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Personality is a concept that we use continuously in our day-to-day routine, when dealing with people. We talk about people as having a good personality or a bad personality or arrogant and aggressive personality. Personality can be reflected in a person’s temperament and is a key factor influencing individual behaviour in organizations. Often the wrong type of personality of a superior proves disastrous in terms of worker unrest and protests. Salvatore Maddi has defined personality as: “Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment.” There are several aspects of this definition that need to be considered. The first aspect is that or relative stability of characteristics. These characteristics account for “consistent patterns” of behaviour. The second aspect is the “commonalities and differences” in the behaviour of people. We are interested in understanding as to what an individual has in common with others as well as what sets that individual apart from others. Every person is in certain aspects, • • • Like all other people Like some other people Like no other person
Personality Types There are two types of individual personality Type A and Type B. A person exhibiting Type A behaviour is generally restless, impatient with a desire for quick achievement and perfectionism. Type B is much more easy going relaxed about time pressure, less competitive and more philosophical in nature. Some of the characteristics of Type A personality are given below. • • • • • • • Is restless, so that he always moves, walks and eats rapidly. Is impatient with the pace of things, dislikes waiting and is impatient with those who are not impatient. Does several things at once. Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time, irrespective of whether everything is done or not. Usually does not complete one thing before starting on another. Uses nervous gestures such as clenched fist and banging on table. Does not have time to relax and enjoy life.
Type B behaviour is just the opposite and is more relaxed, sociable and has a balanced outlook on life. Type A behaviour profile tends to be obsessive and managers with such behaviour are hard driving, detailed-oriented people with high performance standards.
Five • • • •
personality traits related to job performance Extraversion Agreeableness Emotional stability Openness to experience.
Factors Contributing to Personality According to Maier, “knowledge, skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications of behaviour. Learned modifications in behaviour are not passed on to children, they must be acquired by them through their own personal experience.” The probable consensus is that heredity and environment jointly affect personality development. The full potential of a person may or may not be achieved due to environmental constraints and requirements, but the potential for development, both physically and psychologically is determined by the complex set of genes. The factors affecting personality development are illustrated as follows: • • • • • • • Heredity Culture Family Environment Personality Social Situational
Personality Dimensions Some of the more important dimensions of personality that are closely linked with interpersonal and organizational behaviour are discussed as follows: Authoritarianism: Authoritarianism refers to blind acceptance of authority. Authoritarian people believe in obedience and respect for authority. Because of their beliefs in hierarchical order, they make good followers; work better under directive supervision and more productive within authoritarian organizational structure. A closely related term to authoritarians is “dogmatism” which refers to the rigidity of a person’s beliefs. Bureaucratic Personality: A bureaucratic persons respect for authority is not total and blind, but is based upon respect for organizational rules and regulations. A bureaucratic person values subordination, rules, conformity, orderly processes in the organization and impersonal and formal relationships. Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism is a term associated with Niccola Machiavelli, a sixteenth century author who identified personality profiles of noble men. This personality merges in manipulating others for purely personal gains and gaining and keeping control of others. People with Machiavellianims have high self-confidence and high self-esteem. They are cool and calculating and
have no hesitation in using others or taking advantages of others in order to serve their own goals. Problem Solving Style: Individuals have their own style of making decisions and this style reflects their personality in certain ways. Some people are very through, meticulous and detail oriented. Others are impulsive and become easily swayed by what seems to be obvious. The problem solving style has two dimensions. One is the information gathering and the second dimension is evaluation of data and taking of decisions. Further, there are two styles involved in information gathering. One is known as Sensation and the second style known as intuitive style, The evaluation style also has two dimensions. One style involves more emphasis on feeling while the other involves more emphasis on thinking. When the two dimensions of information gathering and the two dimensions of evaluation are combined, it results in four problem-solving styles. These are: 1. Sensation-feeling style. These people are dependable, friendly, social and approach facts with human concerns. They are pragmatic, methodical and like jobs that involve human contact and public relations. Some suitable areas of jobs include teaching customer relations, social workers, and sales people. 2. Sensation-thinking style. They are practical, logical, decisive, and sensitive to details they also prefer bureaucratic type organizations. They are not highly skilled in interpersonal relations and are more suited to such technical jobs as those of production, accounting, engineering and computer programming. 3. Intuition-feeling style. These people are enthusiastic, people oriented, charismatic and helpful. Some of the professions suitable for this style are public relations, advertising, politics and personnel. 4. Intuition-thinking style. These people are creative, energetic, ingenious, and like jobs that are challenging in terms of design and analysis such as system design, law, research and development, top management and so on. Locus of Control Locus of control is the extent to which the individuals believes that: • They control their own lives, or • External forces control their lives, which are beyond their control. A person with a strong “internal locus of control” believes that he controls events concerning his own life and that his internal traits determine what happens in given situation. A person with a strong “external locus of control” feels that outside forces are affecting the events in his life and he is at the mercy of destiny, chance or other people. He believes that “whatever will be, will be” and everything happens by the will of God. Introvert and Extrovert Personalities
Introvert persons are basically shy, they prefer to be alone and have difficulty in communicating. Extroverts are outgoing, objective, and aggressive they also relate well with people. Self-esteem Self-esteem is the degree of respect a person has for himself. Self-esteem is a measure of self-confidence and respect for one’s abilities and motivation. It is also a higher level need in Maslow’s model of hierarchical needs. Self-esteem is positively related to assertiveness, independence and creativity.
The socialization process
a) Organizational socialization – values, norms, behavior pattern. b) Characteristics of organizational socialization of employees • Change of attitude, values and behaviour. • Continuity of socialization over time. • Adjustment to new jobs, work groups and organizational practices. • Mutual influence between new recruits and managers. • Criticality of early socialization period. Socializing new employees • Use of mentor or role model • Orientation and training program. • Reward system. • Career planning. Successful organizational socialization includes • Provide a challenging first job • Provide relevant training. • Provide timely and consistent feedback. • Select a good first supervisor to be in change of socialization. • Design a relaxed orientation program. • Place new recruits in work groups with high morals Emphasis on different characteristics. • Administrative skills • Work motivation • Interpersonal skill • Creativity • Social dominance • Maturity • Independence Propositions – Chris Argyris I. There is lack of congruency between the needs of healthy individuals and the demands of the formal organization. II. The resultant of this disturbance are frustration, failre, short – time perspective and conflict. III. Under certain conditions the degree of frustration, failure, short – time perspective and conflict will tend to increase. IV. The nature of the formal principles of the organization cause the subordinate, at any given level, to experience competition, rivalry,
V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.
inter – subordinate hostility and to develop a focus toward the parts rather than the whole. The employee adaptive behaviour maintains self – integration and impedes integration with the formal organization. The adaptive behaviour of the employees has a cumulative effect, feedback into the organization and reinforces itself. Certain management reactions tend to increase the antagonisms underlying the adaptive behaviour. Other management actions can decrease the degree of incongruence between the individual and formal organization. Job or role enlargement and employee – centred leadership will not tend to work to the extent that the adaptive behaviour (propositions III, IV, V and VI) has embedded in organisational culture and the self – concept of the individual. The difficulties involved in proposition IX may be minimized by the use of reality oriented leadership.
There are several theories but the more prominent among them are: (i) type, (ii) trait, (iii) psychoanalytic, (iv) social learning and (v) humanistic. Type Theories Type theories place personalities into clearly identifiable categories. Kretschmer and Sheldon are credited with this classification. In type theories relationship was sought to be established between features of face or body and personality. Thus, a short, plumb person (endomorph) was said to be sociable, relaxed, and even tempered; a tall, thin person (ectomorph) was characterized as restrained, self conscious, and fond of solitude; a heavy set muscular individual (mesomorph) was described as noisy, callous, and found of physical activity. Although a person’s physique may have some influence on personality, the relationship is much more subtle than this sort of classification implies. Thus classification of personalities on body basis is subjective. The second basis to type personalities is psychological factors. Carl Jung, divided all personalities into introverts and extroverts. These terms are normally associated with an individual’s sociability and interpersonal orientation. Extroverts are gregarious, sociable individuals, while introverts are shy, quiet and retiring. Trait Theories Trait theorists assume that a personality can be described by its position on a number of continuous dimensions or scales, each of which represents a trait. Thus, we could rate an individual on a scale of intelligence, emotional stability, aggressiveness, creativeness, or any of a number of other dimensions. Psychologists working in a area of trait theory are concerned with (a) determining the basic traits that provide a meaningful description of personality, and (b) finding some way to measure them. Psychoanalytic theory is based on the in-depth study of individual personalities. Social Learning Theory There are two ways of learning : Learning through reinforcement – direct experience and learning by observing others, also called vicarious learning.
referred to as self theory of personality because the best vantage point for understanding behaviour is from the internal frame of reference of the individual himself. Rogers’ Self Theory Roger’s approach to personality is described as phenomenological. he can learn by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequences of those actions. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are credited with the humanistic theory of personality. * Also refer to “Personality Theories – Ziegler” for Freud’s Personality theory Assertiveness Meaning of Assertiveness Webster defines “assert” as “to state positively with great confidence”. Assertiveness is a term meant to describe the extent of control. this theory is often. They believe that since an individual can make use of complex symbolic processes to code and store his observations in memory. behaviour is utterly dependent upon how one perceives the world – that is. although different in some respects. Indeed. on the other hand. Maslow’s Self-Actualisation Theory Abraham Maslow is regarded as the spiritual father of humanism in American psychology. postulates man as self actualiser. It is the extent of forcefulness a person (or leader) uses with a view to express himself. By self-actualisation Maslow meant the development of full individually. Humanistic psychology of Maslow. the .For social learning theorists reinforcement is not always necessary for learning. share a common emphasis on man’s potential for self direction and freedom of choice. Some of the person variables that determine what an individual will do in a particular situation include the following : • Competencies • Cognitive strategies • Outcome expectations • Subjective value outcome • Self regulatory systems and plans The Humanistic Approach The humanistic approach to the study of personality includes number of theories. is called self-actualisation. with all parts of the personality in harmony. Such an approach to personality emphasizes the self and its characteristics. Existential philosophy is concerned with man as an individual and each person alone is responsible for his own existence. behaviour is the result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by the individual. This drive of man which is inherent in him. Humanistic psychology of Maslow radically differs from psychoanalytic and learning or behaviouristic theories. For Rogers.
