Özdogan Mehmet Özdogan

Çayönü. A Conspectus of Recent Work
In: Paléorient. 1989, Vol. 15 N°1. pp. 65-74.

Résumé Çayönü, important site du 8ème millénaire de notre ère, en Turquie du sud-est, a été la scène d'une intense activité archéologique au cours des 8 dernières années. Cet article se livre à un rapide survol des dernières découvertes, et s'attarde plus spécialement sur la séquence archéologique. L'un des thèmes majeurs dont l'on débattra est la continuité dans l'occupation, comme en témoigne l'évolution progressive des types de constructions, du plan circulaire au «grill-plan», puis au plan cellulaire. L'on examinera aussi quelques modèles sociaux. Abstract Çayönü, a major site of the 8th millennium B.C. in South-eastern Turkey, has been the scene of intensive archaeological activity during the last 8 years. This paper will be a brief overview of the latest evidence with special emphasis on the archaeological sequence. One of the major issues to be discussed is the continuity in occupation as evidenced by the gradual evolution of the building types from the round-plan to the grill and to the cell-plan. Some social patterns will also be discussed.

Citer ce document / Cite this document : Özdogan A., Özdogan Mehmet. Çayönü. A Conspectus of Recent Work. In: Paléorient. 1989, Vol. 15 N°1. pp. 65-74. doi : 10.3406/paleo.1989.4485 http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/paleo_0153-9345_1989_num_15_1_4485

has been the scene of intensive archaeological activity during the last 8 years. du plan circulaire au «grill-plan». thus contributing to a better un derstanding of the site. Since the presentation of a report on the Çayônii excavations at the "Préhistoire du Levant" coll oquium of 1980 (1). Braidwood. it must also be emphasized that the various industries within the Çayônii artifactual ca tegories and the special detailed studies in the nonartifactual categories are yet to receive their full due. Çayônii was mainly renowned for its sophisticated architecture and its monumental buildings. Quite naturally. in South-eastern Turkey. Salvage operations along the Euphrates basin have now made it possible to define an ind igenous cultural complex in southeastern Turkey. and Çayônii is no more an exceptional case. a été la scène d'une intense activité archéologique au cours des 8 dernières années. puis au plan cellulaire. However. a few explanatory remarks will help to clarify the confusion on the sequential de notations of Çayônii. 65 site must represent. 1989 . RESUME. mainly due to the largeness of the excavated area. L'on examinera aussi quelques modèles sociaux. A rough estimate of 20-30 % being excavated for the cell subphase. Chicago and Karlsruhe Universities have also been an essential part in all decision-ma kingof excavation. (3) Needless to say. a major site of the 8th millennium B. Accordingly. I . to the complexity of the architecture and of the settlement pattern. especially steps since the senior members of so thoroughly joint a staff have come out of different scholarly traditions. Colloque Préhistoire Levant II Maison de Г Orient-Lyon 30 mai-4 juin 1988 Editions du CNRS. Most of the facts outlined at the 1980 colloquium have been further elaborated and some of our conclusions have undergone revi sions and changes.C. we feel it necessary. it is still the main source of our information for what many call the "pre-neolithic" horizon (3). ÔZDOGAN ABSTRACT. with the field season of 1987. en Turquie du sud-est. In the early eighties. the overall picture of the site has chan ged to a degree which would have been even hard to imagine before. it reached 4 900 m2. Paris. at least to the north. ÔZDOGAN and A. the total area exposed at Çayônii was about 2 100 m2.STRATIGRAPHY Before making a description of the vertical str atigraphy of the site. One of the major issues to be discussed is the continuity in occupation as evidenced by the gradual evolution of the building types from the round-plan to the grill and to the cell-plan. Çambel and of RJ. history of ex cavation. what is now the outstanding aspect about the Çayônii culture is the apparent intricacy of the social system which the architecture of the (1) ÇAMBEL. 1980. this paper may differ s to be omewhat from opinions expressed in our earlier reports and so also may reports yet to come. aims of research. comme en témoigne Г évolution progressive des types de constructions. at the very beginning of an ef fective food producing way of life. and therefore it is impossible to estimate the exact extent of the main Phase I. who were later joined by W. comprising 12 % of the whole site (2). as to exhaustive analysis and interpretation. different approaches to the interpretation are certainl y expected. they will not be repeated here. at the start.Çayônii. six more major field campaigns have taken place. et s'attarde plus spécialement sur la séquence archéologique. This paper will be a brief overview of the latest evidence with special emphasis on the archaeological sequence. Ôzdogan. almost half of this is within the boundaries of the pottery mound. It is clear that the pre-pottery layers conti nue. Schirmer and M. . Secondly. As the location. to stress two points. our preferences is for "effective food pro ducing stage" than to "pre-pottery neolithic". however. Thus. Prior to the excavation campaign of 1980. customary usage of numerical denotations (4) See especially BRAIDWOOD and BRAIDWOOD. far away from any other excavated site of its time range. under the pottery mound. important site du 8ème millénaire de notre ère. 1982. — Çayônii. experienced staff of Istanbul. However. Since the early years of the ex cavation. from the beginning of our excavations in 1964. (2) According to surface collections the site covers an area of 45 000 m .ÇAYÔNU A Conspectus of Recent Work M. the effort has been under the combined field staffs of H. area descriptions as well as the descriptions of main buildings have already been published (4). Some social patterns will also be discussed. it was an isolated case. But. Cet article se livre à un rapide survol des dernières découvertes. L'un des thèmes majeurs dont l'on débattra est la continuité dans Г occupation. First.

