Personality is a concept that we use continuously in our day-to-day routine, when dealing with people. We talk about people as having a good personality or a bad personality or arrogant and aggressive personality. Personality can be reflected in a person’s temperament and is a key factor influencing individual behaviour in organizations. Often the wrong type of personality of a superior proves disastrous in terms of worker unrest and protests. Salvatore Maddi has defined personality as: “Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment.” There are several aspects of this definition that need to be considered. The first aspect is that or relative stability of characteristics. These characteristics account for “consistent patterns” of behaviour. The second aspect is the “commonalities and differences” in the behaviour of people. We are interested in understanding as to what an individual has in common with others as well as what sets that individual apart from others. Every person is in certain aspects, • • • Like all other people Like some other people Like no other person

Personality Types There are two types of individual personality Type A and Type B. A person exhibiting Type A behaviour is generally restless, impatient with a desire for quick achievement and perfectionism. Type B is much more easy going relaxed about time pressure, less competitive and more philosophical in nature. Some of the characteristics of Type A personality are given below. • • • • • • • Is restless, so that he always moves, walks and eats rapidly. Is impatient with the pace of things, dislikes waiting and is impatient with those who are not impatient. Does several things at once. Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time, irrespective of whether everything is done or not. Usually does not complete one thing before starting on another. Uses nervous gestures such as clenched fist and banging on table. Does not have time to relax and enjoy life.

Type B behaviour is just the opposite and is more relaxed, sociable and has a balanced outlook on life. Type A behaviour profile tends to be obsessive and managers with such behaviour are hard driving, detailed-oriented people with high performance standards.

Five • • • •

personality traits related to job performance Extraversion Agreeableness Emotional stability Openness to experience.

Factors Contributing to Personality According to Maier, “knowledge, skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications of behaviour. Learned modifications in behaviour are not passed on to children, they must be acquired by them through their own personal experience.” The probable consensus is that heredity and environment jointly affect personality development. The full potential of a person may or may not be achieved due to environmental constraints and requirements, but the potential for development, both physically and psychologically is determined by the complex set of genes. The factors affecting personality development are illustrated as follows: • • • • • • • Heredity Culture Family Environment Personality Social Situational

Personality Dimensions Some of the more important dimensions of personality that are closely linked with interpersonal and organizational behaviour are discussed as follows: Authoritarianism: Authoritarianism refers to blind acceptance of authority. Authoritarian people believe in obedience and respect for authority. Because of their beliefs in hierarchical order, they make good followers; work better under directive supervision and more productive within authoritarian organizational structure. A closely related term to authoritarians is “dogmatism” which refers to the rigidity of a person’s beliefs. Bureaucratic Personality: A bureaucratic persons respect for authority is not total and blind, but is based upon respect for organizational rules and regulations. A bureaucratic person values subordination, rules, conformity, orderly processes in the organization and impersonal and formal relationships. Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism is a term associated with Niccola Machiavelli, a sixteenth century author who identified personality profiles of noble men. This personality merges in manipulating others for purely personal gains and gaining and keeping control of others. People with Machiavellianims have high self-confidence and high self-esteem. They are cool and calculating and

have no hesitation in using others or taking advantages of others in order to serve their own goals. Problem Solving Style: Individuals have their own style of making decisions and this style reflects their personality in certain ways. Some people are very through, meticulous and detail oriented. Others are impulsive and become easily swayed by what seems to be obvious. The problem solving style has two dimensions. One is the information gathering and the second dimension is evaluation of data and taking of decisions. Further, there are two styles involved in information gathering. One is known as Sensation and the second style known as intuitive style, The evaluation style also has two dimensions. One style involves more emphasis on feeling while the other involves more emphasis on thinking. When the two dimensions of information gathering and the two dimensions of evaluation are combined, it results in four problem-solving styles. These are: 1. Sensation-feeling style. These people are dependable, friendly, social and approach facts with human concerns. They are pragmatic, methodical and like jobs that involve human contact and public relations. Some suitable areas of jobs include teaching customer relations, social workers, and sales people. 2. Sensation-thinking style. They are practical, logical, decisive, and sensitive to details they also prefer bureaucratic type organizations. They are not highly skilled in interpersonal relations and are more suited to such technical jobs as those of production, accounting, engineering and computer programming. 3. Intuition-feeling style. These people are enthusiastic, people oriented, charismatic and helpful. Some of the professions suitable for this style are public relations, advertising, politics and personnel. 4. Intuition-thinking style. These people are creative, energetic, ingenious, and like jobs that are challenging in terms of design and analysis such as system design, law, research and development, top management and so on. Locus of Control Locus of control is the extent to which the individuals believes that: • They control their own lives, or • External forces control their lives, which are beyond their control. A person with a strong “internal locus of control” believes that he controls events concerning his own life and that his internal traits determine what happens in given situation. A person with a strong “external locus of control” feels that outside forces are affecting the events in his life and he is at the mercy of destiny, chance or other people. He believes that “whatever will be, will be” and everything happens by the will of God. Introvert and Extrovert Personalities

Introvert persons are basically shy, they prefer to be alone and have difficulty in communicating. Extroverts are outgoing, objective, and aggressive they also relate well with people. Self-esteem Self-esteem is the degree of respect a person has for himself. Self-esteem is a measure of self-confidence and respect for one’s abilities and motivation. It is also a higher level need in Maslow’s model of hierarchical needs. Self-esteem is positively related to assertiveness, independence and creativity.

The socialization process
a) Organizational socialization – values, norms, behavior pattern. b) Characteristics of organizational socialization of employees • Change of attitude, values and behaviour. • Continuity of socialization over time. • Adjustment to new jobs, work groups and organizational practices. • Mutual influence between new recruits and managers. • Criticality of early socialization period. Socializing new employees • Use of mentor or role model • Orientation and training program. • Reward system. • Career planning. Successful organizational socialization includes • Provide a challenging first job • Provide relevant training. • Provide timely and consistent feedback. • Select a good first supervisor to be in change of socialization. • Design a relaxed orientation program. • Place new recruits in work groups with high morals Emphasis on different characteristics. • Administrative skills • Work motivation • Interpersonal skill • Creativity • Social dominance • Maturity • Independence Propositions – Chris Argyris I. There is lack of congruency between the needs of healthy individuals and the demands of the formal organization. II. The resultant of this disturbance are frustration, failre, short – time perspective and conflict. III. Under certain conditions the degree of frustration, failure, short – time perspective and conflict will tend to increase. IV. The nature of the formal principles of the organization cause the subordinate, at any given level, to experience competition, rivalry,



inter – subordinate hostility and to develop a focus toward the parts rather than the whole. The employee adaptive behaviour maintains self – integration and impedes integration with the formal organization. The adaptive behaviour of the employees has a cumulative effect, feedback into the organization and reinforces itself. Certain management reactions tend to increase the antagonisms underlying the adaptive behaviour. Other management actions can decrease the degree of incongruence between the individual and formal organization. Job or role enlargement and employee – centred leadership will not tend to work to the extent that the adaptive behaviour (propositions III, IV, V and VI) has embedded in organisational culture and the self – concept of the individual. The difficulties involved in proposition IX may be minimized by the use of reality oriented leadership.

Personality Theories
There are several theories but the more prominent among them are: (i) type, (ii) trait, (iii) psychoanalytic, (iv) social learning and (v) humanistic. Type Theories Type theories place personalities into clearly identifiable categories. Kretschmer and Sheldon are credited with this classification. In type theories relationship was sought to be established between features of face or body and personality. Thus, a short, plumb person (endomorph) was said to be sociable, relaxed, and even tempered; a tall, thin person (ectomorph) was characterized as restrained, self conscious, and fond of solitude; a heavy set muscular individual (mesomorph) was described as noisy, callous, and found of physical activity. Although a person’s physique may have some influence on personality, the relationship is much more subtle than this sort of classification implies. Thus classification of personalities on body basis is subjective. The second basis to type personalities is psychological factors. Carl Jung, divided all personalities into introverts and extroverts. These terms are normally associated with an individual’s sociability and interpersonal orientation. Extroverts are gregarious, sociable individuals, while introverts are shy, quiet and retiring. Trait Theories Trait theorists assume that a personality can be described by its position on a number of continuous dimensions or scales, each of which represents a trait. Thus, we could rate an individual on a scale of intelligence, emotional stability, aggressiveness, creativeness, or any of a number of other dimensions. Psychologists working in a area of trait theory are concerned with (a) determining the basic traits that provide a meaningful description of personality, and (b) finding some way to measure them. Psychoanalytic theory is based on the in-depth study of individual personalities. Social Learning Theory There are two ways of learning : Learning through reinforcement – direct experience and learning by observing others, also called vicarious learning.

is called self-actualisation. postulates man as self actualiser. Some of the person variables that determine what an individual will do in a particular situation include the following : • Competencies • Cognitive strategies • Outcome expectations • Subjective value outcome • Self regulatory systems and plans The Humanistic Approach The humanistic approach to the study of personality includes number of theories. this theory is often. Humanistic psychology of Maslow. * Also refer to “Personality Theories – Ziegler” for Freud’s Personality theory Assertiveness Meaning of Assertiveness Webster defines “assert” as “to state positively with great confidence”. This drive of man which is inherent in him. Assertiveness is a term meant to describe the extent of control. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are credited with the humanistic theory of personality. although different in some respects.For social learning theorists reinforcement is not always necessary for learning. They believe that since an individual can make use of complex symbolic processes to code and store his observations in memory. Rogers’ Self Theory Roger’s approach to personality is described as phenomenological. Existential philosophy is concerned with man as an individual and each person alone is responsible for his own existence. the . Such an approach to personality emphasizes the self and its characteristics. For Rogers. Indeed. Maslow’s Self-Actualisation Theory Abraham Maslow is regarded as the spiritual father of humanism in American psychology. share a common emphasis on man’s potential for self direction and freedom of choice. he can learn by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequences of those actions. with all parts of the personality in harmony. referred to as self theory of personality because the best vantage point for understanding behaviour is from the internal frame of reference of the individual himself. behaviour is the result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by the individual. Humanistic psychology of Maslow radically differs from psychoanalytic and learning or behaviouristic theories. It is the extent of forcefulness a person (or leader) uses with a view to express himself. on the other hand. behaviour is utterly dependent upon how one perceives the world – that is. By self-actualisation Maslow meant the development of full individually.