assertive behaviour is appropriate behaviour. he always strives to make the good try so that win. lose or draw. 3. honest and appropriate. To stand up for ourselves without undue anxiety • Saying “No” . Assertive people can initiate conversation. direct. that doesn’t involve violating the rights of other people. we tell people what we want. He pursues what he desires. This is what I feel. It is a positive way of behaving. Aware that he cannot always win. However. The Assertive Personality According to Webster’s Third International Dictionary. • • • Promotes equality in human relationship It keeps both parties in all situations on an equal footing. can cope with justified criticism – and can give it too. In contrast to the passive person who waits for things to happen. plainly or strongly. It is saying what you mean and having self-respect and respect for others.leader tries to exercise over both the followers as well as the situation. Assertiveness is a skill you can acquire – not a personality trait. He acts in a way that he respects himself. It means expressing what you think or feel without endangering the ego of others.” The assertive person possesses four characteristics: 1. Through words and actions he makes the statement “This is me. We state our preference clearly and confidently. activities. He has an active orientation to life. he attempts to make things happen. or ourselves without being threatening or putting other people down. time schedule. think and want. 1.win situations in dyadic relationships. relationships. friends and family. the verb “assert” means “to state or affirm positively. need. • Take initiative in starting conversations.” 2. 4. It confers personal power and restores balance of power. It is an essential skill for a leader. lifestyles. Above all. This communication is open. This can mean that it is appropriate on occasions to be angry. It promotes win . or would prefer. He can communicate with people on all levels – with strangers. assuredly. or it can mean choosing not to be assertive in a particular situation or with a particular person. without belittling others. Characteristics of Assertive Behaviour When we are assertive. he accepts his limitations. groups • Trust our own judgment • Set own goals and work to achieve them • Ask help from others • Participate socially 3. Enabling us to act in our own best interests It assists us to : • Make decisions about career. 2. He feels free to reveal himself. he maintains his self-respect. can compliment others and receive compliments gracefully.
without name-calling. • As participant in public events to express opinions • To work for change • To respond appropriately to violations of own or others’ rights. intimidation. there are certain basic principles for being assertive: • Reveal as much of your personal self as is appropriate to the situation and the relationship. anger Expressing. supporting or defending an opinion To express honest feelings To disagree To show anger.• • • 4. • Realize you may be unassertive in one area. and assertive in another area. • Do not confuse aggression with assertion. Pay attention to what you can do differently rather than how the world can be different. put-downs. Assertiveness: Principles Whatever your problem. Without denying others’ rights. • Understand assertion is not a permanent state. member of an organisation. 6. • • • • Setting limits on time and energy Responding to criticism. • Strive to express all feelings. school. To exercise personal rights. and strengths. Assertive Behaviours Assertiveness is a set of congruent behaviours one can learn through persistence and practice. gifts. 1. consumer. Apply the techniques you use successfully in one area to the other. whether angry or tender. • Examine your own behaviour and determine areas where you would like to become more assertive. affection. like marriage. • Competency as citizen. . As you change. and you face new challenges and need new skills. manipulation and controlling. Think and talk about yourself in a positive way It may help you take time to compile a list of your qualities. life situations change. Assertion is appropriate standing up for yourself. workgroup. • Act in ways that increase your liking and respect for yourself. Aggressiveness is an act against others. you can eventually announce “No I don’t want to do that” to your spouse. company. friendship To admit fear or anxiety To express agreement or support 5. manipulatory behaviour with true assertion. • Do not confuse glib. • To accomplish the above without unfair criticism of others without hurtful behaviour towards others. like business. • Practice speaking up with trivia. If you can say “Go to the end of the line” to a woman at the supermarket.
Whatever the outcome you’ll feel better for having stood up for your rights. you may begin with small issues and gradually move on to bigger ones. 3.something they do. if it is not. 10. Be able to say “No” Specially so if you honestly think others take advantage of you. Accept compliments without embarrassment Others too appreciate certain things about you. So a reasonable thing to do is to take the first step when you meet someone you would like to know better. Components of Assertive Behaviour You will recognize the following components of assertiveness: . Waiting for the other to take the initiative does not always have the desired effect. firm terms may be enough. If you are deficient in this behaviour. stick to the issue without attacking the person. 8. And recognise the limitations of the situation. Make it clear that you are saying ‘No’ to the request. then increase the forcefulness of your expression. Insist on fair treatment This will often involve you and a person ‘in charge’. Take the first step in forming new friendships Friendships are important. and the thoughts you think worth expressing both positive. In saying ‘No’ there is no need to be rude. Ask for what you want Clarify yourself about what you want and express it appropriately either as a suggestion or a request or a command. with due respect for the other person. they wear. Explore your alternatives: voicing your dissatisfaction in polite. when you have done all you can. 9. neither is it necessary to give many explanations. 7. learn to live peacefully with the results. State honest disagreement with ease When you disagree with what someone says. If you wait for them to act. the way they work. 5. Express yourself directly and spontaneously The feelings you actually experience. 4.2. you assume they are capable of taking risks. not to the person. as well as negative. depending on the situation 6. what that say. and be ready to be misunderstood. that is. Feel comfortable expressing honest compliments You surely appreciate certain things about other people . and it is good that they express their appreciation through honest compliments. Keep in touch with friends Valuable friendships often decline because neither party acts to keep it going. Ask no more of others than you ask of yourself. Risks are risks no matter who takes them.
Advantages of Assertive Behaviour • Close working relationships: Assertion tends to breed assertion. opinions and feelings. This is the strongest form of assertion and should only be used when the other types have been tried. wants. People behaving assertively make good line mangers. different ways of expressing your own rights assertively: State – Your rights: A straightforward statement that stands up for your rights by clearly and reasonably stating your needs. beliefs. Overtly aggressive or manipulative behaviour can bring immediate results. unassertive people are ‘institutionalized’ and need a great deal of support before they can ‘come out from under’ and begin to value their role and appreciate that their participation is sought. but credibility and integrity are put at risk. but equally be supportive of staff and take the needs of others into account. more likely to achieve our objectives in a conflict situation. Often. They can compromise and negotiate. what are his / her needs. there are different types of assertion. Assertive Behaviour at Work Assertive behaviour in the workplace gives everyone a better chance of influencing the system and participating in changes. The introduction of assertive behaviour into the workplace. Empathize – Both parties: This is a behaviour that contains an element of understanding for the other person as well as a statement of your own needs and thoughts. Expressing negative feelings or standing up for your rights can be interpreted as ‘out of order’ or ‘insubordinate’. opinions or feelings. will probably involve an intense transition period. Relationships are more open and working climates are more genuine. Ask – The other person: A question or questions designed to clarify where the other person stands. However. with their help. wants. whether it is a school. When people feel defensive and have to use their energy for political maneuvering. so people work more happily with us than against us.• • • • • Giving information Seeking information Expressing feelings Accepting feelings Change desired (in self or other) Assertiveness is a balance between being passive and aggressive. Assertive behaviour is so important to self-esteem and proactive behaviour that it needs to be particularly supported and endorsed in young workers or school children and students. Level – Both parties: A statement that openly explains the adverse effect a person’s behaviour is having on you. everyone in the organisation suffers. . We are then. an office or shop floor. They will say clearly what they want.
opinions. Greater confidence in others: We have a healthy recognition of the capabilities and limitations of others as opposed to seeing them as inferior (aggression) or superior (passive). often extroverted. but not in groups. An increased change of everyone winning: Assertiveness increases the likelihood that all parties will see their needs met.” No matter how great your timidity and irresolution. The split assertive. and remain passive in all situations. our wants. Blocks Of Assertive Behaviour Following are some of the blocks in the personality that are faced by the individual in being assertive: • The timid soul. but this seeming assertiveness hides a basic lack of honesty. and behave like a tyrant at home. If someone steps on your foot. . In general. You seem to be open and honest. you say what you think is the right thing at the wrong time. reducing the chance of boastfulness (aggression) and hopelessness (passive).• • • • • • Greater confidence in yourself: We develop a strong regard for ourselves and a high level of self esteem. “I’m sorry. You may be assertive in a one-to-one relationship. You allow yourself to be pushed around. Openness and directness. needs etc. If we are not worried about upsetting people (passive) or scheming how not to miss out (aggression) then we can save ourselves a lot of stress. cannot speak up. You may be deficient in any or all three of these areas. A lot of time and energy is wasted on worrying and scheming. there is always a point from which you can start to change. Assertion processes four behavioral characteristics. and difficulty with close relationships. A man can be the epitome of passivity at the office. their ideas and opinions heard and considered and their abilities put to good use. a characteristic often accompanied by shallowness of feeling. the easier it is to change with Assertiveness Training.Indirect Communication. rather than blaming others (aggression) or excusing ourselves (passive) Increased self-control: We can channel our thoughts and feelings to produce the behaviour we want. or inner emotions. you say. Savings in time and energy: We can take decisions more swiftly based on their individual merit and save time when handling disputes. generally appropriate.Dishonest or pseudo assertive communication. The range for split assertive behaviour can be very narrow. People may fail at one area of assertiveness and succeed at another. • • . the narrower the area. Increased self responsibility: We take responsibility for ourselves. but often you lack assertion in just one: . You can be able to openly express your tender feelings and yet not be able to show your angry feelings – and vice versa. rather than being controlled by outside events or people. . honesty and appropriateness.Inappropriate communication. You tend to be wordy. lack of clear-cut desires. Unaware about the realities of social relations. The person with communication difficulties.
and hangups. while still holding on to yours controlling the force you just threw. He accomplishes two things. Do not fight the feedback. It never occurs to you to treat the stranger as a stranger and the friend as a friend. You have a wrong concept of social reality. accept the feedback by allowing it to come to you. First. but the economic state of your firm may prohibit a salary increase. in a split second before you’re about to punch him. You can’t make eye contact or small talk. He then backs his hand away. he stops the forward motion of your swing. because of his own needs. You can demand a raise and deserve it. not realizing that the life situation provides problems where anxiety is the appropriate reaction. Use mental Ai-Ki-Do (control) when any negative feedback (mental fist) comes your way. just won’t.• • • • • • The person with behavioral deficits. the other person. the other person should go along with you. These assertive skills can be learned. You possess incorrect ideas. closeness. Assertiveness Techniques The Three techniques for Assertiveness are: • Mental Ai-Ki-Do • Information Building • Echoing • Mental Ai-Ki-Do This technique can help you to accept criticism comfortably without becoming defensive. You worry about worrying. You think as long as you’re being reasonable. you hit his hand. inhibit you from carrying out the action. You don’t grant independence to other people. Visualize a man holding up his hand in front of you. Then you use your focused listening skills. become anxious about being anxious. he is in control of what’s happening. You feel that as long as you do the right things. You think you’re supposed to treat a stranger as a friend. Stay in control by deciding whether you agree to what is said. The person with specific blocks. Ai-Ki Do is a martial art. Try your best to stay . but your fears of rejection. or start a conversation. You know what you should do. he feels no pain. If you don’t there’s something wrong with you. Again you are asked to hit his hand with your fist. scrutiny. Instead. his fingers wrap around your fist. You know what and how of what has to be done. by directing the momentum of your punch. but question your right to do it. by offering no resistance to your job. With all your force. You don’t comprehend the difference between aggression and assertion. tenderness. Since he did not move his hand when you hit it. This time. You have an erroneous idea of psychological reality. Reality doesn’t work that way. He asks that you to hit his upheld hand with your fist. You don’t understand that different kinds of relationships exist with different people. But very often. criticism. handle a confrontation. feelings. anger. Second. you should win them all. and have the skill to accomplish it.
