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Personality is a concept that we use continuously in our day-to-day routine, when dealing with people. We talk about people as having a good personality or a bad personality or arrogant and aggressive personality. Personality can be reflected in a person’s temperament and is a key factor influencing individual behaviour in organizations. Often the wrong type of personality of a superior proves disastrous in terms of worker unrest and protests. Salvatore Maddi has defined personality as: “Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment.” There are several aspects of this definition that need to be considered. The first aspect is that or relative stability of characteristics. These characteristics account for “consistent patterns” of behaviour. The second aspect is the “commonalities and differences” in the behaviour of people. We are interested in understanding as to what an individual has in common with others as well as what sets that individual apart from others. Every person is in certain aspects, • • • Like all other people Like some other people Like no other person
Personality Types There are two types of individual personality Type A and Type B. A person exhibiting Type A behaviour is generally restless, impatient with a desire for quick achievement and perfectionism. Type B is much more easy going relaxed about time pressure, less competitive and more philosophical in nature. Some of the characteristics of Type A personality are given below. • • • • • • • Is restless, so that he always moves, walks and eats rapidly. Is impatient with the pace of things, dislikes waiting and is impatient with those who are not impatient. Does several things at once. Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time, irrespective of whether everything is done or not. Usually does not complete one thing before starting on another. Uses nervous gestures such as clenched fist and banging on table. Does not have time to relax and enjoy life.
Type B behaviour is just the opposite and is more relaxed, sociable and has a balanced outlook on life. Type A behaviour profile tends to be obsessive and managers with such behaviour are hard driving, detailed-oriented people with high performance standards.
Five • • • •
personality traits related to job performance Extraversion Agreeableness Emotional stability Openness to experience.
Factors Contributing to Personality According to Maier, “knowledge, skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications of behaviour. Learned modifications in behaviour are not passed on to children, they must be acquired by them through their own personal experience.” The probable consensus is that heredity and environment jointly affect personality development. The full potential of a person may or may not be achieved due to environmental constraints and requirements, but the potential for development, both physically and psychologically is determined by the complex set of genes. The factors affecting personality development are illustrated as follows: • • • • • • • Heredity Culture Family Environment Personality Social Situational
Personality Dimensions Some of the more important dimensions of personality that are closely linked with interpersonal and organizational behaviour are discussed as follows: Authoritarianism: Authoritarianism refers to blind acceptance of authority. Authoritarian people believe in obedience and respect for authority. Because of their beliefs in hierarchical order, they make good followers; work better under directive supervision and more productive within authoritarian organizational structure. A closely related term to authoritarians is “dogmatism” which refers to the rigidity of a person’s beliefs. Bureaucratic Personality: A bureaucratic persons respect for authority is not total and blind, but is based upon respect for organizational rules and regulations. A bureaucratic person values subordination, rules, conformity, orderly processes in the organization and impersonal and formal relationships. Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism is a term associated with Niccola Machiavelli, a sixteenth century author who identified personality profiles of noble men. This personality merges in manipulating others for purely personal gains and gaining and keeping control of others. People with Machiavellianims have high self-confidence and high self-esteem. They are cool and calculating and
have no hesitation in using others or taking advantages of others in order to serve their own goals. Problem Solving Style: Individuals have their own style of making decisions and this style reflects their personality in certain ways. Some people are very through, meticulous and detail oriented. Others are impulsive and become easily swayed by what seems to be obvious. The problem solving style has two dimensions. One is the information gathering and the second dimension is evaluation of data and taking of decisions. Further, there are two styles involved in information gathering. One is known as Sensation and the second style known as intuitive style, The evaluation style also has two dimensions. One style involves more emphasis on feeling while the other involves more emphasis on thinking. When the two dimensions of information gathering and the two dimensions of evaluation are combined, it results in four problem-solving styles. These are: 1. Sensation-feeling style. These people are dependable, friendly, social and approach facts with human concerns. They are pragmatic, methodical and like jobs that involve human contact and public relations. Some suitable areas of jobs include teaching customer relations, social workers, and sales people. 2. Sensation-thinking style. They are practical, logical, decisive, and sensitive to details they also prefer bureaucratic type organizations. They are not highly skilled in interpersonal relations and are more suited to such technical jobs as those of production, accounting, engineering and computer programming. 3. Intuition-feeling style. These people are enthusiastic, people oriented, charismatic and helpful. Some of the professions suitable for this style are public relations, advertising, politics and personnel. 4. Intuition-thinking style. These people are creative, energetic, ingenious, and like jobs that are challenging in terms of design and analysis such as system design, law, research and development, top management and so on. Locus of Control Locus of control is the extent to which the individuals believes that: • They control their own lives, or • External forces control their lives, which are beyond their control. A person with a strong “internal locus of control” believes that he controls events concerning his own life and that his internal traits determine what happens in given situation. A person with a strong “external locus of control” feels that outside forces are affecting the events in his life and he is at the mercy of destiny, chance or other people. He believes that “whatever will be, will be” and everything happens by the will of God. Introvert and Extrovert Personalities
Introvert persons are basically shy, they prefer to be alone and have difficulty in communicating. Extroverts are outgoing, objective, and aggressive they also relate well with people. Self-esteem Self-esteem is the degree of respect a person has for himself. Self-esteem is a measure of self-confidence and respect for one’s abilities and motivation. It is also a higher level need in Maslow’s model of hierarchical needs. Self-esteem is positively related to assertiveness, independence and creativity.
The socialization process
a) Organizational socialization – values, norms, behavior pattern. b) Characteristics of organizational socialization of employees • Change of attitude, values and behaviour. • Continuity of socialization over time. • Adjustment to new jobs, work groups and organizational practices. • Mutual influence between new recruits and managers. • Criticality of early socialization period. Socializing new employees • Use of mentor or role model • Orientation and training program. • Reward system. • Career planning. Successful organizational socialization includes • Provide a challenging first job • Provide relevant training. • Provide timely and consistent feedback. • Select a good first supervisor to be in change of socialization. • Design a relaxed orientation program. • Place new recruits in work groups with high morals Emphasis on different characteristics. • Administrative skills • Work motivation • Interpersonal skill • Creativity • Social dominance • Maturity • Independence Propositions – Chris Argyris I. There is lack of congruency between the needs of healthy individuals and the demands of the formal organization. II. The resultant of this disturbance are frustration, failre, short – time perspective and conflict. III. Under certain conditions the degree of frustration, failure, short – time perspective and conflict will tend to increase. IV. The nature of the formal principles of the organization cause the subordinate, at any given level, to experience competition, rivalry,
V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.
inter – subordinate hostility and to develop a focus toward the parts rather than the whole. The employee adaptive behaviour maintains self – integration and impedes integration with the formal organization. The adaptive behaviour of the employees has a cumulative effect, feedback into the organization and reinforces itself. Certain management reactions tend to increase the antagonisms underlying the adaptive behaviour. Other management actions can decrease the degree of incongruence between the individual and formal organization. Job or role enlargement and employee – centred leadership will not tend to work to the extent that the adaptive behaviour (propositions III, IV, V and VI) has embedded in organisational culture and the self – concept of the individual. The difficulties involved in proposition IX may be minimized by the use of reality oriented leadership.
There are several theories but the more prominent among them are: (i) type, (ii) trait, (iii) psychoanalytic, (iv) social learning and (v) humanistic. Type Theories Type theories place personalities into clearly identifiable categories. Kretschmer and Sheldon are credited with this classification. In type theories relationship was sought to be established between features of face or body and personality. Thus, a short, plumb person (endomorph) was said to be sociable, relaxed, and even tempered; a tall, thin person (ectomorph) was characterized as restrained, self conscious, and fond of solitude; a heavy set muscular individual (mesomorph) was described as noisy, callous, and found of physical activity. Although a person’s physique may have some influence on personality, the relationship is much more subtle than this sort of classification implies. Thus classification of personalities on body basis is subjective. The second basis to type personalities is psychological factors. Carl Jung, divided all personalities into introverts and extroverts. These terms are normally associated with an individual’s sociability and interpersonal orientation. Extroverts are gregarious, sociable individuals, while introverts are shy, quiet and retiring. Trait Theories Trait theorists assume that a personality can be described by its position on a number of continuous dimensions or scales, each of which represents a trait. Thus, we could rate an individual on a scale of intelligence, emotional stability, aggressiveness, creativeness, or any of a number of other dimensions. Psychologists working in a area of trait theory are concerned with (a) determining the basic traits that provide a meaningful description of personality, and (b) finding some way to measure them. Psychoanalytic theory is based on the in-depth study of individual personalities. Social Learning Theory There are two ways of learning : Learning through reinforcement – direct experience and learning by observing others, also called vicarious learning.
behaviour is utterly dependent upon how one perceives the world – that is. Maslow’s Self-Actualisation Theory Abraham Maslow is regarded as the spiritual father of humanism in American psychology. postulates man as self actualiser. share a common emphasis on man’s potential for self direction and freedom of choice. Indeed. * Also refer to “Personality Theories – Ziegler” for Freud’s Personality theory Assertiveness Meaning of Assertiveness Webster defines “assert” as “to state positively with great confidence”. behaviour is the result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by the individual. Rogers’ Self Theory Roger’s approach to personality is described as phenomenological. Some of the person variables that determine what an individual will do in a particular situation include the following : • Competencies • Cognitive strategies • Outcome expectations • Subjective value outcome • Self regulatory systems and plans The Humanistic Approach The humanistic approach to the study of personality includes number of theories. Such an approach to personality emphasizes the self and its characteristics. with all parts of the personality in harmony. By self-actualisation Maslow meant the development of full individually. They believe that since an individual can make use of complex symbolic processes to code and store his observations in memory. on the other hand. referred to as self theory of personality because the best vantage point for understanding behaviour is from the internal frame of reference of the individual himself. he can learn by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequences of those actions. Humanistic psychology of Maslow. It is the extent of forcefulness a person (or leader) uses with a view to express himself. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are credited with the humanistic theory of personality. although different in some respects. this theory is often. Assertiveness is a term meant to describe the extent of control.For social learning theorists reinforcement is not always necessary for learning. the . For Rogers. Humanistic psychology of Maslow radically differs from psychoanalytic and learning or behaviouristic theories. This drive of man which is inherent in him. Existential philosophy is concerned with man as an individual and each person alone is responsible for his own existence. is called self-actualisation.
