Personality

Personality is a concept that we use continuously in our day-to-day routine, when dealing with people. We talk about people as having a good personality or a bad personality or arrogant and aggressive personality. Personality can be reflected in a person’s temperament and is a key factor influencing individual behaviour in organizations. Often the wrong type of personality of a superior proves disastrous in terms of worker unrest and protests. Salvatore Maddi has defined personality as: “Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment.” There are several aspects of this definition that need to be considered. The first aspect is that or relative stability of characteristics. These characteristics account for “consistent patterns” of behaviour. The second aspect is the “commonalities and differences” in the behaviour of people. We are interested in understanding as to what an individual has in common with others as well as what sets that individual apart from others. Every person is in certain aspects, • • • Like all other people Like some other people Like no other person

Personality Types There are two types of individual personality Type A and Type B. A person exhibiting Type A behaviour is generally restless, impatient with a desire for quick achievement and perfectionism. Type B is much more easy going relaxed about time pressure, less competitive and more philosophical in nature. Some of the characteristics of Type A personality are given below. • • • • • • • Is restless, so that he always moves, walks and eats rapidly. Is impatient with the pace of things, dislikes waiting and is impatient with those who are not impatient. Does several things at once. Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time, irrespective of whether everything is done or not. Usually does not complete one thing before starting on another. Uses nervous gestures such as clenched fist and banging on table. Does not have time to relax and enjoy life.

Type B behaviour is just the opposite and is more relaxed, sociable and has a balanced outlook on life. Type A behaviour profile tends to be obsessive and managers with such behaviour are hard driving, detailed-oriented people with high performance standards.

Five • • • •

personality traits related to job performance Extraversion Agreeableness Emotional stability Openness to experience.

Factors Contributing to Personality According to Maier, “knowledge, skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications of behaviour. Learned modifications in behaviour are not passed on to children, they must be acquired by them through their own personal experience.” The probable consensus is that heredity and environment jointly affect personality development. The full potential of a person may or may not be achieved due to environmental constraints and requirements, but the potential for development, both physically and psychologically is determined by the complex set of genes. The factors affecting personality development are illustrated as follows: • • • • • • • Heredity Culture Family Environment Personality Social Situational

Personality Dimensions Some of the more important dimensions of personality that are closely linked with interpersonal and organizational behaviour are discussed as follows: Authoritarianism: Authoritarianism refers to blind acceptance of authority. Authoritarian people believe in obedience and respect for authority. Because of their beliefs in hierarchical order, they make good followers; work better under directive supervision and more productive within authoritarian organizational structure. A closely related term to authoritarians is “dogmatism” which refers to the rigidity of a person’s beliefs. Bureaucratic Personality: A bureaucratic persons respect for authority is not total and blind, but is based upon respect for organizational rules and regulations. A bureaucratic person values subordination, rules, conformity, orderly processes in the organization and impersonal and formal relationships. Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism is a term associated with Niccola Machiavelli, a sixteenth century author who identified personality profiles of noble men. This personality merges in manipulating others for purely personal gains and gaining and keeping control of others. People with Machiavellianims have high self-confidence and high self-esteem. They are cool and calculating and

