The seed plant originated ____ million years ago. 360 what is a seed?

an embryo and its food supply, surrounded by a protective coat why can seeds be dispersed from their parent to further areas? because the protective coat protects the embryo while the food supply nourishes it what are the defining characteristics of seed plants? (1) seeds (2) reduced gametophytes (3) heterospory (4) ovules (5) pollen True or False. The gametophytes of seed plants are visible to the naked eye. False - the gametophytes of seed plants are microscopic what is the advantage of seed plants having microscopic gametophytes? gametophytes can develop from spores retained within the sporangia of the parent al sporophyte, gaining protection and nourishment seed plants are (homosporous/heterosporous) heterosporous each megasporangium has (a single functional megaspore / vast numbers of megaspo res) each megasporangium has a single functional megaspore each microsporangium has (a single functional microspore / vast numbers of micro spores) each microsporangium has a vast number of microspores what sporophyte tissue envelops and protects the megasporangium? integument how many layers of integument surround gymnosperm megasporangium? one how many layers of integument surround angiosperm megasporangium two the megasporangium, megaspore, and their integument(s) is called a(n) ovule what happens in an ovule? a gemale gametophyte develops from a megaspore and produces one or more eggs a microspore develops into a(n) pollen grain what is a pollen grain? consists of a male gametophyte enclosed within the pollen wall the tough pollen wall contains the polymer ______ sporopollenin what is pollination? the transfer of pollen to the part of the seed plant that contains the ovules what is a micropyle? the only opening through the integument and allows entry of a pollen grain

Ginkgophyta. but not all) the first seed-bearing plants to appear in the fossil record date from around __ __ million years ago 360 the earliest fossils of gymnosperms are about ____ million years old 305 the Carboniferous period gave way to the _______ period Permian Carboniferous swamps were largely replaced by (gymnosperms/angiosperms). a pollen tube that discharges two sperm into the female gametophyte within the o vule True or False. strobili what is a progymnosperm? a transitional species of seedless vascular plants (portray characteristics of s eed plants.. False . Gymnosperms have seeds that are not enclosed in ovaries. True . Mesozoic conifers cone-bearing gymnosperms that cover many regions in northen latitudes. and redwood what are the four phyla of gymnosperms? Cycadophyta. Coniferophyta What phylum is the largest of the gymnosperms? Coniferophyta What phylum is the second largest of the gymnosperms? Cycadophyta .if a pollen grain germinates. which w ere more suited to the drier climate gymnosperms the end of the Permian period (251mya) is considered by many as the boundary bet ween the _____ ("old life") and _____ ("middle life") eras Paleozoic.they have "naked" seeds Gymnosperm seeds are exposed on modified leaves called ____ that usually form co nes called _____ sporophylls.. fir. include p ine..they have been lost in most gymnosperms and all angiosperms because poll en grains transport sperm-producing gametophytes directly to the ovule for ferti lization fertilization in seed plants initiates the transformation of the ovule into a __ ___ seed what advantages do seeds provide over spores? (1) multicellular layer of tissue called the seed coat provides extra protection for embryo (2) stored food supply. Sperm in seed plants are flagellated. spruce. allowing dormancy for months to years (3) tr ansported long distances by wind or animals True or False. it gives rise to . Gnetophyta.

producing haploid ________ w hich develop into ________ megasporocytes. Sequoia. female gametophytes it takes nearly (1/2/3/4) years for male and female gametophytes to be produced and brought together and for mature seeds to form from fertilized ovules in coni fers 3 what are angiosperms? seed plants that produce the reproductive structures called flowers and fruits what plants are the most diverse and widespread? .The Mesozoic era is known as the age of _____ as well as the age of dinosaurs. cycads the only surviving species of the phylum Ginkgophyta is Ginkgo biloba Gnetophyta consists of what three genera? How many species exist in each? Gnetum (35). Pine tree. each tree has _____ and _____ cones ovulate. pollen In conifers. microsporocytes. diploid ________ undergo meiosis. 40. Welwitschia (1) Most conifers are (cypresses/redwoods/evergreens) evergreens What is special about evergreens? they retain their leaves throughout the year the "berries" of the common juniper are actually what? ovule-producing cones consisting of fleshy sporophylls Which of the following is a deciduous conifer that can tolerate temperatures tha t plunge to -50 degrees celcius? Wollemi pine. male gametophytes in ovulate cones. a bristlecone pine 1 Sequoia = how many blue whales? How many people? 24 blue whales. microspores. pollen cone.000 people Draw and label the life cycle of a pine. in most conifer species. European larch. Ephedra (40). or ovulate cone? Pine tree where are sporangia located in conifers? on scalelike structures packed densely in cones in pollen cones. which of the following is the sporophyte? Pine needle. diploid ________ undergo meiosis. producing haploid ________ wh ich develop into pollen grains containing ________. or Redwo od? European larch Who's Methuselah? the world's oldest tree. megaspores.

