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Personality is a concept that we use continuously in our day-to-day routine, when dealing with people. We talk about people as having a good personality or a bad personality or arrogant and aggressive personality. Personality can be reflected in a person’s temperament and is a key factor influencing individual behaviour in organizations. Often the wrong type of personality of a superior proves disastrous in terms of worker unrest and protests. Salvatore Maddi has defined personality as: “Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment.” There are several aspects of this definition that need to be considered. The first aspect is that or relative stability of characteristics. These characteristics account for “consistent patterns” of behaviour. The second aspect is the “commonalities and differences” in the behaviour of people. We are interested in understanding as to what an individual has in common with others as well as what sets that individual apart from others. Every person is in certain aspects, • • • Like all other people Like some other people Like no other person
Personality Types There are two types of individual personality Type A and Type B. A person exhibiting Type A behaviour is generally restless, impatient with a desire for quick achievement and perfectionism. Type B is much more easy going relaxed about time pressure, less competitive and more philosophical in nature. Some of the characteristics of Type A personality are given below. • • • • • • • Is restless, so that he always moves, walks and eats rapidly. Is impatient with the pace of things, dislikes waiting and is impatient with those who are not impatient. Does several things at once. Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time, irrespective of whether everything is done or not. Usually does not complete one thing before starting on another. Uses nervous gestures such as clenched fist and banging on table. Does not have time to relax and enjoy life.
Type B behaviour is just the opposite and is more relaxed, sociable and has a balanced outlook on life. Type A behaviour profile tends to be obsessive and managers with such behaviour are hard driving, detailed-oriented people with high performance standards.
Five • • • •
personality traits related to job performance Extraversion Agreeableness Emotional stability Openness to experience.
Factors Contributing to Personality According to Maier, “knowledge, skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications of behaviour. Learned modifications in behaviour are not passed on to children, they must be acquired by them through their own personal experience.” The probable consensus is that heredity and environment jointly affect personality development. The full potential of a person may or may not be achieved due to environmental constraints and requirements, but the potential for development, both physically and psychologically is determined by the complex set of genes. The factors affecting personality development are illustrated as follows: • • • • • • • Heredity Culture Family Environment Personality Social Situational
Personality Dimensions Some of the more important dimensions of personality that are closely linked with interpersonal and organizational behaviour are discussed as follows: Authoritarianism: Authoritarianism refers to blind acceptance of authority. Authoritarian people believe in obedience and respect for authority. Because of their beliefs in hierarchical order, they make good followers; work better under directive supervision and more productive within authoritarian organizational structure. A closely related term to authoritarians is “dogmatism” which refers to the rigidity of a person’s beliefs. Bureaucratic Personality: A bureaucratic persons respect for authority is not total and blind, but is based upon respect for organizational rules and regulations. A bureaucratic person values subordination, rules, conformity, orderly processes in the organization and impersonal and formal relationships. Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism is a term associated with Niccola Machiavelli, a sixteenth century author who identified personality profiles of noble men. This personality merges in manipulating others for purely personal gains and gaining and keeping control of others. People with Machiavellianims have high self-confidence and high self-esteem. They are cool and calculating and
have no hesitation in using others or taking advantages of others in order to serve their own goals. Problem Solving Style: Individuals have their own style of making decisions and this style reflects their personality in certain ways. Some people are very through, meticulous and detail oriented. Others are impulsive and become easily swayed by what seems to be obvious. The problem solving style has two dimensions. One is the information gathering and the second dimension is evaluation of data and taking of decisions. Further, there are two styles involved in information gathering. One is known as Sensation and the second style known as intuitive style, The evaluation style also has two dimensions. One style involves more emphasis on feeling while the other involves more emphasis on thinking. When the two dimensions of information gathering and the two dimensions of evaluation are combined, it results in four problem-solving styles. These are: 1. Sensation-feeling style. These people are dependable, friendly, social and approach facts with human concerns. They are pragmatic, methodical and like jobs that involve human contact and public relations. Some suitable areas of jobs include teaching customer relations, social workers, and sales people. 2. Sensation-thinking style. They are practical, logical, decisive, and sensitive to details they also prefer bureaucratic type organizations. They are not highly skilled in interpersonal relations and are more suited to such technical jobs as those of production, accounting, engineering and computer programming. 3. Intuition-feeling style. These people are enthusiastic, people oriented, charismatic and helpful. Some of the professions suitable for this style are public relations, advertising, politics and personnel. 4. Intuition-thinking style. These people are creative, energetic, ingenious, and like jobs that are challenging in terms of design and analysis such as system design, law, research and development, top management and so on. Locus of Control Locus of control is the extent to which the individuals believes that: • They control their own lives, or • External forces control their lives, which are beyond their control. A person with a strong “internal locus of control” believes that he controls events concerning his own life and that his internal traits determine what happens in given situation. A person with a strong “external locus of control” feels that outside forces are affecting the events in his life and he is at the mercy of destiny, chance or other people. He believes that “whatever will be, will be” and everything happens by the will of God. Introvert and Extrovert Personalities
Introvert persons are basically shy, they prefer to be alone and have difficulty in communicating. Extroverts are outgoing, objective, and aggressive they also relate well with people. Self-esteem Self-esteem is the degree of respect a person has for himself. Self-esteem is a measure of self-confidence and respect for one’s abilities and motivation. It is also a higher level need in Maslow’s model of hierarchical needs. Self-esteem is positively related to assertiveness, independence and creativity.
The socialization process
a) Organizational socialization – values, norms, behavior pattern. b) Characteristics of organizational socialization of employees • Change of attitude, values and behaviour. • Continuity of socialization over time. • Adjustment to new jobs, work groups and organizational practices. • Mutual influence between new recruits and managers. • Criticality of early socialization period. Socializing new employees • Use of mentor or role model • Orientation and training program. • Reward system. • Career planning. Successful organizational socialization includes • Provide a challenging first job • Provide relevant training. • Provide timely and consistent feedback. • Select a good first supervisor to be in change of socialization. • Design a relaxed orientation program. • Place new recruits in work groups with high morals Emphasis on different characteristics. • Administrative skills • Work motivation • Interpersonal skill • Creativity • Social dominance • Maturity • Independence Propositions – Chris Argyris I. There is lack of congruency between the needs of healthy individuals and the demands of the formal organization. II. The resultant of this disturbance are frustration, failre, short – time perspective and conflict. III. Under certain conditions the degree of frustration, failure, short – time perspective and conflict will tend to increase. IV. The nature of the formal principles of the organization cause the subordinate, at any given level, to experience competition, rivalry,
V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.
inter – subordinate hostility and to develop a focus toward the parts rather than the whole. The employee adaptive behaviour maintains self – integration and impedes integration with the formal organization. The adaptive behaviour of the employees has a cumulative effect, feedback into the organization and reinforces itself. Certain management reactions tend to increase the antagonisms underlying the adaptive behaviour. Other management actions can decrease the degree of incongruence between the individual and formal organization. Job or role enlargement and employee – centred leadership will not tend to work to the extent that the adaptive behaviour (propositions III, IV, V and VI) has embedded in organisational culture and the self – concept of the individual. The difficulties involved in proposition IX may be minimized by the use of reality oriented leadership.
There are several theories but the more prominent among them are: (i) type, (ii) trait, (iii) psychoanalytic, (iv) social learning and (v) humanistic. Type Theories Type theories place personalities into clearly identifiable categories. Kretschmer and Sheldon are credited with this classification. In type theories relationship was sought to be established between features of face or body and personality. Thus, a short, plumb person (endomorph) was said to be sociable, relaxed, and even tempered; a tall, thin person (ectomorph) was characterized as restrained, self conscious, and fond of solitude; a heavy set muscular individual (mesomorph) was described as noisy, callous, and found of physical activity. Although a person’s physique may have some influence on personality, the relationship is much more subtle than this sort of classification implies. Thus classification of personalities on body basis is subjective. The second basis to type personalities is psychological factors. Carl Jung, divided all personalities into introverts and extroverts. These terms are normally associated with an individual’s sociability and interpersonal orientation. Extroverts are gregarious, sociable individuals, while introverts are shy, quiet and retiring. Trait Theories Trait theorists assume that a personality can be described by its position on a number of continuous dimensions or scales, each of which represents a trait. Thus, we could rate an individual on a scale of intelligence, emotional stability, aggressiveness, creativeness, or any of a number of other dimensions. Psychologists working in a area of trait theory are concerned with (a) determining the basic traits that provide a meaningful description of personality, and (b) finding some way to measure them. Psychoanalytic theory is based on the in-depth study of individual personalities. Social Learning Theory There are two ways of learning : Learning through reinforcement – direct experience and learning by observing others, also called vicarious learning.
For Rogers. * Also refer to “Personality Theories – Ziegler” for Freud’s Personality theory Assertiveness Meaning of Assertiveness Webster defines “assert” as “to state positively with great confidence”. although different in some respects. Existential philosophy is concerned with man as an individual and each person alone is responsible for his own existence. this theory is often. Some of the person variables that determine what an individual will do in a particular situation include the following : • Competencies • Cognitive strategies • Outcome expectations • Subjective value outcome • Self regulatory systems and plans The Humanistic Approach The humanistic approach to the study of personality includes number of theories. postulates man as self actualiser. is called self-actualisation. the . Rogers’ Self Theory Roger’s approach to personality is described as phenomenological. he can learn by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequences of those actions. share a common emphasis on man’s potential for self direction and freedom of choice. Humanistic psychology of Maslow radically differs from psychoanalytic and learning or behaviouristic theories. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are credited with the humanistic theory of personality. behaviour is utterly dependent upon how one perceives the world – that is. They believe that since an individual can make use of complex symbolic processes to code and store his observations in memory. Indeed. on the other hand.For social learning theorists reinforcement is not always necessary for learning. Such an approach to personality emphasizes the self and its characteristics. referred to as self theory of personality because the best vantage point for understanding behaviour is from the internal frame of reference of the individual himself. This drive of man which is inherent in him. with all parts of the personality in harmony. By self-actualisation Maslow meant the development of full individually. Humanistic psychology of Maslow. Assertiveness is a term meant to describe the extent of control. Maslow’s Self-Actualisation Theory Abraham Maslow is regarded as the spiritual father of humanism in American psychology. behaviour is the result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by the individual. It is the extent of forcefulness a person (or leader) uses with a view to express himself.