Phases II and III were reco gnized through surface collections and also through a few intrusive pits. There is at least one Halafian sherd which seems to indicate that the settlement persisted up to that period. which almost completely circles around the pre-pottery mound. However. near to the present-day village of Hilar. substantial phase. but there are also some distinct wares. (6) The material assemblage of Çayônii is also indicative of an unbroken continuity. 66 outskirts of the mound. our knowledge of the earliest sub-phase was based on restricted soundings. such as a certain "knobbed decorated" ware. the latest of these dates from the Early Iron Age which concent rates mainly in the northeastern and eastern sectors of the mound. deep storage pits of this period are also encountered. when building details are considered.5 m. near the surface. and ÇAMBEL. at times. b) Description of phase i Round Plan Sub-Phase. there is a fair number of pits yielding typical "chaff-faced" pottery of the Late Chalcolithic period and EBA I sherds all along the northern periphery. Phase I was seen as representing the main pre-pottery set tlement. 1980. Moreover. we could have produced an easy sequential series which would have been far from reality. some of the major stratigraphie horizons. As no habitation layers were recovered. However. Even though there still have been no major efforts to excavate phases II and III. to alter our system of recording as the exposures became larger. comprised of five sub-phases and composed of numerous architectural layers. Pits of this period are more common in the eastern and the northern sections of the mound. demonst ratingthe gradual development of building concepts at Çayônii and thus indicating continuity in occupat ion (6). Round or oval plan type seems to be the charact eristic of this earliest sub-phase. a) Main phases of occupation In earlier reports (5). As of now. remains of two more round buildings and parts of at least five others were recovered. which are now understood to be of substantial significance in the history of the site. In 1986 and 1987. Nevertheless. There are also a few possible 2nd millennium sherds from the same area. though there are some details that are unclear. We now have a much better understanding of the site and its sequence. There are also indications that the original height of the Çayônii mound was much higher than it is today with an overburden of later material. in the course of the 25 years that have passed since the first field season. with walls constructed in "wattle and daub" technique was attested as early as 1978. Phase II : This is a long-lasting. there is a consider able diversity : some have stone-laid foundations. Prior to the season of 1984. they can be more thoroughly defined : Phase III : Represents minor and discontinuous layers in various parts of the mound. The Çayônii mound seems to have been used as a burial ground in late EBA II and early EBA III pe riods. Most of the pottery bears direct resemblance to the early "Dark Faced Burnished Ware" of the Keban region. three main phases of oc cupation of the Çayônii mound were defined. It became inevitable to elabo rateor. under standing of the site has evolved considerably. if only building plans were considered. leaving in the centre of the mound the remains of Phase I. while others are of wattle and daub without any foundations. The thickness of the deposit is at least 2. that layers of Phase II were preserved only around the (5) Ibid. as is the case with most of the sites of this general time range. cells. If the Çayônii excavat ions come to a close after excavating a few hun had dred m2. it is possible. mainly in the Western section of the mound. . etc. possibly indicating a break of occupation. it is possible to correlate dif ferent sectors of the mound. but may possibly be much thicker. This seemed evident in the earlier exca vation campaigns as the ground plans of these buil dings were fundamentally different from each other and as each architectural layer consisted only of a single type of house plan. Phase I : This is the main early prehistoric phase of Çayônii. What is preserved of Phase II comprises mainly pre-Halafian layers. The di visions of the sub-phases were made according to changes of the main building types. At that time. randomly scattered over various parts of the mound. possibly on the other side of the stream. either did not occur in our earlier trenches or the evidence was too fragmentary to be properly understood. which. the presence of an oval building.for stratigraphie units was intentionally avoided. such as grills. The architecture and the lay-out of each sub-phase was so distinct that it might even have suggested interruptions in the s equence of occupation. some 200 m2 were ex cavated down to virgin soil in the eastern section of the mound. though. However. for the time being seems to be unique at Çayônii. It is impossible to understand what resulted from the levelling of the main height of the mound. we assume that the EBA II-III settlement is somewhere in the vici nity. no Obeid or related material has been recovered at Çayônii. large exposures on the western section of the mound have now revealed numerous examples of "transitional" building types. Occasionally. as such a categorical division might lead to over-simp lifications.