” The assertive person possesses four characteristics: 1. It confers personal power and restores balance of power. Characteristics of Assertive Behaviour When we are assertive. he attempts to make things happen. activities. • Take initiative in starting conversations. However. he maintains his self-respect. We state our preference clearly and confidently. 3. without belittling others. This can mean that it is appropriate on occasions to be angry.leader tries to exercise over both the followers as well as the situation. In contrast to the passive person who waits for things to happen. can compliment others and receive compliments gracefully. It is an essential skill for a leader. • • • Promotes equality in human relationship It keeps both parties in all situations on an equal footing. It means expressing what you think or feel without endangering the ego of others. friends and family. He pursues what he desires. 1. Aware that he cannot always win. Assertiveness is a skill you can acquire – not a personality trait. The Assertive Personality According to Webster’s Third International Dictionary. we tell people what we want. honest and appropriate. he accepts his limitations. He acts in a way that he respects himself. This is what I feel. that doesn’t involve violating the rights of other people. or ourselves without being threatening or putting other people down. Through words and actions he makes the statement “This is me. groups • Trust our own judgment • Set own goals and work to achieve them • Ask help from others • Participate socially 3. assuredly. the verb “assert” means “to state or affirm positively. He can communicate with people on all levels – with strangers. think and want.” 2. assertive behaviour is appropriate behaviour. This communication is open. need.win situations in dyadic relationships. Assertive people can initiate conversation. He has an active orientation to life. To stand up for ourselves without undue anxiety • Saying “No” . It is saying what you mean and having self-respect and respect for others. Above all. He feels free to reveal himself. 2. plainly or strongly. It promotes win . relationships. or it can mean choosing not to be assertive in a particular situation or with a particular person. It is a positive way of behaving. lose or draw. 4. he always strives to make the good try so that win. Enabling us to act in our own best interests It assists us to : • Make decisions about career. time schedule. or would prefer. lifestyles. direct. can cope with justified criticism – and can give it too.
• Strive to express all feelings. like business. without name-calling. Apply the techniques you use successfully in one area to the other. supporting or defending an opinion To express honest feelings To disagree To show anger. If you can say “Go to the end of the line” to a woman at the supermarket. school.• • • 4. . affection. member of an organisation. company. • Competency as citizen. Assertiveness: Principles Whatever your problem. whether angry or tender. like marriage. • Understand assertion is not a permanent state. • Realize you may be unassertive in one area. • Examine your own behaviour and determine areas where you would like to become more assertive. • To accomplish the above without unfair criticism of others without hurtful behaviour towards others. manipulatory behaviour with true assertion. • Act in ways that increase your liking and respect for yourself. life situations change. • Do not confuse glib. put-downs. To exercise personal rights. Assertive Behaviours Assertiveness is a set of congruent behaviours one can learn through persistence and practice. gifts. workgroup. and strengths. manipulation and controlling. there are certain basic principles for being assertive: • Reveal as much of your personal self as is appropriate to the situation and the relationship. friendship To admit fear or anxiety To express agreement or support 5. Pay attention to what you can do differently rather than how the world can be different. • Practice speaking up with trivia. • Do not confuse aggression with assertion. and you face new challenges and need new skills. 1. consumer. • As participant in public events to express opinions • To work for change • To respond appropriately to violations of own or others’ rights. anger Expressing. Assertion is appropriate standing up for yourself. Without denying others’ rights. and assertive in another area. you can eventually announce “No I don’t want to do that” to your spouse. intimidation. • • • • Setting limits on time and energy Responding to criticism. Think and talk about yourself in a positive way It may help you take time to compile a list of your qualities. Aggressiveness is an act against others. As you change. 6.
7. 4. Feel comfortable expressing honest compliments You surely appreciate certain things about other people . Accept compliments without embarrassment Others too appreciate certain things about you. In saying ‘No’ there is no need to be rude. and it is good that they express their appreciation through honest compliments. as well as negative. with due respect for the other person. Explore your alternatives: voicing your dissatisfaction in polite. the way they work. Express yourself directly and spontaneously The feelings you actually experience. then increase the forcefulness of your expression. If you are deficient in this behaviour. Components of Assertive Behaviour You will recognize the following components of assertiveness: . 9. Insist on fair treatment This will often involve you and a person ‘in charge’. that is. when you have done all you can. Keep in touch with friends Valuable friendships often decline because neither party acts to keep it going. learn to live peacefully with the results.2. If you wait for them to act. if it is not. Waiting for the other to take the initiative does not always have the desired effect. Make it clear that you are saying ‘No’ to the request. depending on the situation 6. neither is it necessary to give many explanations. 8. Risks are risks no matter who takes them. you may begin with small issues and gradually move on to bigger ones. 10. 3. And recognise the limitations of the situation. not to the person. Take the first step in forming new friendships Friendships are important. State honest disagreement with ease When you disagree with what someone says. and be ready to be misunderstood. Whatever the outcome you’ll feel better for having stood up for your rights. 5. Be able to say “No” Specially so if you honestly think others take advantage of you. what that say.something they do. Ask no more of others than you ask of yourself. and the thoughts you think worth expressing both positive. firm terms may be enough. stick to the issue without attacking the person. they wear. Ask for what you want Clarify yourself about what you want and express it appropriately either as a suggestion or a request or a command. So a reasonable thing to do is to take the first step when you meet someone you would like to know better. you assume they are capable of taking risks.
They can compromise and negotiate. everyone in the organisation suffers. wants. This is the strongest form of assertion and should only be used when the other types have been tried. Level – Both parties: A statement that openly explains the adverse effect a person’s behaviour is having on you. They will say clearly what they want. Expressing negative feelings or standing up for your rights can be interpreted as ‘out of order’ or ‘insubordinate’. opinions or feelings. Overtly aggressive or manipulative behaviour can bring immediate results. an office or shop floor. Often. unassertive people are ‘institutionalized’ and need a great deal of support before they can ‘come out from under’ and begin to value their role and appreciate that their participation is sought. Empathize – Both parties: This is a behaviour that contains an element of understanding for the other person as well as a statement of your own needs and thoughts. The introduction of assertive behaviour into the workplace. Assertive Behaviour at Work Assertive behaviour in the workplace gives everyone a better chance of influencing the system and participating in changes. Assertive behaviour is so important to self-esteem and proactive behaviour that it needs to be particularly supported and endorsed in young workers or school children and students. However. wants. We are then. so people work more happily with us than against us. Advantages of Assertive Behaviour • Close working relationships: Assertion tends to breed assertion. more likely to achieve our objectives in a conflict situation. People behaving assertively make good line mangers. When people feel defensive and have to use their energy for political maneuvering. but equally be supportive of staff and take the needs of others into account. but credibility and integrity are put at risk. Ask – The other person: A question or questions designed to clarify where the other person stands. will probably involve an intense transition period. with their help. there are different types of assertion. opinions and feelings.• • • • • Giving information Seeking information Expressing feelings Accepting feelings Change desired (in self or other) Assertiveness is a balance between being passive and aggressive. beliefs. what are his / her needs. Relationships are more open and working climates are more genuine. whether it is a school. different ways of expressing your own rights assertively: State – Your rights: A straightforward statement that stands up for your rights by clearly and reasonably stating your needs. .
and behave like a tyrant at home. honesty and appropriateness. and difficulty with close relationships. and remain passive in all situations. You may be deficient in any or all three of these areas. a characteristic often accompanied by shallowness of feeling. cannot speak up. Assertion processes four behavioral characteristics. or inner emotions. Increased self responsibility: We take responsibility for ourselves. but often you lack assertion in just one: . Unaware about the realities of social relations. A lot of time and energy is wasted on worrying and scheming.” No matter how great your timidity and irresolution. but not in groups. the narrower the area. The person with communication difficulties.• • • • • • Greater confidence in yourself: We develop a strong regard for ourselves and a high level of self esteem. rather than blaming others (aggression) or excusing ourselves (passive) Increased self-control: We can channel our thoughts and feelings to produce the behaviour we want. . In general. generally appropriate. lack of clear-cut desires. The split assertive. you say. You may be assertive in a one-to-one relationship. our wants. opinions. there is always a point from which you can start to change. their ideas and opinions heard and considered and their abilities put to good use. . People may fail at one area of assertiveness and succeed at another. Savings in time and energy: We can take decisions more swiftly based on their individual merit and save time when handling disputes. You tend to be wordy. You seem to be open and honest. • • . Greater confidence in others: We have a healthy recognition of the capabilities and limitations of others as opposed to seeing them as inferior (aggression) or superior (passive). An increased change of everyone winning: Assertiveness increases the likelihood that all parties will see their needs met. but this seeming assertiveness hides a basic lack of honesty. the easier it is to change with Assertiveness Training. you say what you think is the right thing at the wrong time.Indirect Communication. “I’m sorry. reducing the chance of boastfulness (aggression) and hopelessness (passive).Dishonest or pseudo assertive communication.Inappropriate communication. You allow yourself to be pushed around. If we are not worried about upsetting people (passive) or scheming how not to miss out (aggression) then we can save ourselves a lot of stress. Blocks Of Assertive Behaviour Following are some of the blocks in the personality that are faced by the individual in being assertive: • The timid soul. A man can be the epitome of passivity at the office. The range for split assertive behaviour can be very narrow. rather than being controlled by outside events or people. often extroverted. Openness and directness. You can be able to openly express your tender feelings and yet not be able to show your angry feelings – and vice versa. If someone steps on your foot. needs etc.
the other person should go along with you.• • • • • • The person with behavioral deficits. criticism. He then backs his hand away. he is in control of what’s happening. First. by offering no resistance to your job. and hangups. You don’t grant independence to other people. This time. accept the feedback by allowing it to come to you. You possess incorrect ideas. You can demand a raise and deserve it. by directing the momentum of your punch. Again you are asked to hit his hand with your fist. Stay in control by deciding whether you agree to what is said. he stops the forward motion of your swing. If you don’t there’s something wrong with you. You think you’re supposed to treat a stranger as a friend. but question your right to do it. in a split second before you’re about to punch him. while still holding on to yours controlling the force you just threw. he feels no pain. and have the skill to accomplish it. become anxious about being anxious. closeness. his fingers wrap around your fist. the other person. You can’t make eye contact or small talk. Instead. but the economic state of your firm may prohibit a salary increase. Ai-Ki Do is a martial art. handle a confrontation. inhibit you from carrying out the action. Assertiveness Techniques The Three techniques for Assertiveness are: • Mental Ai-Ki-Do • Information Building • Echoing • Mental Ai-Ki-Do This technique can help you to accept criticism comfortably without becoming defensive. anger. You don’t comprehend the difference between aggression and assertion. But very often. You feel that as long as you do the right things. You have a wrong concept of social reality. These assertive skills can be learned. You know what you should do. tenderness. You think as long as you’re being reasonable. Visualize a man holding up his hand in front of you. Reality doesn’t work that way. but your fears of rejection. just won’t. or start a conversation. He accomplishes two things. Since he did not move his hand when you hit it. you hit his hand. Do not fight the feedback. You know what and how of what has to be done. With all your force. Then you use your focused listening skills. He asks that you to hit his upheld hand with your fist. you should win them all. scrutiny. not realizing that the life situation provides problems where anxiety is the appropriate reaction. Try your best to stay . The person with specific blocks. You don’t understand that different kinds of relationships exist with different people. Use mental Ai-Ki-Do (control) when any negative feedback (mental fist) comes your way. feelings. Second. because of his own needs. You worry about worrying. You have an erroneous idea of psychological reality. It never occurs to you to treat the stranger as a stranger and the friend as a friend.