win situations in dyadic relationships. lifestyles. we tell people what we want. groups • Trust our own judgment • Set own goals and work to achieve them • Ask help from others • Participate socially 3. However. can cope with justified criticism – and can give it too. or would prefer. This communication is open. friends and family. that doesn’t involve violating the rights of other people. he maintains his self-respect. It promotes win .leader tries to exercise over both the followers as well as the situation. He has an active orientation to life. direct. or ourselves without being threatening or putting other people down. 3. He acts in a way that he respects himself. The Assertive Personality According to Webster’s Third International Dictionary. relationships. This is what I feel. assertive behaviour is appropriate behaviour. time schedule.” The assertive person possesses four characteristics: 1. the verb “assert” means “to state or affirm positively. can compliment others and receive compliments gracefully. It is saying what you mean and having self-respect and respect for others. lose or draw. without belittling others. he always strives to make the good try so that win. He can communicate with people on all levels – with strangers. plainly or strongly. This can mean that it is appropriate on occasions to be angry. honest and appropriate. To stand up for ourselves without undue anxiety • Saying “No” . We state our preference clearly and confidently. 2. 4. Assertiveness is a skill you can acquire – not a personality trait. Enabling us to act in our own best interests It assists us to : • Make decisions about career. activities. Above all. He feels free to reveal himself. Through words and actions he makes the statement “This is me. It is a positive way of behaving. • Take initiative in starting conversations. It means expressing what you think or feel without endangering the ego of others. It is an essential skill for a leader. 1. In contrast to the passive person who waits for things to happen. Assertive people can initiate conversation. need. assuredly. Characteristics of Assertive Behaviour When we are assertive. • • • Promotes equality in human relationship It keeps both parties in all situations on an equal footing. he accepts his limitations. he attempts to make things happen. Aware that he cannot always win. He pursues what he desires. or it can mean choosing not to be assertive in a particular situation or with a particular person. It confers personal power and restores balance of power. think and want.” 2.
company. . Assertiveness: Principles Whatever your problem. • To accomplish the above without unfair criticism of others without hurtful behaviour towards others.• • • 4. without name-calling. Think and talk about yourself in a positive way It may help you take time to compile a list of your qualities. there are certain basic principles for being assertive: • Reveal as much of your personal self as is appropriate to the situation and the relationship. affection. • Competency as citizen. manipulatory behaviour with true assertion. As you change. friendship To admit fear or anxiety To express agreement or support 5. member of an organisation. • Strive to express all feelings. and you face new challenges and need new skills. • Practice speaking up with trivia. supporting or defending an opinion To express honest feelings To disagree To show anger. Pay attention to what you can do differently rather than how the world can be different. life situations change. • Examine your own behaviour and determine areas where you would like to become more assertive. like business. you can eventually announce “No I don’t want to do that” to your spouse. • Do not confuse aggression with assertion. • • • • Setting limits on time and energy Responding to criticism. 1. workgroup. gifts. consumer. • Understand assertion is not a permanent state. whether angry or tender. manipulation and controlling. like marriage. If you can say “Go to the end of the line” to a woman at the supermarket. and strengths. intimidation. Assertive Behaviours Assertiveness is a set of congruent behaviours one can learn through persistence and practice. • Act in ways that increase your liking and respect for yourself. • Do not confuse glib. Apply the techniques you use successfully in one area to the other. Assertion is appropriate standing up for yourself. • Realize you may be unassertive in one area. school. 6. • As participant in public events to express opinions • To work for change • To respond appropriately to violations of own or others’ rights. put-downs. Aggressiveness is an act against others. Without denying others’ rights. To exercise personal rights. and assertive in another area. anger Expressing.
And recognise the limitations of the situation. you assume they are capable of taking risks. In saying ‘No’ there is no need to be rude. neither is it necessary to give many explanations. 9. Risks are risks no matter who takes them. if it is not. depending on the situation 6. If you wait for them to act. State honest disagreement with ease When you disagree with what someone says. the way they work. they wear. 5. Take the first step in forming new friendships Friendships are important. stick to the issue without attacking the person. 7. Feel comfortable expressing honest compliments You surely appreciate certain things about other people . Make it clear that you are saying ‘No’ to the request. Accept compliments without embarrassment Others too appreciate certain things about you. and be ready to be misunderstood. If you are deficient in this behaviour. Express yourself directly and spontaneously The feelings you actually experience.something they do.2. Whatever the outcome you’ll feel better for having stood up for your rights. firm terms may be enough. Ask no more of others than you ask of yourself. you may begin with small issues and gradually move on to bigger ones. 8. what that say. Ask for what you want Clarify yourself about what you want and express it appropriately either as a suggestion or a request or a command. 3. Components of Assertive Behaviour You will recognize the following components of assertiveness: . that is. not to the person. 4. with due respect for the other person. Waiting for the other to take the initiative does not always have the desired effect. and it is good that they express their appreciation through honest compliments. Be able to say “No” Specially so if you honestly think others take advantage of you. then increase the forcefulness of your expression. So a reasonable thing to do is to take the first step when you meet someone you would like to know better. when you have done all you can. 10. Insist on fair treatment This will often involve you and a person ‘in charge’. Keep in touch with friends Valuable friendships often decline because neither party acts to keep it going. as well as negative. and the thoughts you think worth expressing both positive. Explore your alternatives: voicing your dissatisfaction in polite. learn to live peacefully with the results.
everyone in the organisation suffers.• • • • • Giving information Seeking information Expressing feelings Accepting feelings Change desired (in self or other) Assertiveness is a balance between being passive and aggressive. unassertive people are ‘institutionalized’ and need a great deal of support before they can ‘come out from under’ and begin to value their role and appreciate that their participation is sought. beliefs. more likely to achieve our objectives in a conflict situation. but credibility and integrity are put at risk. Expressing negative feelings or standing up for your rights can be interpreted as ‘out of order’ or ‘insubordinate’. opinions or feelings. whether it is a school. will probably involve an intense transition period. different ways of expressing your own rights assertively: State – Your rights: A straightforward statement that stands up for your rights by clearly and reasonably stating your needs. an office or shop floor. there are different types of assertion. so people work more happily with us than against us. what are his / her needs. They will say clearly what they want. . opinions and feelings. People behaving assertively make good line mangers. We are then. Advantages of Assertive Behaviour • Close working relationships: Assertion tends to breed assertion. Often. They can compromise and negotiate. Ask – The other person: A question or questions designed to clarify where the other person stands. but equally be supportive of staff and take the needs of others into account. Overtly aggressive or manipulative behaviour can bring immediate results. Assertive Behaviour at Work Assertive behaviour in the workplace gives everyone a better chance of influencing the system and participating in changes. This is the strongest form of assertion and should only be used when the other types have been tried. Relationships are more open and working climates are more genuine. Assertive behaviour is so important to self-esteem and proactive behaviour that it needs to be particularly supported and endorsed in young workers or school children and students. with their help. Empathize – Both parties: This is a behaviour that contains an element of understanding for the other person as well as a statement of your own needs and thoughts. wants. However. Level – Both parties: A statement that openly explains the adverse effect a person’s behaviour is having on you. When people feel defensive and have to use their energy for political maneuvering. wants. The introduction of assertive behaviour into the workplace.
rather than being controlled by outside events or people. lack of clear-cut desires. The person with communication difficulties. the narrower the area. You can be able to openly express your tender feelings and yet not be able to show your angry feelings – and vice versa. honesty and appropriateness. and difficulty with close relationships. An increased change of everyone winning: Assertiveness increases the likelihood that all parties will see their needs met. their ideas and opinions heard and considered and their abilities put to good use. Assertion processes four behavioral characteristics. Unaware about the realities of social relations. A man can be the epitome of passivity at the office. “I’m sorry. In general. a characteristic often accompanied by shallowness of feeling. needs etc. often extroverted. You allow yourself to be pushed around. Savings in time and energy: We can take decisions more swiftly based on their individual merit and save time when handling disputes. but this seeming assertiveness hides a basic lack of honesty. The range for split assertive behaviour can be very narrow. or inner emotions. You seem to be open and honest. People may fail at one area of assertiveness and succeed at another. you say. reducing the chance of boastfulness (aggression) and hopelessness (passive). • • . You may be assertive in a one-to-one relationship. Openness and directness. cannot speak up. but not in groups.” No matter how great your timidity and irresolution.Dishonest or pseudo assertive communication. If we are not worried about upsetting people (passive) or scheming how not to miss out (aggression) then we can save ourselves a lot of stress. Increased self responsibility: We take responsibility for ourselves. You tend to be wordy. You may be deficient in any or all three of these areas. rather than blaming others (aggression) or excusing ourselves (passive) Increased self-control: We can channel our thoughts and feelings to produce the behaviour we want. . If someone steps on your foot. there is always a point from which you can start to change.Indirect Communication.Inappropriate communication. but often you lack assertion in just one: . The split assertive. the easier it is to change with Assertiveness Training. A lot of time and energy is wasted on worrying and scheming. you say what you think is the right thing at the wrong time. our wants. and behave like a tyrant at home. generally appropriate. Greater confidence in others: We have a healthy recognition of the capabilities and limitations of others as opposed to seeing them as inferior (aggression) or superior (passive).• • • • • • Greater confidence in yourself: We develop a strong regard for ourselves and a high level of self esteem. Blocks Of Assertive Behaviour Following are some of the blocks in the personality that are faced by the individual in being assertive: • The timid soul. opinions. . and remain passive in all situations.