67 .

time of the advanced grills. As a further development of the pressive with neatly laid foundations of flat cobbles. for the time being. without an interruption. On in two buildings. In every building layer the grills were built phase. which still carried on a much simpler "grill" type. though still keeping the same location early as the first excavation campaign. i. subsequent rebuilding Grill-Plan Sub-Phase. Moreover. where this ged like a grill. but without any interconnecting earliest sub-phase is better documented. BN. cellular divisions. the meandering grill is bigger than the pre in all of its three rebuilding phases. displays the triple division of the very hard. but more like a facing on the sides of phases. building type was encountered. Almost all known examp soil. it is impossible to guess the ex tual number of building layers of this type may have tent of the settlement at the time of this sub-phase. there was cribed elsewhere. stone foundations. as most of the upper As the level of the round-plan buildings have not grills were found to be rather disturbed by the buil yet been reached on western. This sub-phase. not at all strong enough and pits of later periods. 68 . and the main and an orientation parallel to the others. in buildings layers there were. for the first time. Whether or not the different building involved in type of techniques employed in these round buildings is in layers were GG this type this grill plan grill building. building RB. central and northern ding activities of the succeeding sub-phases. This plan type seems to have been used of the foundation stones. Accordingly. its floor was cut into virgin soil. was encircled with a regular mise that its living floor was still above the level exterior wall. where the plans are more or less the other hand. it is impossible to detect a simple structure constructed grill : inner court. both ends of the spaces between the grills ness of the deposit between the overlying grill subare left open. walls of wattle in use at the same time. the basic plan appeared below a super of the contemporaneity of different structures that imposed series of developed grills. both ends of the openings between the Unfortunately. rather loosely placed. and daub reinforced from the exterior by a pebbly b) Meandering grill. the thick walls. and the grills. It is not very clear whether or hollowed-out but the stones were not laid-out like a not this plan type persisted for one or two rebuilding foundation. and in wall. The three stages in the development of this 1970. and that the grill buil the basic grill plan. which is activity was almost always repeated at the same lo immediately superimposed over the round plan subcation. consists of parallel lines of foundations the season of 1987. elements of these structures have already been des after the destruction of the closed grills. There are some One of the buildings. In this earliest version of the the ones to the south were almost completely eroded. is well documented parallel to each other. Only in one structure. mainly due to to carry any heavy upper structure. Parts of at les of this meandering type are directly superim least three other huts. it has a complete change both in orientation and in location become clear that the typical grill-plan evolved from of the newly built buildings. Wherever this have been recovered. RE. posit. unless it had been burned or had This triple division is characteristic of later grills. At least on recovered just on or partly cut into virgin soil. is much more im c) Closed grill. judging from the apparent depth of the de Transitional Grills and Channeled Buildings. unyielding soil matrix of Çayônii.e. but as the examples on the eastern section of building type can be summarized as follows : the mound were in a poor state of preservation and a) Simple grill. The grills are constructed of small pebble-like most parts it is disturbed by the building activities stones. At least one such grill. its floor is again ceding simple grill. for only one layer. up to the along the river to the west and not to the north. During the last campaigns. so that the buil its upper structure was preserved. neither the floor or any remnant of grill-like foundations were closed. at its northern their structural significance remained unclear until end. of wattle and daub. The existence of these mis-orien dings excavated prior to 1984 were of the developed ted or deviating grills had been attested as early as form. it is not yet very clear how many building not clear at all. and in every new rebuilding at Çayônii from an area of about 1000 square m. leaving a very narrow opening to the south. has