Aware that he cannot always win. can compliment others and receive compliments gracefully. can cope with justified criticism – and can give it too. without belittling others. need. he accepts his limitations. It confers personal power and restores balance of power. He feels free to reveal himself. • Take initiative in starting conversations. relationships. In contrast to the passive person who waits for things to happen. He acts in a way that he respects himself. However.” The assertive person possesses four characteristics: 1. Enabling us to act in our own best interests It assists us to : • Make decisions about career. 4. we tell people what we want. groups • Trust our own judgment • Set own goals and work to achieve them • Ask help from others • Participate socially 3. Through words and actions he makes the statement “This is me. It means expressing what you think or feel without endangering the ego of others. Assertiveness is a skill you can acquire – not a personality trait. Above all. To stand up for ourselves without undue anxiety • Saying “No” . or would prefer. lose or draw. he attempts to make things happen. assuredly.” 2. he always strives to make the good try so that win. Characteristics of Assertive Behaviour When we are assertive. the verb “assert” means “to state or affirm positively. assertive behaviour is appropriate behaviour. or ourselves without being threatening or putting other people down. He has an active orientation to life. It promotes win . Assertive people can initiate conversation. that doesn’t involve violating the rights of other people. • • • Promotes equality in human relationship It keeps both parties in all situations on an equal footing. friends and family. situations in dyadic relationships. honest and appropriate. It is a positive way of behaving.leader tries to exercise over both the followers as well as the situation. This is what I feel. think and want. The Assertive Personality According to Webster’s Third International Dictionary. He pursues what he desires. plainly or strongly. He can communicate with people on all levels – with strangers. This can mean that it is appropriate on occasions to be angry. he maintains his self-respect. We state our preference clearly and confidently. This communication is open. or it can mean choosing not to be assertive in a particular situation or with a particular person. It is saying what you mean and having self-respect and respect for others. activities. direct. 2. lifestyles. It is an essential skill for a leader. time schedule. 3.

• • • • Setting limits on time and energy Responding to criticism. gifts. member of an organisation. Assertion is appropriate standing up for yourself. • Practice speaking up with trivia. • To accomplish the above without unfair criticism of others without hurtful behaviour towards others. . • Competency as citizen. workgroup. and strengths. If you can say “Go to the end of the line” to a woman at the supermarket. • Do not confuse glib. • Do not confuse aggression with assertion. • Examine your own behaviour and determine areas where you would like to become more assertive. Think and talk about yourself in a positive way It may help you take time to compile a list of your qualities. Without denying others’ rights. • Realize you may be unassertive in one area. affection. school. you can eventually announce “No I don’t want to do that” to your spouse. manipulatory behaviour with true assertion. • As participant in public events to express opinions • To work for change • To respond appropriately to violations of own or others’ rights. without name-calling. put-downs. Pay attention to what you can do differently rather than how the world can be different. Aggressiveness is an act against others. • Strive to express all feelings.• • • 4. anger Expressing. • Act in ways that increase your liking and respect for yourself. and you face new challenges and need new skills. friendship To admit fear or anxiety To express agreement or support 5. and assertive in another area. As you change. To exercise personal rights. consumer. manipulation and controlling. whether angry or tender. company. like marriage. Assertive Behaviours Assertiveness is a set of congruent behaviours one can learn through persistence and practice. Assertiveness: Principles Whatever your problem. supporting or defending an opinion To express honest feelings To disagree To show anger. there are certain basic principles for being assertive: • Reveal as much of your personal self as is appropriate to the situation and the relationship. Apply the techniques you use successfully in one area to the other. 6. life situations change. 1. intimidation. • Understand assertion is not a permanent state. like business.

neither is it necessary to give many explanations. Express yourself directly and spontaneously The feelings you actually experience. you may begin with small issues and gradually move on to bigger ones. 7. not to the person. In saying ‘No’ there is no need to be rude. and be ready to be misunderstood. what that say. learn to live peacefully with the results. you assume they are capable of taking risks. Take the first step in forming new friendships Friendships are important. and the thoughts you think worth expressing both positive. Explore your alternatives: voicing your dissatisfaction in polite. Whatever the outcome you’ll feel better for having stood up for your rights. depending on the situation 6. 10. when you have done all you can. stick to the issue without attacking the person. and it is good that they express their appreciation through honest compliments. State honest disagreement with ease When you disagree with what someone says. the way they work. 3.something they do. 5. If you wait for them to act.2. Make it clear that you are saying ‘No’ to the request. with due respect for the other person. Waiting for the other to take the initiative does not always have the desired effect. 8. that is. Insist on fair treatment This will often involve you and a person ‘in charge’. Ask for what you want Clarify yourself about what you want and express it appropriately either as a suggestion or a request or a command. Accept compliments without embarrassment Others too appreciate certain things about you. Be able to say “No” Specially so if you honestly think others take advantage of you. as well as negative. Risks are risks no matter who takes them. then increase the forcefulness of your expression. Feel comfortable expressing honest compliments You surely appreciate certain things about other people . they wear. if it is not. firm terms may be enough. 9. 4. Components of Assertive Behaviour You will recognize the following components of assertiveness: . So a reasonable thing to do is to take the first step when you meet someone you would like to know better. And recognise the limitations of the situation. Keep in touch with friends Valuable friendships often decline because neither party acts to keep it going. If you are deficient in this behaviour. Ask no more of others than you ask of yourself.

This is the strongest form of assertion and should only be used when the other types have been tried. but credibility and integrity are put at risk. opinions or feelings. Often. Relationships are more open and working climates are more genuine. more likely to achieve our objectives in a conflict situation. so people work more happily with us than against us. People behaving assertively make good line mangers. We are then. with their help. wants. different ways of expressing your own rights assertively: State – Your rights: A straightforward statement that stands up for your rights by clearly and reasonably stating your needs. Expressing negative feelings or standing up for your rights can be interpreted as ‘out of order’ or ‘insubordinate’. Advantages of Assertive Behaviour • Close working relationships: Assertion tends to breed assertion. whether it is a school. wants. opinions and feelings. Assertive Behaviour at Work Assertive behaviour in the workplace gives everyone a better chance of influencing the system and participating in changes. .• • • • • Giving information Seeking information Expressing feelings Accepting feelings Change desired (in self or other) Assertiveness is a balance between being passive and aggressive. Overtly aggressive or manipulative behaviour can bring immediate results. an office or shop floor. Level – Both parties: A statement that openly explains the adverse effect a person’s behaviour is having on you. but equally be supportive of staff and take the needs of others into account. They will say clearly what they want. When people feel defensive and have to use their energy for political maneuvering. there are different types of assertion. Assertive behaviour is so important to self-esteem and proactive behaviour that it needs to be particularly supported and endorsed in young workers or school children and students. However. everyone in the organisation suffers. will probably involve an intense transition period. Ask – The other person: A question or questions designed to clarify where the other person stands. Empathize – Both parties: This is a behaviour that contains an element of understanding for the other person as well as a statement of your own needs and thoughts. what are his / her needs. beliefs. unassertive people are ‘institutionalized’ and need a great deal of support before they can ‘come out from under’ and begin to value their role and appreciate that their participation is sought. The introduction of assertive behaviour into the workplace. They can compromise and negotiate.

• • . cannot speak up. their ideas and opinions heard and considered and their abilities put to good use. . The person with communication difficulties. . “I’m sorry. The split assertive.Dishonest or pseudo assertive communication.Indirect Communication. You seem to be open and honest. reducing the chance of boastfulness (aggression) and hopelessness (passive). you say what you think is the right thing at the wrong time. needs etc. a characteristic often accompanied by shallowness of feeling.” No matter how great your timidity and irresolution. but often you lack assertion in just one: . Blocks Of Assertive Behaviour Following are some of the blocks in the personality that are faced by the individual in being assertive: • The timid soul. generally appropriate. or inner emotions. A man can be the epitome of passivity at the office. If we are not worried about upsetting people (passive) or scheming how not to miss out (aggression) then we can save ourselves a lot of stress. but this seeming assertiveness hides a basic lack of honesty. and remain passive in all situations. You may be deficient in any or all three of these areas.Inappropriate communication. If someone steps on your foot. you say. You may be assertive in a one-to-one relationship. Savings in time and energy: We can take decisions more swiftly based on their individual merit and save time when handling disputes. our wants. lack of clear-cut desires. rather than blaming others (aggression) or excusing ourselves (passive) Increased self-control: We can channel our thoughts and feelings to produce the behaviour we want. In general. The range for split assertive behaviour can be very narrow. rather than being controlled by outside events or people. often extroverted. honesty and appropriateness. People may fail at one area of assertiveness and succeed at another. the narrower the area. Unaware about the realities of social relations. An increased change of everyone winning: Assertiveness increases the likelihood that all parties will see their needs met. You tend to be wordy. there is always a point from which you can start to change. You can be able to openly express your tender feelings and yet not be able to show your angry feelings – and vice versa. but not in groups. the easier it is to change with Assertiveness Training. opinions. Openness and directness. and behave like a tyrant at home. Assertion processes four behavioral characteristics. Greater confidence in others: We have a healthy recognition of the capabilities and limitations of others as opposed to seeing them as inferior (aggression) or superior (passive). A lot of time and energy is wasted on worrying and scheming. You allow yourself to be pushed around. Increased self responsibility: We take responsibility for ourselves.• • • • • • Greater confidence in yourself: We develop a strong regard for ourselves and a high level of self esteem. and difficulty with close relationships.

but question your right to do it. not realizing that the life situation provides problems where anxiety is the appropriate reaction. by directing the momentum of your punch. You can’t make eye contact or small talk. but the economic state of your firm may prohibit a salary increase. He then backs his hand away. If you don’t there’s something wrong with you. You think you’re supposed to treat a stranger as a friend. because of his own needs. accept the feedback by allowing it to come to you. Then you use your focused listening skills. he is in control of what’s happening. he stops the forward motion of your swing. scrutiny. Since he did not move his hand when you hit it. criticism. These assertive skills can be learned. Use mental Ai-Ki-Do (control) when any negative feedback (mental fist) comes your way. you hit his hand.• • • • • • The person with behavioral deficits. You feel that as long as you do the right things. You don’t grant independence to other people. This time. You know what and how of what has to be done. or start a conversation. First. just won’t. by offering no resistance to your job. Visualize a man holding up his hand in front of you. become anxious about being anxious. You think as long as you’re being reasonable. inhibit you from carrying out the action. he feels no pain. But very often. anger. you should win them all. The person with specific blocks. You know what you should do. You possess incorrect ideas. You have an erroneous idea of psychological reality. You have a wrong concept of social reality. Again you are asked to hit his hand with your fist. and hangups. Do not fight the feedback. You don’t understand that different kinds of relationships exist with different people. He accomplishes two things. tenderness. and have the skill to accomplish it. Assertiveness Techniques The Three techniques for Assertiveness are: • Mental Ai-Ki-Do • Information Building • Echoing • Mental Ai-Ki-Do This technique can help you to accept criticism comfortably without becoming defensive. Second. in a split second before you’re about to punch him. feelings. Reality doesn’t work that way. closeness. Ai-Ki Do is a martial art. while still holding on to yours controlling the force you just threw. Instead. You can demand a raise and deserve it. You don’t comprehend the difference between aggression and assertion. With all your force. his fingers wrap around your fist. It never occurs to you to treat the stranger as a stranger and the friend as a friend. Try your best to stay . handle a confrontation. You worry about worrying. but your fears of rejection. the other person should go along with you. Stay in control by deciding whether you agree to what is said. the other person. He asks that you to hit his upheld hand with your fist.