If you don’t there’s something wrong with you. Do not fight the feedback. He accomplishes two things. inhibit you from carrying out the action. You don’t comprehend the difference between aggression and assertion. Again you are asked to hit his hand with your fist. You can demand a raise and deserve it. You have a wrong concept of social reality. become anxious about being anxious. but your fears of rejection. But very often. Then you use your focused listening skills. by directing the momentum of your punch. It never occurs to you to treat the stranger as a stranger and the friend as a friend. This time. Ai-Ki Do is a martial art. The person with specific blocks. Try your best to stay . You possess incorrect ideas. his fingers wrap around your fist. and hangups. Instead. because of his own needs. but question your right to do it. accept the feedback by allowing it to come to you. You don’t understand that different kinds of relationships exist with different people. he is in control of what’s happening. You can’t make eye contact or small talk. Second. in a split second before you’re about to punch him. but the economic state of your firm may prohibit a salary increase. just won’t. handle a confrontation. he stops the forward motion of your swing. or start a conversation. while still holding on to yours controlling the force you just threw. by offering no resistance to your job. feelings. You think you’re supposed to treat a stranger as a friend. You worry about worrying. he feels no pain. scrutiny. These assertive skills can be learned.• • • • • • The person with behavioral deficits. You don’t grant independence to other people. and have the skill to accomplish it. the other person. He then backs his hand away. tenderness. Since he did not move his hand when you hit it. Visualize a man holding up his hand in front of you. not realizing that the life situation provides problems where anxiety is the appropriate reaction. You know what and how of what has to be done. Stay in control by deciding whether you agree to what is said. First. You have an erroneous idea of psychological reality. He asks that you to hit his upheld hand with your fist. you should win them all. Reality doesn’t work that way. the other person should go along with you. You think as long as you’re being reasonable. Use mental Ai-Ki-Do (control) when any negative feedback (mental fist) comes your way. closeness. you hit his hand. You feel that as long as you do the right things. anger. You know what you should do. Assertiveness Techniques The Three techniques for Assertiveness are: • Mental Ai-Ki-Do • Information Building • Echoing • Mental Ai-Ki-Do This technique can help you to accept criticism comfortably without becoming defensive. criticism. With all your force.
you start to lose control by giving in to the force. supervisor. Some people feel this technique is a rude one because it requires you to be domineering. start out with general information and work up to sensitive. After sharing your thoughts and feelings. The technique certainly is used to get your way. Mention other possible ways to complete the work. plan what kind of information would be appropriate to share. . Know What You Want To Say: You won’t appear confident if you are unsure of what you want. and you are still being ordered or intimidated to handle a request. . Use this technique only after exhausting these strategies: . and even an irate and unreasonable customer. The technique is similar to an echo because you repeat what you desire. Providing information about yourself first will encourage others to share their thoughts and feelings with you. . Remember. Say It: Don’t hesitate or beat about the bush. Before meeting with someone. then use the echoing technique. building relationships takes time. but it should not be used exclusively. Expressing One’s Feelings The following are some of the points that are taken into consideration while expressing assertive feelings 1. • Information Building This technique will help you initiate and build relationships by sharing information about yourself. One of the ways trust is built between associates is by the amount of knowledge that is shared by and about each other. When it is inappropriate for you to budge on a certain point. 2. offer some assistance or time to help with part of the project or task. Depending upon how well you know the person and your own comfort level. • Echoing This technique will strengthen your ability to say “no” respectfully without regrets. non-leading questions to elicit feedback and to keep the conversation relaxed and flowing. use humor and open-ended.If appropriate.Inform whoever is requesting your services that you are unable to do the job as it is not into your priorities.even – tempered. come right out with it! Practise before you say it and check for appropriateness. you will teach others that you are serious and determined. If these strategies do not work. You do not have to discuss something of mutual interest. need-to-know information. the echoing technique will help you hold your ground with an associate. in the process. peer. You could appear foolish by asking of something that you eventually realize is not what you want.Suggest a more suitable person to take on the assignment. Nor should you restrict sharing information just because the other person has not disclosed much during your conversation. Stay composed and state over and over again what you want. Once you explode or hide. vendor.
waving your arms around. This will confuse the person you are speaking to. 4. Being sarcastic. If you simply look shifty and cannot look them in the eye. 5. communicates hostility as you put the other person down. so that there can be no confusion. do not say it at the peak of your anger. No long explanations are necessary. Avoid Laughing Nervously: Smile if it’s appropriate. . Look Relaxed: You’ll convey anxiety by shifting from one foot to another. Practise looking relaxed in a mirror – it’s not as contradictory as it sounds! 7. as this builds up apprehension. Don’t Whine or be Sarcastic: Be direct and honest. Whining and pleading can either annoy the person or make them feel guilty. 6. but if you giggle or laugh you won’t look as if you mean what you say. Look the Person in the Eye: People feel more comfortable if you look directly at them. or conversely being too rigid. 8. you certainly will not come across as someone who knows what they want. on the other hand. It is being manipulative. Say It as Soon as Possible: Do not let too much time pass. On the other hand.3. Begin with the word “I”. Be Specific: Say exactly what you want or do not want. Wait for that to pass.
The meaning of perception will be complete when all the three aspects are stressed. and reacting to stimuli. We need to filter or screen out most of them so that we may deal with the important or relevant ones. feeling. things would be a lot simpler” -Moorhead & Griffin In its simple sense perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen. smell. There is the sixth sense about which much is speculated and nothing is known. selecting. as revealed by the definitions.Perception “If everyone perceived everything the same way. tasting. We receive stimuli through the organs. receiving. the environment in which perception occurs. viz. These processes are influenced by the perceived and the situation.” Perceptual Process Perception. Location: The best location of a visual stimulus for attracting attention is directly in the front of the eyes in the center of a page. The study of these perceptional processes shows that their functioning is affected by three classes of variables – the objects or events being perceived. checking. people or animals. Two sets of factors govern the selection of stimuli: external and internal. When this location is not possible in a newspaper or a magazine. They may be inside also. and the individuals doing the perceiving. and the environment influence what is seen. touch and tasting. Similarly. the object. A few definitions of perception are given below: “Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments. vision. We may not be able to report the existence of certain stimuli but our behaviour reveals that we are often subject to their influence. whether the object is visual or auditory. interpreting. hearing. External Factors Influencing Selection The external factors influencing selection are: Nature: By nature we mean. they receive events or objects that have been repressed. and smelling.. Process of Selecting Stimuli Myriads of stimuli seemingly clamour for our attention at any given time. . organizing. and whether it involves pictures. hearing. stimuli need not be external to us. viz. is composed of six processes..” “Perception includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about his environment – seeing. But the perceiver. a position in the upper portion of a page in more favourable than one in the lower portions. and the left hand side receives more attention than the right hand side. Secondary organs receive not only physical objects. Process of Receiving Stimuli The human organism is structured with five sensory organs.
he is likely to be paranoid. ambivalence. Psychological Needs: Needs play a significant role in perceptual selectivity. or which are not what people are expecting. Learning: Learning. the person with a particular interest has a need to involve himself in activities pertaining to it. age differences. Paranoid Perception: When the person’s perception is so selective that he can find little common ground for communication with others. has considerable influence on perception. Age Difference: Older senior executives complain about the inability of the new young to take tough decisions concerning terminating or resigning people and paying attention to details and paper work. Yet there is some value in conceiving the two as distinct. That is. Interest: The interests of the perceiver unconsciously influence perception. strong odour. interests cannot be distinguished from needs. even though the smaller one costs as much and as important to the operation. People tend to perceive what they want to perceive. An architect will notice many details of buildings that he passes only once. The maintenance engineering staff may pay more attention to a big machine than to a small one. most needs no longer influence perception. Once they have been satisfied. It creates expectancy in people. weak odour. will receive their attention. his perception is likely to be selective at any time. The young managers in turn complain about the “old guards” resisting change and using paper and rules as ends in themselves. Ambivalence: Another factor in perceptual selection is ambivalence or mixed feelings about a situation. Internal Factors Influencing Selection Internal factors influencing selection of stimuli include learning. in their influence on perception. But if the person has a special interest. It has been argued that. Size: Generally objects of larger size attract more attention than the smaller ones. interests. and paranoid perception. Novelty and Familiarity: The novelty and familiarity principle states that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as an attention getter. . These factors relate to oneself. New objects in familiar settings or familiar objects in new setting will draw the attention of the perceiver. Movement: The principle of motion states that a moving object receives more attention than an object that is standing still. Unreal things often look real because of deprived needs. or bright light will be noticed more than a soft sound. A loud noise.Intensity: Stimuli of higher intensity are perceived more than the objects with low intensity. a cognitive factor. Different perceptions of old and young executives are due to their age differences perceptions. Repetition: The repetition principle states that a repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a single one. Contrast: The contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out against the background. psychological needs. or dim light.
In fact. race. Attribution Attribution refers to the process by which the individual assigns causes to the behaviour he conceives. Thus. There are three dimensions to the perceptual organization. As too much credit or blame for behaviour is placed on persons rather than on environment. Halo Effect The halo effect refers to the tendency of perceiving people in terms of good and bad. This is called perceptual set. and continuity. and perceptual constancy. religion. The Process of Interpreting After the data have been received and organized. intentions. perceived objects stand out as separable from their general background.The Organizing Process The perceptual selection related to the discussion of external and Internal factors which helped gain the perceiver’s attention. There are several aspects of constancy such as shape. despite variations in the stimuli that provide us with our information. Such constancy amidst changing stimuli is indispensable if we are to adjust to our world. occupation. closure. viz. . Stereotyping Stereotyping is the tendency for a person’s perceptions of another to be influenced by the social group to which the others belong. Factors such as status. In perceiving another. colour. The individual’s experiences with others in the category in which he has placed them lead him to believe that they have certain traits in common. and consequences influence the attribution process. or organizational affiliation. he is ready to perceive the other as possessing the same trait. a person is likely to categories the other according to some silent characteristic such as sex. the perceiver interprets or assigns meaning to the information. size. nationality. and ascribing all good qualities to one who is liked and all bad qualities to another who is disliked. perceptual grouping. figure ground. This aspect of forming bits of information into meaningful wholes is called the perceptual organization. More important amongst them are Perceptual Set Previously held beliefs about objects influence an individual’s perceptions of similar objects. There are critics who argue that perceptual distortion occurs because of attribution.. In other words. perception is said to have taken place only after the data have been interpreted. Perceptual Constancy: A more subtle part of perceptual organization is constancy. The figure ground principle states that the relationship of a target to its background influences perception. our ability to perceive certain characteristics of an object as remaining constant. proximity. Figure Ground: Figure ground is considered to be the most basic form of perceptual organization. according to the principle. Perceptual Grouping: The principles of grouping first defined by gestalt psychologists include similarity. Several factors contribute towards what has been interpreted.
The action is positive when the perception is favourable. social and organizational settings of the situation or event in question can influence perceptions. and weight. He should be someone with a strong need for ego satisfaction. change in perception but refusal to change.Perceptual Context The context in which an object is placed influences perception. sex. past experience. This may be particularly true regarding undesirable traits. Only when the doodles are placed in a verbal context do they take on meaning and value to the perceiver. with one another. which may influence the perception process. unacceptable or threatening stimuli. height. . they project their own feelings. and behaviour of persons in the situation also influence how a situation is perceived. and attitudes. The Process of Checking After data have been received and interpreted. The visual stimuli by themselves are meaningless. Characteristics of the Perceived The physical attributes. One way of checking is for the person himself to indulge in introspection. The action depends on whether the perception is favorable or unfavorable. The perceiver shall indulge in some action in relation to his perception. Perceptual Defence According to the principle of perceptual defence. It is negative when the perception is unfavourable. He will put a series of questions to himself and the answers will confirm whether his perception about an individual or object is correct or not. The defence mechanisms put up by the perceiver may assume any of the four forms: outright denial. and change in perception itself. Characteristics of the Perceiver A perceiver needs to have. We tend to notice the physical attributes of a person in terms of age. values. the perceived and situation are some of the factors that influence perception. modification of the data received. or motives into their judgement of others. Characteristics of the Situation The physical. That is. an individual is likely to put a defence when confronted with conflicting. habits. an individual’s perceptions are influenced by his belief that certain human traits are associated. Implicit Personality Theory In judging and making inferences about others. The Process of Reacting The last phase in perception is the reaction. Factors Influencing Perception The perceiver. which the perceiver possesses but fails to recognize himself. Projection Under certain conditions. Another way is to check the veracity about the interpretation with others. appearance. people tend to see in another person traits that they themselves posses. tendencies. the perceiver tends to check whether his interpretations are right or wrong. personality.