a slightly doubts as to whether or not these two buildings were sunken floor. However. Howe ted. ding GH for at least two rebuildings. building. However. it always appeared immedia RA. The layer the general orientation of the grills shifted by presence of this building type was first attested as a few degrees. this shallow pit. no stone foundations. building GH. as there are no clear indications GH and GK. and the building does not have an outer phase and the virgin soil is about 20-30 cm. but one can sur ding. been more than one. it seems probable that the settlement extended Since the appearance of the simplest grills. However. grill plan. three distinct rebuilding phases could be detec tely above the level of the round buildings. RD and RF. Another building. were also posed the earlier type of simple grills. In at least two cases.but how these relate to the other structures is ver. In building of was repeated dicative of gradual development within the subfor three consecutive rebuilding levels and in buil phase is also unclear.In the eastern section of the mound. the main part of the building. building RA has a stone sub-structure complete. The stratigraphical position of this simple grill we are not able to determine how many successive type is rather clear. the ac parts of the mound.

The paved floor covers the entire space of the room without any break. As the buildings of the cell sub-phase are considerably more massive than the buildings of the other sub-phases. in well stratified context and immediately underneath the paved-floor buildings of the intermediate subphase. Small buttresses like projections and large front rooms persist. they never seemed indicative of a major sub-phase. has been renewed completely several times by laying new earth. In spite of its significance and its relatively long duration lasting for at least three building layers the existence of this sub-phase had not been attested until the excavation campaign of 1984. it is of interest to stress that no architectural remains of this major subphase. occasionall y interrupted by parallel drainage channels. Architectural layers of this cell sub-phase are directly over the building r emains of the intermediate buildings. on the eastern section of the mound a stratigraphie s equence was obtained from the uppermost sub-phase down to the grill sub-phase. The flooring of the main plaza. both in plan and construction. the domestic activities that were carried out in the inner courtyards of the grill buildings have been transferred to the area beyond the buildings. Occasional remnants of the wall fragments. is now understood to have been not only a flourishing period of the site with substantial buil dings. storing and manufacturing are taking place in the open areas. they have been well preserved almost all over the site. What implica tions we draw from these remarks as regards can smaller sites ? The intermediate sub-phase has at least three building layers and the building plans display a gra dual development throughout the sub-phase. and already described in a numb er of reports mentioned above. but. for the sake of preserving architecture remains. Accordingly. Ne vertheles . but unfortunately in this particular area. but they are all discontinuous and evidently represent minor activities that took place in restricted areas. comprising three building levels with wellpreserved buildings were exposed in the considerably large exposures of pre-1984 Çayônii. The grill-like foundations were considerably broader than the normal grills and the openings between the wall much narrower. However.In 1987. The ear liest type of building is. two superimposed and rather well preserved buildings were recovered. or were located along the southern slope of the mound. there must still have been a flooring above the pavement. various aspects of this sub-phase had been attested in earlier campaigns. Accord ingly. The buildings are again long and rectangular like the grill plans and they also indicate a triple division of rooms. in the western section of the mound. Indeed. As no capstones were used to cover the channels. The houses completely lacked fir eplaces and working platforms. but the massive pebble flooring disappears. This sub-phase which covers the time range between the grill and the cell sub-phases. which is also clearly attributable to the cell sub-phase. in the following layer (building DI) the channels were covered neatly with flat capstones. but also a time of important social and tech nological achievements. In one area. in the eastern section of the mound. their identity was rather obscure. There are also a number of rebuilding activities