you've lost your life so young. then placed singers there beside him. 890 900 910 563 . with our son still an infant. our city will all be destroyed. In wretched warfare. And you. or his son. There'll be time enough. or his father.” At Priam's words. leaving me a widow in our home. you'll follow with me. who kept watch over for us. they laid him on a corded bed. I don't think he'll grow up to adulthood. slaving for a cruel master.

My husband's godlike Alexander. The women all wailed with her. In fact. you're by far the dearest to my heart.” Andromache said this in tears. or foggy Lemnos.” As she spoke. fresh as dew. when you were living. if anyone ever spoke rudely to me in the house— one of your brothers or sisters. Helen was the third to lead those women in their wailing: “Hector—of all my husband's brothers. night and day. When his long-edged bronze took away your life. When swift Achilles took my other sons. some brother's well-dressed wife. he could not revive him. but I've never heard a nasty word from you or an abusive speech. as I continue my lament. they still take care of you. Now you lie here in our house. he dragged you many times around the mound for his comrade Patroclus. or your mother—for your father always was so kind.something I could remember always. Now I weep for you and for my wretched self. as well. to Samos. your soothing words. at your death. using your gentleness. persuading them to stop. he'd ship them off across the boundless seas. as if he were my own— you'd speak out. 920 930 940 950 564 . Yet even so. Then Hecuba took her turn in leading their laments: “Hector. loved by the gods. She stirred them on to endless lamentation. I wish I'd died before that happened! This is the twentieth year since I went away and left my native land. Now. like someone whom Apollo of the silver bow has just come to and killed with gentle arrows. Hecuba wept. whom you killed. dearest by far of all my children. or Imbros. who brought me here to Troy.

Don't let your hearts fear any ambush. For nine days they brought in wood. 970 980 565 . When rose-fingered Dawn came up. When the tenth dawn came. laid his corpse on top the funeral pyre. And thus they buried Hector. wrapped in soft purple cloth. an immense amount. then. some crafty Achaean trick. they gathered around that pyre of glorious Hector. tamer of horses. in case well-armed Achaeans attacked too soon. all in due order. They all look at me and shudder with disgust. king raised by Zeus.” Helen spoke in tears. Once they'd piled up the mound. The huge crowd joined in their lament.” 960 Priam finished. when he sent me back from the hollow ships.so sick at heart. as they mourned him— heavy tears running down their cheeks—and placed them in a golden urn. They quickly set the urn down in a shallow grave. The people hitched up mules and oxen to their wagons and then gathered before the city with all speed. They set it alight. they brought brave Hector out. in Priam's house. every part that fire's strength had touched. posting sentries on every side. For Achilles. first they doused the pyre with gleaming wine. Once they'd all assembled there together. they went back in. then hurried to pile up the mound. all in tears. covered it with large stones set close together. for there's no one else in spacious Troy who's kind to me and friendly. His brothers and comrades collected Hector's ash-white bones. gave me his word they'd not harm us until the twelfth day dawns. you must fetch some wood here to the city. gathered together for a splendid feast. Then old Priam addressed his people: “You Trojans.

Appendices Glossary of People and Places Map of the home states of some of the major Achaean and Trojan Leaders Map of the Area Around Troy A Few Suggestions for Further Study 566 .

brother of Menelaus. son of Anchises and Aphrodite. Alexander: Paris. son of Peleus and Thetis.ca/~johnstoi/homer/iliad_index.” Agenor: Agenor son of Antenor. Aphrodite: Aphrodite divine daughter of Zeus and Hera. son of Atreus. leader of forces from Salamis.bc. leader of Dardanians. leader of Achaean forces. daughter of Eëtion.Glossary of People and Places Below is a partial list including only the important names and a few others. part of Achaean army. leader of Locrian troops. (1): Ajax (1) son of Telamon. a supporter of the Trojans. a supporter of the Trojans. please consult the following internet site: http://www. Achaea: Achaea mainland Greece. together with a detailed glossary indicating where their names appear in the poem. 567 . used interchangeably with the term Argives or Danaans. especially the destructive aspects. Apollo: Apollo divine son of Zeus and Leto. Trojan warrior. For a complete list of all the names in the Iliad.htm. the swift or (2): lesser Ajax. Achilles: Achilles leader of the Myrmidons. often referred to as “son of Peleus” or “descendant of Aeacus. Alexander another name for Paris Andromache: Andromache wife of Hector. known as the great Ajax or greater Ajax. Antenor: Antenor senior Trojan counselor. Achaeans: Achaeans collective name for the forces from Greece under Agamemnon. god of war.mala. a Ares supporter of the Trojans. Ares: son of Zeus.” Aeneas: Aeneas major Trojan warrior. commonly called “wide ruling” or “mighty. Ajax (2) son of Oïleus. greatest Achaean warrior after Achilles. Agamemnon: Agamemnon king of Mycenae. goddess of erotic love.