. • You are not able to identify all factors. Avoid common perceptual distortions that biased in our view of people and situations.e. the cues you don’t know you perceived • You respond to irrelevant cues to arrive at a judgment. • You are influenced by emotional factors. what is liked is perceived as correct. the interviewers’ judgement about the suitability or otherwise of a candidate depends on how his behaviour is perceived by them.. But the fact is that interviewers generally form an early impression that becomes quickly entrenched. as others perceive it. Seek information from various sources to confirm or disconfirm personal impressions of a decision situation.e. be able to see a situation. i. Be empathetic – that is. • You weigh perceptual evidence heavily if it comes from respectable sources. If the inadequacies of the candidate are exposed early.Perception and Organisational Behaviour In an interview for the selection of a candidate. not realizing how much weight is given to a single item. i. .. Influence of perceptions of other people when they are drawing incorrect or incomplete impressions of events in the work setting. Avoid inappropriate attributions. A rejected applicant might feel that he was wronged by the interview though he deserved selection.e. Five reasons why a person misperceives – Zalkind and Costello • You are influenced by cues below your own threshold i. they weigh against him in the final selection Specific applications in organization • Employment interview • Performance expectations • Performance evaluation • Employee effort • Employee loyalty Managing the Perception Process • • • • • • Have a high level of self-awareness.
This relationship is built around two principles. It is based upon the premise that behaviour or job performance is not a function of inner thoughts. The second aspect of the definition is that this change must occur due to some kind of experience or practice.Galileo Learning can be defined as a “relatively permanent change in behaviour or potential behaviour as a result of direct or indirect experience”. any stimulus from the work environment will elicit a response. This means that certain responses can be predicted which continuously result from certain induced stimuli. . Theories of Learning There are four general approaches to learning – classical conditioning. It is also known as reinforcement theory and it suggests that behaviour is a function of its consequences. emotions or perceptions but is keyed to the nature of the outcome of such behaviour. There are two primary elements in this definition that must both be present in order to identify the process of learning. Hence.” . Second. either better or worse as compared to our behaviour prior to this experience of learning.P. First. Classical Conditioning The most well known experiments on classical conditioning were undoubtedly conducted by I. First is the element that the change must be relatively permanent. which differentiates human beings from dogs. You can only help him discover it within himself. based upon such consequences. operant conditioning. This leaves no ground for making choices. It also makes the response reflexive or involuntary after the stimulus-response relationship has been established. cognitive learning and social learning.Learning “ You cannot teach a man anything. Classical conditioning introduces a simple cause-and-effect relationship between one stimulus and one response. certain types of consequences can be used to increase the occurrence of a desired behaviour and other types of consequences can be used to decrease the occurrence of undesired behaviour. This means that after “learning” our behaviour must be different. and he established a Stimulus-Response (S-R) connection. feelings. the behviour can be predicted and controlled. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning induces a voluntary change in behaviour and learning occurs as a “consequence” of such change. This learning is not caused by biological maturation. Pavlov with dogs. Under certain situations classical conditioning does explain human behaviour. From an organizational point of view. that behaviour which results in positive rewards tends to be repeated and behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated.
Discrimination While generalization is a reaction to “similarities” of stimuli or responses. Cognition.Cognitive Learning Learning is considered as the outcome of deliberate thinking about the problem or situation both intuitively and based upon known facts and responding in an objective and goal oriented manner. discrimination is the ability to differentiate between relatively similar stimuli where generalization would yield negative consequences. In addition learning can also be gained by discipline and self-control and an inner desire to acquire knowledge or skills irrespective of the external rewards or consequences. the individual can adjust to new learning situations more smoothly because of the previous learning experiences. . Thus these reinforcers work as behaviour modifiers. These are as follows: Generalization No two situations are exactly alike. while other reinforcers work by their removal from the situation. in fact. responses to certain situations can be applied to similar but different situations. It also emphasizes that people acquire new behaviour by observing or imitating others in a social setting. Thus a “reinforcer” is any stimulus that causes certain behaviour to be repeated or inhibited. Social Learning It is recognized that learning does not take place only because of environmental stimuli (classical and operant conditioning) or of individual determinism (cognitive approach) but is a blend of both views. Principle of Reinforcement Reinforcement is the process by which certain types of behaviours are strengthened. Some reinforcers work by their application to a situation. If a person experiences a similar situation that he dealt with before. This process of self-control is also partially a reflection of societal and cultural influences on the development and growth of human beings. is the act of knowing an item of information and this knowledge affects the behaviour of the person so that the information provides cognitive cues towards the expected goal. However. There are two concepts that help in explaining the transfer of learning. then some of his previous experience would be transferred to the new situation and his learning time in the new situation would be considerably decreased. Transfer of Learning Berelson and Steiner suggested that learning can be transferred from one situation to another and the extent of such transfer is a function of the extent of similarity in the stimulus or response. Because of the principle of generalization.
Schedule of Reinforcement While it is necessary to know as to which type of reinforcement would be most effective in a given situation. The method involved is a suitable form of punishment in the form of withholding the positive enforcement or simply ignoring the undesirable behaviour. then such behaviours would become less frequent and eventually die out. This means that if rewards were removed from behaviours that were previously reinforced. . However. we withhold rewards for behaviour that has previously been rewarded because the behaviour was not undesirable previously. on the other hand consists of “application” of an undesirable consequence or “withdrawal” of a desirable consequence for an undesirable behaviour. Money is probably the most powerful reinforcement for positive behaviour. it is also a method of strengthening desired behaviour. since money can be used for a number of other resources too. The punishment process. The punishment process is similar to the extinction process in that both have the effect of decreasing and eliminating the undesirable behaviour. it is equally important to examine the various ways or “schedules” of administering these techniques of reinforcement. Negative Reinforcement Also known as “escape conditioning” or “avoidance learning”. Extinction This type of reinforcement is applied to reduce undesirable ‘behaviour. reprimand and other negative aspects of the organizational environment. In the extinction process. especially when such behaviours were previously rewarded.Positive Reinforcement A positive reinforcement is a reward for a desired behaviour. but technically there is a difference. under avoidance conditioning. unlike the positive reinforcement where an employee works hard to gain financial and other rewards. These are continuous and partial reinforcement schedules. The reward should be sufficiently powerful and durable so that it increases the probability of occurrence of desirable behaviour. which has never been associated with the reward before. Punishment Punishment is the most controversial method of behaviour modification and involves delivering an unpleasant consequence contingent upon the occurrence of an undesirable behaviour. The various ways by which the reinforcement can be administered can be categorized into two groups. the employee works hard to avoid repercussion.
There are four kinds of partial reinforcement schedules. 2. the reinforcement is administered only upon the completion of a given number of desirable responses. 2) Behaviour modification programs assume that extrinsic rewards are the key factors in behaviour modification and they ignore the fact that employees can be intrinsically motivated. There are: 1. . 3) Behaviour modification is that it ignores prevailing work-group norms.. the reinforcement is administered at random times that cannot be predicted by the employee. 1) Behaviour modification is an overall structure and ignores individual differences. Variable-ratio Schedule It is similar to fixed-ratio schedule except that the number of responses required before reinforcement is determined. Fixed Interval Schedule In this type of schedule. 4. 2. 3. It is important for the management to recognize the power of work-group norms. some of the behavioural modification techniques. 3. Showing errors is how to do something can lead to increase in learning. The capacities of learners are important in determining what can be learned and how long will it take to learn it. Fixed-ratio Schedules In a fixed-ratio schedule. a response is reinforced at fixed intervals of time.Continuous Schedule A continuous schedule is the one in which the desirable behaviour is reinforced every time it occurs and the reinforcement is immediate. Partial Reinforcement Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule rewards desirable behaviour at specific intervals. Te order of presentation of materials to be learned is very important. The simple rules of leaning are: 1. This results in fast acquisition of the desired response and the learning is rapid. However the behaviour learned by continuous reinforcement strategy tends not to persist for which such reinforcement is applied less frequently. Limitations of Behaviour Modification While in general. there are some limitations that make these techniques ineffective in certain situations. as discussed previously are effective in eliciting desirable behaviours from employees in work situations. are not fixed but vary from situation to situation. It is believed that “behaviour tends to be persistent when it is learned under conditions of partial and delayed reinforcement. Variable Interval Schedule In this type of schedule.
7. 6. Two things are necessary – “belongingness” and “satisfaction”. Attitudes and Interest . Repetition of identical materials is often as effective in getting things remembered as repeating the same story but with variations. Learning is aided by active practice rather than passive reception 8. Values. 10. 5. The mere repetition of a situation does not necessarily lead to learning. Learning something new can interfere with the remembering of something learned earlier. Knowledge of results leads to increase in learning. 9. A passage is more easily learned and accepted if it does not interfere with earlier habits.4. The rate of forgetting tends to be very rapid immediately after learning.
“When you prevent me from doing anything I want to do. good. others may argue. 2. they imply that certain behaviours or outcomes are preferred over others. but when I prevent you from doing anything you want to do. . Economic – Emphasizes the usefulness and practicality of the situation. that is law.George Bernard Shaw Values Is capital punishment right or wrong? The answer to this question is value laden. We all have values and. they contain interpretations of right and wrong. However. and so forth. In other words. self-respect. that is persecution. obedience. 6. Further. perceptions. personality. order and morals. This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to such values as freedom.” . Religious – It is concerned with the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmos as a whole. or desirable.” They contain a moral flavor in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right. honesty. On the contrary. Some might argue. Value systems represent a prioritizing of individual values in relation to their relative importance. as you will see. Importance of Values Values are important to the study of organizational behaviour because they lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes. 5. that capital punishment is right because it is an appropriate retribution for crimes like murder or treason. 4. and motivations. Of course. what we think is important influences our attitudes and our behaviour. Aesthetic – It places the highest value on form and harmony. equality. that no government has the right to take anyone’s life. Individuals enter an organization with preconceived notions of what “ought” and what “ought not” to be. these notions are not value-free. They identified six types of values: 1. 3. we all have a set of values that form a value system. Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. just as strongly. for example. Theoretical – Places high importance on the discovery of truth through a critical and rational approach. Political – It places emphasis on acquisition of power and influence. pleasure. Types of Values The most important early work in categorizing values was done by All-port and his associates. Social – Here the highest value is given to the love of people.