One of the ways trust is built between associates is by the amount of knowledge that is shared by and about each other. Stay composed and state over and over again what you want. You do not have to discuss something of mutual interest. building relationships takes time. the echoing technique will help you hold your ground with an associate. come right out with it! Practise before you say it and check for appropriateness.If appropriate. Nor should you restrict sharing information just because the other person has not disclosed much during your conversation. need-to-know information. 2. Use this technique only after exhausting these strategies: . non-leading questions to elicit feedback and to keep the conversation relaxed and flowing. Expressing One’s Feelings The following are some of the points that are taken into consideration while expressing assertive feelings 1. then use the echoing technique. When it is inappropriate for you to budge on a certain point. You could appear foolish by asking of something that you eventually realize is not what you want. If these strategies do not work. peer. and even an irate and unreasonable customer. . Depending upon how well you know the person and your own comfort level. Know What You Want To Say: You won’t appear confident if you are unsure of what you want.Inform whoever is requesting your services that you are unable to do the job as it is not into your priorities. Say It: Don’t hesitate or beat about the bush. in the process. use humor and open-ended. plan what kind of information would be appropriate to share.even – tempered. Remember. After sharing your thoughts and feelings. but it should not be used exclusively. The technique certainly is used to get your way. vendor. • Echoing This technique will strengthen your ability to say “no” respectfully without regrets. Once you explode or hide. start out with general information and work up to sensitive. you will teach others that you are serious and determined. you start to lose control by giving in to the force. The technique is similar to an echo because you repeat what you desire. offer some assistance or time to help with part of the project or task. and you are still being ordered or intimidated to handle a request. Providing information about yourself first will encourage others to share their thoughts and feelings with you. . Before meeting with someone. .Suggest a more suitable person to take on the assignment. Mention other possible ways to complete the work. Some people feel this technique is a rude one because it requires you to be domineering. supervisor. • Information Building This technique will help you initiate and build relationships by sharing information about yourself.

so that there can be no confusion. Avoid Laughing Nervously: Smile if it’s appropriate. as this builds up apprehension.3. Say It as Soon as Possible: Do not let too much time pass. on the other hand. 4. This will confuse the person you are speaking to. . 8. If you simply look shifty and cannot look them in the eye. Look Relaxed: You’ll convey anxiety by shifting from one foot to another. Begin with the word “I”. waving your arms around. No long explanations are necessary. Don’t Whine or be Sarcastic: Be direct and honest. Whining and pleading can either annoy the person or make them feel guilty. Wait for that to pass. Practise looking relaxed in a mirror – it’s not as contradictory as it sounds! 7. On the other hand. you certainly will not come across as someone who knows what they want. Being sarcastic. Look the Person in the Eye: People feel more comfortable if you look directly at them. communicates hostility as you put the other person down. 6. or conversely being too rigid. Be Specific: Say exactly what you want or do not want. but if you giggle or laugh you won’t look as if you mean what you say. do not say it at the peak of your anger. It is being manipulative. 5.

people or animals. viz. checking. stimuli need not be external to us. Location: The best location of a visual stimulus for attracting attention is directly in the front of the eyes in the center of a page. is composed of six processes. The study of these perceptional processes shows that their functioning is affected by three classes of variables – the objects or events being perceived. and the left hand side receives more attention than the right hand side. a position in the upper portion of a page in more favourable than one in the lower portions. A few definitions of perception are given below: “Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments. The meaning of perception will be complete when all the three aspects are stressed. smell. We receive stimuli through the organs. External Factors Influencing Selection The external factors influencing selection are: Nature: By nature we mean. and reacting to stimuli. organizing. Similarly. and the individuals doing the perceiving. We need to filter or screen out most of them so that we may deal with the important or relevant ones. When this location is not possible in a newspaper or a magazine. But the perceiver.. touch and tasting. and whether it involves pictures. Process of Receiving Stimuli The human organism is structured with five sensory organs.” “Perception includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about his environment – seeing. We may not be able to report the existence of certain stimuli but our behaviour reveals that we are often subject to their influence. they receive events or objects that have been repressed. These processes are influenced by the perceived and the situation. hearing. They may be inside also. There is the sixth sense about which much is speculated and nothing is known. the object. . as revealed by the definitions. vision.Perception “If everyone perceived everything the same way. whether the object is visual or auditory.” Perceptual Process Perception. tasting. Secondary organs receive not only physical objects. interpreting. Process of Selecting Stimuli Myriads of stimuli seemingly clamour for our attention at any given time. receiving. viz. hearing. feeling. and the environment influence what is seen. Two sets of factors govern the selection of stimuli: external and internal.. the environment in which perception occurs. and smelling. selecting. things would be a lot simpler” -Moorhead & Griffin In its simple sense perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen.

It has been argued that. he is likely to be paranoid. Ambivalence: Another factor in perceptual selection is ambivalence or mixed feelings about a situation. will receive their attention. interests cannot be distinguished from needs. Size: Generally objects of larger size attract more attention than the smaller ones. An architect will notice many details of buildings that he passes only once. in their influence on perception. weak odour. But if the person has a special interest. People tend to perceive what they want to perceive. ambivalence. Yet there is some value in conceiving the two as distinct. most needs no longer influence perception. has considerable influence on perception. Repetition: The repetition principle states that a repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a single one. Once they have been satisfied. Contrast: The contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out against the background. even though the smaller one costs as much and as important to the operation. A loud noise. a cognitive factor. Learning: Learning. his perception is likely to be selective at any time. The maintenance engineering staff may pay more attention to a big machine than to a small one. Age Difference: Older senior executives complain about the inability of the new young to take tough decisions concerning terminating or resigning people and paying attention to details and paper work. the person with a particular interest has a need to involve himself in activities pertaining to it. interests. Different perceptions of old and young executives are due to their age differences perceptions. The young managers in turn complain about the “old guards” resisting change and using paper and rules as ends in themselves. Interest: The interests of the perceiver unconsciously influence perception. Movement: The principle of motion states that a moving object receives more attention than an object that is standing still. psychological needs. It creates expectancy in people. New objects in familiar settings or familiar objects in new setting will draw the attention of the perceiver. Novelty and Familiarity: The novelty and familiarity principle states that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as an attention getter. Paranoid Perception: When the person’s perception is so selective that he can find little common ground for communication with others. Unreal things often look real because of deprived needs. age differences. or bright light will be noticed more than a soft sound. Psychological Needs: Needs play a significant role in perceptual selectivity. These factors relate to oneself. Internal Factors Influencing Selection Internal factors influencing selection of stimuli include learning. or which are not what people are expecting. or dim light. That is. and paranoid perception. strong odour. .Intensity: Stimuli of higher intensity are perceived more than the objects with low intensity.

The Organizing Process The perceptual selection related to the discussion of external and Internal factors which helped gain the perceiver’s attention. This is called perceptual set. and consequences influence the attribution process. There are several aspects of constancy such as shape. There are three dimensions to the perceptual organization. As too much credit or blame for behaviour is placed on persons rather than on environment.. Perceptual Grouping: The principles of grouping first defined by gestalt psychologists include similarity. This aspect of forming bits of information into meaningful wholes is called the perceptual organization. our ability to perceive certain characteristics of an object as remaining constant. closure. In other words. occupation. despite variations in the stimuli that provide us with our information. Attribution Attribution refers to the process by which the individual assigns causes to the behaviour he conceives. Figure Ground: Figure ground is considered to be the most basic form of perceptual organization. perception is said to have taken place only after the data have been interpreted. perceived objects stand out as separable from their general background. or organizational affiliation. intentions. In perceiving another. More important amongst them are Perceptual Set Previously held beliefs about objects influence an individual’s perceptions of similar objects. Several factors contribute towards what has been interpreted. Halo Effect The halo effect refers to the tendency of perceiving people in terms of good and bad. and ascribing all good qualities to one who is liked and all bad qualities to another who is disliked. proximity. There are critics who argue that perceptual distortion occurs because of attribution. religion. a person is likely to categories the other according to some silent characteristic such as sex. size. and continuity. perceptual grouping. Stereotyping Stereotyping is the tendency for a person’s perceptions of another to be influenced by the social group to which the others belong. nationality. according to the principle. Thus. figure ground. colour. The Process of Interpreting After the data have been received and organized. . Such constancy amidst changing stimuli is indispensable if we are to adjust to our world. Perceptual Constancy: A more subtle part of perceptual organization is constancy. Factors such as status. viz. race. The individual’s experiences with others in the category in which he has placed them lead him to believe that they have certain traits in common. the perceiver interprets or assigns meaning to the information. In fact. The figure ground principle states that the relationship of a target to its background influences perception. and perceptual constancy. he is ready to perceive the other as possessing the same trait.

the perceived and situation are some of the factors that influence perception. the perceiver tends to check whether his interpretations are right or wrong. values. Characteristics of the Perceived The physical attributes. This may be particularly true regarding undesirable traits. people tend to see in another person traits that they themselves posses. past experience. they project their own feelings. The action depends on whether the perception is favorable or unfavorable. Perceptual Defence According to the principle of perceptual defence. It is negative when the perception is unfavourable. habits. The Process of Reacting The last phase in perception is the reaction. an individual’s perceptions are influenced by his belief that certain human traits are associated. . tendencies. Factors Influencing Perception The perceiver. an individual is likely to put a defence when confronted with conflicting. height. Characteristics of the Perceiver A perceiver needs to have. Implicit Personality Theory In judging and making inferences about others.Perceptual Context The context in which an object is placed influences perception. Only when the doodles are placed in a verbal context do they take on meaning and value to the perceiver. The visual stimuli by themselves are meaningless. unacceptable or threatening stimuli. and behaviour of persons in the situation also influence how a situation is perceived. modification of the data received. We tend to notice the physical attributes of a person in terms of age. with one another. which the perceiver possesses but fails to recognize himself. which may influence the perception process. personality. sex. He should be someone with a strong need for ego satisfaction. The defence mechanisms put up by the perceiver may assume any of the four forms: outright denial. change in perception but refusal to change. and attitudes. and change in perception itself. and weight. or motives into their judgement of others. Another way is to check the veracity about the interpretation with others. The perceiver shall indulge in some action in relation to his perception. That is. social and organizational settings of the situation or event in question can influence perceptions. Characteristics of the Situation The physical. Projection Under certain conditions. One way of checking is for the person himself to indulge in introspection. The action is positive when the perception is favourable. He will put a series of questions to himself and the answers will confirm whether his perception about an individual or object is correct or not. appearance. The Process of Checking After data have been received and interpreted.