Some people feel this technique is a rude one because it requires you to be domineering. non-leading questions to elicit feedback and to keep the conversation relaxed and flowing. You do not have to discuss something of mutual interest. and even an irate and unreasonable customer. building relationships takes time. then use the echoing technique. Nor should you restrict sharing information just because the other person has not disclosed much during your conversation. Mention other possible ways to complete the work. . Remember. need-to-know information.If appropriate. and you are still being ordered or intimidated to handle a request. Say It: Don’t hesitate or beat about the bush. Know What You Want To Say: You won’t appear confident if you are unsure of what you want. peer. but it should not be used exclusively. supervisor. you will teach others that you are serious and determined. Before meeting with someone. When it is inappropriate for you to budge on a certain point. You could appear foolish by asking of something that you eventually realize is not what you want. .even – tempered. • Information Building This technique will help you initiate and build relationships by sharing information about yourself. Once you explode or hide. Depending upon how well you know the person and your own comfort level. 2. use humor and open-ended. vendor. The technique is similar to an echo because you repeat what you desire. The technique certainly is used to get your way. come right out with it! Practise before you say it and check for appropriateness. If these strategies do not work. Providing information about yourself first will encourage others to share their thoughts and feelings with you. plan what kind of information would be appropriate to share. Expressing One’s Feelings The following are some of the points that are taken into consideration while expressing assertive feelings 1. Use this technique only after exhausting these strategies: .Suggest a more suitable person to take on the assignment. . the echoing technique will help you hold your ground with an associate. • Echoing This technique will strengthen your ability to say “no” respectfully without regrets. start out with general information and work up to sensitive. you start to lose control by giving in to the force. offer some assistance or time to help with part of the project or task.Inform whoever is requesting your services that you are unable to do the job as it is not into your priorities. in the process. One of the ways trust is built between associates is by the amount of knowledge that is shared by and about each other. Stay composed and state over and over again what you want. After sharing your thoughts and feelings.
Look Relaxed: You’ll convey anxiety by shifting from one foot to another. Look the Person in the Eye: People feel more comfortable if you look directly at them. Don’t Whine or be Sarcastic: Be direct and honest. do not say it at the peak of your anger. Wait for that to pass. If you simply look shifty and cannot look them in the eye. Being sarcastic. 6. Say It as Soon as Possible: Do not let too much time pass. 4.3. . communicates hostility as you put the other person down. Avoid Laughing Nervously: Smile if it’s appropriate. Be Specific: Say exactly what you want or do not want. 5. but if you giggle or laugh you won’t look as if you mean what you say. on the other hand. 8. On the other hand. as this builds up apprehension. you certainly will not come across as someone who knows what they want. Practise looking relaxed in a mirror – it’s not as contradictory as it sounds! 7. Begin with the word “I”. so that there can be no confusion. Whining and pleading can either annoy the person or make them feel guilty. No long explanations are necessary. This will confuse the person you are speaking to. waving your arms around. It is being manipulative. or conversely being too rigid.
. Location: The best location of a visual stimulus for attracting attention is directly in the front of the eyes in the center of a page. hearing. viz.. and smelling. organizing. They may be inside also. whether the object is visual or auditory. feeling. Similarly. We need to filter or screen out most of them so that we may deal with the important or relevant ones. touch and tasting. Two sets of factors govern the selection of stimuli: external and internal. vision. and whether it involves pictures. There is the sixth sense about which much is speculated and nothing is known. smell. people or animals.” “Perception includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about his environment – seeing. things would be a lot simpler” -Moorhead & Griffin In its simple sense perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen. receiving. stimuli need not be external to us. a position in the upper portion of a page in more favourable than one in the lower portions.. as revealed by the definitions. and the left hand side receives more attention than the right hand side.Perception “If everyone perceived everything the same way. A few definitions of perception are given below: “Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments. We receive stimuli through the organs. viz. Process of Receiving Stimuli The human organism is structured with five sensory organs. is composed of six processes. But the perceiver. We may not be able to report the existence of certain stimuli but our behaviour reveals that we are often subject to their influence. the environment in which perception occurs. they receive events or objects that have been repressed. Process of Selecting Stimuli Myriads of stimuli seemingly clamour for our attention at any given time. hearing. The meaning of perception will be complete when all the three aspects are stressed. and the individuals doing the perceiving.” Perceptual Process Perception. the object. checking. selecting. When this location is not possible in a newspaper or a magazine. tasting. and reacting to stimuli. The study of these perceptional processes shows that their functioning is affected by three classes of variables – the objects or events being perceived. These processes are influenced by the perceived and the situation. and the environment influence what is seen. Secondary organs receive not only physical objects. External Factors Influencing Selection The external factors influencing selection are: Nature: By nature we mean. interpreting.
will receive their attention. or bright light will be noticed more than a soft sound.Intensity: Stimuli of higher intensity are perceived more than the objects with low intensity. People tend to perceive what they want to perceive. age differences. New objects in familiar settings or familiar objects in new setting will draw the attention of the perceiver. or dim light. Size: Generally objects of larger size attract more attention than the smaller ones. Internal Factors Influencing Selection Internal factors influencing selection of stimuli include learning. A loud noise. Contrast: The contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out against the background. It has been argued that. the person with a particular interest has a need to involve himself in activities pertaining to it. Once they have been satisfied. a cognitive factor. Interest: The interests of the perceiver unconsciously influence perception. That is. Paranoid Perception: When the person’s perception is so selective that he can find little common ground for communication with others. his perception is likely to be selective at any time. ambivalence. Yet there is some value in conceiving the two as distinct. and paranoid perception. These factors relate to oneself. But if the person has a special interest. interests cannot be distinguished from needs. It creates expectancy in people. Repetition: The repetition principle states that a repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a single one. The maintenance engineering staff may pay more attention to a big machine than to a small one. interests. or which are not what people are expecting. even though the smaller one costs as much and as important to the operation. strong odour. Learning: Learning. weak odour. Psychological Needs: Needs play a significant role in perceptual selectivity. psychological needs. . he is likely to be paranoid. has considerable influence on perception. in their influence on perception. Novelty and Familiarity: The novelty and familiarity principle states that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as an attention getter. Ambivalence: Another factor in perceptual selection is ambivalence or mixed feelings about a situation. Movement: The principle of motion states that a moving object receives more attention than an object that is standing still. most needs no longer influence perception. Age Difference: Older senior executives complain about the inability of the new young to take tough decisions concerning terminating or resigning people and paying attention to details and paper work. The young managers in turn complain about the “old guards” resisting change and using paper and rules as ends in themselves. Unreal things often look real because of deprived needs. An architect will notice many details of buildings that he passes only once. Different perceptions of old and young executives are due to their age differences perceptions.
In other words. The Process of Interpreting After the data have been received and organized. our ability to perceive certain characteristics of an object as remaining constant.. a person is likely to categories the other according to some silent characteristic such as sex. intentions. There are three dimensions to the perceptual organization. Perceptual Constancy: A more subtle part of perceptual organization is constancy. In fact. As too much credit or blame for behaviour is placed on persons rather than on environment. Several factors contribute towards what has been interpreted. and perceptual constancy. Perceptual Grouping: The principles of grouping first defined by gestalt psychologists include similarity. perceptual grouping. Stereotyping Stereotyping is the tendency for a person’s perceptions of another to be influenced by the social group to which the others belong. size. There are several aspects of constancy such as shape. and consequences influence the attribution process. This is called perceptual set. There are critics who argue that perceptual distortion occurs because of attribution. race. despite variations in the stimuli that provide us with our information. Such constancy amidst changing stimuli is indispensable if we are to adjust to our world. . Halo Effect The halo effect refers to the tendency of perceiving people in terms of good and bad. This aspect of forming bits of information into meaningful wholes is called the perceptual organization. closure. viz. The individual’s experiences with others in the category in which he has placed them lead him to believe that they have certain traits in common. More important amongst them are Perceptual Set Previously held beliefs about objects influence an individual’s perceptions of similar objects. he is ready to perceive the other as possessing the same trait. occupation. and ascribing all good qualities to one who is liked and all bad qualities to another who is disliked. perception is said to have taken place only after the data have been interpreted. Factors such as status. religion. or organizational affiliation. Attribution Attribution refers to the process by which the individual assigns causes to the behaviour he conceives. the perceiver interprets or assigns meaning to the information. perceived objects stand out as separable from their general background. nationality. colour. The figure ground principle states that the relationship of a target to its background influences perception. Figure Ground: Figure ground is considered to be the most basic form of perceptual organization. according to the principle. proximity. In perceiving another. and continuity. Thus. figure ground.The Organizing Process The perceptual selection related to the discussion of external and Internal factors which helped gain the perceiver’s attention.
change in perception but refusal to change. He will put a series of questions to himself and the answers will confirm whether his perception about an individual or object is correct or not. The defence mechanisms put up by the perceiver may assume any of the four forms: outright denial. unacceptable or threatening stimuli. height. or motives into their judgement of others. We tend to notice the physical attributes of a person in terms of age.Perceptual Context The context in which an object is placed influences perception. He should be someone with a strong need for ego satisfaction. Another way is to check the veracity about the interpretation with others. an individual is likely to put a defence when confronted with conflicting. past experience. Factors Influencing Perception The perceiver. Perceptual Defence According to the principle of perceptual defence. personality. values. social and organizational settings of the situation or event in question can influence perceptions. habits. an individual’s perceptions are influenced by his belief that certain human traits are associated. and weight. the perceived and situation are some of the factors that influence perception. The perceiver shall indulge in some action in relation to his perception. tendencies. sex. The action depends on whether the perception is favorable or unfavorable. which the perceiver possesses but fails to recognize himself. the perceiver tends to check whether his interpretations are right or wrong. and behaviour of persons in the situation also influence how a situation is perceived. they project their own feelings. and attitudes. Implicit Personality Theory In judging and making inferences about others. The action is positive when the perception is favourable. which may influence the perception process. This may be particularly true regarding undesirable traits. One way of checking is for the person himself to indulge in introspection. . with one another. The Process of Checking After data have been received and interpreted. modification of the data received. people tend to see in another person traits that they themselves posses. appearance. Projection Under certain conditions. That is. Only when the doodles are placed in a verbal context do they take on meaning and value to the perceiver. and change in perception itself. The Process of Reacting The last phase in perception is the reaction. Characteristics of the Perceived The physical attributes. Characteristics of the Perceiver A perceiver needs to have. The visual stimuli by themselves are meaningless. It is negative when the perception is unfavourable. Characteristics of the Situation The physical.