Level 5. People . or events. In our early years. Manipulative. Level 7. They respond primarily to power. have difficulty in accepting people whose values differ from their own. These individuals have a low tolerance for ambiguity. Level 6. Source of Attitudes Attitudes. and peer group members. These individuals are characterized by high dependence. They are strongly influenced by tradition and the power exerted by authority figures. teachers. Attitudes Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favourable or unfavourable – concerning objects. These individuals are unaware of themselves or others as human beings and react to basic physiological needs. Values also contain a moral flavor of rightness or desirability. They are aggressive and selfish. So attitudes are more specific than values. restrictive policies. Conformity. Sociocentric. These individuals have a high tolerance for ambiguity and people with differing values. Level 2. Attitudes are not the same as values. Level 1. Egocentrism.” I am expressing my attitude about work.More recent research suggests that there is a hierarchy of levels that are descriptive of personal values and life-styles. Level 3. Tribalistic. Level 4. like values. respect or may be even fear. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. They reflect how one feels about something. One such study identified seven levels. “I favor the implementation of an affirmative action program to recruit and develop women for managerial positions in our organization” is an attitude. Values are the broader and more encompassing concept. and desire that others accept their values. This is most descriptive of newborn babies. people. The statement that “discrimination is bad” reflects one’s values. These persons believe in rugged individualism. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. Reactive. We observe the way family and friends behave and we shape our attitudes and behaviour to align with theirs. and arbitrary use of authority. When I say “I like my job. They are outspoken on inflexible systems. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. Existential. we begin modeling our attitudes after those we admire. are acquired from parents. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. status symbols.
When there is an inconsistency. and considers his performance important to his self-worth. Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitudes toward his or her job. Typically. Attitudes and Consistency People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behaviour. This means that individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviour so they appear rational and consistent. In fact. In organizations. These job-related attitudes tap positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. identification with. job involvement. job satisfaction. The term “job involvement” states that job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies with his job. actively participates in it. forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behaviour are again consistent. Type of Attitudes But OB focuses our attention on a very limited number of job-related attitudes. Individuals who express high commitment see their identity as closely attached to that of the organizations. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job. When people speak of employee attitudes.e. Organizational commitment expresses an individual’s orientation toward the organization by tapping his or her loyalty to. Changing attitudes: Some basic techniques a) Persuasive messages: Hearing sometimes is believing i) Comunicator’s Characteristics • Attractiveness • Style • Credibility ii) Content of persuasive message • Receiver’s characteristics • Intelligence • Self – esteem/ confidence iii) Enhance persuasion • Build personal attractiveness • Enhance credibility . the two are frequently used interchangeably.imitate the attitudes of popular individuals or those they admire and respect. while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. and involvement in the organization. attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour. more often then they mean job satisfaction. and organizational commitment. there are three primary attitudes that are of concerned to us i.
or cognitive mental structure. then. To have an “interest” in any object is. Knowledge about an object is not in itself a condition of “interest”. you notice the new sound and begin to wonder what it means. rather than upon the extent and variety and systematic organization of the cognitive systems of the mind ( knowledge). and is therefore determined by our instincts and our sentiments. while your friend by your side. determined by conative interest. either natively or through experience.” being essentially conative. fails to notice the new element. friends and peers Barriers to changing attitudes Interest You are driving your automobile. who perhaps is a familiar with the roar as yourself. “Interest. We acquire a great variety of new interests through the building up of sentiments for a great variety of objects. We are interested only in those things that evoke in us one or other (or several) of the instinctive impulses. but the attention of the naturalist is more sustained. and the continued roar it makes does not hold or divert or attract your attention. that is can think of the . and both are interested in it. while his is not) is that you are “interested” in the sounds made by the automobile and he is not. to be ready to pay attention to it. But presently a new element. Interest is latent attention. noticing a hundred features which entirely escape his companies.b) c) d) e) f) • • • Use social pressure Design appeal with care Repetition can always help Dissonance: when attitude and behaviour don’t match Providing new information Use of fear Influence of family. is a matter of the enduring setting of our conative tendencies or impulses. even when you ask him to direct his attention to it. perhaps of relatively low intensity. and attention is interest in action. It is sometimes alleged that “interest” in any object or topic depends upon. The difference between you (manifested in the fact that your attention is drawn to the sound. enters into the complex stimulation. because we quickly exhaust upon it our limited power of discriminative perception. Thus a naturalist and a layman may discover some strange plant or animal. or consists in. though such knowledge favours thus sustaining attention: without such knowledge our attention to any object. That “interest” is conative rather than cognitive. as well as more effective. soon wanes. that it depends upon the strength of the conative tendencies excited. for he has the knowledge. it excites the curiosity of both. and your attention is at once attracted. The essential condition of both interest in and attention to any object is that the mind shall be so organized. that enables him to examine it systematically and in detail. the possession of appropriate knowledge or (in terms of the “idea” theory) of mass or system of “ideas” related to the object or topic.
” “goals.” and “incentives.” This meaning is evident in the following comprehensive definition: “A motive is an inner state that energizes.” “needs.” “motives. Motivation “Motivation is getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it” Dwight D.” Technically. activates.” “wishes.object. and that such thinking shall evoke some impulse or desire which maintains a train of activity in relation to the object. or moves and that directs or channels . Usually one or more of the following words are included in the definition: “desires.” “drives. virtually all people including lay people and scholars have their own definition of motivation. “to move. which means. the term motivation can be traced to the Latin word movere.” “wants. Eisenhower Today.
2. selectivity. activity. which will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. General Motives A separate classification for general motives is not always given. biological. At the end of the motivation cycle is the goal. but they would acknowledge that some motivates are unlearned and physiologically based. curiosity. the competence motive is the most inclusive general drive. and persistence in interacting with the environment. The best one-word definition of a need is deficiency. a motive must be unlearned but not physiologically based. Drives are action-oriented and provide an energizing thrust toward goal accomplishment. and affection seem best to meet the criteria for this classification. 3. The use of the term primary does not imply that this group of motives always takes precedence over the general and secondary motives. attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive. Needs. A goal in the motivation cycle can be defined as anything. manipulation. A drive can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. To be included in the general category. or primary. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. lies in the meaning of. With a few exceptions drives or motives are set up to alleviate needs. and relationship between. An understanding of these general motives is important to the study of human behaviour – especially in organizations. Yet such a category seems necessary because there are a number of motives. Thus. needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. He called from activities which. and goals. unlearned. at the same time show direction. The other general . Primary Motives Physiologists do not totally agree on how to classify the various human motives. drives. In the homeostatic sense. The Competence Motives While proposed a new conceptualization based upon the assumption that all organisms. The key to understand motivation.behaviour toward goals. They are more relevant to organizational behaviour than the primary motives. The last term is used here because it is more comprehensive than the others. Such motives are variously called physiological.” Thus defined. which lie in the gray area between the primary and secondary classifications. though playful and exploratory in character. it appears. animal and human. Although not all psychologists would agree. motivation consists of interdependent elements: needs. the motives of competence. 1. needs. have a capacity to interact effectively with their environment. Needs Goals (Deprivation) (Reduction of drives) Drives (Deprivation with direction) three interacting and In a systems sense. drives and goals. Drives. Goals.
Secondary Motives Whereas the general drives seem relatively more important than the primary ones to the study of human behaviour in organizations. achievement. The Power Motives It is the need to manipulate other or the drive for superiority over others – Adler developed the concepts of inferiority complex and compensation. Part of the complexity stems from the fact that in many ways love resembles the primary drives and in other ways it is similar to the secondary drives. Taking moderate risks is probably the single most descriptive characteristic of the person possessing high n Ach. give way to the learned secondary drives in motivating behaviour. it should be emphasized that although the various behavioural concepts can be separated for study and analysis. In addition. and activity drives are quite intense. The Curiosity Manipulation. and Activity Motives It is generally recognized that human curiosity. especially in reference to organizational behaviour.drives of curiosity. and activity can be considered more specific competence drives. Some of the more important ones are power. manipulation. The Achievement Motive Characteristic of high achievers. the secondary drives are unquestionably the most important. and affiliation. anyone who has reared or been around small children will quickly support this generalization. the primary drives. A motive must be learned in order to be included in the secondary classification. affection is sometimes placed in all three categories of motives. security and status are also important secondary motives. the learning principle of reinforcement is conceptually and practically related to motivation. and n Aff. however. in reality concepts like reinforcement and motivation do not operate as separate entities in producing human behaviour. the motives of hunger and thirst are not dominant among people living in the economically developed Western world. 1. Moderate risk taking. or as they are commonly referred to today. . n Ach. For this reason. With some glaring exceptions that have yet to be eradicated. manipulation. manipulation. curiosity. Once again. Numerous important human motives meet this criterion. Although these drives often get the small child into trouble. The interactive effects are always present. and activity. when stifled or inhibited. As a human society develops economically and becomes more complex. In particular. The Affection Motives Love or affection is a very complex form of general drive. The relationship is obvious when reinforcement is divided into primary and secondary categories and is portrayed as incentives. Some writer’s regards reinforcement and motivation as equivalent. and to a lesser degree the general drives. the total society might become very stagnant.