the interviewers’ judgement about the suitability or otherwise of a candidate depends on how his behaviour is perceived by them. Be empathetic – that is.e.e.e. the cues you don’t know you perceived • You respond to irrelevant cues to arrive at a judgment. Avoid common perceptual distortions that biased in our view of people and situations. not realizing how much weight is given to a single item. • You are influenced by emotional factors. as others perceive it. Avoid inappropriate attributions.Perception and Organisational Behaviour In an interview for the selection of a candidate. . they weigh against him in the final selection Specific applications in organization • Employment interview • Performance expectations • Performance evaluation • Employee effort • Employee loyalty Managing the Perception Process • • • • • • Have a high level of self-awareness. i.. be able to see a situation. If the inadequacies of the candidate are exposed early. • You weigh perceptual evidence heavily if it comes from respectable sources. what is liked is perceived as correct. Five reasons why a person misperceives – Zalkind and Costello • You are influenced by cues below your own threshold i. Influence of perceptions of other people when they are drawing incorrect or incomplete impressions of events in the work setting. • You are not able to identify all factors. i. But the fact is that interviewers generally form an early impression that becomes quickly entrenched.. A rejected applicant might feel that he was wronged by the interview though he deserved selection. Seek information from various sources to confirm or disconfirm personal impressions of a decision situation..

” . This relationship is built around two principles. the behviour can be predicted and controlled.P. There are two primary elements in this definition that must both be present in order to identify the process of learning.Galileo Learning can be defined as a “relatively permanent change in behaviour or potential behaviour as a result of direct or indirect experience”. First is the element that the change must be relatively permanent. emotions or perceptions but is keyed to the nature of the outcome of such behaviour. Classical conditioning introduces a simple cause-and-effect relationship between one stimulus and one response. .Learning “ You cannot teach a man anything. any stimulus from the work environment will elicit a response. feelings. and he established a Stimulus-Response (S-R) connection. that behaviour which results in positive rewards tends to be repeated and behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated. which differentiates human beings from dogs. From an organizational point of view. This learning is not caused by biological maturation. cognitive learning and social learning. You can only help him discover it within himself. based upon such consequences. This means that certain responses can be predicted which continuously result from certain induced stimuli. either better or worse as compared to our behaviour prior to this experience of learning. Pavlov with dogs. certain types of consequences can be used to increase the occurrence of a desired behaviour and other types of consequences can be used to decrease the occurrence of undesired behaviour. The second aspect of the definition is that this change must occur due to some kind of experience or practice. It is based upon the premise that behaviour or job performance is not a function of inner thoughts. Hence. Theories of Learning There are four general approaches to learning – classical conditioning. This leaves no ground for making choices. operant conditioning. Classical Conditioning The most well known experiments on classical conditioning were undoubtedly conducted by I. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning induces a voluntary change in behaviour and learning occurs as a “consequence” of such change. First. It also makes the response reflexive or involuntary after the stimulus-response relationship has been established. It is also known as reinforcement theory and it suggests that behaviour is a function of its consequences. Second. This means that after “learning” our behaviour must be different. Under certain situations classical conditioning does explain human behaviour.

. is the act of knowing an item of information and this knowledge affects the behaviour of the person so that the information provides cognitive cues towards the expected goal. If a person experiences a similar situation that he dealt with before. Thus a “reinforcer” is any stimulus that causes certain behaviour to be repeated or inhibited. Thus these reinforcers work as behaviour modifiers. Because of the principle of generalization. Some reinforcers work by their application to a situation. There are two concepts that help in explaining the transfer of learning. discrimination is the ability to differentiate between relatively similar stimuli where generalization would yield negative consequences. Transfer of Learning Berelson and Steiner suggested that learning can be transferred from one situation to another and the extent of such transfer is a function of the extent of similarity in the stimulus or response. Cognition. in fact. However. while other reinforcers work by their removal from the situation. These are as follows: Generalization No two situations are exactly alike. Principle of Reinforcement Reinforcement is the process by which certain types of behaviours are strengthened. In addition learning can also be gained by discipline and self-control and an inner desire to acquire knowledge or skills irrespective of the external rewards or consequences. the individual can adjust to new learning situations more smoothly because of the previous learning experiences. This process of self-control is also partially a reflection of societal and cultural influences on the development and growth of human beings. then some of his previous experience would be transferred to the new situation and his learning time in the new situation would be considerably decreased. Discrimination While generalization is a reaction to “similarities” of stimuli or responses. Social Learning It is recognized that learning does not take place only because of environmental stimuli (classical and operant conditioning) or of individual determinism (cognitive approach) but is a blend of both views.Cognitive Learning Learning is considered as the outcome of deliberate thinking about the problem or situation both intuitively and based upon known facts and responding in an objective and goal oriented manner. It also emphasizes that people acquire new behaviour by observing or imitating others in a social setting. responses to certain situations can be applied to similar but different situations.

Positive Reinforcement A positive reinforcement is a reward for a desired behaviour. but technically there is a difference. we withhold rewards for behaviour that has previously been rewarded because the behaviour was not undesirable previously. The reward should be sufficiently powerful and durable so that it increases the probability of occurrence of desirable behaviour. the employee works hard to avoid repercussion. under avoidance conditioning. The various ways by which the reinforcement can be administered can be categorized into two groups. especially when such behaviours were previously rewarded. However. on the other hand consists of “application” of an undesirable consequence or “withdrawal” of a desirable consequence for an undesirable behaviour. In the extinction process. then such behaviours would become less frequent and eventually die out. The method involved is a suitable form of punishment in the form of withholding the positive enforcement or simply ignoring the undesirable behaviour. This means that if rewards were removed from behaviours that were previously reinforced. it is equally important to examine the various ways or “schedules” of administering these techniques of reinforcement. . it is also a method of strengthening desired behaviour. The punishment process is similar to the extinction process in that both have the effect of decreasing and eliminating the undesirable behaviour. Extinction This type of reinforcement is applied to reduce undesirable ‘behaviour. Schedule of Reinforcement While it is necessary to know as to which type of reinforcement would be most effective in a given situation. reprimand and other negative aspects of the organizational environment. Negative Reinforcement Also known as “escape conditioning” or “avoidance learning”. Money is probably the most powerful reinforcement for positive behaviour. which has never been associated with the reward before. unlike the positive reinforcement where an employee works hard to gain financial and other rewards. since money can be used for a number of other resources too. The punishment process. These are continuous and partial reinforcement schedules. Punishment Punishment is the most controversial method of behaviour modification and involves delivering an unpleasant consequence contingent upon the occurrence of an undesirable behaviour.

some of the behavioural modification techniques. The simple rules of leaning are: 1. There are four kinds of partial reinforcement schedules. as discussed previously are effective in eliciting desirable behaviours from employees in work situations. 2. the reinforcement is administered at random times that cannot be predicted by the employee. It is important for the management to recognize the power of work-group norms. Limitations of Behaviour Modification While in general. 3. Fixed Interval Schedule In this type of schedule. . Fixed-ratio Schedules In a fixed-ratio schedule. There are: 1. 4. It is believed that “behaviour tends to be persistent when it is learned under conditions of partial and delayed reinforcement. 2) Behaviour modification programs assume that extrinsic rewards are the key factors in behaviour modification and they ignore the fact that employees can be intrinsically motivated. the reinforcement is administered only upon the completion of a given number of desirable responses. 3) Behaviour modification is that it ignores prevailing work-group norms. Te order of presentation of materials to be learned is very important. there are some limitations that make these techniques ineffective in certain situations. This results in fast acquisition of the desired response and the learning is rapid. The capacities of learners are important in determining what can be learned and how long will it take to learn it.Continuous Schedule A continuous schedule is the one in which the desirable behaviour is reinforced every time it occurs and the reinforcement is immediate. 3. Variable-ratio Schedule It is similar to fixed-ratio schedule except that the number of responses required before reinforcement is determined. a response is reinforced at fixed intervals of time. 2. Showing errors is how to do something can lead to increase in learning. Partial Reinforcement Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule rewards desirable behaviour at specific intervals.. are not fixed but vary from situation to situation. Variable Interval Schedule In this type of schedule. However the behaviour learned by continuous reinforcement strategy tends not to persist for which such reinforcement is applied less frequently. 1) Behaviour modification is an overall structure and ignores individual differences.

10. A passage is more easily learned and accepted if it does not interfere with earlier habits. Learning something new can interfere with the remembering of something learned earlier. 6. Attitudes and Interest . Repetition of identical materials is often as effective in getting things remembered as repeating the same story but with variations.4. 5. Learning is aided by active practice rather than passive reception 8. 7. Two things are necessary – “belongingness” and “satisfaction”. 9. The rate of forgetting tends to be very rapid immediately after learning. Knowledge of results leads to increase in learning. The mere repetition of a situation does not necessarily lead to learning. Values.

Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. 6. and so forth. and motivations. Individuals enter an organization with preconceived notions of what “ought” and what “ought not” to be. Theoretical – Places high importance on the discovery of truth through a critical and rational approach. Importance of Values Values are important to the study of organizational behaviour because they lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes. In other words. order and morals. as you will see. equality. Some might argue. that no government has the right to take anyone’s life. for example. 3. honesty. 5. we all have a set of values that form a value system. On the contrary. Value systems represent a prioritizing of individual values in relation to their relative importance.” They contain a moral flavor in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right. Aesthetic – It places the highest value on form and harmony. Of course. good. Political – It places emphasis on acquisition of power and influence. perceptions.” . others may argue. This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to such values as freedom. these notions are not value-free. just as strongly. Economic – Emphasizes the usefulness and practicality of the situation. but when I prevent you from doing anything you want to do. However. pleasure. Social – Here the highest value is given to the love of people. they imply that certain behaviours or outcomes are preferred over others. obedience.George Bernard Shaw Values Is capital punishment right or wrong? The answer to this question is value laden. what we think is important influences our attitudes and our behaviour. that capital punishment is right because it is an appropriate retribution for crimes like murder or treason. that is persecution. Religious – It is concerned with the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmos as a whole. 4. . or desirable. 2. that is law. personality. they contain interpretations of right and wrong. self-respect.“When you prevent me from doing anything I want to do. Types of Values The most important early work in categorizing values was done by All-port and his associates. Further. They identified six types of values: 1. We all have values and.

respect or may be even fear. They reflect how one feels about something. people. Sociocentric. are acquired from parents. Attitudes Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favourable or unfavourable – concerning objects. and desire that others accept their values. Level 5. Tribalistic. Attitudes are not the same as values. “I favor the implementation of an affirmative action program to recruit and develop women for managerial positions in our organization” is an attitude. Level 4. Level 6. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. Manipulative.More recent research suggests that there is a hierarchy of levels that are descriptive of personal values and life-styles. This is most descriptive of newborn babies. and arbitrary use of authority. They are strongly influenced by tradition and the power exerted by authority figures. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. These individuals are unaware of themselves or others as human beings and react to basic physiological needs. Values are the broader and more encompassing concept. These persons believe in rugged individualism. Level 7. Level 1. Level 2. teachers. Existential. They are outspoken on inflexible systems. These individuals have a low tolerance for ambiguity. They are aggressive and selfish. One such study identified seven levels. These individuals are characterized by high dependence.” I am expressing my attitude about work. We observe the way family and friends behave and we shape our attitudes and behaviour to align with theirs. have difficulty in accepting people whose values differ from their own. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. we begin modeling our attitudes after those we admire. Reactive. When I say “I like my job. They respond primarily to power. and peer group members. Egocentrism. So attitudes are more specific than values. Level 3. In our early years. or events. The statement that “discrimination is bad” reflects one’s values. Conformity. status symbols. These individuals have a high tolerance for ambiguity and people with differing values. Values also contain a moral flavor of rightness or desirability. Source of Attitudes Attitudes. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. People . restrictive policies. like values.

more often then they mean job satisfaction. job involvement. identification with. In fact. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job. actively participates in it. In organizations. Type of Attitudes But OB focuses our attention on a very limited number of job-related attitudes. while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitudes toward his or her job. and involvement in the organization.imitate the attitudes of popular individuals or those they admire and respect. This means that individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviour so they appear rational and consistent. Typically. job satisfaction. When there is an inconsistency. forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behaviour are again consistent. there are three primary attitudes that are of concerned to us i. Changing attitudes: Some basic techniques a) Persuasive messages: Hearing sometimes is believing i) Comunicator’s Characteristics • Attractiveness • Style • Credibility ii) Content of persuasive message • Receiver’s characteristics • Intelligence • Self – esteem/ confidence iii) Enhance persuasion • Build personal attractiveness • Enhance credibility . and organizational commitment. Organizational commitment expresses an individual’s orientation toward the organization by tapping his or her loyalty to. attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour.e. the two are frequently used interchangeably. When people speak of employee attitudes. The term “job involvement” states that job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies with his job. These job-related attitudes tap positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. and considers his performance important to his self-worth. Individuals who express high commitment see their identity as closely attached to that of the organizations. Attitudes and Consistency People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behaviour.

soon wanes. The difference between you (manifested in the fact that your attention is drawn to the sound. The essential condition of both interest in and attention to any object is that the mind shall be so organized. as well as more effective. for he has the knowledge. rather than upon the extent and variety and systematic organization of the cognitive systems of the mind ( knowledge). though such knowledge favours thus sustaining attention: without such knowledge our attention to any object. Interest is latent attention.b) c) d) e) f) • • • Use social pressure Design appeal with care Repetition can always help Dissonance: when attitude and behaviour don’t match Providing new information Use of fear Influence of family. and both are interested in it. enters into the complex stimulation. and attention is interest in action. it excites the curiosity of both. who perhaps is a familiar with the roar as yourself. that it depends upon the strength of the conative tendencies excited. is a matter of the enduring setting of our conative tendencies or impulses. fails to notice the new element. friends and peers Barriers to changing attitudes Interest You are driving your automobile. while your friend by your side. determined by conative interest. But presently a new element. to be ready to pay attention to it. We acquire a great variety of new interests through the building up of sentiments for a great variety of objects. We are interested only in those things that evoke in us one or other (or several) of the instinctive impulses. or consists in. because we quickly exhaust upon it our limited power of discriminative perception. that enables him to examine it systematically and in detail.” being essentially conative. perhaps of relatively low intensity. It is sometimes alleged that “interest” in any object or topic depends upon. or cognitive mental structure. Knowledge about an object is not in itself a condition of “interest”. That “interest” is conative rather than cognitive. you notice the new sound and begin to wonder what it means. the possession of appropriate knowledge or (in terms of the “idea” theory) of mass or system of “ideas” related to the object or topic. Thus a naturalist and a layman may discover some strange plant or animal. and your attention is at once attracted. To have an “interest” in any object is. either natively or through experience. while his is not) is that you are “interested” in the sounds made by the automobile and he is not. noticing a hundred features which entirely escape his companies. “Interest. and is therefore determined by our instincts and our sentiments. and the continued roar it makes does not hold or divert or attract your attention. that is can think of the . but the attention of the naturalist is more sustained. even when you ask him to direct his attention to it. then.

Usually one or more of the following words are included in the definition: “desires.” “wants. which means. or moves and that directs or channels .” Technically. and that such thinking shall evoke some impulse or desire which maintains a train of activity in relation to the object. Motivation “Motivation is getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it” Dwight D.” “goals.” This meaning is evident in the following comprehensive definition: “A motive is an inner state that energizes. the term motivation can be traced to the Latin word movere.” “motives.object. virtually all people including lay people and scholars have their own definition of motivation.” “wishes. Eisenhower Today.” and “incentives. “to move.” “needs. activates.” “drives.

and affection seem best to meet the criteria for this classification. the competence motive is the most inclusive general drive. Drives are action-oriented and provide an energizing thrust toward goal accomplishment. needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. it appears. Thus. 2. and goals. Goals. animal and human. 1.” Thus defined. curiosity. The best one-word definition of a need is deficiency. Needs. 3. The last term is used here because it is more comprehensive than the others. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. lies in the meaning of. which will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. activity. but they would acknowledge that some motivates are unlearned and physiologically based. drives and goals. They are more relevant to organizational behaviour than the primary motives. the motives of competence. which lie in the gray area between the primary and secondary classifications. A drive can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. In the homeostatic sense. biological. Although not all psychologists would agree. have a capacity to interact effectively with their environment. At the end of the motivation cycle is the goal. Needs Goals (Deprivation) (Reduction of drives) Drives (Deprivation with direction) three interacting and In a systems sense. To be included in the general category. An understanding of these general motives is important to the study of human behaviour – especially in organizations. Such motives are variously called physiological. The Competence Motives While proposed a new conceptualization based upon the assumption that all organisms. drives. A goal in the motivation cycle can be defined as anything. The use of the term primary does not imply that this group of motives always takes precedence over the general and secondary motives. and relationship between. needs. at the same time show direction. unlearned. Yet such a category seems necessary because there are a number of motives. attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive. Primary Motives Physiologists do not totally agree on how to classify the various human motives. Drives. With a few exceptions drives or motives are set up to alleviate needs. a motive must be unlearned but not physiologically based. and persistence in interacting with the environment. The other general . though playful and exploratory in character. manipulation. selectivity.behaviour toward goals. motivation consists of interdependent elements: needs. General Motives A separate classification for general motives is not always given. He called from activities which. The key to understand motivation. or primary.

The relationship is obvious when reinforcement is divided into primary and secondary categories and is portrayed as incentives. manipulation. give way to the learned secondary drives in motivating behaviour. and activity drives are quite intense. the motives of hunger and thirst are not dominant among people living in the economically developed Western world. when stifled or inhibited. Secondary Motives Whereas the general drives seem relatively more important than the primary ones to the study of human behaviour in organizations. manipulation. In addition. and activity. however. A motive must be learned in order to be included in the secondary classification. The Affection Motives Love or affection is a very complex form of general drive. For this reason. Some of the more important ones are power. Numerous important human motives meet this criterion. The Curiosity Manipulation. security and status are also important secondary motives. The interactive effects are always present. With some glaring exceptions that have yet to be eradicated. Some writer’s regards reinforcement and motivation as equivalent. the primary drives. achievement. Once again. As a human society develops economically and becomes more complex. especially in reference to organizational behaviour. and affiliation. The Achievement Motive Characteristic of high achievers. and n Aff. and Activity Motives It is generally recognized that human curiosity. affection is sometimes placed in all three categories of motives. Taking moderate risks is probably the single most descriptive characteristic of the person possessing high n Ach.drives of curiosity. it should be emphasized that although the various behavioural concepts can be separated for study and analysis. n Ach. the learning principle of reinforcement is conceptually and practically related to motivation. Part of the complexity stems from the fact that in many ways love resembles the primary drives and in other ways it is similar to the secondary drives. Moderate risk taking. curiosity. and to a lesser degree the general drives. anyone who has reared or been around small children will quickly support this generalization. Although these drives often get the small child into trouble. the total society might become very stagnant. in reality concepts like reinforcement and motivation do not operate as separate entities in producing human behaviour. the secondary drives are unquestionably the most important. manipulation. or as they are commonly referred to today. In particular. The Power Motives It is the need to manipulate other or the drive for superiority over others – Adler developed the concepts of inferiority complex and compensation. 1. . and activity can be considered more specific competence drives.

or they do not expect or necessarily want the accompanying material rewards. infrastructure. Need for immediate feedback. the affiliation motive is neither as broad as is implied by the definition of social motives nor as comprehensive or complex as is implied by the definition of group dynamics. A good illustration of this characteristic involves money. Gellerman notes that this special drive for security is largely unconscious but that it greatly influences the behaviour of many people. High achievers find accomplishing a task intrinsically satisfying in and of itself. Three key areas of responsibility A.2. Satisfaction with accomplishment.) • Carefully selecting personnel Performance encouragement (Provide timely rewards) • Values of rewards • Amount of rewards • Timing of rewards • Likelihood of rewards • Fairness of rewards Various approaches to job design for performance . 4. Once high achievers select a goal. Preoccupation with the task. 3. security is much more complex than it appears on the surface. The Security Motive One the surface. HR etc. they tend to be totally preoccupied with the task until it is successfully completed. As presented here. or society. Performance definition (Set Objectives) • Goals • Measures • Assessment Performance facilitation (provide resources) • Elimination of roadblocks to performance • Providing means and adequate resources (finance. The Affiliation Motive Affiliation plays a very complex but vital role in human behaviour. In reality. The Status Motive Status can be simply defined as the relative ranking that a person holds in a group. Closely connected to high achievers’ taking moderate risks is their desire for immediate feedback. organization. for it is based largely on fear and is avoidance-oriented. Sometimes affiliation is equated with social motives and / or group dynamics. material. but not for the usual reasons of wanting money for its own sake or for the material benefits that it can buy. security appears to be much simpler than other secondary motives.