and pockets of earth within these layers. In the second rebuilding layer of the sub-phase. The third building layer of the subphase is more like a transitional stage to the cells : for the first time in the buildings such as CM. scra ping off the highest parts and filling in the hollow parts. most of the activities such as coo king. and the foundation of this plaza was made by levelling the building remains of the intermediate sub-phase. was roughly aligned with the above mentioned mis-oriented grills. The buildings are again spa ciously placed. without any sign of a break in the settlement. to the open yards. It should only be made clear that the cell sub-phase has three main architectural layers which can be observed rather consistently in all areas of the mound. Other pre-1984 trenches. pits and working areas were encountered in the open areas between the buildings which were much more spaciously placed. thus causing the building to loose the appearance of a grill building. building DP. we now know that the fill of the i ntermediate sub-phase had been intentionally removed for the preparation of the big so-called "plaza" of the cell sub-phase. and has also undergone two minor repairs. in the buildings of the intermediate sub-phase. This is evidently a further development of the "grill concept" where the grill-like foundation walls have actually become a part of the floor and the previous ventilation openings have become the channels. the lower one. Of these. though the main plan of the buildings remained the same. On the other hand nu merous hearths. where anything above the grill sub-phase had been eroded. displaying distinct s imilarit es to them. . the narrow axis of the building is divided into two rooms at its back. as an aside. very much like the channeled type at the end of the previous sub-phase with the exception that the channels are missing. Intermediate Sub-Phase. there were small buttresses like projections along the walls. which were dug down to the virgin soil as deep soundings. the floor or the foundation of the building attained the appearance of a paved floor. The absence of such a substantial sub-phase from earlier reports needs to be described here in small detail : most of the largest exposures of early excavation seasons had either stopped at the level of the cell sub-phase. up to 1984. However. pa ved floors and numerous pits were always recovered within the foundation fill of the plaza. by chance had always coincided with the open areas between 69 buildings. This plaza of the cell sub-phase covered an area of at least 50 x 25-30 m. Cell Plan Sub-Phase. as to whether they belonged to the uppermost grills or cells.

SEQUENCE OF BUILDINGS FIG. stratified above the cell plan-types. II . However. it is not at all clear how the pre-pottery occupation of Çayônii came to an end. in trench 25 K. the last one being within the plough zone. mainly in the northern part of the eastern exposure.STRATIGRAPHICAL POSITION OF THE SPECIAL BUILDINGS There are at least four buildings at Çayônii which can be named buildings of special function. It also became clear that the buil dings of this sub-phase consisted of more than one room. In later seasons more examples of such buildings were excavated. One of them partly overlaid the Terrazzo building. are considerably larger and are arranged in a different order.Schematic drawing of main building types according to sub-phases at Cayonu. In this area three architectural layers were exposed. in techniques of construction and in material yield from the domestic S«" i. It is thus highly prob able that there were even more architectural layers yuvarlak planli rounded plan zg ara planli grill plan •лo 5£•■ « ? i of this sub-phase. but a rather dubious example of this plan was recovered. 5' hdcre planli cell plan g t n » od ah large room i tat dottmtli yapilar pebble paved floor type YAPI GELÍSÍMÍ . 2. In the of campaign of 1987. all of them are different in plan. only one. the upper layers of the pre-pottery Çayônti mound were badly disturbed. and whether or not pottery came in use at the very end of Phase I.ÇAYÔNÙ . which compared to the rooms of the cell buil dings. buildings with a single or more large rooms had been recovered. most of the buil dings were badly eroded and the detailed stratifica tion this sub-phase was never clear. . a stratified sequence of buildings belonging to the large-room sub-phase was recovered. 70 GHA DP . As early as the 1964 season. As it has been ment ioned above.Large-Room Sub-Phase. In the western section of the mound. which is now un derstood to be the peak of the pre-pottery mound. Due to surface erosion and later disturbances.