Performance definition (Set Objectives) • Goals • Measures • Assessment Performance facilitation (provide resources) • Elimination of roadblocks to performance • Providing means and adequate resources (finance. 3. infrastructure. but not for the usual reasons of wanting money for its own sake or for the material benefits that it can buy. Sometimes affiliation is equated with social motives and / or group dynamics. Satisfaction with accomplishment. security appears to be much simpler than other secondary motives. the affiliation motive is neither as broad as is implied by the definition of social motives nor as comprehensive or complex as is implied by the definition of group dynamics.) • Carefully selecting personnel Performance encouragement (Provide timely rewards) • Values of rewards • Amount of rewards • Timing of rewards • Likelihood of rewards • Fairness of rewards Various approaches to job design for performance . The Affiliation Motive Affiliation plays a very complex but vital role in human behaviour. 4. or they do not expect or necessarily want the accompanying material rewards. for it is based largely on fear and is avoidance-oriented. The Security Motive One the surface. HR etc. Closely connected to high achievers’ taking moderate risks is their desire for immediate feedback. they tend to be totally preoccupied with the task until it is successfully completed.2. organization. The Status Motive Status can be simply defined as the relative ranking that a person holds in a group. A good illustration of this characteristic involves money. As presented here. or society. Preoccupation with the task. In reality. Need for immediate feedback. Three key areas of responsibility A. Gellerman notes that this special drive for security is largely unconscious but that it greatly influences the behaviour of many people. High achievers find accomplishing a task intrinsically satisfying in and of itself. Once high achievers select a goal. material. security is much more complex than it appears on the surface.
b. Job enlargement – adding more tasks to the job for variety. d. Scientific Management – Talyor – forerunner of goal setting. Goals provide direction to behaviour. The theoretical background a. People strive to attain goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. interesting and challenging. Social technical approach – making a group or a team responsible for the job and balancing social and technical aspects of the job. d. e. Importance of values or valence and consequences. al. Role of intention in human behaviour. Job enrichment – making jobs more meaningful. c. f. Goal – setting – building goals. e. c. Intentions or goals Responses action or Performance reinforcement • • Valid and practical – useful No commitment to work – Goal setting will not work. b. Job engineering – concentrates on the efficiency of the job through time and motion analysis of person – machine interfaces. Goal – Setting theory Values and value Emotions and Consequences Judgments desires Feedback or Theories of Motivation . f. feedback and incentives into the structure of the job.Appropriately designed job – higher employee satisfaction and quality of performance a. Job rotation – doing different jobs for variety. Emotions or desires are the ways person experiences values. Job characteristics approach to Job Design – Hackman & Oldham Equation Motivating (MPS) feedback Potential score = Skill variety + Task identity + Task Sign x autonomy x 3 Goal Setting theory • • The cognitive based work was given by locke et.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs or Deficient Theory of Motivation Needs are arranged in a definite sequence of domination i. In the Second category are the Motivators since they seem to be effective in motivating people to superior performance. there is a surprising degree of agreement. Hygiene/Maintenance • Company policy & Adm.There is no simple formula to motivate people. But if you look at the theoretical emphasis of the behavioural scientists who have been studying motivation. • Need for affiliation : The drive for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. power & achievement.e. Lower/primary order needs includes basic physiological needs & safety and security. those of the higher order do not dominate. Higher/secondary needs are belonging or social needs. • Relationship with supervisor • Working conditions • Salary • Relationship with peers Motivators • Achievement Recognition • Work • Responsibility • Advancement • Growth . unless the needs of lower order are reasonably satisfied. which are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of job satisfaction. to strive to succeed. Self-actualization Esteem Belonging Safety Physiological McClelland Achievement Theory of Motivation • We have three basic social needs: affiliation.. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation In the first category are Maintenance or Hygiene factors. Absence of these factors may dissatisfy the employee but will not demotivate them. esteem and self-actualization needs. • Need for achievement : The drive to excel. to achieve in relation to a set of standards. • Need for power : The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.
Evidence suggests that teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills. responsibility and involvement in serious endeavour. judgment. intelligence and commitment. pension and other benefit programs. Today. and experience. welfare measures. close supervision. it’s just the opposite. incentive programs. It’s the organisation that doesn’t use teams that has become newsworthy.• Personal life • Relationship with subordinates • Status • Job security • Technical supervision McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X emphasizes on discipline. work force is a reservoir of untapped imagination. It stresses man’s need for work. Theory Y represents the democratic approach and gives to the employees scope for creativity and responsibility. the decision of companies to introduce teams into their production processes made news because no one else was doing it. As organizations have restructured themselves to compete more effectively and . Team Building Twenty years ago.
and disband. in which each team member makes individual contributions. • Give maximum support. refocus. • Invite members to share their concerns and problems. stimulating greater personal knowledge. • Make team activities enjoyable. Definition: An energetic group of people who are committed to achieving common objectives. • Interdependence. • Encourage consideration of individual strengths and weaknesses. rooted in the feelings as well as the thoughts of its members. Teams have the capability to quickly assemble. It is imperative to take note of the following key terms to understand the definition of a team. deploy. therefore. This suggests a practical limitation on size. • Demonstrate openness by example. It is in part an emotional entity. The Stages of Team Development When a group of people come together to achieve an objective they will go through a series of stages. Why Have Teams Become So Popular? Effective teams produce outstanding results and succeed in achieving despite difficulties. According to the definition. which identifies the focus for the team’s activities and includes both services and products. and who produce high quality results. is more than a collection of individuals. because rarely in practice can more than nine people function as single team. Other members depend on those contributions and share work information with one another. • Shared responsibility. accountability for team outcomes. The main stages can be summarized as follows: Stage 1 . who work well together and enjoy doing so. Responsibility for team’s purpose and goals is shared and understood by all members. a team consists of individuals who relate directly together to get things done. leading hopefully to a final ‘mature’ stage that equates to effective team functioning. • All members share outcome. Members feel responsible for the output of their team and act to clear difficulties standing in their way. A team. Management has found that teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than are traditional departments or other forms of permanent groupings.efficiently. .The Undeveloped Team: The ‘Forming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Facilitate ‘getting to know you’ exercise. they actively care about their team’s well being. they have turned to teams as a way to better utilize employee talents. Woodcock presented “Developmental model” in his Team Development Manual.
• Clarify values. • Consider the possibilities of enhanced inputs into the organisation. • Give minimal support. • Give high level of support. • Allow conflicts to surface. • Regularly review performance and plan improvements. • Encourage informal communications.The Experimenting Team: The ‘Storming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Encourage greater openness. • Develop individual skills. Stage 4 . • Develop a capacity for the team to compensate for individual weaknesses. • Seek common ground.The Mature Team : The ‘Performing’ Team The features of this stage are: • Build bridges with other teams. • Begin to involve team members in review of team performance. • Clarify objectives.The Consolidating Team: The ‘Norming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Develop problem-solving skills. • Develop decision-making strategies. Stage 5 . • Commitment may surge or dip. • Give moderate support. • Expose team functioning to external scrutiny. • Build bridges between individuals. • Encourage individual team members to ‘air their grievances’. • Find opportunities to experiment. Forming: awareness of the formation process means encouraging discussion on issues such as : • Why are we here? • What’s our real purpose? • What holds us firmly together? .Stage 2 . Stage 3 . Implications There are certain implications of these five stages. • Celebrate successes. • Encourage people to share strengths. • Experiment with different forms of leadership • Allow leadership to change with the needs of the task. • Fight insularity. • Question decision making and problem solving methods.The Disbanding Team: The ‘Mourning’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Competence has been established at a high level.
for example by having fun together. help group communication by encouraging attention to issues such as: • When do we stop meeting? • Who should we tell? • What remains to do before the last meeting? .for example by compromise or formal voting? • What happens if someone refuses to conform to the group’s wishes? • How do we deal with strong feelings . recognizing one another’s successes? • How best can we support people through difficult times? • Are we listening to one another properly? • Does each speaker build on what the previous person has said? • Do we give each other and the group regular feedback? • Who is showing high or low commitment to group aims? Mourning: when the group is ending. socializing. encourage group communication around issues such as: • What role is each of us to play? • Shall we have a formal leader or chairperson? • Who wants to become the leader? / Whom do we want as leader? • What powers shall we give our formal leader? • How do we resolve conflict if several people want to lead? • Do we encourage disagreement and people expressing a difference of opinion? • How will we resolve differences between us . which can be exciting and difficult.for example making space to air them? Norming: during this phase contribute to good communications by helping people realize: • What are our formal rules? • What are our usually unspoken rules? • Who has what formal role? • How far can people challenge the group in some way? • How do we deal with differences of opinion? • How far can an individual follow his or her own interests at the expense of the group? Performing: now you can help the communication process by focusing on • What are our specific targets or goals? • How are we setting about achieving them? • Who has what detailed responsibilities and do they understand these? • Can we make being together more rewarding .• • • • • What are we prepared to do and NOT do together? What are our rules for working together? What do we expect from one another? How will people outside this group respond to us? What’s the best and worst that could happen if we continue down this route together? Storming: during this stage.
for example handling residual assets or remaining tasks? What do people feel about the group coming to an end? How do we handle these feelings . sending a final report? Could we make the ending into a celebration? . organising a final party.• • • • Who takes responsibility for post-group matters .for example having a reunion in a year.
and coordinate complex projects. Problem Solving Teams They typically are composed of five to twelve employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality.Team Building Process • • • • • • • • • • Developing Teamwork Identify the need Know one another Form team charter Perform team tasks Use team tools Work Together Consensus Cooperate with other Teams Evaluate Teamwork Types of Teams Teams can be classified on the basis of their objective. efficiency. but from different work areas. As a result. determination of work assignments. and cross-functional teams. Many organisations have used horizontal. . develop new ideas. Typically. these responsibilities include collective control over the pace of work. who come together to accomplish a task. boundaryspanning groups for years. Cross-functional teams are an effective means for allowing people from diverse areas within an organisation (or even between organisations) to exchange information. Too often the members feel frustrated because they cannot find a clear way of meeting their own needs and aspirations. and collective choice of inspection procedures. Fully self-managed work teams even select their own members and have the members evaluate each other’s performance. solve problems. selfmanaged work teams. The three most common forms of teams in an organisation are problem solving teams. Cross-Functional Teams Cross-functional teams are made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level. and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Self-managed work teams are generally composed of ten to fifteen people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors. supervisory positions take on decreased importance and may even be eliminated. Symptoms of Ineffective Team Work • As organisations get larger the opportunities for personal expression and satisfaction often becomes less.