have no hesitation in using others or taking advantages of others in order to serve their own goals. Problem Solving Style: Individuals have their own style of making decisions and this style reflects their personality in certain ways. Some people are very through, meticulous and detail oriented. Others are impulsive and become easily swayed by what seems to be obvious. The problem solving style has two dimensions. One is the information gathering and the second dimension is evaluation of data and taking of decisions. Further, there are two styles involved in information gathering. One is known as Sensation and the second style known as intuitive style, The evaluation style also has two dimensions. One style involves more emphasis on feeling while the other involves more emphasis on thinking. When the two dimensions of information gathering and the two dimensions of evaluation are combined, it results in four problem-solving styles. These are: 1. Sensation-feeling style. These people are dependable, friendly, social and approach facts with human concerns. They are pragmatic, methodical and like jobs that involve human contact and public relations. Some suitable areas of jobs include teaching customer relations, social workers, and sales people. 2. Sensation-thinking style. They are practical, logical, decisive, and sensitive to details they also prefer bureaucratic type organizations. They are not highly skilled in interpersonal relations and are more suited to such technical jobs as those of production, accounting, engineering and computer programming. 3. Intuition-feeling style. These people are enthusiastic, people oriented, charismatic and helpful. Some of the professions suitable for this style are public relations, advertising, politics and personnel. 4. Intuition-thinking style. These people are creative, energetic, ingenious, and like jobs that are challenging in terms of design and analysis such as system design, law, research and development, top management and so on. Locus of Control Locus of control is the extent to which the individuals believes that: • They control their own lives, or • External forces control their lives, which are beyond their control. A person with a strong “internal locus of control” believes that he controls events concerning his own life and that his internal traits determine what happens in given situation. A person with a strong “external locus of control” feels that outside forces are affecting the events in his life and he is at the mercy of destiny, chance or other people. He believes that “whatever will be, will be” and everything happens by the will of God. Introvert and Extrovert Personalities

Introvert persons are basically shy, they prefer to be alone and have difficulty in communicating. Extroverts are outgoing, objective, and aggressive they also relate well with people. Self-esteem Self-esteem is the degree of respect a person has for himself. Self-esteem is a measure of self-confidence and respect for one’s abilities and motivation. It is also a higher level need in Maslow’s model of hierarchical needs. Self-esteem is positively related to assertiveness, independence and creativity.

The socialization process
a) Organizational socialization – values, norms, behavior pattern. b) Characteristics of organizational socialization of employees • Change of attitude, values and behaviour. • Continuity of socialization over time. • Adjustment to new jobs, work groups and organizational practices. • Mutual influence between new recruits and managers. • Criticality of early socialization period. Socializing new employees • Use of mentor or role model • Orientation and training program. • Reward system. • Career planning. Successful organizational socialization includes • Provide a challenging first job • Provide relevant training. • Provide timely and consistent feedback. • Select a good first supervisor to be in change of socialization. • Design a relaxed orientation program. • Place new recruits in work groups with high morals Emphasis on different characteristics. • Administrative skills • Work motivation • Interpersonal skill • Creativity • Social dominance • Maturity • Independence Propositions – Chris Argyris I. There is lack of congruency between the needs of healthy individuals and the demands of the formal organization. II. The resultant of this disturbance are frustration, failre, short – time perspective and conflict. III. Under certain conditions the degree of frustration, failure, short – time perspective and conflict will tend to increase. IV. The nature of the formal principles of the organization cause the subordinate, at any given level, to experience competition, rivalry,

V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.

X.

inter – subordinate hostility and to develop a focus toward the parts rather than the whole. The employee adaptive behaviour maintains self – integration and impedes integration with the formal organization. The adaptive behaviour of the employees has a cumulative effect, feedback into the organization and reinforces itself. Certain management reactions tend to increase the antagonisms underlying the adaptive behaviour. Other management actions can decrease the degree of incongruence between the individual and formal organization. Job or role enlargement and employee – centred leadership will not tend to work to the extent that the adaptive behaviour (propositions III, IV, V and VI) has embedded in organisational culture and the self – concept of the individual. The difficulties involved in proposition IX may be minimized by the use of reality oriented leadership.

Personality Theories
There are several theories but the more prominent among them are: (i) type, (ii) trait, (iii) psychoanalytic, (iv) social learning and (v) humanistic. Type Theories Type theories place personalities into clearly identifiable categories. Kretschmer and Sheldon are credited with this classification. In type theories relationship was sought to be established between features of face or body and personality. Thus, a short, plumb person (endomorph) was said to be sociable, relaxed, and even tempered; a tall, thin person (ectomorph) was characterized as restrained, self conscious, and fond of solitude; a heavy set muscular individual (mesomorph) was described as noisy, callous, and found of physical activity. Although a person’s physique may have some influence on personality, the relationship is much more subtle than this sort of classification implies. Thus classification of personalities on body basis is subjective. The second basis to type personalities is psychological factors. Carl Jung, divided all personalities into introverts and extroverts. These terms are normally associated with an individual’s sociability and interpersonal orientation. Extroverts are gregarious, sociable individuals, while introverts are shy, quiet and retiring. Trait Theories Trait theorists assume that a personality can be described by its position on a number of continuous dimensions or scales, each of which represents a trait. Thus, we could rate an individual on a scale of intelligence, emotional stability, aggressiveness, creativeness, or any of a number of other dimensions. Psychologists working in a area of trait theory are concerned with (a) determining the basic traits that provide a meaningful description of personality, and (b) finding some way to measure them. Psychoanalytic theory is based on the in-depth study of individual personalities. Social Learning Theory There are two ways of learning : Learning through reinforcement – direct experience and learning by observing others, also called vicarious learning.