start out with general information and work up to sensitive. Expressing One’s Feelings The following are some of the points that are taken into consideration while expressing assertive feelings 1. When it is inappropriate for you to budge on a certain point. Depending upon how well you know the person and your own comfort level. • Echoing This technique will strengthen your ability to say “no” respectfully without regrets. you will teach others that you are serious and determined.If appropriate. . and you are still being ordered or intimidated to handle a request. Know What You Want To Say: You won’t appear confident if you are unsure of what you want. vendor. in the process. use humor and open-ended. Before meeting with someone. Remember. Some people feel this technique is a rude one because it requires you to be domineering. Say It: Don’t hesitate or beat about the bush. Providing information about yourself first will encourage others to share their thoughts and feelings with you. plan what kind of information would be appropriate to share. supervisor. The technique certainly is used to get your way. but it should not be used exclusively.Suggest a more suitable person to take on the assignment. After sharing your thoughts and feelings. you start to lose control by giving in to the force. The technique is similar to an echo because you repeat what you desire. Mention other possible ways to complete the work. One of the ways trust is built between associates is by the amount of knowledge that is shared by and about each other.even – tempered. If these strategies do not work. building relationships takes time. non-leading questions to elicit feedback and to keep the conversation relaxed and flowing. peer. You do not have to discuss something of mutual interest. You could appear foolish by asking of something that you eventually realize is not what you want. come right out with it! Practise before you say it and check for appropriateness. Stay composed and state over and over again what you want. and even an irate and unreasonable customer. Once you explode or hide. . Use this technique only after exhausting these strategies: . the echoing technique will help you hold your ground with an associate. 2.Inform whoever is requesting your services that you are unable to do the job as it is not into your priorities. . Nor should you restrict sharing information just because the other person has not disclosed much during your conversation. offer some assistance or time to help with part of the project or task. • Information Building This technique will help you initiate and build relationships by sharing information about yourself. need-to-know information. then use the echoing technique.
waving your arms around. If you simply look shifty and cannot look them in the eye. This will confuse the person you are speaking to. on the other hand. 8. communicates hostility as you put the other person down. Avoid Laughing Nervously: Smile if it’s appropriate. Wait for that to pass. . Practise looking relaxed in a mirror – it’s not as contradictory as it sounds! 7. Be Specific: Say exactly what you want or do not want. Look Relaxed: You’ll convey anxiety by shifting from one foot to another. 6. Begin with the word “I”.3. On the other hand. Say It as Soon as Possible: Do not let too much time pass. so that there can be no confusion. Look the Person in the Eye: People feel more comfortable if you look directly at them. No long explanations are necessary. you certainly will not come across as someone who knows what they want. or conversely being too rigid. but if you giggle or laugh you won’t look as if you mean what you say. 5. as this builds up apprehension. Being sarcastic. do not say it at the peak of your anger. Whining and pleading can either annoy the person or make them feel guilty. 4. It is being manipulative. Don’t Whine or be Sarcastic: Be direct and honest.
Secondary organs receive not only physical objects. Location: The best location of a visual stimulus for attracting attention is directly in the front of the eyes in the center of a page. and the left hand side receives more attention than the right hand side. they receive events or objects that have been repressed. whether the object is visual or auditory. But the perceiver. smell. and smelling.” “Perception includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about his environment – seeing. The meaning of perception will be complete when all the three aspects are stressed. stimuli need not be external to us. touch and tasting. hearing.. and the environment influence what is seen. A few definitions of perception are given below: “Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments. a position in the upper portion of a page in more favourable than one in the lower portions. hearing.” Perceptual Process Perception. The study of these perceptional processes shows that their functioning is affected by three classes of variables – the objects or events being perceived. receiving. as revealed by the definitions. We need to filter or screen out most of them so that we may deal with the important or relevant ones. checking. and the individuals doing the perceiving. Similarly. is composed of six processes. organizing.Perception “If everyone perceived everything the same way. and reacting to stimuli. the environment in which perception occurs. Process of Receiving Stimuli The human organism is structured with five sensory organs.. and whether it involves pictures. viz. selecting. people or animals. Two sets of factors govern the selection of stimuli: external and internal. Process of Selecting Stimuli Myriads of stimuli seemingly clamour for our attention at any given time. things would be a lot simpler” -Moorhead & Griffin In its simple sense perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen. tasting. . We receive stimuli through the organs. When this location is not possible in a newspaper or a magazine. viz. feeling. the object. External Factors Influencing Selection The external factors influencing selection are: Nature: By nature we mean. vision. These processes are influenced by the perceived and the situation. They may be inside also. There is the sixth sense about which much is speculated and nothing is known. interpreting. We may not be able to report the existence of certain stimuli but our behaviour reveals that we are often subject to their influence.
The young managers in turn complain about the “old guards” resisting change and using paper and rules as ends in themselves. even though the smaller one costs as much and as important to the operation. It has been argued that. Psychological Needs: Needs play a significant role in perceptual selectivity. ambivalence. interests cannot be distinguished from needs. Internal Factors Influencing Selection Internal factors influencing selection of stimuli include learning. Repetition: The repetition principle states that a repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a single one. Different perceptions of old and young executives are due to their age differences perceptions. Yet there is some value in conceiving the two as distinct. in their influence on perception. weak odour. has considerable influence on perception. It creates expectancy in people. a cognitive factor. his perception is likely to be selective at any time. will receive their attention. Interest: The interests of the perceiver unconsciously influence perception. Paranoid Perception: When the person’s perception is so selective that he can find little common ground for communication with others. Ambivalence: Another factor in perceptual selection is ambivalence or mixed feelings about a situation. age differences. A loud noise. Age Difference: Older senior executives complain about the inability of the new young to take tough decisions concerning terminating or resigning people and paying attention to details and paper work. . These factors relate to oneself. New objects in familiar settings or familiar objects in new setting will draw the attention of the perceiver. interests. Learning: Learning. and paranoid perception. Novelty and Familiarity: The novelty and familiarity principle states that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as an attention getter. or dim light.Intensity: Stimuli of higher intensity are perceived more than the objects with low intensity. Size: Generally objects of larger size attract more attention than the smaller ones. An architect will notice many details of buildings that he passes only once. or bright light will be noticed more than a soft sound. he is likely to be paranoid. the person with a particular interest has a need to involve himself in activities pertaining to it. psychological needs. But if the person has a special interest. Unreal things often look real because of deprived needs. People tend to perceive what they want to perceive. That is. most needs no longer influence perception. strong odour. Once they have been satisfied. or which are not what people are expecting. The maintenance engineering staff may pay more attention to a big machine than to a small one. Movement: The principle of motion states that a moving object receives more attention than an object that is standing still. Contrast: The contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out against the background.
Perceptual Grouping: The principles of grouping first defined by gestalt psychologists include similarity. a person is likely to categories the other according to some silent characteristic such as sex. The Process of Interpreting After the data have been received and organized. and consequences influence the attribution process. Factors such as status. our ability to perceive certain characteristics of an object as remaining constant. Stereotyping Stereotyping is the tendency for a person’s perceptions of another to be influenced by the social group to which the others belong. and ascribing all good qualities to one who is liked and all bad qualities to another who is disliked. There are critics who argue that perceptual distortion occurs because of attribution. religion. the perceiver interprets or assigns meaning to the information. There are several aspects of constancy such as shape. In other words. according to the principle. Such constancy amidst changing stimuli is indispensable if we are to adjust to our world. perceived objects stand out as separable from their general background. Figure Ground: Figure ground is considered to be the most basic form of perceptual organization. This aspect of forming bits of information into meaningful wholes is called the perceptual organization. In fact. figure ground. This is called perceptual set. More important amongst them are Perceptual Set Previously held beliefs about objects influence an individual’s perceptions of similar objects. The individual’s experiences with others in the category in which he has placed them lead him to believe that they have certain traits in common.. he is ready to perceive the other as possessing the same trait. Attribution Attribution refers to the process by which the individual assigns causes to the behaviour he conceives. intentions. perception is said to have taken place only after the data have been interpreted. despite variations in the stimuli that provide us with our information. colour. and perceptual constancy. Several factors contribute towards what has been interpreted. proximity. race. Perceptual Constancy: A more subtle part of perceptual organization is constancy. size. The figure ground principle states that the relationship of a target to its background influences perception. closure. and continuity. Thus. . or organizational affiliation.The Organizing Process The perceptual selection related to the discussion of external and Internal factors which helped gain the perceiver’s attention. Halo Effect The halo effect refers to the tendency of perceiving people in terms of good and bad. occupation. nationality. perceptual grouping. viz. There are three dimensions to the perceptual organization. In perceiving another. As too much credit or blame for behaviour is placed on persons rather than on environment.
unacceptable or threatening stimuli. tendencies. the perceived and situation are some of the factors that influence perception. The defence mechanisms put up by the perceiver may assume any of the four forms: outright denial. and behaviour of persons in the situation also influence how a situation is perceived. Characteristics of the Perceiver A perceiver needs to have. Projection Under certain conditions. Characteristics of the Perceived The physical attributes. modification of the data received. and weight. they project their own feelings. The Process of Checking After data have been received and interpreted. habits. or motives into their judgement of others. Only when the doodles are placed in a verbal context do they take on meaning and value to the perceiver. Perceptual Defence According to the principle of perceptual defence. Another way is to check the veracity about the interpretation with others. past experience. He should be someone with a strong need for ego satisfaction. appearance. change in perception but refusal to change. It is negative when the perception is unfavourable. with one another. people tend to see in another person traits that they themselves posses.Perceptual Context The context in which an object is placed influences perception. The visual stimuli by themselves are meaningless. an individual’s perceptions are influenced by his belief that certain human traits are associated. We tend to notice the physical attributes of a person in terms of age. Characteristics of the Situation The physical. Factors Influencing Perception The perceiver. and change in perception itself. an individual is likely to put a defence when confronted with conflicting. the perceiver tends to check whether his interpretations are right or wrong. That is. which the perceiver possesses but fails to recognize himself. The perceiver shall indulge in some action in relation to his perception. The action is positive when the perception is favourable. social and organizational settings of the situation or event in question can influence perceptions. personality. The action depends on whether the perception is favorable or unfavorable. One way of checking is for the person himself to indulge in introspection. . height. sex. which may influence the perception process. Implicit Personality Theory In judging and making inferences about others. The Process of Reacting The last phase in perception is the reaction. He will put a series of questions to himself and the answers will confirm whether his perception about an individual or object is correct or not. This may be particularly true regarding undesirable traits. and attitudes. values.