Effective team work breeds happiness and the uninformed visitor often gets an immediate impression of whether work is a happy place to be or whether he is likely to be ‘killed in the rush’ if he is around. it can easily be rewarding place where people love to be. He does not represent their view and they do not subscribe to his.they enjoy backbiting and playing dirty tricks and politics on their own teammates. they provide a potential for significant progress.• • • • Team members lose their inspiration and lack the commitment and motivation to work. Mistakes become an excuse for punishing those who have committed thus giving a vent to their frustrations. Low quality of relationship between the team members is indicated when people cannot confide in or trust their leader. The leader becomes increasingly isolated from his team. Dishonest statements and the taking of false bargaining stances. which employees wear on their faces. They do not use mistakes as opportunities for increased learning and improvements. where they are fearful of him or where their conversations are on a superficial or trivial level than real team work. The unhealthy competition between team members . Work does not have to be a dull and unenjoyable place. The following guidelines can help you to use these team-building materials successfully: • • • • • • • Voluntary Involvement Adequate Discussion Time Appropriate Sequence Careful Preparation Relevant Choices Avoid Undue Threat Work Through Conflicts and Difficulties Appraisal of Team Functioning Following is a checklist for making on-the-spot appraisal of team functioning by acronym PERFORMS. Poor teamwork is indicated by the dull expression. • • • • Avoiding Blowups Usually team-building sessions are interesting and constructive. Productivity: is the team getting enough done? Empathy: do the team members feel comfortable with each other? . Occasionally they become tedious and dull. If group difficulties and blowups are handled with care. Rarely team-building events can blow up with uncomfortable or hurtful incidents. which are the essential ingredients of effective teamwork. Team members often spend a lot of time on retaliation. The low quality of meetings can usually be determined by the way in which individuals either look forward to or dread the normal weekly or monthly get together.
Mature teams are capable of making better quality decisions than all but the most brilliant individual. Individuals often feel that it is hard to influence organisations and make any impact outside their immediate area. about the “fortress . The breadth of resources available to the team enables complex situations to be creatively managed. • High Motivation. Hence.Roles & goals: do they know what they are supposed to be doing? Flexibility: are they open to outside influence and contribution? Openness: do they say what they think? Recognition: do they praise each other and publicize achievement? Morale: do people want to be in this team? The most common indicators of problems in any of these areas: Productivity: a boss in a bad temper. Perhaps more importantly. can support a positive management strategy in the following ways: • Management of Complexity. Well-developed teams are capable of responding quickly and energetically. Team building is time consuming and can be expensive. can achieve much. It is important to identify how the approach can be used to give useful benefits. Openness: silence Recognition: backbiting Morale: everyone’s left! Benefits of Team Building The team. • High Quality Decisions. Empathy: no coffee at team meetings Roles & goals: puzzled faces Flexibility: annoyed outsiders talking mentality”. • Rapid Response. together. the use of a team approach improves the overall quality of decisions. • Collective Strength. The team feeds the individual’s need to have personal significance. potentially the most flexible and competent tool known to mankind. The team changes this as team members extend their viewpoint to see that they. and team processes encourage activity and achievement. the level of commitment to team decisions is much higher.
Frustration may lead to any of the defense mechanism used by the human organism. Conflict: An Inevitable Product of Change In its simplest term. 2. psychologists felt that frustration always led to the defense mechanism of aggression.” Types Of Conflict Intraindividual Conflict Within every individual there are 1. Casey Stengel We define conflict to be a process in which an effort is purposely made by A to offset the efforts of B by some form of blocking that will result in frustrating B in attaining his goals or furthering his interests. or mental – sociopsychological). A variety of ways that drives and roles can be expressed. Conflict due to Frustration Frustration occurs when a motivated drive is blocked before a person reaches a desired goal. 3. Many types of barriers that can occur between the drive and the goal. or methods. withdrawal. three separate types of goal conflict are generally identified: 1. it’s practically inevitable. Approach – approach conflict. But it’s also something that. . Conflict can be defined as: “Conflict is a set of divergent behaviours. fixation and compromise. Traditionally. they can be grouped according to four broad categories: aggression. Both positive and negative aspects attached to desired goals. aims. and improve employee morale and productivity. Goal Conflict Another common source of conflict for an individual is a goal that has both positive and negative features. For ease of analysis. change. guarantee achieving desired results. conflict is no more than a by – product of growth.Conflict Part of my job is to keep the five guys who hate me away from the five guys who are undecided. A nmber of competing needs and roles. Although there are many such mechanism. where the individual is motivated to approach two or more positive but mutually exclusive goals. or two or more competing goals. or innovation. when handled correctly can actually promote better communication. and 4. or physical) or covert (inward. The frustration model can be useful in the analysis not only of behaviour in general but also the specific aspects of on – the – job behaviour. The barrier may be overt (outward. And like change itself.
In the win – win strategy of conflict resolution energies and creativity are aimed at solving the problems rather than beating the other party. One of the more common approaches is to compromise or take the middle ground in a dispute. A third is to use an outside third party or arbitrator. Jurisdictional ambiguity 4. Win – win. Intergroup behaviour and conflict Antecedents to intergroup conflict. and both parties receive rewarding outcomes. where the individual is motivated to approach a goal and at the same time is motivated to avoid it. Features of Conflict • • • • • Conflict is inevitable Conflict is neither good / bad Conflict is not always caused by trouble makers Conflict is part of change Conflict is sometime desirable . Approach – avoidance conflict. Task interdependence 3. 1. In the win – lose strategy one party in a conflict situation attempts to marshal its force to win. And finally the fourth type would be parties involved in conflict resolve to bureaucratic rules or existing regulations to resolve the conflict. Win – lose. Avoidance – avoidance conflict. where the individual is motivated to avoid two or more negative but mutually exclusive goals. Here the needs of both parties in the conflict situation are met. In a lose – lose approach to conflict resolution. both parties lose. Interpersonal Conflict Sources of interpersonal conflict • Personal difference • Information deficiency • Role incompatibility • Environmental stress Strategies for interpersonal conflict resolution Lose – lose. and the other party loses. Several antecedent conditions have been identified for explaining intergroup conflict. Status struggles.2. 3. Competition for resources 2. A second approach is to pay off one of the parties in the conflict.
when. in a non-threatening way. In what. Any major discrepancies between your expectations will alert you to potential conflict. Get Feedback: Take the time to find out what your associates are 3. thinking and feeling. 1. they reduce serious conflict and build stronger working relationships. and Can you tell me more? to determine priorities for the upcoming week. or are causing. communicate openly about how they are (or are not) working together. Do not wait until the last moment to discover that trouble is upon you. Review Performance Regularly: When supervisors and employees Ways of Resolving Conflict • Clarify reporting Relationship • Eliminate communication gap / misunderstanding • Restructure the organisation • Introduce new blood/ new thinking • Create Competition Benefits of Dealing with Conflict . sources of conflict. and why questions to determine potential. accuracy. Probe for more information by asking questions such as: How so. Define Expectations: Meet on a weekly basis with your associates 4. Sharing your thoughts and feelings first.When to Stimulate Conflict • • • • • • • When you have “Yes” men around you When individuals are afraid to admit ignorance When team members create an impression of peace When individuals display too much concern When individuals believe in popularity When individuals lack new ideas When individuals offer resistance to change Five Ways to Sense Conflict Be Visionary: Visualize how your actions or those of others will cause. how. Why. as well as present. often encourages others to tell you what is on their minds. Give Feedback: The amount. what. where. conflict. Ask yourself who. and timeliness of information that you can provide to an individual will help you to understand that person’s point of view. 2.
you will learn more and gain support from others. Synergy or teamwork: Managers and associates will be able to focus on serving their customers and each other. Causes of Conflict For a variety of reasons. Define.Benefits to Individual Stronger relationships: You will be able to build stronger relationships as a result of being comfortable expressing your true thoughts. Fewer mind games will be played resulting in a less stressful day. Personal development and growth: When you break down some of your own invisible barriers and become more assertive in resolving or preventing conflict. and learn from their mistakes. Many factors contribute to the difficulty in identifying the correct cause of a conflict: • • • • • • • • • • Personality Perceptions Exclusive Goals Deliberate Behaviour Scarce Resources Status Power Rewards Membership Decision Making The Five Steps to Successful Conflict Management Step Step Step Step Step One: Take Responsibility for Dealing with Conflict Two: Uncover. and Discuss the Real Problem Three: Ask Questions and Listen! Four: Set Goals and Create an Action Plan Five: Follow Up . the organisation will reap the benefits of creative thinking. Increased self-respect: You will be able to feel good about yourself and will learn not to take criticism personally. Benefits to Your Organisation Improved efficiency & effectiveness: Employees will be able to do their jobs more efficiently and effectively by focusing their efforts where they will produce the greatest results. share. many people have difficulty sensing or finding the causes of conflict. Creative thinking: By encouraging people to make.
by talking with those involved Back down under pressure rather than dealing with conflict Make an active attempt to compromise Complain to others about unfairness of the situation Make an effort to seek creative alternatives to the situation Basic Skills to Resolve Conflict Intellectual Skills • Analytical • Learning Ability • Judgement • Planning • Organising • Perception • Conceptualizing • Objectivity • Flexibility Emotional Skills • Honesty • Persistence • Ambition • Self-discipline • Result-orientation • Fast pace • Initiative • Enthusiasm • Assertiveness . only hint at the problem Find something outside yourself on which to blame situation Use sarcasm in talking about the situation with others Seek a specific scapegoat Make efforts to smooth over tension / live with situation. even if negative Blow up. put energy & attention in unrelated activities/ interests Spend time listening & gathering additional info.Fourteen Methods for Dealing with Conflict Win / Win • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Be indirect. only reveal them later to friends or confidants in private Attempt to seek clarification & information about the situation Sublimate your feelings. let off steam. let people know just exactly how you feel Hide your feelings.