Perception and Organisational Behaviour In an interview for the selection of a candidate. as others perceive it.. If the inadequacies of the candidate are exposed early. Influence of perceptions of other people when they are drawing incorrect or incomplete impressions of events in the work setting. Be empathetic – that is. be able to see a situation. But the fact is that interviewers generally form an early impression that becomes quickly entrenched. the interviewers’ judgement about the suitability or otherwise of a candidate depends on how his behaviour is perceived by them. what is liked is perceived as correct.e. Seek information from various sources to confirm or disconfirm personal impressions of a decision situation.e. A rejected applicant might feel that he was wronged by the interview though he deserved selection..e. • You are not able to identify all factors. Avoid common perceptual distortions that biased in our view of people and situations. . the cues you don’t know you perceived • You respond to irrelevant cues to arrive at a judgment. • You weigh perceptual evidence heavily if it comes from respectable sources. not realizing how much weight is given to a single item.. they weigh against him in the final selection Specific applications in organization • Employment interview • Performance expectations • Performance evaluation • Employee effort • Employee loyalty Managing the Perception Process • • • • • • Have a high level of self-awareness. Five reasons why a person misperceives – Zalkind and Costello • You are influenced by cues below your own threshold i. i. • You are influenced by emotional factors. Avoid inappropriate attributions. i.
This means that certain responses can be predicted which continuously result from certain induced stimuli.P. This learning is not caused by biological maturation. emotions or perceptions but is keyed to the nature of the outcome of such behaviour. cognitive learning and social learning. and he established a Stimulus-Response (S-R) connection. which differentiates human beings from dogs. You can only help him discover it within himself. that behaviour which results in positive rewards tends to be repeated and behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated.Galileo Learning can be defined as a “relatively permanent change in behaviour or potential behaviour as a result of direct or indirect experience”.Learning “ You cannot teach a man anything. certain types of consequences can be used to increase the occurrence of a desired behaviour and other types of consequences can be used to decrease the occurrence of undesired behaviour. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning induces a voluntary change in behaviour and learning occurs as a “consequence” of such change. either better or worse as compared to our behaviour prior to this experience of learning. based upon such consequences. any stimulus from the work environment will elicit a response. Classical conditioning introduces a simple cause-and-effect relationship between one stimulus and one response. It also makes the response reflexive or involuntary after the stimulus-response relationship has been established. Second. This means that after “learning” our behaviour must be different. This leaves no ground for making choices. First is the element that the change must be relatively permanent. The second aspect of the definition is that this change must occur due to some kind of experience or practice. the behviour can be predicted and controlled. feelings. There are two primary elements in this definition that must both be present in order to identify the process of learning. Theories of Learning There are four general approaches to learning – classical conditioning. Classical Conditioning The most well known experiments on classical conditioning were undoubtedly conducted by I.” . From an organizational point of view. Pavlov with dogs. Under certain situations classical conditioning does explain human behaviour. First. It is based upon the premise that behaviour or job performance is not a function of inner thoughts. It is also known as reinforcement theory and it suggests that behaviour is a function of its consequences. This relationship is built around two principles. operant conditioning. . Hence.
Principle of Reinforcement Reinforcement is the process by which certain types of behaviours are strengthened. This process of self-control is also partially a reflection of societal and cultural influences on the development and growth of human beings. Discrimination While generalization is a reaction to “similarities” of stimuli or responses. Some reinforcers work by their application to a situation. is the act of knowing an item of information and this knowledge affects the behaviour of the person so that the information provides cognitive cues towards the expected goal. in fact. the individual can adjust to new learning situations more smoothly because of the previous learning experiences. Cognition. . In addition learning can also be gained by discipline and self-control and an inner desire to acquire knowledge or skills irrespective of the external rewards or consequences. There are two concepts that help in explaining the transfer of learning. discrimination is the ability to differentiate between relatively similar stimuli where generalization would yield negative consequences. Thus these reinforcers work as behaviour modifiers. Social Learning It is recognized that learning does not take place only because of environmental stimuli (classical and operant conditioning) or of individual determinism (cognitive approach) but is a blend of both views. However. Because of the principle of generalization. These are as follows: Generalization No two situations are exactly alike. It also emphasizes that people acquire new behaviour by observing or imitating others in a social setting. responses to certain situations can be applied to similar but different situations. while other reinforcers work by their removal from the situation.Cognitive Learning Learning is considered as the outcome of deliberate thinking about the problem or situation both intuitively and based upon known facts and responding in an objective and goal oriented manner. then some of his previous experience would be transferred to the new situation and his learning time in the new situation would be considerably decreased. Transfer of Learning Berelson and Steiner suggested that learning can be transferred from one situation to another and the extent of such transfer is a function of the extent of similarity in the stimulus or response. If a person experiences a similar situation that he dealt with before. Thus a “reinforcer” is any stimulus that causes certain behaviour to be repeated or inhibited.
In the extinction process. which has never been associated with the reward before. on the other hand consists of “application” of an undesirable consequence or “withdrawal” of a desirable consequence for an undesirable behaviour. Punishment Punishment is the most controversial method of behaviour modification and involves delivering an unpleasant consequence contingent upon the occurrence of an undesirable behaviour. Extinction This type of reinforcement is applied to reduce undesirable ‘behaviour. since money can be used for a number of other resources too. The method involved is a suitable form of punishment in the form of withholding the positive enforcement or simply ignoring the undesirable behaviour. Money is probably the most powerful reinforcement for positive behaviour. under avoidance conditioning. This means that if rewards were removed from behaviours that were previously reinforced.Positive Reinforcement A positive reinforcement is a reward for a desired behaviour. The punishment process is similar to the extinction process in that both have the effect of decreasing and eliminating the undesirable behaviour. the employee works hard to avoid repercussion. However. The punishment process. unlike the positive reinforcement where an employee works hard to gain financial and other rewards. Schedule of Reinforcement While it is necessary to know as to which type of reinforcement would be most effective in a given situation. we withhold rewards for behaviour that has previously been rewarded because the behaviour was not undesirable previously. reprimand and other negative aspects of the organizational environment. then such behaviours would become less frequent and eventually die out. it is equally important to examine the various ways or “schedules” of administering these techniques of reinforcement. The reward should be sufficiently powerful and durable so that it increases the probability of occurrence of desirable behaviour. The various ways by which the reinforcement can be administered can be categorized into two groups. Negative Reinforcement Also known as “escape conditioning” or “avoidance learning”. especially when such behaviours were previously rewarded. it is also a method of strengthening desired behaviour. but technically there is a difference. . These are continuous and partial reinforcement schedules.
1) Behaviour modification is an overall structure and ignores individual differences. some of the behavioural modification techniques. It is important for the management to recognize the power of work-group norms. Te order of presentation of materials to be learned is very important. Fixed Interval Schedule In this type of schedule. Fixed-ratio Schedules In a fixed-ratio schedule. Showing errors is how to do something can lead to increase in learning. Variable-ratio Schedule It is similar to fixed-ratio schedule except that the number of responses required before reinforcement is determined. the reinforcement is administered at random times that cannot be predicted by the employee. . It is believed that “behaviour tends to be persistent when it is learned under conditions of partial and delayed reinforcement. 4.. This results in fast acquisition of the desired response and the learning is rapid. Partial Reinforcement Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule rewards desirable behaviour at specific intervals. a response is reinforced at fixed intervals of time. 2. 2. the reinforcement is administered only upon the completion of a given number of desirable responses. However the behaviour learned by continuous reinforcement strategy tends not to persist for which such reinforcement is applied less frequently. The capacities of learners are important in determining what can be learned and how long will it take to learn it. are not fixed but vary from situation to situation. as discussed previously are effective in eliciting desirable behaviours from employees in work situations. Limitations of Behaviour Modification While in general.Continuous Schedule A continuous schedule is the one in which the desirable behaviour is reinforced every time it occurs and the reinforcement is immediate. The simple rules of leaning are: 1. 3) Behaviour modification is that it ignores prevailing work-group norms. 3. Variable Interval Schedule In this type of schedule. There are four kinds of partial reinforcement schedules. there are some limitations that make these techniques ineffective in certain situations. 3. 2) Behaviour modification programs assume that extrinsic rewards are the key factors in behaviour modification and they ignore the fact that employees can be intrinsically motivated. There are: 1.
10. Repetition of identical materials is often as effective in getting things remembered as repeating the same story but with variations. Knowledge of results leads to increase in learning. Learning something new can interfere with the remembering of something learned earlier. 5. Learning is aided by active practice rather than passive reception 8. A passage is more easily learned and accepted if it does not interfere with earlier habits. Two things are necessary – “belongingness” and “satisfaction”. 6. 7. Values. The mere repetition of a situation does not necessarily lead to learning. 9. Attitudes and Interest .4. The rate of forgetting tends to be very rapid immediately after learning.
We all have values and. In other words.” . However. just as strongly. and motivations. 6. This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to such values as freedom. for example.George Bernard Shaw Values Is capital punishment right or wrong? The answer to this question is value laden. they imply that certain behaviours or outcomes are preferred over others. Individuals enter an organization with preconceived notions of what “ought” and what “ought not” to be. Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. Further. that capital punishment is right because it is an appropriate retribution for crimes like murder or treason. Aesthetic – It places the highest value on form and harmony. or desirable. they contain interpretations of right and wrong. equality. others may argue. perceptions. Theoretical – Places high importance on the discovery of truth through a critical and rational approach. 5. personality. Economic – Emphasizes the usefulness and practicality of the situation. good. that is persecution. Value systems represent a prioritizing of individual values in relation to their relative importance. honesty. Of course. Types of Values The most important early work in categorizing values was done by All-port and his associates. Religious – It is concerned with the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmos as a whole. we all have a set of values that form a value system. self-respect. that is law. 3. 4. order and morals. pleasure. as you will see.” They contain a moral flavor in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right.“When you prevent me from doing anything I want to do. Importance of Values Values are important to the study of organizational behaviour because they lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes. these notions are not value-free. Some might argue. 2. They identified six types of values: 1. . Social – Here the highest value is given to the love of people. what we think is important influences our attitudes and our behaviour. obedience. that no government has the right to take anyone’s life. and so forth. Political – It places emphasis on acquisition of power and influence. but when I prevent you from doing anything you want to do. On the contrary.