b. Job rotation – doing different jobs for variety. Emotions or desires are the ways person experiences values. Job characteristics approach to Job Design – Hackman & Oldham Equation Motivating (MPS) feedback Potential score = Skill variety + Task identity + Task Sign x autonomy x 3 Goal Setting theory • • The cognitive based work was given by locke et. d. Goal – setting – building goals. Scientific Management – Talyor – forerunner of goal setting. Goals provide direction to behaviour. Importance of values or valence and consequences. f. f. Goal – Setting theory Values and value Emotions and Consequences Judgments desires Feedback or Theories of Motivation . Social technical approach – making a group or a team responsible for the job and balancing social and technical aspects of the job. e. c. e. Job enrichment – making jobs more meaningful. Job engineering – concentrates on the efficiency of the job through time and motion analysis of person – machine interfaces. c. The theoretical background a. People strive to attain goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. Job enlargement – adding more tasks to the job for variety. Role of intention in human behaviour.Appropriately designed job – higher employee satisfaction and quality of performance a. feedback and incentives into the structure of the job. Intentions or goals Responses action or Performance reinforcement • • Valid and practical – useful No commitment to work – Goal setting will not work. al. d. interesting and challenging. b.

power & achievement. Hygiene/Maintenance • Company policy & Adm. Absence of these factors may dissatisfy the employee but will not demotivate them. unless the needs of lower order are reasonably satisfied. to achieve in relation to a set of standards. those of the higher order do not dominate. Lower/primary order needs includes basic physiological needs & safety and security. to strive to succeed. there is a surprising degree of agreement. Higher/secondary needs are belonging or social needs. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation In the first category are Maintenance or Hygiene factors. • Need for power : The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. which are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of job satisfaction.There is no simple formula to motivate people. • Need for affiliation : The drive for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. But if you look at the theoretical emphasis of the behavioural scientists who have been studying motivation.. Self-actualization Esteem Belonging Safety Physiological McClelland Achievement Theory of Motivation • We have three basic social needs: affiliation. esteem and self-actualization needs.e. • Need for achievement : The drive to excel. In the Second category are the Motivators since they seem to be effective in motivating people to superior performance. • Relationship with supervisor • Working conditions • Salary • Relationship with peers Motivators • Achievement Recognition • Work • Responsibility • Advancement • Growth . Maslow Hierarchy of Needs or Deficient Theory of Motivation Needs are arranged in a definite sequence of domination i.

• Personal life • Relationship with subordinates • Status • Job security • Technical supervision McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X emphasizes on discipline. It stresses man’s need for work. intelligence and commitment. work force is a reservoir of untapped imagination. and experience. Today. It’s the organisation that doesn’t use teams that has become newsworthy. responsibility and involvement in serious endeavour. Theory Y represents the democratic approach and gives to the employees scope for creativity and responsibility. welfare measures. Team Building Twenty years ago. incentive programs. the decision of companies to introduce teams into their production processes made news because no one else was doing it. close supervision. Evidence suggests that teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills. it’s just the opposite. As organizations have restructured themselves to compete more effectively and . pension and other benefit programs. judgment.

A team. This suggests a practical limitation on size. Teams have the capability to quickly assemble. Other members depend on those contributions and share work information with one another. Members feel responsible for the output of their team and act to clear difficulties standing in their way. deploy. • Make team activities enjoyable. accountability for team outcomes. is more than a collection of individuals. a team consists of individuals who relate directly together to get things done. which identifies the focus for the team’s activities and includes both services and products. • Demonstrate openness by example. • Give maximum support. Management has found that teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than are traditional departments or other forms of permanent groupings. • Invite members to share their concerns and problems. they have turned to teams as a way to better utilize employee talents. • Interdependence. • Encourage consideration of individual strengths and weaknesses. It is imperative to take note of the following key terms to understand the definition of a team.efficiently. . Responsibility for team’s purpose and goals is shared and understood by all members. and disband.The Undeveloped Team: The ‘Forming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Facilitate ‘getting to know you’ exercise. leading hopefully to a final ‘mature’ stage that equates to effective team functioning. they actively care about their team’s well being. who work well together and enjoy doing so. rooted in the feelings as well as the thoughts of its members. and who produce high quality results. in which each team member makes individual contributions. Definition: An energetic group of people who are committed to achieving common objectives. It is in part an emotional entity. refocus. • All members share outcome. stimulating greater personal knowledge. Why Have Teams Become So Popular? Effective teams produce outstanding results and succeed in achieving despite difficulties. Woodcock presented “Developmental model” in his Team Development Manual. • Shared responsibility. The main stages can be summarized as follows: Stage 1 . because rarely in practice can more than nine people function as single team. According to the definition. The Stages of Team Development When a group of people come together to achieve an objective they will go through a series of stages. therefore.

• Give minimal support. Stage 3 . • Fight insularity.The Mature Team : The ‘Performing’ Team The features of this stage are: • Build bridges with other teams. • Begin to involve team members in review of team performance.The Disbanding Team: The ‘Mourning’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Competence has been established at a high level. • Celebrate successes. • Develop individual skills. • Commitment may surge or dip. • Consider the possibilities of enhanced inputs into the organisation. • Develop decision-making strategies. • Build bridges between individuals. • Clarify values. • Encourage individual team members to ‘air their grievances’. • Encourage informal communications. • Regularly review performance and plan improvements. Stage 4 . • Experiment with different forms of leadership • Allow leadership to change with the needs of the task. Forming: awareness of the formation process means encouraging discussion on issues such as : • Why are we here? • What’s our real purpose? • What holds us firmly together? . • Question decision making and problem solving methods. • Seek common ground. • Give high level of support. • Encourage people to share strengths. • Find opportunities to experiment. • Give moderate support. Stage 5 .The Experimenting Team: The ‘Storming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Encourage greater openness.Stage 2 . • Expose team functioning to external scrutiny. Implications There are certain implications of these five stages. • Clarify objectives.The Consolidating Team: The ‘Norming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Develop problem-solving skills. • Allow conflicts to surface. • Develop a capacity for the team to compensate for individual weaknesses.

encourage group communication around issues such as: • What role is each of us to play? • Shall we have a formal leader or chairperson? • Who wants to become the leader? / Whom do we want as leader? • What powers shall we give our formal leader? • How do we resolve conflict if several people want to lead? • Do we encourage disagreement and people expressing a difference of opinion? • How will we resolve differences between us .for example by compromise or formal voting? • What happens if someone refuses to conform to the group’s wishes? • How do we deal with strong feelings .• • • • • What are we prepared to do and NOT do together? What are our rules for working together? What do we expect from one another? How will people outside this group respond to us? What’s the best and worst that could happen if we continue down this route together? Storming: during this stage.for example making space to air them? Norming: during this phase contribute to good communications by helping people realize: • What are our formal rules? • What are our usually unspoken rules? • Who has what formal role? • How far can people challenge the group in some way? • How do we deal with differences of opinion? • How far can an individual follow his or her own interests at the expense of the group? Performing: now you can help the communication process by focusing on • What are our specific targets or goals? • How are we setting about achieving them? • Who has what detailed responsibilities and do they understand these? • Can we make being together more rewarding . recognizing one another’s successes? • How best can we support people through difficult times? • Are we listening to one another properly? • Does each speaker build on what the previous person has said? • Do we give each other and the group regular feedback? • Who is showing high or low commitment to group aims? Mourning: when the group is ending. help group communication by encouraging attention to issues such as: • When do we stop meeting? • Who should we tell? • What remains to do before the last meeting? . which can be exciting and difficult.for example by having fun together. socializing.

for example having a reunion in a year. sending a final report? Could we make the ending into a celebration? . organising a final party.for example handling residual assets or remaining tasks? What do people feel about the group coming to an end? How do we handle these feelings .• • • • Who takes responsibility for post-group matters .

Team Building Process • • • • • • • • • • Developing Teamwork Identify the need Know one another Form team charter Perform team tasks Use team tools Work Together Consensus Cooperate with other Teams Evaluate Teamwork Types of Teams Teams can be classified on the basis of their objective. The three most common forms of teams in an organisation are problem solving teams. Too often the members feel frustrated because they cannot find a clear way of meeting their own needs and aspirations. these responsibilities include collective control over the pace of work. selfmanaged work teams. Problem Solving Teams They typically are composed of five to twelve employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality. . Cross-functional teams are an effective means for allowing people from diverse areas within an organisation (or even between organisations) to exchange information. solve problems. Many organisations have used horizontal. develop new ideas. Symptoms of Ineffective Team Work • As organisations get larger the opportunities for personal expression and satisfaction often becomes less. efficiency. As a result. but from different work areas. boundaryspanning groups for years. Typically. Fully self-managed work teams even select their own members and have the members evaluate each other’s performance. and cross-functional teams. determination of work assignments. Self-Managed Work Teams Self-managed work teams are generally composed of ten to fifteen people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors. and the work environment. and collective choice of inspection procedures. Cross-Functional Teams Cross-functional teams are made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level. supervisory positions take on decreased importance and may even be eliminated. and coordinate complex projects. who come together to accomplish a task.