Danaans: Achaeans. Demeter: Demeter goddess of grain and food generally. Artemis: Artemis goddess. Deïphobus: Deïphobus son of Priam. son of the river Axius and Periboea. Briseis: daughter of Briseus. supporter of the Trojans. captive awarded to Achilles. daughter of Zeus and Hera. (2): (3): Argos (2) a large area ruled by Agamemnon. (4): part of the kingdom of Peleus (sometimes called Pelasgian Argos). Cronos: Cronos divine father of Zeus. Automedon: Automedon Achaean warrior. Asteropaeus: Asteropaeus alleged son of Pelagon. mainland Greece and Peloponnese). father of Agamemnon and Menelaus (known as the “sons of Atreus”). an infant.e. captured by Achaeans. Boeotia: Boeotia region of central Greece whose men are part of the Achaean forces.. responsible for human and divine folly.” Atreus: Atreus king of Argos. Chryseis: Chryseis young daughter of Chryses. 568 . Calchas: priest and interpreter of omens for Achaean army. son of Pelops. commonly called “glittery eyed. Argos (3) a general term for the homeland of Achaeans generally (i. Trojan warrior. Argives see Achaeans (1): Argos (1) town in northern Peloponnese ruled by Diomedes. led by Aeneas. overthrown by Zeus and kept imprisoned in Tartarus. Trojan warrior.Argives: Achaeans. Astyanax: Astyanax son of Hector and Andromache. also called Scamandrius. Cebriones: Cebriones bastard son of Priam and brother of Hector. Athena: Athena goddess daughter of Zeus. Danaans see Achaeans Dardanians: Dardanians people from around Troy. strong supporter of the Achaeans. sister of Apollo. Scamandrius Ate: Ate divine daughter of Zeus. Argos (4) region in north-east Greece.

legendary Greek hero. Glaucus: son of Hippolochus. Eumelus: leader of Thessalian troops. Eurypylus: leader of troops from parts of Thessaly. artisan god. Hector: Hector leader of Trojan forces. Hercules: Hercules son of Zeus and Alcmene. son of Priam and Hecuba.” Hecuba: Hecuba wife of Priam. Eurybates: Eurybates one of the Achaean heralds. father of Tlepolemus. Helenus: Helenus son of Priam. king of Argos.Diomedes: Diomedes son of Tydeus. supporter of the Achaeans. Euryalus: Euryalus a senior leader of the troops from the Argolid. mother of Hector (and others).” a strong supporter of the Achaeans. an Achaean warrior. Eurymedon: Eurymedon Achaean warrior. leader of the Lycians (Trojan allies). Ilion another name for Troy 569 . leader of Cretan forces. Glaucus Hades: Hades brother of Zeus and Poseidon. a senior commander in the Achaean forces. part of the Achaean army. part of the Achaean army. often called “Hector of the shining helmet. Ilion: Troy. Hermes: Hermes divine son of Zeus. Idaios: Idaios a Trojan herald. crippled in his legs. Idomeneus: son of Deucalion. god of the dead. Hera: Hera divine wife and sister of Zeus.” or “man-killing Hector. daughter of Cronos. frequently called “white armed” or “ox eyed. a younger warrior with the Achaeans. wife of Menelaus and later of Paris (Alexander). Earthshaker: Earthshaker common epithet for Poseidon. Hephaestus: Hephaestus divine son of Zeus and Hera. Helen: Helen mortal child of Zeus. often called “killer of Argus” or “Messenger.” Ida: Ida a mountain near Troy. attendant on Agamemnon. reader of omens for Trojans.

commonly called “resilient” and “resourceful” and “cunning. Leto: Leto goddess mother of Apollo and Artemis. an Achaean warrior. Menestheus: Menestheus leader of Athenian soldiers fighting with the Achaeans. a senior warrior among Achaeans. Phthia: Phthia region in south Thessaly (in northern Greece). Peleus: Peleus father of Achilles. Lycia/Lycians: Lycia/Lycians region of Asia Minor whose troops. brother of Hector. an Achaean warrior and special comrade of Achilles. a major figure in Achaean leadership. Apollo.” Odysseus: king of Ithaca. home of Achilles and his father Peleus. Pandarus: Pandarus son of Lycaon. led by Sarpedon and Glaucus. a healer in the Achaean army. part of the Achaean army. also called Alexander Alexander. Myrmidons: troops from Thessaly under the command of Achilles. Phoebus: see Apollo Phoenix: Phoenix old companion and tutor of Achilles. 570 . Machaon: Machaon leader of troops from parts of Thessaly. king of Sparta. part of the Cretan contingent in the Achaean forces. are allied with the Trojans. Menelaus: Menelaus son of Atreus. major warrior for the Achaean forces. first husband of Helen of Troy. called “the Geranian horseman. abductor of Helen from Menelaus. part of the Trojan forces.” Olympus: Olympus mountain in Greece where the major gods (the Olympians) live. brother of Agamemnon. Paris: Paris son of Priam and Hecuba. Meriones: Meriones an attendant on Idomeneus. leader of troops from Doulichium. Myrmidons Nestor: king of Pylos. Ouranos: Ouranos divine father of Cronos. leader of troops from Zeleia. Patroclus: Patroclus son of Menoetius.Iris: Iris divine messenger of the gods. Meges: son of Phyleus.