There are some indications suggesting that it was in use at the time of the latest phase of the so-called "skull-buil ding". It indicates its more recent origin. to gether with other types of buildings. the five rebuilding stages of the skull buil ding must cover the entire time span of the wattle and daub. Remnants of the earliest building. The back side of the bench building was cut into the slope of the mound by destroying one of the ear lier grills. parts of a largeroom building (BF) belonging to the uppermost subphase was built over its northern side. and so. However. the special buildings of Çayonii do not represent a separate sub-phase. has been kept for all phases of the building. are badly preserved. It belongs to the later part of the intermediate sub-phase. came to be known as the "skull buil ding". Until the excavation campaign of 1985. This seemed evident as both buil dings shared a common flooring and plan concept. which led to the mi sinterpretation of the sequence. and possibly to its second or even to its latest architectural layer. Its northern. Still. building BK is earlier than the cells. The Plaza. The second earliest version of the building. the flagstone and the terrazzo buildings . though with some reserve. indicate that they were also special buildings. it consists of a single room with massive stone benches running along its walls. which were excavated in ear lier campaigns. has a lready been described in a number of earlier reports. massive retaining wall. without the removal of the terrazzo building. were so different from the other buil dings of Çayônii which are very consistent in their plan types throughout their respective sub-phases. there is still a possibility that all five rebuildings are more recent than the grill plan subphase. is the smallest of the special buildings. though it is . Two of them. and it has a drainage channel to the south. at least one of them having small buttresses. The Terrazzo Building. or whether it has been built after the destruction of the flagstone building is not clear. the nomenclature "skull building". Thus. Rubbles coming from the destruction of the intermediate subphase by the earliest cells were covering the top of the bench building. It seems very possible that the tradition of special buildings moved further north to the place of the terrazzo building after the destruction of the skull building. Even though the terrazzo building was found quite near the top soil. somewhat misleadingly. these lower buildings cannot be exposed. Bench Building. with the exception of the terrazzo building. A large prepared open area. excavated in 1978. it obviously belongs to the cell subphase. only the latest and best preserved phase of this building was known. being either contemporary with the upper grills or with the intermediate buildings. they can be attributed to the Phase I sub-phases. As a result. excavated in 1964. Flagstone Building. which. sit right on the vir gin soil. the latter must have still been standing and possibly been in use. The flagstone building had been cut into the slope of the mound without any stratigraphical connections to the main architectural layers. walls of two earlier buildings are detectable. This massive building (FA). There are indications that the concept of an open space first starts within the intermediate sub-phase. they were in use. Immediately below the walls of the still in-place terrazzo buil ding. The southern wall of the building is built over the back wall of the flagstone building so that the drai nage opens directly to its floor. where there are the remnants of an earlier building. which is somewhat better-preserved. Even though it is obvious that the construction of the bench building is later than the flagstone. Its floor is neatly laid with fine sand. This significant buil ding (ВТ).buildings of the site. is very similar to the flagstone building. This massive and interes ting building (BM) was excavated. the exact correlation of the special buil dings to architectural layers is not possible. which is earlier than the bench building cuts through wattle and daub layers. from 71 1980 onwards. as they are all cut into the slope of the mound. However. as the others were cut into the slope of the mound. The top of its walls were covered with the same rub ber layer as the bench building. the earliest buildings were not only employed for storing skulls. we are inclined to consider it within the time range of the intermediate sub-phase. The Skull Building. first exposed in the 1970 season. On the other hand. that ap pears to have served some special purpose within the Çayonii settlement deserves a description. The techniques of their wall construction. usually by terracing. with the exception of one round wall. On the other hand. In stratigraphy. It sits directly on the virgin soil with the exception of its northeastern corner. preceding versions of the building are rather difficult to correlate into stratigraphie system. In fact. Nevertheless. it yielded some 70 human skulls. If the resemblance of this round wall to the ones of the earliest round plan sub-phase is not coin cidental. The stratigraphie position of the latest phase of this building seems clear. but also contained skeletons or parts of skeletons which are now known to represent at least 400 in dividuals. Building BK. that they were taken as being a separate sub-phase in earlier reports. Nevertheless. the str atigraphie position of the building is below the later part of the intermediate and above the earliest subphase. Whether this version was in use simultaneously with the flagstone building. in parts. in most of the sub-phases. It has a floor made of large stone slabs with standing stones set into the floor. grill and intermediate sub-phases. later work revealed that the building had at least five major rebuilding phases. is also cut into the southern slope of the mound.