be able to see a situation.e.e. Influence of perceptions of other people when they are drawing incorrect or incomplete impressions of events in the work setting. • You weigh perceptual evidence heavily if it comes from respectable sources. Avoid inappropriate attributions. i. . • You are not able to identify all factors. Be empathetic – that is.. Avoid common perceptual distortions that biased in our view of people and situations. But the fact is that interviewers generally form an early impression that becomes quickly entrenched. • You are influenced by emotional factors. Five reasons why a person misperceives – Zalkind and Costello • You are influenced by cues below your own threshold i.. If the inadequacies of the candidate are exposed early. not realizing how much weight is given to a single item. the interviewers’ judgement about the suitability or otherwise of a candidate depends on how his behaviour is perceived by them. the cues you don’t know you perceived • You respond to irrelevant cues to arrive at a judgment.. i.Perception and Organisational Behaviour In an interview for the selection of a candidate. A rejected applicant might feel that he was wronged by the interview though he deserved selection. what is liked is perceived as correct.e. Seek information from various sources to confirm or disconfirm personal impressions of a decision situation. as others perceive it. they weigh against him in the final selection Specific applications in organization • Employment interview • Performance expectations • Performance evaluation • Employee effort • Employee loyalty Managing the Perception Process • • • • • • Have a high level of self-awareness.
This means that after “learning” our behaviour must be different. Classical conditioning introduces a simple cause-and-effect relationship between one stimulus and one response. Hence.Learning “ You cannot teach a man anything. feelings. .P. Under certain situations classical conditioning does explain human behaviour. certain types of consequences can be used to increase the occurrence of a desired behaviour and other types of consequences can be used to decrease the occurrence of undesired behaviour. which differentiates human beings from dogs. emotions or perceptions but is keyed to the nature of the outcome of such behaviour. You can only help him discover it within himself. Classical Conditioning The most well known experiments on classical conditioning were undoubtedly conducted by I. This leaves no ground for making choices. It is also known as reinforcement theory and it suggests that behaviour is a function of its consequences. Pavlov with dogs. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning induces a voluntary change in behaviour and learning occurs as a “consequence” of such change. and he established a Stimulus-Response (S-R) connection.” . It also makes the response reflexive or involuntary after the stimulus-response relationship has been established. based upon such consequences. First. the behviour can be predicted and controlled. that behaviour which results in positive rewards tends to be repeated and behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated. operant conditioning. First is the element that the change must be relatively permanent.Galileo Learning can be defined as a “relatively permanent change in behaviour or potential behaviour as a result of direct or indirect experience”. It is based upon the premise that behaviour or job performance is not a function of inner thoughts. any stimulus from the work environment will elicit a response. There are two primary elements in this definition that must both be present in order to identify the process of learning. This means that certain responses can be predicted which continuously result from certain induced stimuli. cognitive learning and social learning. From an organizational point of view. either better or worse as compared to our behaviour prior to this experience of learning. The second aspect of the definition is that this change must occur due to some kind of experience or practice. Second. Theories of Learning There are four general approaches to learning – classical conditioning. This relationship is built around two principles. This learning is not caused by biological maturation.
This process of self-control is also partially a reflection of societal and cultural influences on the development and growth of human beings. the individual can adjust to new learning situations more smoothly because of the previous learning experiences. Cognition. In addition learning can also be gained by discipline and self-control and an inner desire to acquire knowledge or skills irrespective of the external rewards or consequences. Some reinforcers work by their application to a situation. responses to certain situations can be applied to similar but different situations. is the act of knowing an item of information and this knowledge affects the behaviour of the person so that the information provides cognitive cues towards the expected goal. Discrimination While generalization is a reaction to “similarities” of stimuli or responses. then some of his previous experience would be transferred to the new situation and his learning time in the new situation would be considerably decreased. Thus these reinforcers work as behaviour modifiers. If a person experiences a similar situation that he dealt with before. while other reinforcers work by their removal from the situation. There are two concepts that help in explaining the transfer of learning. . Transfer of Learning Berelson and Steiner suggested that learning can be transferred from one situation to another and the extent of such transfer is a function of the extent of similarity in the stimulus or response. It also emphasizes that people acquire new behaviour by observing or imitating others in a social setting. discrimination is the ability to differentiate between relatively similar stimuli where generalization would yield negative consequences. Because of the principle of generalization. Social Learning It is recognized that learning does not take place only because of environmental stimuli (classical and operant conditioning) or of individual determinism (cognitive approach) but is a blend of both views. Thus a “reinforcer” is any stimulus that causes certain behaviour to be repeated or inhibited.Cognitive Learning Learning is considered as the outcome of deliberate thinking about the problem or situation both intuitively and based upon known facts and responding in an objective and goal oriented manner. However. in fact. These are as follows: Generalization No two situations are exactly alike. Principle of Reinforcement Reinforcement is the process by which certain types of behaviours are strengthened.
The reward should be sufficiently powerful and durable so that it increases the probability of occurrence of desirable behaviour. Extinction This type of reinforcement is applied to reduce undesirable ‘behaviour. Negative Reinforcement Also known as “escape conditioning” or “avoidance learning”. In the extinction process. we withhold rewards for behaviour that has previously been rewarded because the behaviour was not undesirable previously. but technically there is a difference.Positive Reinforcement A positive reinforcement is a reward for a desired behaviour. on the other hand consists of “application” of an undesirable consequence or “withdrawal” of a desirable consequence for an undesirable behaviour. The punishment process. However. These are continuous and partial reinforcement schedules. The method involved is a suitable form of punishment in the form of withholding the positive enforcement or simply ignoring the undesirable behaviour. unlike the positive reinforcement where an employee works hard to gain financial and other rewards. . especially when such behaviours were previously rewarded. under avoidance conditioning. The punishment process is similar to the extinction process in that both have the effect of decreasing and eliminating the undesirable behaviour. it is equally important to examine the various ways or “schedules” of administering these techniques of reinforcement. it is also a method of strengthening desired behaviour. which has never been associated with the reward before. reprimand and other negative aspects of the organizational environment. Punishment Punishment is the most controversial method of behaviour modification and involves delivering an unpleasant consequence contingent upon the occurrence of an undesirable behaviour. then such behaviours would become less frequent and eventually die out. the employee works hard to avoid repercussion. The various ways by which the reinforcement can be administered can be categorized into two groups. Money is probably the most powerful reinforcement for positive behaviour. This means that if rewards were removed from behaviours that were previously reinforced. Schedule of Reinforcement While it is necessary to know as to which type of reinforcement would be most effective in a given situation. since money can be used for a number of other resources too.
2. there are some limitations that make these techniques ineffective in certain situations. 2. 4. Variable Interval Schedule In this type of schedule. a response is reinforced at fixed intervals of time. Fixed Interval Schedule In this type of schedule. the reinforcement is administered at random times that cannot be predicted by the employee. 3. are not fixed but vary from situation to situation. Variable-ratio Schedule It is similar to fixed-ratio schedule except that the number of responses required before reinforcement is determined. It is important for the management to recognize the power of work-group norms. However the behaviour learned by continuous reinforcement strategy tends not to persist for which such reinforcement is applied less frequently. There are four kinds of partial reinforcement schedules. some of the behavioural modification techniques. This results in fast acquisition of the desired response and the learning is rapid. Showing errors is how to do something can lead to increase in learning. . Te order of presentation of materials to be learned is very important. Fixed-ratio Schedules In a fixed-ratio schedule. There are: 1. as discussed previously are effective in eliciting desirable behaviours from employees in work situations. 3) Behaviour modification is that it ignores prevailing work-group norms. 1) Behaviour modification is an overall structure and ignores individual differences. The capacities of learners are important in determining what can be learned and how long will it take to learn it. Partial Reinforcement Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule rewards desirable behaviour at specific intervals.Continuous Schedule A continuous schedule is the one in which the desirable behaviour is reinforced every time it occurs and the reinforcement is immediate. the reinforcement is administered only upon the completion of a given number of desirable responses. 3. The simple rules of leaning are: 1. Limitations of Behaviour Modification While in general.. 2) Behaviour modification programs assume that extrinsic rewards are the key factors in behaviour modification and they ignore the fact that employees can be intrinsically motivated. It is believed that “behaviour tends to be persistent when it is learned under conditions of partial and delayed reinforcement.
9. Knowledge of results leads to increase in learning. 5. The rate of forgetting tends to be very rapid immediately after learning. The mere repetition of a situation does not necessarily lead to learning. Attitudes and Interest . Values. A passage is more easily learned and accepted if it does not interfere with earlier habits. Learning something new can interfere with the remembering of something learned earlier. 6. Two things are necessary – “belongingness” and “satisfaction”. 7. Learning is aided by active practice rather than passive reception 8. Repetition of identical materials is often as effective in getting things remembered as repeating the same story but with variations. 10.4.
order and morals. obedience. personality. Religious – It is concerned with the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmos as a whole. that capital punishment is right because it is an appropriate retribution for crimes like murder or treason. Some might argue. 3. Importance of Values Values are important to the study of organizational behaviour because they lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes. and so forth. just as strongly. that is law. Of course.George Bernard Shaw Values Is capital punishment right or wrong? The answer to this question is value laden. pleasure. and motivations. Individuals enter an organization with preconceived notions of what “ought” and what “ought not” to be. self-respect. Aesthetic – It places the highest value on form and harmony. 5. . Types of Values The most important early work in categorizing values was done by All-port and his associates. that no government has the right to take anyone’s life.” They contain a moral flavor in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right. Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. that is persecution.“When you prevent me from doing anything I want to do. good. they imply that certain behaviours or outcomes are preferred over others. Social – Here the highest value is given to the love of people. We all have values and. Economic – Emphasizes the usefulness and practicality of the situation. On the contrary. However. In other words. these notions are not value-free. for example. They identified six types of values: 1.” . This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to such values as freedom. equality. others may argue. Theoretical – Places high importance on the discovery of truth through a critical and rational approach. honesty. perceptions. we all have a set of values that form a value system. Political – It places emphasis on acquisition of power and influence. 2. 6. Value systems represent a prioritizing of individual values in relation to their relative importance. 4. or desirable. they contain interpretations of right and wrong. as you will see. what we think is important influences our attitudes and our behaviour. Further. but when I prevent you from doing anything you want to do.