Mistakes become an excuse for punishing those who have committed thus giving a vent to their frustrations.they enjoy backbiting and playing dirty tricks and politics on their own teammates. He does not represent their view and they do not subscribe to his. where they are fearful of him or where their conversations are on a superficial or trivial level than real team work. The low quality of meetings can usually be determined by the way in which individuals either look forward to or dread the normal weekly or monthly get together. which employees wear on their faces. Team members often spend a lot of time on retaliation. Dishonest statements and the taking of false bargaining stances. Rarely team-building events can blow up with uncomfortable or hurtful incidents. The leader becomes increasingly isolated from his team. which are the essential ingredients of effective teamwork. Work does not have to be a dull and unenjoyable place. Low quality of relationship between the team members is indicated when people cannot confide in or trust their leader. • • • • Avoiding Blowups Usually team-building sessions are interesting and constructive.• • • • Team members lose their inspiration and lack the commitment and motivation to work. Occasionally they become tedious and dull. The unhealthy competition between team members . they provide a potential for significant progress. Poor teamwork is indicated by the dull expression. They do not use mistakes as opportunities for increased learning and improvements. If group difficulties and blowups are handled with care. Effective team work breeds happiness and the uninformed visitor often gets an immediate impression of whether work is a happy place to be or whether he is likely to be ‘killed in the rush’ if he is around. The following guidelines can help you to use these team-building materials successfully: • • • • • • • Voluntary Involvement Adequate Discussion Time Appropriate Sequence Careful Preparation Relevant Choices Avoid Undue Threat Work Through Conflicts and Difficulties Appraisal of Team Functioning Following is a checklist for making on-the-spot appraisal of team functioning by acronym PERFORMS. it can easily be rewarding place where people love to be. Productivity: is the team getting enough done? Empathy: do the team members feel comfortable with each other? .

Hence. The team feeds the individual’s need to have personal significance. • Rapid Response. about the “fortress . Team building is time consuming and can be expensive. and team processes encourage activity and achievement. Empathy: no coffee at team meetings Roles & goals: puzzled faces Flexibility: annoyed outsiders talking mentality”. the level of commitment to team decisions is much higher. Openness: silence Recognition: backbiting Morale: everyone’s left! Benefits of Team Building The team. • High Quality Decisions. It is important to identify how the approach can be used to give useful benefits. The team changes this as team members extend their viewpoint to see that they. can achieve much. Perhaps more importantly. Mature teams are capable of making better quality decisions than all but the most brilliant individual. together.Roles & goals: do they know what they are supposed to be doing? Flexibility: are they open to outside influence and contribution? Openness: do they say what they think? Recognition: do they praise each other and publicize achievement? Morale: do people want to be in this team? The most common indicators of problems in any of these areas: Productivity: a boss in a bad temper. • Collective Strength. potentially the most flexible and competent tool known to mankind. can support a positive management strategy in the following ways: • Management of Complexity. the use of a team approach improves the overall quality of decisions. Well-developed teams are capable of responding quickly and energetically. The breadth of resources available to the team enables complex situations to be creatively managed. Individuals often feel that it is hard to influence organisations and make any impact outside their immediate area. • High Motivation.


. or methods. guarantee achieving desired results.” Types Of Conflict Intraindividual Conflict Within every individual there are 1. Conflict due to Frustration Frustration occurs when a motivated drive is blocked before a person reaches a desired goal. aims. it’s practically inevitable. 2. Traditionally. Conflict: An Inevitable Product of Change In its simplest term. Although there are many such mechanism. psychologists felt that frustration always led to the defense mechanism of aggression. or physical) or covert (inward. Goal Conflict Another common source of conflict for an individual is a goal that has both positive and negative features. And like change itself. Both positive and negative aspects attached to desired goals. The frustration model can be useful in the analysis not only of behaviour in general but also the specific aspects of on – the – job behaviour. Casey Stengel We define conflict to be a process in which an effort is purposely made by A to offset the efforts of B by some form of blocking that will result in frustrating B in attaining his goals or furthering his interests. and 4. For ease of analysis. they can be grouped according to four broad categories: aggression. Conflict can be defined as: “Conflict is a set of divergent behaviours. fixation and compromise.Conflict Part of my job is to keep the five guys who hate me away from the five guys who are undecided. and improve employee morale and productivity. or two or more competing goals. when handled correctly can actually promote better communication. Approach – approach conflict. 3. three separate types of goal conflict are generally identified: 1. A nmber of competing needs and roles. The barrier may be overt (outward. But it’s also something that. where the individual is motivated to approach two or more positive but mutually exclusive goals. Many types of barriers that can occur between the drive and the goal. Frustration may lead to any of the defense mechanism used by the human organism. withdrawal. A variety of ways that drives and roles can be expressed. or mental – sociopsychological). or innovation. conflict is no more than a by – product of growth. change.

Win – lose. A second approach is to pay off one of the parties in the conflict. where the individual is motivated to approach a goal and at the same time is motivated to avoid it. Task interdependence 3. And finally the fourth type would be parties involved in conflict resolve to bureaucratic rules or existing regulations to resolve the conflict. Several antecedent conditions have been identified for explaining intergroup conflict. Avoidance – avoidance conflict. 3. Features of Conflict • • • • • Conflict is inevitable Conflict is neither good / bad Conflict is not always caused by trouble makers Conflict is part of change Conflict is sometime desirable . and the other party loses. In the win – win strategy of conflict resolution energies and creativity are aimed at solving the problems rather than beating the other party. Status struggles. Win – win. In a lose – lose approach to conflict resolution. Interpersonal Conflict Sources of interpersonal conflict • Personal difference • Information deficiency • Role incompatibility • Environmental stress Strategies for interpersonal conflict resolution Lose – lose. Jurisdictional ambiguity 4. Intergroup behaviour and conflict Antecedents to intergroup conflict. Approach – avoidance conflict. One of the more common approaches is to compromise or take the middle ground in a dispute.2. Competition for resources 2. and both parties receive rewarding outcomes. In the win – lose strategy one party in a conflict situation attempts to marshal its force to win. A third is to use an outside third party or arbitrator. Here the needs of both parties in the conflict situation are met. both parties lose. where the individual is motivated to avoid two or more negative but mutually exclusive goals. 1.

When to Stimulate Conflict • • • • • • • When you have “Yes” men around you When individuals are afraid to admit ignorance When team members create an impression of peace When individuals display too much concern When individuals believe in popularity When individuals lack new ideas When individuals offer resistance to change Five Ways to Sense Conflict Be Visionary: Visualize how your actions or those of others will cause. Probe for more information by asking questions such as: How so. In what. in a non-threatening way. Sharing your thoughts and feelings first. or are causing. Ask yourself who. and why questions to determine potential. Review Performance Regularly: When supervisors and employees Ways of Resolving Conflict • Clarify reporting Relationship • Eliminate communication gap / misunderstanding • Restructure the organisation • Introduce new blood/ new thinking • Create Competition Benefits of Dealing with Conflict . sources of conflict. accuracy. and Can you tell me more? to determine priorities for the upcoming week. thinking and feeling. and timeliness of information that you can provide to an individual will help you to understand that person’s point of view. often encourages others to tell you what is on their minds. Why. Do not wait until the last moment to discover that trouble is upon you. what. where. how. as well as present. Get Feedback: Take the time to find out what your associates are 3. Give Feedback: The amount. communicate openly about how they are (or are not) working together. 1. 2. Any major discrepancies between your expectations will alert you to potential conflict. conflict. Define Expectations: Meet on a weekly basis with your associates 4. they reduce serious conflict and build stronger working relationships. when.

Many factors contribute to the difficulty in identifying the correct cause of a conflict: • • • • • • • • • • Personality Perceptions Exclusive Goals Deliberate Behaviour Scarce Resources Status Power Rewards Membership Decision Making The Five Steps to Successful Conflict Management Step Step Step Step Step One: Take Responsibility for Dealing with Conflict Two: Uncover. Personal development and growth: When you break down some of your own invisible barriers and become more assertive in resolving or preventing conflict. Fewer mind games will be played resulting in a less stressful day. and Discuss the Real Problem Three: Ask Questions and Listen! Four: Set Goals and Create an Action Plan Five: Follow Up . Define. Benefits to Your Organisation Improved efficiency & effectiveness: Employees will be able to do their jobs more efficiently and effectively by focusing their efforts where they will produce the greatest results. Creative thinking: By encouraging people to make. share. many people have difficulty sensing or finding the causes of conflict. and learn from their mistakes. Synergy or teamwork: Managers and associates will be able to focus on serving their customers and each other. Increased self-respect: You will be able to feel good about yourself and will learn not to take criticism personally. you will learn more and gain support from others.Benefits to Individual Stronger relationships: You will be able to build stronger relationships as a result of being comfortable expressing your true thoughts. the organisation will reap the benefits of creative thinking. Causes of Conflict For a variety of reasons.

by talking with those involved Back down under pressure rather than dealing with conflict Make an active attempt to compromise Complain to others about unfairness of the situation Make an effort to seek creative alternatives to the situation Basic Skills to Resolve Conflict Intellectual Skills • Analytical • Learning Ability • Judgement • Planning • Organising • Perception • Conceptualizing • Objectivity • Flexibility Emotional Skills • Honesty • Persistence • Ambition • Self-discipline • Result-orientation • Fast pace • Initiative • Enthusiasm • Assertiveness .Fourteen Methods for Dealing with Conflict Win / Win • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Be indirect. even if negative Blow up. only reveal them later to friends or confidants in private Attempt to seek clarification & information about the situation Sublimate your feelings. let off steam. only hint at the problem Find something outside yourself on which to blame situation Use sarcasm in talking about the situation with others Seek a specific scapegoat Make efforts to smooth over tension / live with situation. put energy & attention in unrelated activities/ interests Spend time listening & gathering additional info. let people know just exactly how you feel Hide your feelings.

blocking ongoing goal directed behaviour that may operate in a manner similar to provocation and serve both as an instigator and an external justification for violating normative constraint against aggression. Confrontation. Maier and Ellen ( 1955 ) describe frustration in the following manner: • • • • • An insoluble problem. . Persistent or severe punishment. is a far cry from the original very rigid definition of a frustrating situation. Negotiation. defined as. Arbitration.Interpersonal Skills • Persuasiveness • Gregariousness • Listening • Communication • Writing • Sensitivity Managerial Skills • Gives guidance • Motivates • Delegates • Selects competent people • Terminates incompetent associates • Expects Professionalism Conflict management styles • • • • • • • • Resignation. they lean toward the generalization that frustrating situation is frustrating when it involves the experience of failure and this. Frustration Frustration – A Western Overview Frustration. In general. Defusion. Pressure from behind. Barriers preventing escape. Compromise. Consistency or inconsistency of results that conflict with expectations. of course. Withdrawal. Appeasement.

from heart disease to neighborhood violence”. and the type of behaviour that is selected in Frustration is a matter of its availability at the time as well as of a number of other factors. When this is not possible. That is. This type of behaviour is altered most readily by a reduction in the state of Frustration. social and emotional problems. which can result from frustration. Reactions of Frustration The first response to frustration. notice and keep. and that it produces or results in increased physiological arousal.” It can be taken care of in the following methods: Fight or Flight People should rethink situations they are confronted with before “blowing up”. which can be related to finding alternative means. Rethink It is an acronym developed and used by IMHI in anger management workshops to help people have new control and power over learning to channel their anger. aggression induced by economic hardships may be directed away from government offices and towards food stores or racial groups. there are at least four major classes of behaviour. On the behavioural end. which needs to be delineated. is the emotional reaction. Frustration leads to some sort of negative emotional state. “Poorly managed anger is at the root of many serious physical. Conquering Frustration In order to understand how to overcome frustration. Probably the most common reaction. think. Frustration instigated behaviour may be directed along different channels by the introduction or removal of barriers and other forms of restraints or by various forms of guidance. it can be tackled at a personal as well as organizational level. Two important properties are that the emotions are aversive. empathize. which has received considerable attention in the laboratory.Basic Characteristics of Frustration Instigated Behaviour The Frustration process produces behaviour that is purely an end in itself and not a means to an end. The most troublesome and often mentioned reaction is aggression. integrate. Thus. In this sense. The behaviour thus elicited is not an expression of preference since it is not influenced by what it accomplishes. It stands for recognize. Another possible response. The aversive nature means that the individual will be highly motivated or reduced in it. is withdrawal from the situation. is to try a different response or find an alternate and hopefully unblocked means to the goal. the behaviour is compulsive in nature. the individual can . hear. The increased around tends to increase the vigor or strength of whatever response is elicited and this arousal is implications for task performance. especially to mild frustration. At a personal level “Frustration and anger can be evoked when we perceive an inconsistency between what is expected and what is obtained.