in Greek) what are the key adaptations (defining characters) of angiosperms? flowers and fruits what is a flower? an angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction. in which the wall of th e ovary becomes soft during ripening fleshy beans.the sepals and petals are sterile in ALL angiosperms a "stamen" consists of a stalk called the _______ and a terminal sac where polle n is produced called the _______ filament. plums. The sepals and petals of flowers are sterile floral organs in som e angiosperms but not in most. they are located at t he base of the flower define "petals" brightly colored sporophyll that aids in attracting pollinators. and grains are examples of _____ fruits dry .angiosperms angiosperms are classified in a single phylum called ______ Anthophyta ("anthos" = flower. insects or other an imals transfer pollen directly from one flower to the sex organs on another flow er Draw and label the structure of an idealized flower. nuts. anther stamens produce ________ that develop into pollen grains containing male gametop hytes microspores carpels produce ________ that develop into female gametophytes megaspores the carpel contains what three structures? (1) stigma (2) style (3) ovary what is the stigma? the sticky structure located at the tip of the carpel that receives pollen a fruit consists of a ______ ______ mature ovary why would a pea pod be an example of a fruit? it contains mature ovules (seeds/peas) encased in the ripened ovary (the pod) oranges. what are the four floral organs of a flower? (1) sepals (2) petals (3) stamens (4) carpels define "sepals" green sporophyll that encloses the flower before it opens. they are locate d interior to the sepals before the flower opens True or False. and grapes are examples of _____ fruits. False .

microsporangia. generative cell & tube cell. pollen grains. anthers. cockleburs have "burrs" that c ling to animals for "hitchhiking" Draw and label the life cycle of an angiosperm. fertilized nucleus of central cell divides repeatedly and deve lops into endosperm what are cotyledons? seed leaves that grow on sporophyte embryos after double fertilization what is endosperm? tissue rich in starch and other food reserves that nourish the developing embryo Another type of double fertilization takes place in some gymnosperm species. ovary.What two things do fruits do for seeds? (1) provide protection (2) aid in dispersal how are the seeds in maple fruits. berries. one sperm fu ses with the two nuclei in the large central cell of the embryo sac producing a triploid (3n) cell what is double fertilization? one fertilization event produces a zygote and the other produces a triploid cell (this is unique to angiosperms) after double fertilization. place the following in order: male gametophytes. Wha t is the difference between this type and that seen in angiosperms? gymnosperm double fertilization results in two embryos rather than one embryo an d one endosperm angiosperms originated at least ____ million years ago 140 during what period did angiosperms begin to dominate many terrestrial ecosystems ? mid-Cretaceous (100mya) . egg and cells ovary > ovule > female gametophyte > egg and cells what is another term for a female gametophyte in angiosperms? embryo sac what is cross-pollination? in angiosperms. one sperm cell fertilizes the egg forming a diploid (2n) zygote. zygote develops into a sporophyte embryo with root an d 1-2 cotyledons. sperm & pollen tube anthers > microsporangia > microspores > pollen grains > male gametophyte > gene rative cells & tube cells > sperm & pollen tube place the following in order: ovule. it is the transfer of pollen from an anther of a flower on one p lant to the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same species how many sperm cells are discharged into the embryo sac? what does the sperm cel l(s) do? 2. berries are eaten b y animals and their fleshy contents are digested while the seeds remain unharmed and are deposited in natural fertilizer (feces). and cockleburs dispersed? maple fruits have propellers/wings that are carried by wind. female gametophyte. what happens? ovule matures into a seed. microspores.

what two fossils of 125-million-year-old angiosperms had been studied during the 1990s and display both derived and ancestral traits? Archaefructus liaoningensis & Archaefructus sinensis what genus of angiosperms ". Elton John's favorite type of flower) magnoliids 25% of angiosperm species are (eudicots. Amborella. sunflowers. and maples are (monocots/dicots) dicots True or False. wheat. Basal angiosperms are those that include flowering plants belongi ng to more recent lineages.. peas. basal angiosperms. basal angiosperms. monocots. and star anises are (magnoliids. monocots. eudikaryotes) basal angiosperms magnolias.Basal angiosperms are those that include flowering plants belonging to t he oldest lineages. laurels. magnoliids ) eudicots _______ symmetry (symmetrical in one direction only) in flower petals may inhibi . magnoliids ) monocots what are the key characteristics of monocots? (1) one cotyledon (2) parallel veins (3) scattered vascular tissue (4) fibrous r oot system (5) pollen grain w/ one opening (6) floral organs in multiples of 3 what are the key characteristics of eudicots? (1) two cotyledons (2) netlike veins (3) ring-arranged vascular tissue (4) a mai n root (taproot) is present (5) pollen grain with three openings (6) floral orga ns in multiples of 4-5 67% of angiosperm species are (eudicots. and black pepper plants are (magnoliids. "fructus" means "fruit": "ancient fruit ") Draw and label the phylogenetic tree for angiosperms the _______ is considered a possible sister group to the angiosperms and is an e xtinct group of seed plants Bennettitales what is a monocot? a flowering plant species with one cotyledon what is a dicot? a flowering plant species with two cotyledons orchids. False . palms. basal angiosperms. animals. water lillies. an imals. maize. basal angiosperms. and rice are (monocots/dicots) monocots roses.may belong to the earliest-diverging group of angi osperms known"? Archaefructus ("archae-" means "ancient..

what are the six crops (angiosperms) that yield 80% of all the calories consumed by humans? (1) wheat (2) rice (3) maize (4) potatoes (5) cassava (6) sweet potatoes wood consists of an accumulation of tough-walled _____ cells xylem the medicinal compound _______ is derived from Eucalyptus tree and is used as an ingredient in cough medicines menthol . As a result.t an insect from obtaining pollen from a certain direction bilateral True or False. speciation would occur in thes e bilaterally symmetrical flowers since there is more environmental pressures on the flower to change in a way in which insects will be less inhibited from poll inating the plants. Gene flow may be reduced more easily in diverging populations wit h bilateral symmetry than in populations with radial symmetry. True Would speciation occur more rapidly in flowers with bilateral symmetry or radial symmetry? Why? Bilateral symmetry because gene flow is reduced since insects are inhibited from obtaining pollen in all directions.

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