These individuals have a low tolerance for ambiguity. like values. Conformity. Values also contain a moral flavor of rightness or desirability. “I favor the implementation of an affirmative action program to recruit and develop women for managerial positions in our organization” is an attitude. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. They are outspoken on inflexible systems. and peer group members. Level 7. Egocentrism. and desire that others accept their values. The statement that “discrimination is bad” reflects one’s values. These individuals are characterized by high dependence. people. They are strongly influenced by tradition and the power exerted by authority figures. or events. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. Source of Attitudes Attitudes. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. Level 2. These individuals have a high tolerance for ambiguity and people with differing values. We observe the way family and friends behave and we shape our attitudes and behaviour to align with theirs. Existential. Level 4. They are aggressive and selfish. When I say “I like my job. Manipulative. and arbitrary use of authority.” I am expressing my attitude about work. Reactive. teachers. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. Sociocentric. These persons believe in rugged individualism. Level 6. In our early years. Attitudes are not the same as values. status symbols. Level 1. have difficulty in accepting people whose values differ from their own. This is most descriptive of newborn babies. They respond primarily to power. are acquired from parents. People . restrictive policies. These individuals are unaware of themselves or others as human beings and react to basic physiological needs. respect or may be even fear. So attitudes are more specific than values. Level 5. Attitudes Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favourable or unfavourable – concerning objects. They reflect how one feels about something. Tribalistic.More recent research suggests that there is a hierarchy of levels that are descriptive of personal values and life-styles. Level 3. we begin modeling our attitudes after those we admire. One such study identified seven levels. Values are the broader and more encompassing concept.
and involvement in the organization. job satisfaction. When there is an inconsistency. These job-related attitudes tap positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. Individuals who express high commitment see their identity as closely attached to that of the organizations.imitate the attitudes of popular individuals or those they admire and respect. the two are frequently used interchangeably. Changing attitudes: Some basic techniques a) Persuasive messages: Hearing sometimes is believing i) Comunicator’s Characteristics • Attractiveness • Style • Credibility ii) Content of persuasive message • Receiver’s characteristics • Intelligence • Self – esteem/ confidence iii) Enhance persuasion • Build personal attractiveness • Enhance credibility . identification with. In fact. attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour. In organizations. while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. there are three primary attitudes that are of concerned to us i. When people speak of employee attitudes. The term “job involvement” states that job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies with his job. Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitudes toward his or her job. and organizational commitment. more often then they mean job satisfaction. Typically. forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behaviour are again consistent. Organizational commitment expresses an individual’s orientation toward the organization by tapping his or her loyalty to. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job.e. Type of Attitudes But OB focuses our attention on a very limited number of job-related attitudes. Attitudes and Consistency People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behaviour. and considers his performance important to his self-worth. This means that individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviour so they appear rational and consistent. job involvement. actively participates in it.
To have an “interest” in any object is. and both are interested in it. and is therefore determined by our instincts and our sentiments. rather than upon the extent and variety and systematic organization of the cognitive systems of the mind ( knowledge). It is sometimes alleged that “interest” in any object or topic depends upon. though such knowledge favours thus sustaining attention: without such knowledge our attention to any object. the possession of appropriate knowledge or (in terms of the “idea” theory) of mass or system of “ideas” related to the object or topic. We acquire a great variety of new interests through the building up of sentiments for a great variety of objects. while your friend by your side. that it depends upon the strength of the conative tendencies excited.b) c) d) e) f) • • • Use social pressure Design appeal with care Repetition can always help Dissonance: when attitude and behaviour don’t match Providing new information Use of fear Influence of family. while his is not) is that you are “interested” in the sounds made by the automobile and he is not. that is can think of the . for he has the knowledge. even when you ask him to direct his attention to it. either natively or through experience. Knowledge about an object is not in itself a condition of “interest”. The difference between you (manifested in the fact that your attention is drawn to the sound. to be ready to pay attention to it.” being essentially conative. But presently a new element. it excites the curiosity of both. perhaps of relatively low intensity. and your attention is at once attracted. fails to notice the new element. friends and peers Barriers to changing attitudes Interest You are driving your automobile. Interest is latent attention. enters into the complex stimulation. and attention is interest in action. or cognitive mental structure. “Interest. that enables him to examine it systematically and in detail. Thus a naturalist and a layman may discover some strange plant or animal. That “interest” is conative rather than cognitive. and the continued roar it makes does not hold or divert or attract your attention. The essential condition of both interest in and attention to any object is that the mind shall be so organized. determined by conative interest. because we quickly exhaust upon it our limited power of discriminative perception. is a matter of the enduring setting of our conative tendencies or impulses. who perhaps is a familiar with the roar as yourself. then. but the attention of the naturalist is more sustained. soon wanes. as well as more effective. noticing a hundred features which entirely escape his companies. We are interested only in those things that evoke in us one or other (or several) of the instinctive impulses. you notice the new sound and begin to wonder what it means. or consists in.
” Technically.” and “incentives. Usually one or more of the following words are included in the definition: “desires. activates.” “goals.” “drives.” “wants. and that such thinking shall evoke some impulse or desire which maintains a train of activity in relation to the object. Motivation “Motivation is getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it” Dwight D.” This meaning is evident in the following comprehensive definition: “A motive is an inner state that energizes.” “needs.object. “to move. which means. Eisenhower Today.” “motives.” “wishes. or moves and that directs or channels . the term motivation can be traced to the Latin word movere. virtually all people including lay people and scholars have their own definition of motivation.
They are more relevant to organizational behaviour than the primary motives. drives and goals. drives. 1. which will alleviate a need and reduce a drive.” Thus defined. the motives of competence. At the end of the motivation cycle is the goal. manipulation. Such motives are variously called physiological. A goal in the motivation cycle can be defined as anything. To be included in the general category. Although not all psychologists would agree. have a capacity to interact effectively with their environment. unlearned. it appears. A drive can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. An understanding of these general motives is important to the study of human behaviour – especially in organizations. a motive must be unlearned but not physiologically based. which lie in the gray area between the primary and secondary classifications. curiosity. With a few exceptions drives or motives are set up to alleviate needs. lies in the meaning of. but they would acknowledge that some motivates are unlearned and physiologically based. Primary Motives Physiologists do not totally agree on how to classify the various human motives. or primary. needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. The use of the term primary does not imply that this group of motives always takes precedence over the general and secondary motives. 3. and goals. The key to understand motivation. needs. He called from activities which. and persistence in interacting with the environment. selectivity. The last term is used here because it is more comprehensive than the others. attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive. though playful and exploratory in character. The Competence Motives While proposed a new conceptualization based upon the assumption that all organisms. Needs Goals (Deprivation) (Reduction of drives) Drives (Deprivation with direction) three interacting and In a systems sense. Drives. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. 2. and relationship between. motivation consists of interdependent elements: needs. The best one-word definition of a need is deficiency. Thus. the competence motive is the most inclusive general drive. biological. General Motives A separate classification for general motives is not always given. Yet such a category seems necessary because there are a number of motives. at the same time show direction. and affection seem best to meet the criteria for this classification. activity. Drives are action-oriented and provide an energizing thrust toward goal accomplishment.behaviour toward goals. In the homeostatic sense. Needs. The other general . Goals. animal and human.
in reality concepts like reinforcement and motivation do not operate as separate entities in producing human behaviour. Part of the complexity stems from the fact that in many ways love resembles the primary drives and in other ways it is similar to the secondary drives. and activity. the total society might become very stagnant. Numerous important human motives meet this criterion. when stifled or inhibited. Moderate risk taking. manipulation. The Affection Motives Love or affection is a very complex form of general drive. In addition. security and status are also important secondary motives. The Power Motives It is the need to manipulate other or the drive for superiority over others – Adler developed the concepts of inferiority complex and compensation. Once again. curiosity. The interactive effects are always present. Secondary Motives Whereas the general drives seem relatively more important than the primary ones to the study of human behaviour in organizations. and activity drives are quite intense. Some of the more important ones are power. or as they are commonly referred to today. achievement. manipulation. and n Aff. manipulation. the secondary drives are unquestionably the most important. For this reason. the learning principle of reinforcement is conceptually and practically related to motivation. and affiliation. give way to the learned secondary drives in motivating behaviour. . 1. The relationship is obvious when reinforcement is divided into primary and secondary categories and is portrayed as incentives. and to a lesser degree the general drives. Taking moderate risks is probably the single most descriptive characteristic of the person possessing high n Ach. Some writer’s regards reinforcement and motivation as equivalent. and Activity Motives It is generally recognized that human curiosity. With some glaring exceptions that have yet to be eradicated.drives of curiosity. however. As a human society develops economically and becomes more complex. especially in reference to organizational behaviour. In particular. it should be emphasized that although the various behavioural concepts can be separated for study and analysis. The Curiosity Manipulation. and activity can be considered more specific competence drives. the motives of hunger and thirst are not dominant among people living in the economically developed Western world. Although these drives often get the small child into trouble. the primary drives. The Achievement Motive Characteristic of high achievers. n Ach. A motive must be learned in order to be included in the secondary classification. anyone who has reared or been around small children will quickly support this generalization. affection is sometimes placed in all three categories of motives.