this theory is often. behaviour is the result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by the individual. They believe that since an individual can make use of complex symbolic processes to code and store his observations in memory. behaviour is utterly dependent upon how one perceives the world – that is. share a common emphasis on man’s potential for self direction and freedom of choice. postulates man as self actualiser. Maslow’s Self-Actualisation Theory Abraham Maslow is regarded as the spiritual father of humanism in American psychology. although different in some respects. Indeed. with all parts of the personality in harmony. referred to as self theory of personality because the best vantage point for understanding behaviour is from the internal frame of reference of the individual himself. Such an approach to personality emphasizes the self and its characteristics. By self-actualisation Maslow meant the development of full individually. on the other hand. For Rogers. Existential philosophy is concerned with man as an individual and each person alone is responsible for his own existence. Some of the person variables that determine what an individual will do in a particular situation include the following : • Competencies • Cognitive strategies • Outcome expectations • Subjective value outcome • Self regulatory systems and plans The Humanistic Approach The humanistic approach to the study of personality includes number of theories. Assertiveness is a term meant to describe the extent of control.For social learning theorists reinforcement is not always necessary for learning. is called self-actualisation. * Also refer to “Personality Theories – Ziegler” for Freud’s Personality theory Assertiveness Meaning of Assertiveness Webster defines “assert” as “to state positively with great confidence”. This drive of man which is inherent in him. Humanistic psychology of Maslow radically differs from psychoanalytic and learning or behaviouristic theories. the . It is the extent of forcefulness a person (or leader) uses with a view to express himself. Humanistic psychology of Maslow. he can learn by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequences of those actions. Rogers’ Self Theory Roger’s approach to personality is described as phenomenological. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are credited with the humanistic theory of personality.

leader tries to exercise over both the followers as well as the situation. or ourselves without being threatening or putting other people down. • • • Promotes equality in human relationship It keeps both parties in all situations on an equal footing. he attempts to make things happen. relationships. It confers personal power and restores balance of power. or it can mean choosing not to be assertive in a particular situation or with a particular person. He feels free to reveal himself. 1. the verb “assert” means “to state or affirm positively. Above all. Enabling us to act in our own best interests It assists us to : • Make decisions about career. or would prefer. It promotes win . Assertiveness is a skill you can acquire – not a personality trait. we tell people what we want.” 2.win situations in dyadic relationships. lifestyles. he always strives to make the good try so that win. groups • Trust our own judgment • Set own goals and work to achieve them • Ask help from others • Participate socially 3. He pursues what he desires. lose or draw. He has an active orientation to life. time schedule. Through words and actions he makes the statement “This is me. The Assertive Personality According to Webster’s Third International Dictionary. without belittling others. He acts in a way that he respects himself. he maintains his self-respect. need. This can mean that it is appropriate on occasions to be angry. This is what I feel. friends and family. think and want. This communication is open. However. It is an essential skill for a leader. can cope with justified criticism – and can give it too. activities. plainly or strongly. honest and appropriate. 2. he accepts his limitations. • Take initiative in starting conversations. To stand up for ourselves without undue anxiety • Saying “No” . Aware that he cannot always win. Assertive people can initiate conversation. direct. He can communicate with people on all levels – with strangers. can compliment others and receive compliments gracefully. It is a positive way of behaving. 4. that doesn’t involve violating the rights of other people. assertive behaviour is appropriate behaviour. Characteristics of Assertive Behaviour When we are assertive. It is saying what you mean and having self-respect and respect for others. It means expressing what you think or feel without endangering the ego of others. 3.” The assertive person possesses four characteristics: 1. assuredly. We state our preference clearly and confidently. In contrast to the passive person who waits for things to happen.