Thrasymedes: Thrasymedes son of Nestor. Thetis: divine sea nymph married to a mortal. Xanthus (5) one Scamander. Zeus: most powerful of the gods. father of numerous gods and men. Gates: Scaean Gates the major gates through the Trojan walls. an Achaean warrior. Xanthus (1) one of Hector's horses. an Achaean warrior noted for his skill with a bow. commonly called “the son of Cronos. a special comrade of Diomedes. brother of Zeus. Teucer: Teucer bastard son of Telamon and hence brother to the greater Ajax. Strife: Strife goddess active in war. an Achaean warrior. husband of Hecuba. father of Hector. (5): of Achilles’ horses. Terror: Terror son of Ares.” brother and husband of Hera. Scamandrius: Astyanax. and numerous others. mother of Achilles.” “cloud gatherer.Polydamas: a Trojan warrior. Scamander river outside Troy (also called the Xanthus) also the river god. Sarpedon: Sarpedon son of Zeus and leader of the Lycians.” “aegis-bearing. Sthenelus: Sthenelus one of the leaders of troops from the Argolid.” “lord of the lightning bolt. sister of Ares. Poseidon: Poseidon major Olympian god (ruling the sea). Paris. Xanthus (1): (2):Trojan warrior. Tydeus: Tydeus father of Diomedes. 571 . Trojan allies. Xanthus (4 river outside Troy. Scamandrius see Astyanax Simoeis: Simoeis river near Troy. Talthybius: Talthybius one of the Achaean heralds. commonly called “Earthshaker” or “Encircler of the Earth. also called the Scamander also the river god. divine presence active in battle. Scamander: Xanthus). Xanthus (2) (3): (4): Xanthus (3 river in Lycia (Asia Minor). Peleus.” Priam: Priam king of Troy.

The Area Around Troy (Reprinted with kind permission of Carlos Parada of the Greek Mythology Link) 572 .

Map of Ancient Greek World Map copyright © Bernard SUZANNE First published January 4.org Used with permission of the copyright holder 573 . 2001 plato-dialogues.1998 Last updated December 23.

Nature and Culture in the Iliad (an influential modern study of Homer’s epic). (a detailed look at the vision of life presented in the Iliad). read by Anton Lesser (ISBN 9-626344-28-8). This site can be found at the following address: http://www. So there is no shortage of additional suggestions. In Search of Troy (a fascinating and easy-to-read account of the archeological work carried out to find Troy) There are a number useful sites on the web including the Homer Home Page. Howard Clarke. The Iliad or The Poem of Force (a classic study of the Iliad. through the Naxos internet site: http://www.gpc. 574 . James M.A Few Suggestions for Further Study There are innumerable books and essays dealing with the Iliad and Homer. The brief list below includes some recommended titles for those wishing to explore Homer in more detail. available on line at the following site: http://www.html.ca/~johnstoi/homer/iliadessaystofc. Essays on Homer’s Iliad.naxosaudiobooks. Michael Wood. Ian Johnston. still as eloquent as ever). Simone Weil. Redfield.htm. A recording of the complete translation contained in this book is available from Naxos Books.bc. Homer’s Readers (a very interesting study of the transmission and influence of the Iliad and Odyssey).edu/~shale/humanities/literature/world_literature/homer.com/. The Iliad.mala.

University of Missouri-Columbia About the Translator Ian Johnston was born in Valparaiso. and yet at the same time is characterized by a very readable English style. Composed between 800 and 700 BC and telling the story of a war which took place over 3000 years ago. Chile. It has been designed. Johnston captures the text with an eye to both accuracy and his modern readership. so that the clarity and fluency of this translation immediately set it apart from many other alternatives. Anne Leavitt.“ Dr.The Iliad by Homer A New Translation by Ian Johnston This translation provides an accurate text of the Iliad in a modern English poetic form. The book is accompanied by a glossary. Professor of Philosophy and Liberal Studies Malaspina University-College “Ian Johnston provides his readers with a clear and comprehensible translation of the Iliad that presents itself as a dynamic equivalent of the Greek original. first and foremost. the Iliad is a true classic. He attended McGill University in Montreal. He is now retired and living in Nanaimo. and raised in Canada and England. maps and other study aids intended to help ensure that one’s initial venture into the world of the Iliad is a fruitful one. the University of Bristol and the University of Toronto He worked for many years as a college and university-college instructor in British Columbia teaching English. He is the author of The Ironies of War: An Introduction to Homer’s Iliad. Classics and Liberal Studies. The result is an interesting and evocative synthesis of a past vision and modern sensibilities. for people who are reading Homer’s Iliad for the first time.“ Dr. its beauty rivaled only by its longevity. Richer Resources Publications Creating Rich Resources for You 575 . Andrew Porter. British Columbia. Here’s what some readers of his translation have said: “Johnston’s translation is extremely faithful to Homer’s Greek text.