HR etc. The Status Motive Status can be simply defined as the relative ranking that a person holds in a group. Performance definition (Set Objectives) • Goals • Measures • Assessment Performance facilitation (provide resources) • Elimination of roadblocks to performance • Providing means and adequate resources (finance. Sometimes affiliation is equated with social motives and / or group dynamics. or they do not expect or necessarily want the accompanying material rewards. infrastructure. Satisfaction with accomplishment. Gellerman notes that this special drive for security is largely unconscious but that it greatly influences the behaviour of many people. for it is based largely on fear and is avoidance-oriented.) • Carefully selecting personnel Performance encouragement (Provide timely rewards) • Values of rewards • Amount of rewards • Timing of rewards • Likelihood of rewards • Fairness of rewards Various approaches to job design for performance . Preoccupation with the task. security is much more complex than it appears on the surface. 4. security appears to be much simpler than other secondary motives. Once high achievers select a goal. High achievers find accomplishing a task intrinsically satisfying in and of itself. Closely connected to high achievers’ taking moderate risks is their desire for immediate feedback. In reality. but not for the usual reasons of wanting money for its own sake or for the material benefits that it can buy. The Affiliation Motive Affiliation plays a very complex but vital role in human behaviour. organization. they tend to be totally preoccupied with the task until it is successfully completed. the affiliation motive is neither as broad as is implied by the definition of social motives nor as comprehensive or complex as is implied by the definition of group dynamics. The Security Motive One the surface. As presented here. Three key areas of responsibility A. or society. A good illustration of this characteristic involves money. Need for immediate feedback.2. 3. material.
c. Scientific Management – Talyor – forerunner of goal setting. c. f. interesting and challenging. Job characteristics approach to Job Design – Hackman & Oldham Equation Motivating (MPS) feedback Potential score = Skill variety + Task identity + Task Sign x autonomy x 3 Goal Setting theory • • The cognitive based work was given by locke et. Job rotation – doing different jobs for variety. Importance of values or valence and consequences. Job engineering – concentrates on the efficiency of the job through time and motion analysis of person – machine interfaces. b. People strive to attain goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. f. feedback and incentives into the structure of the job. al. d. Job enrichment – making jobs more meaningful. Role of intention in human behaviour. The theoretical background a.Appropriately designed job – higher employee satisfaction and quality of performance a. Intentions or goals Responses action or Performance reinforcement • • Valid and practical – useful No commitment to work – Goal setting will not work. Emotions or desires are the ways person experiences values. Goal – Setting theory Values and value Emotions and Consequences Judgments desires Feedback or Theories of Motivation . Social technical approach – making a group or a team responsible for the job and balancing social and technical aspects of the job. e. Goals provide direction to behaviour. b. e. Job enlargement – adding more tasks to the job for variety. d. Goal – setting – building goals.
Higher/secondary needs are belonging or social needs. But if you look at the theoretical emphasis of the behavioural scientists who have been studying motivation. • Need for power : The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. In the Second category are the Motivators since they seem to be effective in motivating people to superior performance.e. those of the higher order do not dominate. to achieve in relation to a set of standards. • Need for affiliation : The drive for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. there is a surprising degree of agreement. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs or Deficient Theory of Motivation Needs are arranged in a definite sequence of domination i. power & achievement. esteem and self-actualization needs. unless the needs of lower order are reasonably satisfied. to strive to succeed. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation In the first category are Maintenance or Hygiene factors. Self-actualization Esteem Belonging Safety Physiological McClelland Achievement Theory of Motivation • We have three basic social needs: affiliation. which are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of job satisfaction.. • Need for achievement : The drive to excel. Lower/primary order needs includes basic physiological needs & safety and security. • Relationship with supervisor • Working conditions • Salary • Relationship with peers Motivators • Achievement Recognition • Work • Responsibility • Advancement • Growth . Hygiene/Maintenance • Company policy & Adm.There is no simple formula to motivate people. Absence of these factors may dissatisfy the employee but will not demotivate them.
As organizations have restructured themselves to compete more effectively and . judgment. the decision of companies to introduce teams into their production processes made news because no one else was doing it. responsibility and involvement in serious endeavour. work force is a reservoir of untapped imagination. close supervision. pension and other benefit programs. Evidence suggests that teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills. Today. welfare measures. intelligence and commitment. Theory Y represents the democratic approach and gives to the employees scope for creativity and responsibility. It stresses man’s need for work. Team Building Twenty years ago. incentive programs.• Personal life • Relationship with subordinates • Status • Job security • Technical supervision McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X emphasizes on discipline. and experience. it’s just the opposite. It’s the organisation that doesn’t use teams that has become newsworthy.
• Interdependence. • Make team activities enjoyable. which identifies the focus for the team’s activities and includes both services and products. • Give maximum support. who work well together and enjoy doing so. The main stages can be summarized as follows: Stage 1 . • Demonstrate openness by example. Responsibility for team’s purpose and goals is shared and understood by all members.The Undeveloped Team: The ‘Forming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Facilitate ‘getting to know you’ exercise. This suggests a practical limitation on size. • Shared responsibility. is more than a collection of individuals. and who produce high quality results. Members feel responsible for the output of their team and act to clear difficulties standing in their way. Management has found that teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than are traditional departments or other forms of permanent groupings. in which each team member makes individual contributions. therefore. The Stages of Team Development When a group of people come together to achieve an objective they will go through a series of stages. deploy. because rarely in practice can more than nine people function as single team. • Invite members to share their concerns and problems. It is imperative to take note of the following key terms to understand the definition of a team. A team. accountability for team outcomes. they actively care about their team’s well being. Why Have Teams Become So Popular? Effective teams produce outstanding results and succeed in achieving despite difficulties. It is in part an emotional entity. refocus. stimulating greater personal knowledge. leading hopefully to a final ‘mature’ stage that equates to effective team functioning. Woodcock presented “Developmental model” in his Team Development Manual. Other members depend on those contributions and share work information with one another. a team consists of individuals who relate directly together to get things done. According to the definition. Definition: An energetic group of people who are committed to achieving common objectives. Teams have the capability to quickly assemble. • All members share outcome. and disband. • Encourage consideration of individual strengths and weaknesses. they have turned to teams as a way to better utilize employee talents. .efficiently. rooted in the feelings as well as the thoughts of its members.
• Give moderate support.The Experimenting Team: The ‘Storming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Encourage greater openness.The Consolidating Team: The ‘Norming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Develop problem-solving skills. • Clarify objectives. • Give high level of support. • Encourage individual team members to ‘air their grievances’. Implications There are certain implications of these five stages. • Fight insularity. • Expose team functioning to external scrutiny. • Experiment with different forms of leadership • Allow leadership to change with the needs of the task. Forming: awareness of the formation process means encouraging discussion on issues such as : • Why are we here? • What’s our real purpose? • What holds us firmly together? . Stage 4 . • Celebrate successes. • Encourage people to share strengths. • Commitment may surge or dip. • Clarify values. Stage 3 .The Mature Team : The ‘Performing’ Team The features of this stage are: • Build bridges with other teams. • Develop individual skills. • Seek common ground.Stage 2 . • Develop decision-making strategies. • Encourage informal communications. • Consider the possibilities of enhanced inputs into the organisation. • Give minimal support. • Question decision making and problem solving methods. • Build bridges between individuals.The Disbanding Team: The ‘Mourning’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Competence has been established at a high level. • Begin to involve team members in review of team performance. Stage 5 . • Find opportunities to experiment. • Allow conflicts to surface. • Develop a capacity for the team to compensate for individual weaknesses. • Regularly review performance and plan improvements.
recognizing one another’s successes? • How best can we support people through difficult times? • Are we listening to one another properly? • Does each speaker build on what the previous person has said? • Do we give each other and the group regular feedback? • Who is showing high or low commitment to group aims? Mourning: when the group is ending. which can be exciting and difficult. socializing.• • • • • What are we prepared to do and NOT do together? What are our rules for working together? What do we expect from one another? How will people outside this group respond to us? What’s the best and worst that could happen if we continue down this route together? Storming: during this stage.for example by compromise or formal voting? • What happens if someone refuses to conform to the group’s wishes? • How do we deal with strong feelings .for example making space to air them? Norming: during this phase contribute to good communications by helping people realize: • What are our formal rules? • What are our usually unspoken rules? • Who has what formal role? • How far can people challenge the group in some way? • How do we deal with differences of opinion? • How far can an individual follow his or her own interests at the expense of the group? Performing: now you can help the communication process by focusing on • What are our specific targets or goals? • How are we setting about achieving them? • Who has what detailed responsibilities and do they understand these? • Can we make being together more rewarding . encourage group communication around issues such as: • What role is each of us to play? • Shall we have a formal leader or chairperson? • Who wants to become the leader? / Whom do we want as leader? • What powers shall we give our formal leader? • How do we resolve conflict if several people want to lead? • Do we encourage disagreement and people expressing a difference of opinion? • How will we resolve differences between us . help group communication by encouraging attention to issues such as: • When do we stop meeting? • Who should we tell? • What remains to do before the last meeting? .for example by having fun together.
organising a final party.for example having a reunion in a year.• • • • Who takes responsibility for post-group matters .for example handling residual assets or remaining tasks? What do people feel about the group coming to an end? How do we handle these feelings . sending a final report? Could we make the ending into a celebration? .
determination of work assignments. boundaryspanning groups for years. Many organisations have used horizontal.Team Building Process • • • • • • • • • • Developing Teamwork Identify the need Know one another Form team charter Perform team tasks Use team tools Work Together Consensus Cooperate with other Teams Evaluate Teamwork Types of Teams Teams can be classified on the basis of their objective. Cross-functional teams are an effective means for allowing people from diverse areas within an organisation (or even between organisations) to exchange information. selfmanaged work teams. Fully self-managed work teams even select their own members and have the members evaluate each other’s performance. develop new ideas. Self-Managed Work Teams Self-managed work teams are generally composed of ten to fifteen people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors. these responsibilities include collective control over the pace of work. Cross-Functional Teams Cross-functional teams are made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level. and collective choice of inspection procedures. Too often the members feel frustrated because they cannot find a clear way of meeting their own needs and aspirations. and cross-functional teams. who come together to accomplish a task. solve problems. Problem Solving Teams They typically are composed of five to twelve employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality. efficiency. supervisory positions take on decreased importance and may even be eliminated. Typically. Symptoms of Ineffective Team Work • As organisations get larger the opportunities for personal expression and satisfaction often becomes less. As a result. . The three most common forms of teams in an organisation are problem solving teams. and coordinate complex projects. and the work environment. but from different work areas.
where they are fearful of him or where their conversations are on a superficial or trivial level than real team work.they enjoy backbiting and playing dirty tricks and politics on their own teammates. Effective team work breeds happiness and the uninformed visitor often gets an immediate impression of whether work is a happy place to be or whether he is likely to be ‘killed in the rush’ if he is around. which are the essential ingredients of effective teamwork. which employees wear on their faces. Poor teamwork is indicated by the dull expression. • • • • Avoiding Blowups Usually team-building sessions are interesting and constructive. Dishonest statements and the taking of false bargaining stances. it can easily be rewarding place where people love to be. They do not use mistakes as opportunities for increased learning and improvements. Rarely team-building events can blow up with uncomfortable or hurtful incidents. they provide a potential for significant progress. The leader becomes increasingly isolated from his team. The unhealthy competition between team members . If group difficulties and blowups are handled with care.• • • • Team members lose their inspiration and lack the commitment and motivation to work. He does not represent their view and they do not subscribe to his. Mistakes become an excuse for punishing those who have committed thus giving a vent to their frustrations. The low quality of meetings can usually be determined by the way in which individuals either look forward to or dread the normal weekly or monthly get together. Occasionally they become tedious and dull. Productivity: is the team getting enough done? Empathy: do the team members feel comfortable with each other? . Work does not have to be a dull and unenjoyable place. Low quality of relationship between the team members is indicated when people cannot confide in or trust their leader. Team members often spend a lot of time on retaliation. The following guidelines can help you to use these team-building materials successfully: • • • • • • • Voluntary Involvement Adequate Discussion Time Appropriate Sequence Careful Preparation Relevant Choices Avoid Undue Threat Work Through Conflicts and Difficulties Appraisal of Team Functioning Following is a checklist for making on-the-spot appraisal of team functioning by acronym PERFORMS.