These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. Source of Attitudes Attitudes. Attitudes are not the same as values. respect or may be even fear. Level 5. They respond primarily to power. Attitudes Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favourable or unfavourable – concerning objects. Values also contain a moral flavor of rightness or desirability. Egocentrism. People . Reactive. we begin modeling our attitudes after those we admire. Conformity. like values. Values are the broader and more encompassing concept. teachers. restrictive policies. The statement that “discrimination is bad” reflects one’s values. This is most descriptive of newborn babies. Level 7. status symbols. Level 6. These individuals have a high tolerance for ambiguity and people with differing values. These individuals are unaware of themselves or others as human beings and react to basic physiological needs. They are outspoken on inflexible systems. Level 1. So attitudes are more specific than values. Tribalistic. and peer group members. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. or events. These individuals have a low tolerance for ambiguity. people. We observe the way family and friends behave and we shape our attitudes and behaviour to align with theirs. Level 4. They reflect how one feels about something.More recent research suggests that there is a hierarchy of levels that are descriptive of personal values and life-styles. These persons believe in rugged individualism. have difficulty in accepting people whose values differ from their own. When I say “I like my job. and desire that others accept their values. Level 2. Existential. are acquired from parents. “I favor the implementation of an affirmative action program to recruit and develop women for managerial positions in our organization” is an attitude. In our early years. Level 3. These individuals are characterized by high dependence. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. One such study identified seven levels. Sociocentric. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. Manipulative. They are aggressive and selfish. and arbitrary use of authority.” I am expressing my attitude about work. They are strongly influenced by tradition and the power exerted by authority figures.
while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. In organizations. actively participates in it.imitate the attitudes of popular individuals or those they admire and respect. When people speak of employee attitudes. and considers his performance important to his self-worth.e. When there is an inconsistency. Organizational commitment expresses an individual’s orientation toward the organization by tapping his or her loyalty to. The term “job involvement” states that job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies with his job. Typically. Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitudes toward his or her job. more often then they mean job satisfaction. Type of Attitudes But OB focuses our attention on a very limited number of job-related attitudes. job involvement. Attitudes and Consistency People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behaviour. job satisfaction. Individuals who express high commitment see their identity as closely attached to that of the organizations. In fact. identification with. These job-related attitudes tap positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. This means that individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviour so they appear rational and consistent. and involvement in the organization. and organizational commitment. attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job. forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behaviour are again consistent. Changing attitudes: Some basic techniques a) Persuasive messages: Hearing sometimes is believing i) Comunicator’s Characteristics • Attractiveness • Style • Credibility ii) Content of persuasive message • Receiver’s characteristics • Intelligence • Self – esteem/ confidence iii) Enhance persuasion • Build personal attractiveness • Enhance credibility . the two are frequently used interchangeably. there are three primary attitudes that are of concerned to us i.
Knowledge about an object is not in itself a condition of “interest”. then. That “interest” is conative rather than cognitive. perhaps of relatively low intensity. though such knowledge favours thus sustaining attention: without such knowledge our attention to any object. as well as more effective. friends and peers Barriers to changing attitudes Interest You are driving your automobile. It is sometimes alleged that “interest” in any object or topic depends upon. enters into the complex stimulation. or consists in. even when you ask him to direct his attention to it. The difference between you (manifested in the fact that your attention is drawn to the sound. But presently a new element. and the continued roar it makes does not hold or divert or attract your attention. that is can think of the . “Interest. and both are interested in it. for he has the knowledge. We acquire a great variety of new interests through the building up of sentiments for a great variety of objects. who perhaps is a familiar with the roar as yourself.b) c) d) e) f) • • • Use social pressure Design appeal with care Repetition can always help Dissonance: when attitude and behaviour don’t match Providing new information Use of fear Influence of family. fails to notice the new element. determined by conative interest. and is therefore determined by our instincts and our sentiments.” being essentially conative. To have an “interest” in any object is. Interest is latent attention. you notice the new sound and begin to wonder what it means. and your attention is at once attracted. but the attention of the naturalist is more sustained. The essential condition of both interest in and attention to any object is that the mind shall be so organized. and attention is interest in action. is a matter of the enduring setting of our conative tendencies or impulses. while his is not) is that you are “interested” in the sounds made by the automobile and he is not. noticing a hundred features which entirely escape his companies. to be ready to pay attention to it. rather than upon the extent and variety and systematic organization of the cognitive systems of the mind ( knowledge). or cognitive mental structure. We are interested only in those things that evoke in us one or other (or several) of the instinctive impulses. soon wanes. it excites the curiosity of both. the possession of appropriate knowledge or (in terms of the “idea” theory) of mass or system of “ideas” related to the object or topic. while your friend by your side. because we quickly exhaust upon it our limited power of discriminative perception. either natively or through experience. Thus a naturalist and a layman may discover some strange plant or animal. that enables him to examine it systematically and in detail. that it depends upon the strength of the conative tendencies excited.
” “drives.” Technically.object. the term motivation can be traced to the Latin word movere.” This meaning is evident in the following comprehensive definition: “A motive is an inner state that energizes. Usually one or more of the following words are included in the definition: “desires.” “needs.” “motives. or moves and that directs or channels . virtually all people including lay people and scholars have their own definition of motivation. Motivation “Motivation is getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it” Dwight D. which means. activates.” “wants.” “goals.” and “incentives.” “wishes. Eisenhower Today. “to move. and that such thinking shall evoke some impulse or desire which maintains a train of activity in relation to the object.
Primary Motives Physiologists do not totally agree on how to classify the various human motives. Thus. Although not all psychologists would agree. The Competence Motives While proposed a new conceptualization based upon the assumption that all organisms. biological. curiosity. Such motives are variously called physiological. needs. motivation consists of interdependent elements: needs. With a few exceptions drives or motives are set up to alleviate needs. Drives are action-oriented and provide an energizing thrust toward goal accomplishment. the motives of competence. At the end of the motivation cycle is the goal. Needs. selectivity. drives. In the homeostatic sense. Yet such a category seems necessary because there are a number of motives. needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. 2. which will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. and goals. a motive must be unlearned but not physiologically based. drives and goals. A goal in the motivation cycle can be defined as anything. An understanding of these general motives is important to the study of human behaviour – especially in organizations. manipulation. at the same time show direction. General Motives A separate classification for general motives is not always given. To be included in the general category. He called from activities which. attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive. Drives. but they would acknowledge that some motivates are unlearned and physiologically based. lies in the meaning of. The use of the term primary does not imply that this group of motives always takes precedence over the general and secondary motives. the competence motive is the most inclusive general drive. and affection seem best to meet the criteria for this classification. which lie in the gray area between the primary and secondary classifications. 3. Goals. The last term is used here because it is more comprehensive than the others. or primary. The other general . The key to understand motivation. and persistence in interacting with the environment. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. activity. it appears. Needs Goals (Deprivation) (Reduction of drives) Drives (Deprivation with direction) three interacting and In a systems sense. A drive can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. and relationship between. animal and human. have a capacity to interact effectively with their environment. though playful and exploratory in character. The best one-word definition of a need is deficiency.” Thus defined.behaviour toward goals. They are more relevant to organizational behaviour than the primary motives. 1. unlearned.
the total society might become very stagnant. manipulation. Although these drives often get the small child into trouble. when stifled or inhibited. achievement. and activity drives are quite intense. manipulation. the secondary drives are unquestionably the most important. 1. affection is sometimes placed in all three categories of motives. The relationship is obvious when reinforcement is divided into primary and secondary categories and is portrayed as incentives. Once again. and to a lesser degree the general drives. in reality concepts like reinforcement and motivation do not operate as separate entities in producing human behaviour.drives of curiosity. Secondary Motives Whereas the general drives seem relatively more important than the primary ones to the study of human behaviour in organizations. and activity can be considered more specific competence drives. the learning principle of reinforcement is conceptually and practically related to motivation. the primary drives. it should be emphasized that although the various behavioural concepts can be separated for study and analysis. n Ach. For this reason. The interactive effects are always present. or as they are commonly referred to today. Moderate risk taking. and affiliation. The Affection Motives Love or affection is a very complex form of general drive. and activity. give way to the learned secondary drives in motivating behaviour. Taking moderate risks is probably the single most descriptive characteristic of the person possessing high n Ach. Some writer’s regards reinforcement and motivation as equivalent. The Power Motives It is the need to manipulate other or the drive for superiority over others – Adler developed the concepts of inferiority complex and compensation. and Activity Motives It is generally recognized that human curiosity. manipulation. The Achievement Motive Characteristic of high achievers. Part of the complexity stems from the fact that in many ways love resembles the primary drives and in other ways it is similar to the secondary drives. Some of the more important ones are power. With some glaring exceptions that have yet to be eradicated. A motive must be learned in order to be included in the secondary classification. curiosity. . In addition. The Curiosity Manipulation. and n Aff. Numerous important human motives meet this criterion. In particular. security and status are also important secondary motives. anyone who has reared or been around small children will quickly support this generalization. As a human society develops economically and becomes more complex. especially in reference to organizational behaviour. however. the motives of hunger and thirst are not dominant among people living in the economically developed Western world.
2. In reality. or society. Three key areas of responsibility A. material. they tend to be totally preoccupied with the task until it is successfully completed. Preoccupation with the task. A good illustration of this characteristic involves money. The Status Motive Status can be simply defined as the relative ranking that a person holds in a group. for it is based largely on fear and is avoidance-oriented. Gellerman notes that this special drive for security is largely unconscious but that it greatly influences the behaviour of many people. infrastructure. Performance definition (Set Objectives) • Goals • Measures • Assessment Performance facilitation (provide resources) • Elimination of roadblocks to performance • Providing means and adequate resources (finance. Closely connected to high achievers’ taking moderate risks is their desire for immediate feedback. 3. Sometimes affiliation is equated with social motives and / or group dynamics. or they do not expect or necessarily want the accompanying material rewards. Once high achievers select a goal. but not for the usual reasons of wanting money for its own sake or for the material benefits that it can buy. security is much more complex than it appears on the surface. organization. HR etc. Need for immediate feedback. security appears to be much simpler than other secondary motives. Satisfaction with accomplishment. As presented here. the affiliation motive is neither as broad as is implied by the definition of social motives nor as comprehensive or complex as is implied by the definition of group dynamics.) • Carefully selecting personnel Performance encouragement (Provide timely rewards) • Values of rewards • Amount of rewards • Timing of rewards • Likelihood of rewards • Fairness of rewards Various approaches to job design for performance . 4. The Affiliation Motive Affiliation plays a very complex but vital role in human behaviour. The Security Motive One the surface. High achievers find accomplishing a task intrinsically satisfying in and of itself.