The fact that all the buildings of a buil- . and in the latter by raising the level of the floor. The only sub-phase in which the living floor was not raised seems to have been the earliest one. as well as continuous experimentation in building techniques and in the use of materials. covered an area of 50 by 2530 m. SOME CONSIDERA TIONS A striking aspect of Çayônii as a settlement is the homogeneity of building types in each building layer. it was no longer well-kept as in the cell period. the building types of each layer were different from both the pre ceding and from the succeeding ones. very different from each other. supported by rows of posts. As has been described before. at least in one building. the oval hut has a sunken floor. In excavating the grill layers. The side walls of the round-plan buildings were made of mud-daubed wattle. here we see a shift from round buildings to rectangular ones. the grills. The earliest and simplest grill-plan buildings have no side walls. As a natural consequence of using rows of stone. all of the round-plan buildings have their openings to the south. all the building plans were uniform.SOCIAL SYSTEM. as well as the possibility of external influences on changing buil ding types. It is also of interest to note that. gradual deposition of debris resul ting from the activities that took place in the plaza accumulated. the possibility of discontinuity be tween the round plan sub-phase and the grill and cell sub-phases has often been considered. it is impossible to imagine people living on a hollowedout floor as it would be filled with water after the first rain. it is now possible to define almost exactly where the next building will appear and what the plan and orientation will be like. thatch and twigs with occasional supporting thick branches. the grill walls on which the l iving floor of the building was raised are arranged like branches over a pit. Throughout the cell sub-phase. however. Up to now. The most extreme case for stand ardization can be observed in the grill sub-phase : not only was the orientation of the buildings in every building layer the same.e. has shown i r egularity. None of the grills have any added annexes or later alterations. After the end of the cell sub-phase. Considering how heavy and sticky the muddy clay soil of the area can get even after a summer rain. i. However.CONTINUITY IN OCCUPATION One of the debated issues of the Çayôniï s equence is whether or not there was a break in the sequence. firmly established. by the addition of alternating layers of clayey soil and beaten burnt mudbrick debris. There is. In the 1987 ex cavation season it became evident that the upper structures of the grill-plan buildings were also of light material. and el iminates the possibility of a break within this part of the sequence. The transition from the round-plan to the grill one is still poorly documented. On the contrary. this is perfectly understandable. at least three times. but throughout a single layer.at the beginning of the cell sub-phase. IV . Ill . in the intermediate sub-phase by solid platforms and in the cell sub-phase by basement like sub-structures. for supporting the floor. possibly res ting on branches stretched across the pit. that this "pla za". it remained in use. Accordingly we would assume that the 72 concavity functioned to drain off the rain water and that the main living floor was above it. its floor was not remade and levelled. Accordingly. Repairs of the plaza corresponded with the ones of the buildings that bor dered it to the north. but also their location is neatly determined. where preserved. and only in architectural details. towards the river in accordance with the slope of the mound. in the later seasons. Extensive use of mud for walls only appeared for the first time in the late intermediate period and by the cell subphase shaped bricks were in use. Given the soil matrix of Çayônii. The settlement pattern within the site is very standardized. In the grill sub-phase the living floors were raised by means of closely placed grill-like foundations. throughout Çayônii a gradual evolution of architec tural techniques have been evidenced. Even though this shift appears as if it were a revo lutionary change in the concept of building. a general impression of continuity in the development of each of the artifactual groups. clearly demonstrates a gradual development from grill plan to the cell-plan. The recognition of an intermediate sub-phase. but only one building (GS) of the grill sub-phase. one of the main concerns of the Çayônti people seems to have been to isolate their living floors from the ground. the buil ding became rectangular. where. reexamination of the available evidence indicates that it is also the outcome of a gradual development : Throughout the entire life span of the pre-pottery occupation. To conclude. between the grill and the cell sub-phases. in the later part of its history. As most of the building types that sym bolize the sub-phase are. approximately one hundred buildings have been recovered. the plaza still preserved its presence through the uppermost sub-phase as an open area. its floor was renewed. without any exception. This all leads one to think that on certain occasions the settlement was intentionally destroyed and rebuilt according to a de finite plan. the main dif ference between the round-plan buildings and the grill-plan buildings is that in the former the isolation is achieved by hollowing out the substructure of the building. seemingly.

if the buildings were still in use. the eastern section of the mound was the "pla za". The same phe nomenon was also observed in the latest phase of the skull building. If there had not been some kind of a social inhibition. 73 . With the exception of a few buildings which had been destroyed by fire. ïn every building layer. standing stones. without disturbing or re-using its stones. which certainly had some communal function. passages leading from one room to another are always found to be blocked by an irregular fill of stones. Buildings DI and DP. the stones would certainly have fallen down. Other details further support this interpretation. Usually the blocking is so irregular that. suggests that the reconstruction might have been done collec tively starting at one end of the settlement.ding layer were standard in building details. mea suring more than a meter in length. the stones previously used and obviously still visible above the ground would have served as easy building material. A huge grooved stone. Channeled building types indicating transition from grill plan to the intermediate. Buildings DA and CZ of the intermediate sub-phase with stone-paved floors. the foundations of the new building are always directly on top of the preceding one. Earliest grill type. This also indicates that the buildings were deserted intentionally and that there was a kind of superstition in closing up the spaces. crypts. I : 2 3 4 1 Skull building : early stage with flagstone pavement. It is also of interest to note that many arti facts which are still intact were abandoned within the cell rooms. all inside doorways were blocked with stones. perhaps indicating that but chering was done there. At the time of this subphase. which we assume PI. at north still earlier stages of the building with round walls. (building GH) overlying round building RA. Another surprising fact of the Çayônii settlement is the evidence of social stratification that can be best observed within the cell sub-phase where the exposures are most extensive. Most of the tools found in association with the plaza layers are chipped discs. Another fact which is mainly observed in the buildings of the cell sub-phase is the blocking up of doorways.