Empathy: no coffee at team meetings Roles & goals: puzzled faces Flexibility: annoyed outsiders talking mentality”. potentially the most flexible and competent tool known to mankind. The breadth of resources available to the team enables complex situations to be creatively managed. can support a positive management strategy in the following ways: • Management of Complexity. the level of commitment to team decisions is much higher. Team building is time consuming and can be expensive. Individuals often feel that it is hard to influence organisations and make any impact outside their immediate area. Perhaps more importantly. It is important to identify how the approach can be used to give useful benefits. Well-developed teams are capable of responding quickly and energetically. about the “fortress . Mature teams are capable of making better quality decisions than all but the most brilliant individual. The team changes this as team members extend their viewpoint to see that they. • Rapid Response. Openness: silence Recognition: backbiting Morale: everyone’s left! Benefits of Team Building The team. • High Motivation. can achieve much. Hence. • High Quality Decisions. • Collective Strength. together. The team feeds the individual’s need to have personal significance.Roles & goals: do they know what they are supposed to be doing? Flexibility: are they open to outside influence and contribution? Openness: do they say what they think? Recognition: do they praise each other and publicize achievement? Morale: do people want to be in this team? The most common indicators of problems in any of these areas: Productivity: a boss in a bad temper. the use of a team approach improves the overall quality of decisions. and team processes encourage activity and achievement.
Frustration may lead to any of the defense mechanism used by the human organism. and 4. and improve employee morale and productivity. Casey Stengel We define conflict to be a process in which an effort is purposely made by A to offset the efforts of B by some form of blocking that will result in frustrating B in attaining his goals or furthering his interests. psychologists felt that frustration always led to the defense mechanism of aggression. A variety of ways that drives and roles can be expressed. Conflict can be defined as: “Conflict is a set of divergent behaviours. 3. A nmber of competing needs and roles. or methods. aims. or innovation. 2. Traditionally. or two or more competing goals. The barrier may be overt (outward. Many types of barriers that can occur between the drive and the goal. Although there are many such mechanism. when handled correctly can actually promote better communication. they can be grouped according to four broad categories: aggression. it’s practically inevitable. fixation and compromise. For ease of analysis.” Types Of Conflict Intraindividual Conflict Within every individual there are 1. where the individual is motivated to approach two or more positive but mutually exclusive goals. Conflict: An Inevitable Product of Change In its simplest term. . Approach – approach conflict. or mental – sociopsychological). And like change itself. withdrawal. But it’s also something that. or physical) or covert (inward. Conflict due to Frustration Frustration occurs when a motivated drive is blocked before a person reaches a desired goal. conflict is no more than a by – product of growth. The frustration model can be useful in the analysis not only of behaviour in general but also the specific aspects of on – the – job behaviour. three separate types of goal conflict are generally identified: 1. Both positive and negative aspects attached to desired goals. guarantee achieving desired results.Conflict Part of my job is to keep the five guys who hate me away from the five guys who are undecided. change. Goal Conflict Another common source of conflict for an individual is a goal that has both positive and negative features.
where the individual is motivated to approach a goal and at the same time is motivated to avoid it. and both parties receive rewarding outcomes. Task interdependence 3. Avoidance – avoidance conflict. 3. And finally the fourth type would be parties involved in conflict resolve to bureaucratic rules or existing regulations to resolve the conflict. Several antecedent conditions have been identified for explaining intergroup conflict. A third is to use an outside third party or arbitrator. and the other party loses.2. Intergroup behaviour and conflict Antecedents to intergroup conflict. Competition for resources 2. Interpersonal Conflict Sources of interpersonal conflict • Personal difference • Information deficiency • Role incompatibility • Environmental stress Strategies for interpersonal conflict resolution Lose – lose. Win – win. In the win – win strategy of conflict resolution energies and creativity are aimed at solving the problems rather than beating the other party. Approach – avoidance conflict. In the win – lose strategy one party in a conflict situation attempts to marshal its force to win. One of the more common approaches is to compromise or take the middle ground in a dispute. Here the needs of both parties in the conflict situation are met. Status struggles. Jurisdictional ambiguity 4. Win – lose. A second approach is to pay off one of the parties in the conflict. In a lose – lose approach to conflict resolution. 1. where the individual is motivated to avoid two or more negative but mutually exclusive goals. both parties lose. Features of Conflict • • • • • Conflict is inevitable Conflict is neither good / bad Conflict is not always caused by trouble makers Conflict is part of change Conflict is sometime desirable .
Any major discrepancies between your expectations will alert you to potential conflict. Define Expectations: Meet on a weekly basis with your associates 4. Give Feedback: The amount. Ask yourself who. in a non-threatening way. and Can you tell me more? to determine priorities for the upcoming week. as well as present. Why. sources of conflict. where. communicate openly about how they are (or are not) working together. and timeliness of information that you can provide to an individual will help you to understand that person’s point of view. 2. Do not wait until the last moment to discover that trouble is upon you. often encourages others to tell you what is on their minds. when. accuracy. or are causing. and why questions to determine potential. how. Probe for more information by asking questions such as: How so. they reduce serious conflict and build stronger working relationships. Get Feedback: Take the time to find out what your associates are 3. what. Sharing your thoughts and feelings first. conflict.When to Stimulate Conflict • • • • • • • When you have “Yes” men around you When individuals are afraid to admit ignorance When team members create an impression of peace When individuals display too much concern When individuals believe in popularity When individuals lack new ideas When individuals offer resistance to change Five Ways to Sense Conflict Be Visionary: Visualize how your actions or those of others will cause. Review Performance Regularly: When supervisors and employees Ways of Resolving Conflict • Clarify reporting Relationship • Eliminate communication gap / misunderstanding • Restructure the organisation • Introduce new blood/ new thinking • Create Competition Benefits of Dealing with Conflict . 1. In what. thinking and feeling.
the organisation will reap the benefits of creative thinking. Define. Increased self-respect: You will be able to feel good about yourself and will learn not to take criticism personally. share. Fewer mind games will be played resulting in a less stressful day. and Discuss the Real Problem Three: Ask Questions and Listen! Four: Set Goals and Create an Action Plan Five: Follow Up . Personal development and growth: When you break down some of your own invisible barriers and become more assertive in resolving or preventing conflict. Causes of Conflict For a variety of reasons.Benefits to Individual Stronger relationships: You will be able to build stronger relationships as a result of being comfortable expressing your true thoughts. many people have difficulty sensing or finding the causes of conflict. Synergy or teamwork: Managers and associates will be able to focus on serving their customers and each other. Benefits to Your Organisation Improved efficiency & effectiveness: Employees will be able to do their jobs more efficiently and effectively by focusing their efforts where they will produce the greatest results. you will learn more and gain support from others. Many factors contribute to the difficulty in identifying the correct cause of a conflict: • • • • • • • • • • Personality Perceptions Exclusive Goals Deliberate Behaviour Scarce Resources Status Power Rewards Membership Decision Making The Five Steps to Successful Conflict Management Step Step Step Step Step One: Take Responsibility for Dealing with Conflict Two: Uncover. Creative thinking: By encouraging people to make. and learn from their mistakes.
Fourteen Methods for Dealing with Conflict Win / Win • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Be indirect. only hint at the problem Find something outside yourself on which to blame situation Use sarcasm in talking about the situation with others Seek a specific scapegoat Make efforts to smooth over tension / live with situation. let people know just exactly how you feel Hide your feelings. even if negative Blow up. put energy & attention in unrelated activities/ interests Spend time listening & gathering additional info. by talking with those involved Back down under pressure rather than dealing with conflict Make an active attempt to compromise Complain to others about unfairness of the situation Make an effort to seek creative alternatives to the situation Basic Skills to Resolve Conflict Intellectual Skills • Analytical • Learning Ability • Judgement • Planning • Organising • Perception • Conceptualizing • Objectivity • Flexibility Emotional Skills • Honesty • Persistence • Ambition • Self-discipline • Result-orientation • Fast pace • Initiative • Enthusiasm • Assertiveness . only reveal them later to friends or confidants in private Attempt to seek clarification & information about the situation Sublimate your feelings. let off steam.