As you change. • Do not confuse aggression with assertion. like business. • As participant in public events to express opinions • To work for change • To respond appropriately to violations of own or others’ rights. without name-calling. Apply the techniques you use successfully in one area to the other. life situations change. Assertiveness: Principles Whatever your problem. Assertive Behaviours Assertiveness is a set of congruent behaviours one can learn through persistence and practice. • To accomplish the above without unfair criticism of others without hurtful behaviour towards others. If you can say “Go to the end of the line” to a woman at the supermarket. . manipulation and controlling. school. 1. anger Expressing. Pay attention to what you can do differently rather than how the world can be different. • Competency as citizen. affection. manipulatory behaviour with true assertion. you can eventually announce “No I don’t want to do that” to your spouse. put-downs. and assertive in another area. supporting or defending an opinion To express honest feelings To disagree To show anger. • Strive to express all feelings. • Examine your own behaviour and determine areas where you would like to become more assertive.• • • 4. • Realize you may be unassertive in one area. Without denying others’ rights. gifts. like marriage. • Do not confuse glib. Aggressiveness is an act against others. • Understand assertion is not a permanent state. • Act in ways that increase your liking and respect for yourself. To exercise personal rights. • Practice speaking up with trivia. company. member of an organisation. consumer. there are certain basic principles for being assertive: • Reveal as much of your personal self as is appropriate to the situation and the relationship. 6. workgroup. and strengths. Assertion is appropriate standing up for yourself. Think and talk about yourself in a positive way It may help you take time to compile a list of your qualities. whether angry or tender. intimidation. • • • • Setting limits on time and energy Responding to criticism. friendship To admit fear or anxiety To express agreement or support 5. and you face new challenges and need new skills.

If you are deficient in this behaviour. State honest disagreement with ease When you disagree with what someone says. what that say.something they do. if it is not. with due respect for the other person. So a reasonable thing to do is to take the first step when you meet someone you would like to know better. Components of Assertive Behaviour You will recognize the following components of assertiveness: . Ask for what you want Clarify yourself about what you want and express it appropriately either as a suggestion or a request or a command. the way they work. and be ready to be misunderstood. learn to live peacefully with the results. Waiting for the other to take the initiative does not always have the desired effect. neither is it necessary to give many explanations. Make it clear that you are saying ‘No’ to the request. Risks are risks no matter who takes them. Be able to say “No” Specially so if you honestly think others take advantage of you. and the thoughts you think worth expressing both positive. Keep in touch with friends Valuable friendships often decline because neither party acts to keep it going. stick to the issue without attacking the person.2. 5. firm terms may be enough. they wear. not to the person. 7. then increase the forcefulness of your expression. that is. If you wait for them to act. 9. and it is good that they express their appreciation through honest compliments. 3. when you have done all you can. depending on the situation 6. Whatever the outcome you’ll feel better for having stood up for your rights. Take the first step in forming new friendships Friendships are important. Express yourself directly and spontaneously The feelings you actually experience. Ask no more of others than you ask of yourself. Insist on fair treatment This will often involve you and a person ‘in charge’. 10. you assume they are capable of taking risks. Accept compliments without embarrassment Others too appreciate certain things about you. In saying ‘No’ there is no need to be rude. Feel comfortable expressing honest compliments You surely appreciate certain things about other people . 4. you may begin with small issues and gradually move on to bigger ones. And recognise the limitations of the situation. Explore your alternatives: voicing your dissatisfaction in polite. as well as negative. 8.