To the extent that it interferes with or blocks task performance. and find another setting in which to achieve the goal. or no aggression would be expectation of punishment for the act. . Concerned with either aggression. motivating effects. which interfere rather than block can add challenge and include greater overall effort. Aggression in organizations can take many forms.leave the situation entirely. Aggression can be directed either against other people. differentially affects performance depending upon the complexity of the task. To the extent it induces increased physiological arousal. work slowdowns. Thus frustration might have positive. Alternatively. Covert acts would include sabotage. an individual can secretly perform behaviours. Aggression can also be directed against the organization itself. It can be directed covertly against the source of frustration (if a person) either verbally or physically. or the effects of frustration on task performance. or against the organization itself. frustration can lead a person to try alternative courses of action to achieve goals or fulfill needs. It can also be directed covertly against a person. Withdrawal can be manifested temporarily as absenteeism and tardiness. To be perfect is to change often”. Although it may be possible that mild frustration can increase arousal and facilitate task performance with no additional negative effects in the short run. as shown previously. aggression. Effects of Organizational Frustration There are at least four possible reactions to frustration by individuals. which can hurt another person. Frustration can increase task speed with no additional errors for simple task. A critical variable causing a person to choose overt. or permanently as turnover. continued or severe frustration might result in aggression or withdrawal. that is. Change Management “To improve is to change. Finally. Overt acts might include strikes. it may facilitate or inhibit task performance depending upon task complexity. covert. These include the emotional response of anger and associated increased physiological arousal. Arousal itself. to the extent it induces aggression or withdrawal frustration can have damaging effects on organizations. and the behavioural responses of trying alternative course of action. The organizational aggression could be overt to covert. grievances. and withdrawal. which have potential effects on organizations. frustration can be directly harmful to organizations. the individual can abandon the goal entirely and other leave or remain in the situation. In fact mild frustrations. or lawsuits. secret withholding of output and stealing. but interferes with correct performance on complex tasks. Finally.

they must be able to anticipate the changing patterns of people. • Change in Assumptions and Values: e. While individual behaviour is difficult enough to change. products. product and competitive conditions are rapidly changing. Organizations either become more adaptive. chemical fertilizers and crop rotation in agriculture. g. Attitude structures differ from knowledge structures in that they are emotionally charged in a positive or a negative way. Change is an alteration in the existing field of forces (external & internal) that tends to affect the equilibrium of an organisation. g. amendments to the Constitution. • Change in Behaviour : e. Types Of Changes in Organizations Macro level • Change in Structure : e. Levels of Change Knowledge Changes Attitudinal Changes Individual Behaviour Changes Group or Organisational Performance Changes Changes in knowledge tend to be the easiest to make. family planning program. it becomes even more complicated when you try to implement change within groups or organisations. nationalisation of banks.. 1. they can occur as a result of reading a book or an article or hearing something new from a respected person. Market. patriotism and social discipline in time of war or emergencies. • Change in Methodology : e. desire for socialistic pattern of society.. 2. Changes in individual behaviour seem to be significantly more difficult and time consuming. markets. often when it is too late. Therefore. organization’s degree to excellence is judged by its ability to cope with these changes.. Managers must do more than just react. stagnant and react to change after the fact.g.. flexible and anticipative or they become rigid. In an era of accelerating change. Automation in industry : irrigation.g. 3. liberation movements. 4.Winston Churchill Change Change is the name of the game in management today. Cycles of Change The levels of change become very significant when you examine two different change cycles Participative Change Cycle Directive Change Cycle Participative Change . services and technology.

which tend to develop predispositions towards or against the change. • Skill to enlist the support of people involved and affected by change.) • Skill to devise successful methods to accomplish the objectives and solve the problems. Psychological Dimension: Based on the fact that change is logical on terms of the human values and feelings in the situation. The new contacts and modes of behaviour create new knowledge.A participative change cycle is implemented when new knowledge is made available to the individual or group. It is hoped that the group will accept the data and will develop a positive attitude and commitment in the direction of the desired change. Is the change consistent with norms of the group? Does it maintain group teamwork? These questions need to be resolved keeping in mind society norms. A Model Of Adaptive Orientation Low Anticipative Management Environmental Stability Reactive Management . 2. This step is significantly more difficult to achieve. An effective strategy may be to identify the informal and formal leaders among the work group(s) and concentrate on gaining their behavioral support for the desired change. Sociological Dimension: Based on change logical from the point of view of social values. The next step will be to attempt to translate this commitment into actual behaviour. organisational change may be effected by getting other people to begin to pattern their behaviour. such as higher management. the community. new laws. This evidence needs to be presented to employees so that they can understand the technical and economic reasons for change. Three Dimensions of Change 1. Once this is accomplished. 3. Change Process Managing change means managing the conversation between the people leading the change effort and those who are expected to implement the new strategies. Directive Change This change cycle begins by change being imposed on the total organisation by some external force. Logical Dimension: Based on the technical evidence of economics and science. The critical factors of a change process are : • Skill to identify and analyze the objectives of change (knowledge of understanding what the problem is & finding solutions to it.

Normative Re-educative Strategies : The normative re-educative strategies believe that human beings are guided in their actions by sociocultural norms and their commitment to these norms. Resistance to Change Managers in every company must be alert to problems and opportunities. and values.” Planned change according to Benne and Chin. change is not exclusively at the cognitive or intellectual level but is often at a more personal level : habits. Power-Coercive Strategies : Power-coercive strategies are based on the assumption of compliance of those with less power to the will of those with more power. because the perceived need for change is what sets the stage for subsequent actions that create a new product or technology. he will obviously adopt the proposed change if the logic can be effectively communicated. as illustrated in the following passage : When frogs are placed in a boiling pail of water. they jump out – they don’t want to boil to death. Sensitive monitoring systems are needed to detect gradual changes that can fool managers into thinking their company is doing fine. Since the person is rational and motivated by his selfinterest. However. The hope is that “if people will only have a chance to see how the new system works they will support it. This strategy is basically straightforward and uncomplicated. when frogs are placed in a cold pail of water. Big problems are easy to spot. because managers may fail to trigger an organizational response. Failing to use planned change to meet small needs can place the organization in hot water. can be divided into three basic types of strategies. Empirical – Rational Strategies : The fundamental assumption underlying empirical-rational strategies is that human beings are rational and will follow their self-interest once this is revealed to them. begins to approximate a participative change as it reinforces the individual and group behaviour. attitudes.Satisficing Management High High Conservative Management Low Adaptive Orientation Strategies For Dealing With Change In some cases where change is forced the new behaviour engaged in creates the kind of knowledge that develops commitment to the change and therefore. and the pail is placed on a . Consequently. An organization may be in greater danger when the environment changes slowly.

Negotiation • Group has power over implementation. When a change is introduced. Some of these are as follows: 1. Some opposition to change may be perfectly logical. • Other implementation techniques have failed. management should analyze . The basic anxieties aroused by the working conditions 4. • Users doubt legitimacy of change. Insecurity created by the ambiguity related to change Resistance has a protective function for the individual. • Group will lose out in the change. Techniques for initiating Change Strategies for overcoming resistance to change typically involve two approaches: the analysis of resistance through the force field technique and the use of selective implementation tactics to overcome resistance. Coercion • A crisis exists. • Users have power to resist. Several explanations have been given for resistance to change. Tactics for Overcoming Resistance to Change Approach Communication. There exists a deep seated human characteristic to go against change 3. To implement a change. Psychologists have studied the phenomenon of resistance to change during the past few decades. • Design requires information from others. which suggests that an equilibrium is maintained by driving forces and restraining forces. All behaviour which opposes change is not necessarily resistance. • Users need accurate information and analysis to understand change. Organisations may be in a state of equilibrium. Top management • Change involves multiple departments or support reallocation of resources. some forces drive it and other forces resist it. • Initiators clearly have power. Kurt Lewin expressed this phenomenon in his field force theory. The change itself produces disequilibrium 2. education When to Use • Change is technical.stove with the heat turned very low. Participation • Users need to feel involved. over time the frogs will boil to death. with forces pushing for change on one hand and forces resisting change by attempting to maintain the status quo on the other.

This change may occur through assimilation of new information exposure to new concepts. By selectively removing forces that restrain change. and one that is usually more effective. refreezing. The third stage. is to reduce or eliminate the restraining forces and then move to a new level of equilibrium. a change in policy is less resisted when those affected by it participate in the change. In organizations. If people feel uncomfortable with the present situation. reinforcement of the new behaviour is essential. therefore. creates motivation for change. to be effective. unfreezing. If the change is incongruent with the attitudes and behaviors of others in the organization. Another approach. unfreezing 2. The second stage is the change itself. Change. Thus. they may see the need for change. or development of a different perspective.the change forces. However. in some cases an ethical question may arise regarding the legitimacy of deliberately creating discomfort that may initiate change. has to be congruent with a person’s self-concept and values. stabilizes the change. chances are that the person will revert back to the old behaviour. refreezing The first stage. The change process involves three steps : 1. . moving or changing 3. the driving forces will be strong enough to enable implementation.

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