Interpersonal Skills • Persuasiveness • Gregariousness • Listening • Communication • Writing • Sensitivity Managerial Skills • Gives guidance • Motivates • Delegates • Selects competent people • Terminates incompetent associates • Expects Professionalism Conflict management styles • • • • • • • • Resignation. Appeasement. Confrontation. Negotiation. Consistency or inconsistency of results that conflict with expectations. Maier and Ellen ( 1955 ) describe frustration in the following manner: • • • • • An insoluble problem. they lean toward the generalization that frustrating situation is frustrating when it involves the experience of failure and this. defined as. In general. blocking ongoing goal directed behaviour that may operate in a manner similar to provocation and serve both as an instigator and an external justification for violating normative constraint against aggression. Barriers preventing escape. of course. Arbitration. Frustration Frustration – A Western Overview Frustration. is a far cry from the original very rigid definition of a frustrating situation. Defusion. Withdrawal. Pressure from behind. Persistent or severe punishment. Compromise. .
integrate. Two important properties are that the emotions are aversive. The behaviour thus elicited is not an expression of preference since it is not influenced by what it accomplishes. and that it produces or results in increased physiological arousal. That is. Frustration instigated behaviour may be directed along different channels by the introduction or removal of barriers and other forms of restraints or by various forms of guidance. which needs to be delineated.” It can be taken care of in the following methods: Fight or Flight People should rethink situations they are confronted with before “blowing up”. At a personal level “Frustration and anger can be evoked when we perceive an inconsistency between what is expected and what is obtained. The aversive nature means that the individual will be highly motivated or reduced in it. Frustration leads to some sort of negative emotional state. This type of behaviour is altered most readily by a reduction in the state of Frustration. It stands for recognize. hear. When this is not possible. there are at least four major classes of behaviour. is to try a different response or find an alternate and hopefully unblocked means to the goal. especially to mild frustration. Rethink It is an acronym developed and used by IMHI in anger management workshops to help people have new control and power over learning to channel their anger. the individual can . think. notice and keep. it can be tackled at a personal as well as organizational level. from heart disease to neighborhood violence”. In this sense. Conquering Frustration In order to understand how to overcome frustration.Basic Characteristics of Frustration Instigated Behaviour The Frustration process produces behaviour that is purely an end in itself and not a means to an end. social and emotional problems. “Poorly managed anger is at the root of many serious physical. is withdrawal from the situation. Reactions of Frustration The first response to frustration. which has received considerable attention in the laboratory. Another possible response. The most troublesome and often mentioned reaction is aggression. which can be related to finding alternative means. aggression induced by economic hardships may be directed away from government offices and towards food stores or racial groups. empathize. is the emotional reaction. The increased around tends to increase the vigor or strength of whatever response is elicited and this arousal is implications for task performance. and the type of behaviour that is selected in Frustration is a matter of its availability at the time as well as of a number of other factors. Probably the most common reaction. which can result from frustration. Thus. the behaviour is compulsive in nature. On the behavioural end.
an individual can secretly perform behaviours. work slowdowns. aggression. It can be directed covertly against the source of frustration (if a person) either verbally or physically. In fact mild frustrations. Change Management “To improve is to change. which have potential effects on organizations. . or lawsuits. These include the emotional response of anger and associated increased physiological arousal. Aggression can be directed either against other people. Concerned with either aggression. It can also be directed covertly against a person. Aggression in organizations can take many forms. or no aggression would be expectation of punishment for the act. it may facilitate or inhibit task performance depending upon task complexity. or permanently as turnover. Finally. the individual can abandon the goal entirely and other leave or remain in the situation. frustration can be directly harmful to organizations. secret withholding of output and stealing. Frustration can increase task speed with no additional errors for simple task. A critical variable causing a person to choose overt.leave the situation entirely. or the effects of frustration on task performance. to the extent it induces aggression or withdrawal frustration can have damaging effects on organizations. Arousal itself. Effects of Organizational Frustration There are at least four possible reactions to frustration by individuals. To the extent that it interferes with or blocks task performance. or against the organization itself. To be perfect is to change often”. grievances. Withdrawal can be manifested temporarily as absenteeism and tardiness. and find another setting in which to achieve the goal. Overt acts might include strikes. Covert acts would include sabotage. which can hurt another person. The organizational aggression could be overt to covert. as shown previously. continued or severe frustration might result in aggression or withdrawal. frustration can lead a person to try alternative courses of action to achieve goals or fulfill needs. and withdrawal. Aggression can also be directed against the organization itself. motivating effects. Although it may be possible that mild frustration can increase arousal and facilitate task performance with no additional negative effects in the short run. Thus frustration might have positive. which interfere rather than block can add challenge and include greater overall effort. To the extent it induces increased physiological arousal. covert. differentially affects performance depending upon the complexity of the task. but interferes with correct performance on complex tasks. Finally. Alternatively. that is. and the behavioural responses of trying alternative course of action.
g. • Change in Assumptions and Values: e. Managers must do more than just react.. chemical fertilizers and crop rotation in agriculture. In an era of accelerating change. Automation in industry : irrigation. family planning program. Therefore. products. 2. often when it is too late. 1.g. 3. Attitude structures differ from knowledge structures in that they are emotionally charged in a positive or a negative way. Changes in individual behaviour seem to be significantly more difficult and time consuming. stagnant and react to change after the fact.. Market. markets. Organizations either become more adaptive. flexible and anticipative or they become rigid. amendments to the Constitution.Winston Churchill Change Change is the name of the game in management today. desire for socialistic pattern of society. Change is an alteration in the existing field of forces (external & internal) that tends to affect the equilibrium of an organisation. Types Of Changes in Organizations Macro level • Change in Structure : e. it becomes even more complicated when you try to implement change within groups or organisations. Levels of Change Knowledge Changes Attitudinal Changes Individual Behaviour Changes Group or Organisational Performance Changes Changes in knowledge tend to be the easiest to make. patriotism and social discipline in time of war or emergencies.. nationalisation of banks. Cycles of Change The levels of change become very significant when you examine two different change cycles Participative Change Cycle Directive Change Cycle Participative Change . they must be able to anticipate the changing patterns of people. 4. While individual behaviour is difficult enough to change. they can occur as a result of reading a book or an article or hearing something new from a respected person.g. product and competitive conditions are rapidly changing.. liberation movements. g. • Change in Behaviour : e. organization’s degree to excellence is judged by its ability to cope with these changes. • Change in Methodology : e. services and technology.
A Model Of Adaptive Orientation Low Anticipative Management Environmental Stability Reactive Management .A participative change cycle is implemented when new knowledge is made available to the individual or group. It is hoped that the group will accept the data and will develop a positive attitude and commitment in the direction of the desired change. Three Dimensions of Change 1.) • Skill to devise successful methods to accomplish the objectives and solve the problems. The new contacts and modes of behaviour create new knowledge. This step is significantly more difficult to achieve. 3. such as higher management. which tend to develop predispositions towards or against the change. Psychological Dimension: Based on the fact that change is logical on terms of the human values and feelings in the situation. Directive Change This change cycle begins by change being imposed on the total organisation by some external force. Sociological Dimension: Based on change logical from the point of view of social values. 2. Once this is accomplished. An effective strategy may be to identify the informal and formal leaders among the work group(s) and concentrate on gaining their behavioral support for the desired change. organisational change may be effected by getting other people to begin to pattern their behaviour. Logical Dimension: Based on the technical evidence of economics and science. • Skill to enlist the support of people involved and affected by change. This evidence needs to be presented to employees so that they can understand the technical and economic reasons for change. new laws. Is the change consistent with norms of the group? Does it maintain group teamwork? These questions need to be resolved keeping in mind society norms. Change Process Managing change means managing the conversation between the people leading the change effort and those who are expected to implement the new strategies. The critical factors of a change process are : • Skill to identify and analyze the objectives of change (knowledge of understanding what the problem is & finding solutions to it. the community. The next step will be to attempt to translate this commitment into actual behaviour.
An organization may be in greater danger when the environment changes slowly. Consequently. The hope is that “if people will only have a chance to see how the new system works they will support it. Big problems are easy to spot. attitudes. Sensitive monitoring systems are needed to detect gradual changes that can fool managers into thinking their company is doing fine. can be divided into three basic types of strategies. he will obviously adopt the proposed change if the logic can be effectively communicated. they jump out – they don’t want to boil to death.” Planned change according to Benne and Chin. change is not exclusively at the cognitive or intellectual level but is often at a more personal level : habits. Empirical – Rational Strategies : The fundamental assumption underlying empirical-rational strategies is that human beings are rational and will follow their self-interest once this is revealed to them. as illustrated in the following passage : When frogs are placed in a boiling pail of water. Normative Re-educative Strategies : The normative re-educative strategies believe that human beings are guided in their actions by sociocultural norms and their commitment to these norms. However. Failing to use planned change to meet small needs can place the organization in hot water. begins to approximate a participative change as it reinforces the individual and group behaviour. when frogs are placed in a cold pail of water. because managers may fail to trigger an organizational response. Resistance to Change Managers in every company must be alert to problems and opportunities.Satisficing Management High High Conservative Management Low Adaptive Orientation Strategies For Dealing With Change In some cases where change is forced the new behaviour engaged in creates the kind of knowledge that develops commitment to the change and therefore. because the perceived need for change is what sets the stage for subsequent actions that create a new product or technology. and the pail is placed on a . This strategy is basically straightforward and uncomplicated. and values. Since the person is rational and motivated by his selfinterest. Power-Coercive Strategies : Power-coercive strategies are based on the assumption of compliance of those with less power to the will of those with more power.
Some opposition to change may be perfectly logical. There exists a deep seated human characteristic to go against change 3. Participation • Users need to feel involved. • Users need accurate information and analysis to understand change. Kurt Lewin expressed this phenomenon in his field force theory. Tactics for Overcoming Resistance to Change Approach Communication. The change itself produces disequilibrium 2. which suggests that an equilibrium is maintained by driving forces and restraining forces. Negotiation • Group has power over implementation. management should analyze . Psychologists have studied the phenomenon of resistance to change during the past few decades. • Other implementation techniques have failed. • Group will lose out in the change. All behaviour which opposes change is not necessarily resistance. • Users have power to resist. Top management • Change involves multiple departments or support reallocation of resources. Organisations may be in a state of equilibrium. Some of these are as follows: 1. • Initiators clearly have power. When a change is introduced. • Design requires information from others. with forces pushing for change on one hand and forces resisting change by attempting to maintain the status quo on the other. Insecurity created by the ambiguity related to change Resistance has a protective function for the individual. Techniques for initiating Change Strategies for overcoming resistance to change typically involve two approaches: the analysis of resistance through the force field technique and the use of selective implementation tactics to overcome resistance. Several explanations have been given for resistance to change. education When to Use • Change is technical. The basic anxieties aroused by the working conditions 4. some forces drive it and other forces resist it. To implement a change. • Users doubt legitimacy of change. Coercion • A crisis exists.stove with the heat turned very low. over time the frogs will boil to death.
If the change is incongruent with the attitudes and behaviors of others in the organization. has to be congruent with a person’s self-concept and values. refreezing The first stage. In organizations.the change forces. the driving forces will be strong enough to enable implementation. chances are that the person will revert back to the old behaviour. creates motivation for change. However. refreezing. Thus. Change. This change may occur through assimilation of new information exposure to new concepts. By selectively removing forces that restrain change. moving or changing 3. The change process involves three steps : 1. they may see the need for change. a change in policy is less resisted when those affected by it participate in the change. therefore. stabilizes the change. . and one that is usually more effective. in some cases an ethical question may arise regarding the legitimacy of deliberately creating discomfort that may initiate change. The third stage. is to reduce or eliminate the restraining forces and then move to a new level of equilibrium. unfreezing 2. The second stage is the change itself. to be effective. If people feel uncomfortable with the present situation. Another approach. or development of a different perspective. unfreezing. reinforcement of the new behaviour is essential.