whether it is a school. Level – Both parties: A statement that openly explains the adverse effect a person’s behaviour is having on you. Relationships are more open and working climates are more genuine. different ways of expressing your own rights assertively: State – Your rights: A straightforward statement that stands up for your rights by clearly and reasonably stating your needs. When people feel defensive and have to use their energy for political maneuvering. Ask – The other person: A question or questions designed to clarify where the other person stands. so people work more happily with us than against us. Assertive Behaviour at Work Assertive behaviour in the workplace gives everyone a better chance of influencing the system and participating in changes. Overtly aggressive or manipulative behaviour can bring immediate results. more likely to achieve our objectives in a conflict situation. People behaving assertively make good line mangers. Advantages of Assertive Behaviour • Close working relationships: Assertion tends to breed assertion. with their help. an office or shop floor. there are different types of assertion. The introduction of assertive behaviour into the workplace. Often. opinions and feelings. Assertive behaviour is so important to self-esteem and proactive behaviour that it needs to be particularly supported and endorsed in young workers or school children and students. We are then. opinions or feelings. will probably involve an intense transition period. . Expressing negative feelings or standing up for your rights can be interpreted as ‘out of order’ or ‘insubordinate’. They will say clearly what they want. but equally be supportive of staff and take the needs of others into account. wants. everyone in the organisation suffers. Empathize – Both parties: This is a behaviour that contains an element of understanding for the other person as well as a statement of your own needs and thoughts. what are his / her needs. but credibility and integrity are put at risk.• • • • • Giving information Seeking information Expressing feelings Accepting feelings Change desired (in self or other) Assertiveness is a balance between being passive and aggressive. This is the strongest form of assertion and should only be used when the other types have been tried. wants. They can compromise and negotiate. unassertive people are ‘institutionalized’ and need a great deal of support before they can ‘come out from under’ and begin to value their role and appreciate that their participation is sought. However. beliefs.

Greater confidence in others: We have a healthy recognition of the capabilities and limitations of others as opposed to seeing them as inferior (aggression) or superior (passive). and remain passive in all situations. You may be deficient in any or all three of these areas. or inner emotions. rather than blaming others (aggression) or excusing ourselves (passive) Increased self-control: We can channel our thoughts and feelings to produce the behaviour we want. You can be able to openly express your tender feelings and yet not be able to show your angry feelings – and vice versa. People may fail at one area of assertiveness and succeed at another. often extroverted. and behave like a tyrant at home. . and difficulty with close relationships. lack of clear-cut desires. but this seeming assertiveness hides a basic lack of honesty.” No matter how great your timidity and irresolution. there is always a point from which you can start to change. You may be assertive in a one-to-one relationship. A lot of time and energy is wasted on worrying and scheming. reducing the chance of boastfulness (aggression) and hopelessness (passive). You tend to be wordy. generally appropriate. the easier it is to change with Assertiveness Training. If we are not worried about upsetting people (passive) or scheming how not to miss out (aggression) then we can save ourselves a lot of stress. • • . but not in groups. Openness and directness. their ideas and opinions heard and considered and their abilities put to good use. The person with communication difficulties. you say what you think is the right thing at the wrong time. cannot speak up. “I’m sorry. Blocks Of Assertive Behaviour Following are some of the blocks in the personality that are faced by the individual in being assertive: • The timid soul. needs etc. The split assertive.• • • • • • Greater confidence in yourself: We develop a strong regard for ourselves and a high level of self esteem.Inappropriate communication. . You allow yourself to be pushed around. Unaware about the realities of social relations. rather than being controlled by outside events or people. If someone steps on your foot. Increased self responsibility: We take responsibility for ourselves. a characteristic often accompanied by shallowness of feeling. A man can be the epitome of passivity at the office. opinions. An increased change of everyone winning: Assertiveness increases the likelihood that all parties will see their needs met. you say. our wants. the narrower the area.Indirect Communication. honesty and appropriateness. You seem to be open and honest. In general. Assertion processes four behavioral characteristics. The range for split assertive behaviour can be very narrow. but often you lack assertion in just one: . Savings in time and energy: We can take decisions more swiftly based on their individual merit and save time when handling disputes.Dishonest or pseudo assertive communication.