Negotiation. Compromise. Defusion. Frustration Frustration – A Western Overview Frustration. Appeasement. Confrontation. Arbitration. Barriers preventing escape. blocking ongoing goal directed behaviour that may operate in a manner similar to provocation and serve both as an instigator and an external justification for violating normative constraint against aggression. Maier and Ellen ( 1955 ) describe frustration in the following manner: • • • • • An insoluble problem. Persistent or severe punishment.Interpersonal Skills • Persuasiveness • Gregariousness • Listening • Communication • Writing • Sensitivity Managerial Skills • Gives guidance • Motivates • Delegates • Selects competent people • Terminates incompetent associates • Expects Professionalism Conflict management styles • • • • • • • • Resignation. of course. . they lean toward the generalization that frustrating situation is frustrating when it involves the experience of failure and this. Consistency or inconsistency of results that conflict with expectations. Pressure from behind. In general. defined as. Withdrawal. is a far cry from the original very rigid definition of a frustrating situation.
is the emotional reaction. aggression induced by economic hardships may be directed away from government offices and towards food stores or racial groups. social and emotional problems. the individual can . When this is not possible. it can be tackled at a personal as well as organizational level. The increased around tends to increase the vigor or strength of whatever response is elicited and this arousal is implications for task performance. which needs to be delineated. there are at least four major classes of behaviour. is withdrawal from the situation. the behaviour is compulsive in nature. which has received considerable attention in the laboratory. Frustration leads to some sort of negative emotional state. integrate. from heart disease to neighborhood violence”. Conquering Frustration In order to understand how to overcome frustration. Probably the most common reaction. think. is to try a different response or find an alternate and hopefully unblocked means to the goal. In this sense. especially to mild frustration. which can be related to finding alternative means. and that it produces or results in increased physiological arousal. Rethink It is an acronym developed and used by IMHI in anger management workshops to help people have new control and power over learning to channel their anger. The behaviour thus elicited is not an expression of preference since it is not influenced by what it accomplishes. notice and keep. Thus. At a personal level “Frustration and anger can be evoked when we perceive an inconsistency between what is expected and what is obtained.” It can be taken care of in the following methods: Fight or Flight People should rethink situations they are confronted with before “blowing up”. Frustration instigated behaviour may be directed along different channels by the introduction or removal of barriers and other forms of restraints or by various forms of guidance. Another possible response. “Poorly managed anger is at the root of many serious physical. Reactions of Frustration The first response to frustration. which can result from frustration. and the type of behaviour that is selected in Frustration is a matter of its availability at the time as well as of a number of other factors. It stands for recognize. That is. The most troublesome and often mentioned reaction is aggression. On the behavioural end. The aversive nature means that the individual will be highly motivated or reduced in it. This type of behaviour is altered most readily by a reduction in the state of Frustration. hear. Two important properties are that the emotions are aversive.Basic Characteristics of Frustration Instigated Behaviour The Frustration process produces behaviour that is purely an end in itself and not a means to an end. empathize.
or the effects of frustration on task performance. the individual can abandon the goal entirely and other leave or remain in the situation. In fact mild frustrations. These include the emotional response of anger and associated increased physiological arousal. Covert acts would include sabotage. and the behavioural responses of trying alternative course of action. . Aggression can be directed either against other people. Aggression in organizations can take many forms. secret withholding of output and stealing. covert. To be perfect is to change often”. Effects of Organizational Frustration There are at least four possible reactions to frustration by individuals. Thus frustration might have positive. it may facilitate or inhibit task performance depending upon task complexity. Finally. to the extent it induces aggression or withdrawal frustration can have damaging effects on organizations. or no aggression would be expectation of punishment for the act. Although it may be possible that mild frustration can increase arousal and facilitate task performance with no additional negative effects in the short run. or against the organization itself. grievances. or lawsuits. Alternatively. or permanently as turnover.leave the situation entirely. Frustration can increase task speed with no additional errors for simple task. but interferes with correct performance on complex tasks. aggression. Arousal itself. an individual can secretly perform behaviours. Change Management “To improve is to change. that is. and find another setting in which to achieve the goal. which have potential effects on organizations. Concerned with either aggression. frustration can lead a person to try alternative courses of action to achieve goals or fulfill needs. motivating effects. and withdrawal. as shown previously. It can be directed covertly against the source of frustration (if a person) either verbally or physically. Aggression can also be directed against the organization itself. continued or severe frustration might result in aggression or withdrawal. which interfere rather than block can add challenge and include greater overall effort. The organizational aggression could be overt to covert. To the extent it induces increased physiological arousal. A critical variable causing a person to choose overt. Withdrawal can be manifested temporarily as absenteeism and tardiness. work slowdowns. It can also be directed covertly against a person. Overt acts might include strikes. differentially affects performance depending upon the complexity of the task. Finally. frustration can be directly harmful to organizations. which can hurt another person. To the extent that it interferes with or blocks task performance.
. 1. g.. organization’s degree to excellence is judged by its ability to cope with these changes. amendments to the Constitution. 2.. nationalisation of banks. Levels of Change Knowledge Changes Attitudinal Changes Individual Behaviour Changes Group or Organisational Performance Changes Changes in knowledge tend to be the easiest to make. chemical fertilizers and crop rotation in agriculture. • Change in Assumptions and Values: e. often when it is too late. Therefore. markets. Types Of Changes in Organizations Macro level • Change in Structure : e. Market. they must be able to anticipate the changing patterns of people. liberation movements. • Change in Behaviour : e. While individual behaviour is difficult enough to change. g. • Change in Methodology : e. Automation in industry : irrigation. Attitude structures differ from knowledge structures in that they are emotionally charged in a positive or a negative way. Change is an alteration in the existing field of forces (external & internal) that tends to affect the equilibrium of an organisation. Changes in individual behaviour seem to be significantly more difficult and time consuming. services and technology.g. desire for socialistic pattern of society. 4. Managers must do more than just react. Organizations either become more adaptive. they can occur as a result of reading a book or an article or hearing something new from a respected person. it becomes even more complicated when you try to implement change within groups or organisations. In an era of accelerating change. 3.. flexible and anticipative or they become rigid.Winston Churchill Change Change is the name of the game in management today. Cycles of Change The levels of change become very significant when you examine two different change cycles Participative Change Cycle Directive Change Cycle Participative Change . product and competitive conditions are rapidly changing. stagnant and react to change after the fact. family planning program. patriotism and social discipline in time of war or emergencies.g. products.
It is hoped that the group will accept the data and will develop a positive attitude and commitment in the direction of the desired change. The new contacts and modes of behaviour create new knowledge. such as higher management. A Model Of Adaptive Orientation Low Anticipative Management Environmental Stability Reactive Management . Sociological Dimension: Based on change logical from the point of view of social values. Logical Dimension: Based on the technical evidence of economics and science. Is the change consistent with norms of the group? Does it maintain group teamwork? These questions need to be resolved keeping in mind society norms. • Skill to enlist the support of people involved and affected by change. new laws. The next step will be to attempt to translate this commitment into actual behaviour. Once this is accomplished.A participative change cycle is implemented when new knowledge is made available to the individual or group. This step is significantly more difficult to achieve. Change Process Managing change means managing the conversation between the people leading the change effort and those who are expected to implement the new strategies. An effective strategy may be to identify the informal and formal leaders among the work group(s) and concentrate on gaining their behavioral support for the desired change. Three Dimensions of Change 1. 3. This evidence needs to be presented to employees so that they can understand the technical and economic reasons for change.) • Skill to devise successful methods to accomplish the objectives and solve the problems. the community. Psychological Dimension: Based on the fact that change is logical on terms of the human values and feelings in the situation. which tend to develop predispositions towards or against the change. 2. organisational change may be effected by getting other people to begin to pattern their behaviour. Directive Change This change cycle begins by change being imposed on the total organisation by some external force. The critical factors of a change process are : • Skill to identify and analyze the objectives of change (knowledge of understanding what the problem is & finding solutions to it.
An organization may be in greater danger when the environment changes slowly. and values. because managers may fail to trigger an organizational response. Sensitive monitoring systems are needed to detect gradual changes that can fool managers into thinking their company is doing fine. attitudes. Normative Re-educative Strategies : The normative re-educative strategies believe that human beings are guided in their actions by sociocultural norms and their commitment to these norms. begins to approximate a participative change as it reinforces the individual and group behaviour. Consequently. and the pail is placed on a .” Planned change according to Benne and Chin. change is not exclusively at the cognitive or intellectual level but is often at a more personal level : habits. Since the person is rational and motivated by his selfinterest. can be divided into three basic types of strategies. The hope is that “if people will only have a chance to see how the new system works they will support it. when frogs are placed in a cold pail of water. Empirical – Rational Strategies : The fundamental assumption underlying empirical-rational strategies is that human beings are rational and will follow their self-interest once this is revealed to them. However. Big problems are easy to spot. Power-Coercive Strategies : Power-coercive strategies are based on the assumption of compliance of those with less power to the will of those with more power. Failing to use planned change to meet small needs can place the organization in hot water. This strategy is basically straightforward and uncomplicated. he will obviously adopt the proposed change if the logic can be effectively communicated. they jump out – they don’t want to boil to death. as illustrated in the following passage : When frogs are placed in a boiling pail of water. Resistance to Change Managers in every company must be alert to problems and opportunities.Satisficing Management High High Conservative Management Low Adaptive Orientation Strategies For Dealing With Change In some cases where change is forced the new behaviour engaged in creates the kind of knowledge that develops commitment to the change and therefore. because the perceived need for change is what sets the stage for subsequent actions that create a new product or technology.
The change itself produces disequilibrium 2. • Group will lose out in the change. Some opposition to change may be perfectly logical. Negotiation • Group has power over implementation. Psychologists have studied the phenomenon of resistance to change during the past few decades. which suggests that an equilibrium is maintained by driving forces and restraining forces. Coercion • A crisis exists. Tactics for Overcoming Resistance to Change Approach Communication. • Users doubt legitimacy of change. Organisations may be in a state of equilibrium. Insecurity created by the ambiguity related to change Resistance has a protective function for the individual. There exists a deep seated human characteristic to go against change 3. • Users need accurate information and analysis to understand change. over time the frogs will boil to death. All behaviour which opposes change is not necessarily resistance. • Users have power to resist. some forces drive it and other forces resist it. Participation • Users need to feel involved. To implement a change. Top management • Change involves multiple departments or support reallocation of resources. • Other implementation techniques have failed.stove with the heat turned very low. with forces pushing for change on one hand and forces resisting change by attempting to maintain the status quo on the other. • Initiators clearly have power. Some of these are as follows: 1. When a change is introduced. management should analyze . • Design requires information from others. education When to Use • Change is technical. The basic anxieties aroused by the working conditions 4. Several explanations have been given for resistance to change. Kurt Lewin expressed this phenomenon in his field force theory. Techniques for initiating Change Strategies for overcoming resistance to change typically involve two approaches: the analysis of resistance through the force field technique and the use of selective implementation tactics to overcome resistance.
If people feel uncomfortable with the present situation. Change.the change forces. has to be congruent with a person’s self-concept and values. a change in policy is less resisted when those affected by it participate in the change. unfreezing. The third stage. unfreezing 2. Another approach. and one that is usually more effective. reinforcement of the new behaviour is essential. chances are that the person will revert back to the old behaviour. In organizations. By selectively removing forces that restrain change. moving or changing 3. they may see the need for change. The change process involves three steps : 1. to be effective. The second stage is the change itself. or development of a different perspective. creates motivation for change. . Thus. This change may occur through assimilation of new information exposure to new concepts. stabilizes the change. refreezing. If the change is incongruent with the attitudes and behaviors of others in the organization. refreezing The first stage. is to reduce or eliminate the restraining forces and then move to a new level of equilibrium. in some cases an ethical question may arise regarding the legitimacy of deliberately creating discomfort that may initiate change. However. therefore. the driving forces will be strong enough to enable implementation.
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