Role of intention in human behaviour. Job characteristics approach to Job Design – Hackman & Oldham Equation Motivating (MPS) feedback Potential score = Skill variety + Task identity + Task Sign x autonomy x 3 Goal Setting theory • • The cognitive based work was given by locke et. Intentions or goals Responses action or Performance reinforcement • • Valid and practical – useful No commitment to work – Goal setting will not work. Goals provide direction to behaviour. Emotions or desires are the ways person experiences values. d. f. Goal – setting – building goals. feedback and incentives into the structure of the job. Job enrichment – making jobs more meaningful. Importance of values or valence and consequences. Scientific Management – Talyor – forerunner of goal setting. e. The theoretical background a. d. People strive to attain goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. al. Job enlargement – adding more tasks to the job for variety. f. Goal – Setting theory Values and value Emotions and Consequences Judgments desires Feedback or Theories of Motivation . Job rotation – doing different jobs for variety. c. b. Social technical approach – making a group or a team responsible for the job and balancing social and technical aspects of the job. b.Appropriately designed job – higher employee satisfaction and quality of performance a. Job engineering – concentrates on the efficiency of the job through time and motion analysis of person – machine interfaces. e. c. interesting and challenging.
• Need for power : The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. to achieve in relation to a set of standards. those of the higher order do not dominate.. esteem and self-actualization needs.There is no simple formula to motivate people. • Need for achievement : The drive to excel. Hygiene/Maintenance • Company policy & Adm. unless the needs of lower order are reasonably satisfied. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs or Deficient Theory of Motivation Needs are arranged in a definite sequence of domination i. But if you look at the theoretical emphasis of the behavioural scientists who have been studying motivation. Higher/secondary needs are belonging or social needs. there is a surprising degree of agreement. Absence of these factors may dissatisfy the employee but will not demotivate them. • Need for affiliation : The drive for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. power & achievement. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation In the first category are Maintenance or Hygiene factors.e. which are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of job satisfaction. to strive to succeed. In the Second category are the Motivators since they seem to be effective in motivating people to superior performance. • Relationship with supervisor • Working conditions • Salary • Relationship with peers Motivators • Achievement Recognition • Work • Responsibility • Advancement • Growth . Self-actualization Esteem Belonging Safety Physiological McClelland Achievement Theory of Motivation • We have three basic social needs: affiliation. Lower/primary order needs includes basic physiological needs & safety and security.
pension and other benefit programs.• Personal life • Relationship with subordinates • Status • Job security • Technical supervision McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X emphasizes on discipline. close supervision. the decision of companies to introduce teams into their production processes made news because no one else was doing it. intelligence and commitment. it’s just the opposite. welfare measures. As organizations have restructured themselves to compete more effectively and . and experience. Theory Y represents the democratic approach and gives to the employees scope for creativity and responsibility. It stresses man’s need for work. responsibility and involvement in serious endeavour. Evidence suggests that teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills. incentive programs. Team Building Twenty years ago. judgment. It’s the organisation that doesn’t use teams that has become newsworthy. work force is a reservoir of untapped imagination. Today.
• Interdependence. Other members depend on those contributions and share work information with one another.efficiently. • Encourage consideration of individual strengths and weaknesses. they actively care about their team’s well being. and who produce high quality results. therefore.The Undeveloped Team: The ‘Forming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Facilitate ‘getting to know you’ exercise. This suggests a practical limitation on size. accountability for team outcomes. • Make team activities enjoyable. who work well together and enjoy doing so. stimulating greater personal knowledge. Why Have Teams Become So Popular? Effective teams produce outstanding results and succeed in achieving despite difficulties. It is in part an emotional entity. they have turned to teams as a way to better utilize employee talents. in which each team member makes individual contributions. a team consists of individuals who relate directly together to get things done. A team. Management has found that teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than are traditional departments or other forms of permanent groupings. • Shared responsibility. It is imperative to take note of the following key terms to understand the definition of a team. which identifies the focus for the team’s activities and includes both services and products. Definition: An energetic group of people who are committed to achieving common objectives. According to the definition. Teams have the capability to quickly assemble. Members feel responsible for the output of their team and act to clear difficulties standing in their way. • Invite members to share their concerns and problems. The main stages can be summarized as follows: Stage 1 . Woodcock presented “Developmental model” in his Team Development Manual. • Give maximum support. rooted in the feelings as well as the thoughts of its members. deploy. leading hopefully to a final ‘mature’ stage that equates to effective team functioning. • All members share outcome. refocus. Responsibility for team’s purpose and goals is shared and understood by all members. • Demonstrate openness by example. and disband. is more than a collection of individuals. The Stages of Team Development When a group of people come together to achieve an objective they will go through a series of stages. . because rarely in practice can more than nine people function as single team.
• Give minimal support. • Encourage individual team members to ‘air their grievances’. • Expose team functioning to external scrutiny. • Find opportunities to experiment. • Develop a capacity for the team to compensate for individual weaknesses.The Mature Team : The ‘Performing’ Team The features of this stage are: • Build bridges with other teams. • Celebrate successes.The Disbanding Team: The ‘Mourning’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Competence has been established at a high level. Stage 3 . Implications There are certain implications of these five stages.The Experimenting Team: The ‘Storming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Encourage greater openness. • Encourage people to share strengths. • Clarify values. • Give moderate support. • Seek common ground. Stage 4 . • Encourage informal communications.Stage 2 . • Question decision making and problem solving methods. • Develop decision-making strategies. • Develop individual skills.The Consolidating Team: The ‘Norming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Develop problem-solving skills. • Consider the possibilities of enhanced inputs into the organisation. • Begin to involve team members in review of team performance. • Commitment may surge or dip. • Build bridges between individuals. • Give high level of support. • Regularly review performance and plan improvements. • Fight insularity. • Clarify objectives. Forming: awareness of the formation process means encouraging discussion on issues such as : • Why are we here? • What’s our real purpose? • What holds us firmly together? . • Allow conflicts to surface. Stage 5 . • Experiment with different forms of leadership • Allow leadership to change with the needs of the task.
• • • • • What are we prepared to do and NOT do together? What are our rules for working together? What do we expect from one another? How will people outside this group respond to us? What’s the best and worst that could happen if we continue down this route together? Storming: during this stage. socializing. encourage group communication around issues such as: • What role is each of us to play? • Shall we have a formal leader or chairperson? • Who wants to become the leader? / Whom do we want as leader? • What powers shall we give our formal leader? • How do we resolve conflict if several people want to lead? • Do we encourage disagreement and people expressing a difference of opinion? • How will we resolve differences between us . help group communication by encouraging attention to issues such as: • When do we stop meeting? • Who should we tell? • What remains to do before the last meeting? .for example by having fun together.for example making space to air them? Norming: during this phase contribute to good communications by helping people realize: • What are our formal rules? • What are our usually unspoken rules? • Who has what formal role? • How far can people challenge the group in some way? • How do we deal with differences of opinion? • How far can an individual follow his or her own interests at the expense of the group? Performing: now you can help the communication process by focusing on • What are our specific targets or goals? • How are we setting about achieving them? • Who has what detailed responsibilities and do they understand these? • Can we make being together more rewarding .for example by compromise or formal voting? • What happens if someone refuses to conform to the group’s wishes? • How do we deal with strong feelings . recognizing one another’s successes? • How best can we support people through difficult times? • Are we listening to one another properly? • Does each speaker build on what the previous person has said? • Do we give each other and the group regular feedback? • Who is showing high or low commitment to group aims? Mourning: when the group is ending. which can be exciting and difficult.
• • • • Who takes responsibility for post-group matters . organising a final party. sending a final report? Could we make the ending into a celebration? .for example having a reunion in a year.for example handling residual assets or remaining tasks? What do people feel about the group coming to an end? How do we handle these feelings .
Many organisations have used horizontal. Too often the members feel frustrated because they cannot find a clear way of meeting their own needs and aspirations. solve problems. boundaryspanning groups for years. Symptoms of Ineffective Team Work • As organisations get larger the opportunities for personal expression and satisfaction often becomes less. Fully self-managed work teams even select their own members and have the members evaluate each other’s performance. these responsibilities include collective control over the pace of work. develop new ideas. but from different work areas. The three most common forms of teams in an organisation are problem solving teams. and collective choice of inspection procedures. Self-Managed Work Teams Self-managed work teams are generally composed of ten to fifteen people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors. and cross-functional teams. Problem Solving Teams They typically are composed of five to twelve employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality. Cross-functional teams are an effective means for allowing people from diverse areas within an organisation (or even between organisations) to exchange information. Typically. . efficiency. and the work environment. selfmanaged work teams. who come together to accomplish a task.Team Building Process • • • • • • • • • • Developing Teamwork Identify the need Know one another Form team charter Perform team tasks Use team tools Work Together Consensus Cooperate with other Teams Evaluate Teamwork Types of Teams Teams can be classified on the basis of their objective. As a result. Cross-Functional Teams Cross-functional teams are made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level. supervisory positions take on decreased importance and may even be eliminated. and coordinate complex projects. determination of work assignments.