criticism. handle a confrontation. Since he did not move his hand when you hit it. You possess incorrect ideas. It never occurs to you to treat the stranger as a stranger and the friend as a friend. You think you’re supposed to treat a stranger as a friend. or start a conversation. You don’t grant independence to other people. in a split second before you’re about to punch him. Try your best to stay . Instead. tenderness. You have a wrong concept of social reality. accept the feedback by allowing it to come to you. he is in control of what’s happening. You can’t make eye contact or small talk. because of his own needs. the other person. Stay in control by deciding whether you agree to what is said. The person with specific blocks. Assertiveness Techniques The Three techniques for Assertiveness are: • Mental Ai-Ki-Do • Information Building • Echoing • Mental Ai-Ki-Do This technique can help you to accept criticism comfortably without becoming defensive. Do not fight the feedback. You know what you should do. and have the skill to accomplish it. he stops the forward motion of your swing. He accomplishes two things. He asks that you to hit his upheld hand with your fist. you hit his hand. while still holding on to yours controlling the force you just threw. You can demand a raise and deserve it. feelings. but the economic state of your firm may prohibit a salary increase. These assertive skills can be learned. This time. Reality doesn’t work that way. If you don’t there’s something wrong with you. closeness. With all your force. You feel that as long as you do the right things. You think as long as you’re being reasonable. inhibit you from carrying out the action. scrutiny. But very often. not realizing that the life situation provides problems where anxiety is the appropriate reaction. you should win them all. anger. Visualize a man holding up his hand in front of you. You don’t comprehend the difference between aggression and assertion. his fingers wrap around your fist. Ai-Ki Do is a martial art. Then you use your focused listening skills. the other person should go along with you. he feels no pain. Second.• • • • • • The person with behavioral deficits. Use mental Ai-Ki-Do (control) when any negative feedback (mental fist) comes your way. Again you are asked to hit his hand with your fist. by directing the momentum of your punch. become anxious about being anxious. You don’t understand that different kinds of relationships exist with different people. by offering no resistance to your job. You have an erroneous idea of psychological reality. just won’t. but question your right to do it. You know what and how of what has to be done. but your fears of rejection. You worry about worrying. and hangups. He then backs his hand away. First.

Some people feel this technique is a rude one because it requires you to be domineering. supervisor. Say It: Don’t hesitate or beat about the bush. . need-to-know information. 2. One of the ways trust is built between associates is by the amount of knowledge that is shared by and about each other. • Echoing This technique will strengthen your ability to say “no” respectfully without regrets. Stay composed and state over and over again what you want. start out with general information and work up to sensitive. Before meeting with someone. you start to lose control by giving in to the force. The technique is similar to an echo because you repeat what you desire. When it is inappropriate for you to budge on a certain point. Mention other possible ways to complete the work. peer. you will teach others that you are serious and determined. non-leading questions to elicit feedback and to keep the conversation relaxed and flowing.Inform whoever is requesting your services that you are unable to do the job as it is not into your priorities. You could appear foolish by asking of something that you eventually realize is not what you want. Use this technique only after exhausting these strategies: . and even an irate and unreasonable customer. vendor. If these strategies do not work. come right out with it! Practise before you say it and check for appropriateness. • Information Building This technique will help you initiate and build relationships by sharing information about yourself. and you are still being ordered or intimidated to handle a request. Know What You Want To Say: You won’t appear confident if you are unsure of what you want. in the process.even – tempered. . offer some assistance or time to help with part of the project or task. Remember. Nor should you restrict sharing information just because the other person has not disclosed much during your conversation. The technique certainly is used to get your way. but it should not be used exclusively. Depending upon how well you know the person and your own comfort level. Expressing One’s Feelings The following are some of the points that are taken into consideration while expressing assertive feelings 1. Providing information about yourself first will encourage others to share their thoughts and feelings with you. You do not have to discuss something of mutual interest. the echoing technique will help you hold your ground with an associate. After sharing your thoughts and feelings. Once you explode or hide.Suggest a more suitable person to take on the assignment.If appropriate. . plan what kind of information would be appropriate to share. building relationships takes time. then use the echoing technique. use humor and open-ended.