et SANLAVILLE P. Ankara. The standing stone varied greatly in size and shape. VIII. BRAIDWOOD R. If the excavation of the site had first started in the westernmost area in the 1964 campaign and concentrated in that area for a few seasons. 1986 Zur Ausbildung der Bautypen des Çayônii Tepesi .J. Among these were a clay house model. ÇAMBEL H. and BRAIDWOOD R. Anatolica XV: 139-159. : : : : 74 . Along the northern side of the plaza. various elegantly worked groundstone objects including beads and pendants of semi-pre cious stones. Towards the western end of the site.) Festschrift fur Kurt Bittel: 463-476. 1985 1984 Yili Çayônii Kazisi.to have been a communal axe-sharpening place. Journal of Field Archaeology 8 249-258. and HAUPTMANN H. 1988 Zu den Bauten des Çayônii Tepesi.J. a group of buildings were found. Préhistoire du Levant 531-553. Kazi Sonuçlari Toplantisi I: 51-66. The two rows of standing stone that were set into the plaza are also of interest. A 70 m.J. (eds. It is also of interest to note that some of the standing stones were intentionally broken and then buried un der the subsequent reflooring of the plaza.Ser. exten dedto the westernmost end of the site. Mehmet ÔZDOGAN and Asii OZDOČAN Prehistorya Amabilim Dali Istanbul Universitesi Istanbul. Ankara. Even the stones used in the walls of these buildings are considerably larger than the normal stones used in other buildings of the same plan type.M. 1983 Drei Bauten des Çayônii Tepesi. The only other places where standing stones have been encountered are in the special buildings. and BRAIDWOOD L. the largest one exceeded 2 m in height and the smallest one was about a meter high. Mainz. In С AU VIN J. To the west of the plaza within the cell subphase the large exposure indicates a modest living quarter with various witnesses of domestic activities. et al. Probably it would have seemed so dest a settlement that there would have been no mot ivation for the excavators to continue digging on the site ! In order to make a more substantial interpreta tion Çayônii evidence. the overall picture of Çayônii would have been complet ely different. 1981 Beginnings of Village Farming Communities in South-eastern Turkey Çayônii Tepesi. Kazi Sonuçlari Toplantisi : 37-52. ÇAMBEL H. Most of the open areas were occupied by industrial working areas such as flint and obsidian chipping ones. in that it r evealed numerous small working areas and poorly made structures. but they were slightly larger.J et al. SCHIRMER W. and ÇAMBEL H. Turquie BIBLIOGRAPHY BRAIWOOD R. 1980 Chronologie et organisation de Г espace à Çayônii. 1982 Prehistoric Village Archeology in Southeastern key. and another had indi cations of some modelling. IX Turk Tarih Kongresi I 41-47. with more massive walls. Ankara. At least one of them had traces of red paint. VII. Paris : CNRS. The buildings were of the same uniform plan types as the other buildings of the site. and BRAIDWOOD R. BAR Int . which have revealed the most unusual finds of the Çayônii excavations. Oxford. long trench that we excavated in the 1985 season. ÇAMBEL H. aligned behind raised plat forms. the buildings became smaller and flimsier and open areas in be tween the buildings became larger. It clearly showed changes in the social pattern. In BOEHMER R. 1986 1985 Yili Cayonii Kazisi. was found lying on one of the plaza floors. 138. Ne vertheles the architectural lay-out and the prelimi nary assessment of the evidence indicates that the social structure of the community was much more complex than we would at first ever have envisaged. the final analysis of of the the different artifact groups must be available. in the flagstone building and in the skull building.

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