He does not represent their view and they do not subscribe to his.they enjoy backbiting and playing dirty tricks and politics on their own teammates. Mistakes become an excuse for punishing those who have committed thus giving a vent to their frustrations. Productivity: is the team getting enough done? Empathy: do the team members feel comfortable with each other? . Low quality of relationship between the team members is indicated when people cannot confide in or trust their leader.• • • • Team members lose their inspiration and lack the commitment and motivation to work. Work does not have to be a dull and unenjoyable place. The unhealthy competition between team members . Poor teamwork is indicated by the dull expression. it can easily be rewarding place where people love to be. The low quality of meetings can usually be determined by the way in which individuals either look forward to or dread the normal weekly or monthly get together. which are the essential ingredients of effective teamwork. Effective team work breeds happiness and the uninformed visitor often gets an immediate impression of whether work is a happy place to be or whether he is likely to be ‘killed in the rush’ if he is around. The following guidelines can help you to use these team-building materials successfully: • • • • • • • Voluntary Involvement Adequate Discussion Time Appropriate Sequence Careful Preparation Relevant Choices Avoid Undue Threat Work Through Conflicts and Difficulties Appraisal of Team Functioning Following is a checklist for making on-the-spot appraisal of team functioning by acronym PERFORMS. they provide a potential for significant progress. where they are fearful of him or where their conversations are on a superficial or trivial level than real team work. Team members often spend a lot of time on retaliation. Occasionally they become tedious and dull. If group difficulties and blowups are handled with care. Rarely team-building events can blow up with uncomfortable or hurtful incidents. The leader becomes increasingly isolated from his team. which employees wear on their faces. Dishonest statements and the taking of false bargaining stances. They do not use mistakes as opportunities for increased learning and improvements. • • • • Avoiding Blowups Usually team-building sessions are interesting and constructive.
Roles & goals: do they know what they are supposed to be doing? Flexibility: are they open to outside influence and contribution? Openness: do they say what they think? Recognition: do they praise each other and publicize achievement? Morale: do people want to be in this team? The most common indicators of problems in any of these areas: Productivity: a boss in a bad temper. Team building is time consuming and can be expensive. Mature teams are capable of making better quality decisions than all but the most brilliant individual. the use of a team approach improves the overall quality of decisions. The team feeds the individual’s need to have personal significance. and team processes encourage activity and achievement. the level of commitment to team decisions is much higher. • High Motivation. about the “fortress . Individuals often feel that it is hard to influence organisations and make any impact outside their immediate area. The breadth of resources available to the team enables complex situations to be creatively managed. The team changes this as team members extend their viewpoint to see that they. • High Quality Decisions. can achieve much. Empathy: no coffee at team meetings Roles & goals: puzzled faces Flexibility: annoyed outsiders talking mentality”. Openness: silence Recognition: backbiting Morale: everyone’s left! Benefits of Team Building The team. can support a positive management strategy in the following ways: • Management of Complexity. together. potentially the most flexible and competent tool known to mankind. • Collective Strength. Perhaps more importantly. Well-developed teams are capable of responding quickly and energetically. It is important to identify how the approach can be used to give useful benefits. Hence. • Rapid Response.
Casey Stengel We define conflict to be a process in which an effort is purposely made by A to offset the efforts of B by some form of blocking that will result in frustrating B in attaining his goals or furthering his interests. withdrawal. The frustration model can be useful in the analysis not only of behaviour in general but also the specific aspects of on – the – job behaviour. or innovation. Conflict due to Frustration Frustration occurs when a motivated drive is blocked before a person reaches a desired goal. Both positive and negative aspects attached to desired goals. For ease of analysis. aims. or methods. they can be grouped according to four broad categories: aggression. And like change itself. Conflict can be defined as: “Conflict is a set of divergent behaviours. Frustration may lead to any of the defense mechanism used by the human organism. and improve employee morale and productivity. psychologists felt that frustration always led to the defense mechanism of aggression.Conflict Part of my job is to keep the five guys who hate me away from the five guys who are undecided. and 4. Although there are many such mechanism. 3. conflict is no more than a by – product of growth. Traditionally. A variety of ways that drives and roles can be expressed. Approach – approach conflict. A nmber of competing needs and roles. or mental – sociopsychological). it’s practically inevitable. change. fixation and compromise. Many types of barriers that can occur between the drive and the goal. . The barrier may be overt (outward. Goal Conflict Another common source of conflict for an individual is a goal that has both positive and negative features. But it’s also something that. guarantee achieving desired results. or physical) or covert (inward. Conflict: An Inevitable Product of Change In its simplest term. 2. or two or more competing goals. where the individual is motivated to approach two or more positive but mutually exclusive goals. when handled correctly can actually promote better communication. three separate types of goal conflict are generally identified: 1.” Types Of Conflict Intraindividual Conflict Within every individual there are 1.
Win – win.2. Approach – avoidance conflict. and the other party loses. Several antecedent conditions have been identified for explaining intergroup conflict. Competition for resources 2. and both parties receive rewarding outcomes. where the individual is motivated to approach a goal and at the same time is motivated to avoid it. both parties lose. Intergroup behaviour and conflict Antecedents to intergroup conflict. 1. Task interdependence 3. Avoidance – avoidance conflict. Jurisdictional ambiguity 4. 3. A second approach is to pay off one of the parties in the conflict. Interpersonal Conflict Sources of interpersonal conflict • Personal difference • Information deficiency • Role incompatibility • Environmental stress Strategies for interpersonal conflict resolution Lose – lose. Here the needs of both parties in the conflict situation are met. Status struggles. Features of Conflict • • • • • Conflict is inevitable Conflict is neither good / bad Conflict is not always caused by trouble makers Conflict is part of change Conflict is sometime desirable . Win – lose. One of the more common approaches is to compromise or take the middle ground in a dispute. And finally the fourth type would be parties involved in conflict resolve to bureaucratic rules or existing regulations to resolve the conflict. In the win – win strategy of conflict resolution energies and creativity are aimed at solving the problems rather than beating the other party. A third is to use an outside third party or arbitrator. In a lose – lose approach to conflict resolution. In the win – lose strategy one party in a conflict situation attempts to marshal its force to win. where the individual is motivated to avoid two or more negative but mutually exclusive goals.
thinking and feeling. and timeliness of information that you can provide to an individual will help you to understand that person’s point of view. or are causing. 1. 2. Define Expectations: Meet on a weekly basis with your associates 4. and Can you tell me more? to determine priorities for the upcoming week. Any major discrepancies between your expectations will alert you to potential conflict. Ask yourself who. often encourages others to tell you what is on their minds.When to Stimulate Conflict • • • • • • • When you have “Yes” men around you When individuals are afraid to admit ignorance When team members create an impression of peace When individuals display too much concern When individuals believe in popularity When individuals lack new ideas When individuals offer resistance to change Five Ways to Sense Conflict Be Visionary: Visualize how your actions or those of others will cause. communicate openly about how they are (or are not) working together. Get Feedback: Take the time to find out what your associates are 3. accuracy. Do not wait until the last moment to discover that trouble is upon you. Give Feedback: The amount. in a non-threatening way. Sharing your thoughts and feelings first. when. as well as present. In what. they reduce serious conflict and build stronger working relationships. and why questions to determine potential. Why. conflict. how. sources of conflict. Review Performance Regularly: When supervisors and employees Ways of Resolving Conflict • Clarify reporting Relationship • Eliminate communication gap / misunderstanding • Restructure the organisation • Introduce new blood/ new thinking • Create Competition Benefits of Dealing with Conflict . what. Probe for more information by asking questions such as: How so. where.
and Discuss the Real Problem Three: Ask Questions and Listen! Four: Set Goals and Create an Action Plan Five: Follow Up . Benefits to Your Organisation Improved efficiency & effectiveness: Employees will be able to do their jobs more efficiently and effectively by focusing their efforts where they will produce the greatest results. many people have difficulty sensing or finding the causes of conflict. Causes of Conflict For a variety of reasons. Personal development and growth: When you break down some of your own invisible barriers and become more assertive in resolving or preventing conflict.Benefits to Individual Stronger relationships: You will be able to build stronger relationships as a result of being comfortable expressing your true thoughts. and learn from their mistakes. share. Increased self-respect: You will be able to feel good about yourself and will learn not to take criticism personally. Creative thinking: By encouraging people to make. Define. Fewer mind games will be played resulting in a less stressful day. the organisation will reap the benefits of creative thinking. Synergy or teamwork: Managers and associates will be able to focus on serving their customers and each other. you will learn more and gain support from others. Many factors contribute to the difficulty in identifying the correct cause of a conflict: • • • • • • • • • • Personality Perceptions Exclusive Goals Deliberate Behaviour Scarce Resources Status Power Rewards Membership Decision Making The Five Steps to Successful Conflict Management Step Step Step Step Step One: Take Responsibility for Dealing with Conflict Two: Uncover.
even if negative Blow up. let people know just exactly how you feel Hide your feelings.Fourteen Methods for Dealing with Conflict Win / Win • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Be indirect. put energy & attention in unrelated activities/ interests Spend time listening & gathering additional info. only reveal them later to friends or confidants in private Attempt to seek clarification & information about the situation Sublimate your feelings. only hint at the problem Find something outside yourself on which to blame situation Use sarcasm in talking about the situation with others Seek a specific scapegoat Make efforts to smooth over tension / live with situation. let off steam. by talking with those involved Back down under pressure rather than dealing with conflict Make an active attempt to compromise Complain to others about unfairness of the situation Make an effort to seek creative alternatives to the situation Basic Skills to Resolve Conflict Intellectual Skills • Analytical • Learning Ability • Judgement • Planning • Organising • Perception • Conceptualizing • Objectivity • Flexibility Emotional Skills • Honesty • Persistence • Ambition • Self-discipline • Result-orientation • Fast pace • Initiative • Enthusiasm • Assertiveness .
is a far cry from the original very rigid definition of a frustrating situation. Negotiation. Persistent or severe punishment. Frustration Frustration – A Western Overview Frustration. Barriers preventing escape. blocking ongoing goal directed behaviour that may operate in a manner similar to provocation and serve both as an instigator and an external justification for violating normative constraint against aggression. Consistency or inconsistency of results that conflict with expectations. Compromise. defined as. In general. Arbitration. Maier and Ellen ( 1955 ) describe frustration in the following manner: • • • • • An insoluble problem. of course. Confrontation. Appeasement.Interpersonal Skills • Persuasiveness • Gregariousness • Listening • Communication • Writing • Sensitivity Managerial Skills • Gives guidance • Motivates • Delegates • Selects competent people • Terminates incompetent associates • Expects Professionalism Conflict management styles • • • • • • • • Resignation. Defusion. Pressure from behind. Withdrawal. . they lean toward the generalization that frustrating situation is frustrating when it involves the experience of failure and this.
empathize. The behaviour thus elicited is not an expression of preference since it is not influenced by what it accomplishes. When this is not possible. which has received considerable attention in the laboratory. and the type of behaviour that is selected in Frustration is a matter of its availability at the time as well as of a number of other factors. aggression induced by economic hardships may be directed away from government offices and towards food stores or racial groups. Reactions of Frustration The first response to frustration. “Poorly managed anger is at the root of many serious physical. Another possible response. Conquering Frustration In order to understand how to overcome frustration. social and emotional problems. the individual can . Frustration instigated behaviour may be directed along different channels by the introduction or removal of barriers and other forms of restraints or by various forms of guidance. from heart disease to neighborhood violence”. In this sense. which needs to be delineated. and that it produces or results in increased physiological arousal. The most troublesome and often mentioned reaction is aggression. integrate. it can be tackled at a personal as well as organizational level. hear. especially to mild frustration. think. the behaviour is compulsive in nature. which can be related to finding alternative means. This type of behaviour is altered most readily by a reduction in the state of Frustration. The increased around tends to increase the vigor or strength of whatever response is elicited and this arousal is implications for task performance. is withdrawal from the situation.Basic Characteristics of Frustration Instigated Behaviour The Frustration process produces behaviour that is purely an end in itself and not a means to an end. there are at least four major classes of behaviour. Frustration leads to some sort of negative emotional state. notice and keep. Rethink It is an acronym developed and used by IMHI in anger management workshops to help people have new control and power over learning to channel their anger.” It can be taken care of in the following methods: Fight or Flight People should rethink situations they are confronted with before “blowing up”. Probably the most common reaction. is to try a different response or find an alternate and hopefully unblocked means to the goal. That is. At a personal level “Frustration and anger can be evoked when we perceive an inconsistency between what is expected and what is obtained. Two important properties are that the emotions are aversive. On the behavioural end. which can result from frustration. is the emotional reaction. It stands for recognize. The aversive nature means that the individual will be highly motivated or reduced in it. Thus.
it may facilitate or inhibit task performance depending upon task complexity. grievances. It can also be directed covertly against a person. but interferes with correct performance on complex tasks. or lawsuits. or permanently as turnover. to the extent it induces aggression or withdrawal frustration can have damaging effects on organizations. In fact mild frustrations. Aggression can be directed either against other people. work slowdowns. that is. To the extent it induces increased physiological arousal. which interfere rather than block can add challenge and include greater overall effort. which can hurt another person. and the behavioural responses of trying alternative course of action. Change Management “To improve is to change. secret withholding of output and stealing. To the extent that it interferes with or blocks task performance. A critical variable causing a person to choose overt. Effects of Organizational Frustration There are at least four possible reactions to frustration by individuals. Arousal itself. Concerned with either aggression. differentially affects performance depending upon the complexity of the task. Aggression in organizations can take many forms. Aggression can also be directed against the organization itself. To be perfect is to change often”. as shown previously. motivating effects. which have potential effects on organizations. Thus frustration might have positive. Overt acts might include strikes.leave the situation entirely. Although it may be possible that mild frustration can increase arousal and facilitate task performance with no additional negative effects in the short run. These include the emotional response of anger and associated increased physiological arousal. continued or severe frustration might result in aggression or withdrawal. or against the organization itself. or no aggression would be expectation of punishment for the act. and find another setting in which to achieve the goal. covert. frustration can lead a person to try alternative courses of action to achieve goals or fulfill needs. Alternatively. an individual can secretly perform behaviours. the individual can abandon the goal entirely and other leave or remain in the situation. Frustration can increase task speed with no additional errors for simple task. Withdrawal can be manifested temporarily as absenteeism and tardiness. Finally. frustration can be directly harmful to organizations. aggression. The organizational aggression could be overt to covert. Finally. and withdrawal. It can be directed covertly against the source of frustration (if a person) either verbally or physically. . or the effects of frustration on task performance. Covert acts would include sabotage.
stagnant and react to change after the fact. Attitude structures differ from knowledge structures in that they are emotionally charged in a positive or a negative way. flexible and anticipative or they become rigid. they can occur as a result of reading a book or an article or hearing something new from a respected person. patriotism and social discipline in time of war or emergencies. Levels of Change Knowledge Changes Attitudinal Changes Individual Behaviour Changes Group or Organisational Performance Changes Changes in knowledge tend to be the easiest to make. organization’s degree to excellence is judged by its ability to cope with these changes. g. Organizations either become more adaptive. Managers must do more than just react.. liberation movements. often when it is too late. product and competitive conditions are rapidly changing..Winston Churchill Change Change is the name of the game in management today. Cycles of Change The levels of change become very significant when you examine two different change cycles Participative Change Cycle Directive Change Cycle Participative Change . Types Of Changes in Organizations Macro level • Change in Structure : e. 2. 1. markets. family planning program. products. Changes in individual behaviour seem to be significantly more difficult and time consuming. g. • Change in Methodology : e. Automation in industry : irrigation.. While individual behaviour is difficult enough to change. • Change in Behaviour : e. 4. • Change in Assumptions and Values: e. Market. amendments to the Constitution. services and technology. Change is an alteration in the existing field of forces (external & internal) that tends to affect the equilibrium of an organisation.g.g. it becomes even more complicated when you try to implement change within groups or organisations. 3. chemical fertilizers and crop rotation in agriculture. desire for socialistic pattern of society. nationalisation of banks.. they must be able to anticipate the changing patterns of people. In an era of accelerating change. Therefore.
Directive Change This change cycle begins by change being imposed on the total organisation by some external force. Change Process Managing change means managing the conversation between the people leading the change effort and those who are expected to implement the new strategies. The new contacts and modes of behaviour create new knowledge.) • Skill to devise successful methods to accomplish the objectives and solve the problems. An effective strategy may be to identify the informal and formal leaders among the work group(s) and concentrate on gaining their behavioral support for the desired change. • Skill to enlist the support of people involved and affected by change. Once this is accomplished. The critical factors of a change process are : • Skill to identify and analyze the objectives of change (knowledge of understanding what the problem is & finding solutions to it. It is hoped that the group will accept the data and will develop a positive attitude and commitment in the direction of the desired change. This evidence needs to be presented to employees so that they can understand the technical and economic reasons for change.A participative change cycle is implemented when new knowledge is made available to the individual or group. Sociological Dimension: Based on change logical from the point of view of social values. Three Dimensions of Change 1. 2. such as higher management. 3. The next step will be to attempt to translate this commitment into actual behaviour. new laws. organisational change may be effected by getting other people to begin to pattern their behaviour. A Model Of Adaptive Orientation Low Anticipative Management Environmental Stability Reactive Management . which tend to develop predispositions towards or against the change. This step is significantly more difficult to achieve. Is the change consistent with norms of the group? Does it maintain group teamwork? These questions need to be resolved keeping in mind society norms. Logical Dimension: Based on the technical evidence of economics and science. the community. Psychological Dimension: Based on the fact that change is logical on terms of the human values and feelings in the situation.
Normative Re-educative Strategies : The normative re-educative strategies believe that human beings are guided in their actions by sociocultural norms and their commitment to these norms. Resistance to Change Managers in every company must be alert to problems and opportunities. Empirical – Rational Strategies : The fundamental assumption underlying empirical-rational strategies is that human beings are rational and will follow their self-interest once this is revealed to them. attitudes. Consequently. This strategy is basically straightforward and uncomplicated. when frogs are placed in a cold pail of water. Failing to use planned change to meet small needs can place the organization in hot water. and values. An organization may be in greater danger when the environment changes slowly. they jump out – they don’t want to boil to death. because managers may fail to trigger an organizational response. because the perceived need for change is what sets the stage for subsequent actions that create a new product or technology. Power-Coercive Strategies : Power-coercive strategies are based on the assumption of compliance of those with less power to the will of those with more power. Sensitive monitoring systems are needed to detect gradual changes that can fool managers into thinking their company is doing fine. Big problems are easy to spot.” Planned change according to Benne and Chin. and the pail is placed on a .Satisficing Management High High Conservative Management Low Adaptive Orientation Strategies For Dealing With Change In some cases where change is forced the new behaviour engaged in creates the kind of knowledge that develops commitment to the change and therefore. However. The hope is that “if people will only have a chance to see how the new system works they will support it. Since the person is rational and motivated by his selfinterest. he will obviously adopt the proposed change if the logic can be effectively communicated. begins to approximate a participative change as it reinforces the individual and group behaviour. can be divided into three basic types of strategies. change is not exclusively at the cognitive or intellectual level but is often at a more personal level : habits. as illustrated in the following passage : When frogs are placed in a boiling pail of water.
• Users doubt legitimacy of change. There exists a deep seated human characteristic to go against change 3. Participation • Users need to feel involved. Psychologists have studied the phenomenon of resistance to change during the past few decades. • Initiators clearly have power. Coercion • A crisis exists. • Group will lose out in the change. which suggests that an equilibrium is maintained by driving forces and restraining forces. • Other implementation techniques have failed. Several explanations have been given for resistance to change. To implement a change. • Users have power to resist. Some of these are as follows: 1. Some opposition to change may be perfectly logical. The basic anxieties aroused by the working conditions 4. Tactics for Overcoming Resistance to Change Approach Communication. education When to Use • Change is technical. The change itself produces disequilibrium 2. Techniques for initiating Change Strategies for overcoming resistance to change typically involve two approaches: the analysis of resistance through the force field technique and the use of selective implementation tactics to overcome resistance. management should analyze . Organisations may be in a state of equilibrium. Kurt Lewin expressed this phenomenon in his field force theory. When a change is introduced. some forces drive it and other forces resist it. with forces pushing for change on one hand and forces resisting change by attempting to maintain the status quo on the other. • Design requires information from others.stove with the heat turned very low. Top management • Change involves multiple departments or support reallocation of resources. All behaviour which opposes change is not necessarily resistance. over time the frogs will boil to death. Negotiation • Group has power over implementation. Insecurity created by the ambiguity related to change Resistance has a protective function for the individual. • Users need accurate information and analysis to understand change.
The change process involves three steps : 1. Thus.the change forces. If people feel uncomfortable with the present situation. to be effective. This change may occur through assimilation of new information exposure to new concepts. the driving forces will be strong enough to enable implementation. refreezing The first stage. they may see the need for change. moving or changing 3. The second stage is the change itself. and one that is usually more effective. refreezing. has to be congruent with a person’s self-concept and values. creates motivation for change. However. Change. unfreezing. . a change in policy is less resisted when those affected by it participate in the change. or development of a different perspective. If the change is incongruent with the attitudes and behaviors of others in the organization. chances are that the person will revert back to the old behaviour. stabilizes the change. The third stage. therefore. By selectively removing forces that restrain change. reinforcement of the new behaviour is essential. In organizations. unfreezing 2. is to reduce or eliminate the restraining forces and then move to a new level of equilibrium. in some cases an ethical question may arise regarding the legitimacy of deliberately creating discomfort that may initiate change. Another approach.
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