8. Look the Person in the Eye: People feel more comfortable if you look directly at them. 5. Avoid Laughing Nervously: Smile if it’s appropriate. Don’t Whine or be Sarcastic: Be direct and honest. This will confuse the person you are speaking to. Look Relaxed: You’ll convey anxiety by shifting from one foot to another. do not say it at the peak of your anger. communicates hostility as you put the other person down. 4. waving your arms around. Be Specific: Say exactly what you want or do not want.3. . Being sarcastic. Wait for that to pass. No long explanations are necessary. Practise looking relaxed in a mirror – it’s not as contradictory as it sounds! 7. It is being manipulative. 6. Say It as Soon as Possible: Do not let too much time pass. so that there can be no confusion. as this builds up apprehension. on the other hand. On the other hand. you certainly will not come across as someone who knows what they want. but if you giggle or laugh you won’t look as if you mean what you say. Whining and pleading can either annoy the person or make them feel guilty. Begin with the word “I”. If you simply look shifty and cannot look them in the eye. or conversely being too rigid.

Similarly. checking. . The meaning of perception will be complete when all the three aspects are stressed. people or animals. they receive events or objects that have been repressed. and the individuals doing the perceiving. and whether it involves pictures. interpreting. Two sets of factors govern the selection of stimuli: external and internal.” Perceptual Process Perception. receiving. the object. a position in the upper portion of a page in more favourable than one in the lower portions. feeling.” “Perception includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about his environment – seeing. things would be a lot simpler” -Moorhead & Griffin In its simple sense perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen. Location: The best location of a visual stimulus for attracting attention is directly in the front of the eyes in the center of a page. Secondary organs receive not only physical objects. viz. There is the sixth sense about which much is speculated and nothing is known. hearing. and the environment influence what is seen. We may not be able to report the existence of certain stimuli but our behaviour reveals that we are often subject to their influence. External Factors Influencing Selection The external factors influencing selection are: Nature: By nature we mean. But the perceiver. tasting. the environment in which perception occurs. We need to filter or screen out most of them so that we may deal with the important or relevant ones. and the left hand side receives more attention than the right hand side. The study of these perceptional processes shows that their functioning is affected by three classes of variables – the objects or events being perceived. and smelling. They may be inside also. organizing.. selecting.Perception “If everyone perceived everything the same way. whether the object is visual or auditory. Process of Receiving Stimuli The human organism is structured with five sensory organs. Process of Selecting Stimuli Myriads of stimuli seemingly clamour for our attention at any given time. hearing. as revealed by the definitions.. viz. vision. These processes are influenced by the perceived and the situation. and reacting to stimuli. We receive stimuli through the organs. A few definitions of perception are given below: “Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments. When this location is not possible in a newspaper or a magazine. smell. touch and tasting. stimuli need not be external to us. is composed of six processes.

the person with a particular interest has a need to involve himself in activities pertaining to it. Paranoid Perception: When the person’s perception is so selective that he can find little common ground for communication with others. or dim light. interests. Different perceptions of old and young executives are due to their age differences perceptions. Age Difference: Older senior executives complain about the inability of the new young to take tough decisions concerning terminating or resigning people and paying attention to details and paper work. Yet there is some value in conceiving the two as distinct. Internal Factors Influencing Selection Internal factors influencing selection of stimuli include learning.Intensity: Stimuli of higher intensity are perceived more than the objects with low intensity. A loud noise. These factors relate to oneself. Movement: The principle of motion states that a moving object receives more attention than an object that is standing still. It has been argued that. most needs no longer influence perception. has considerable influence on perception. Once they have been satisfied. It creates expectancy in people. Contrast: The contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out against the background. psychological needs. Novelty and Familiarity: The novelty and familiarity principle states that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as an attention getter. he is likely to be paranoid. An architect will notice many details of buildings that he passes only once. even though the smaller one costs as much and as important to the operation. Repetition: The repetition principle states that a repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a single one. a cognitive factor. That is. will receive their attention. his perception is likely to be selective at any time. Interest: The interests of the perceiver unconsciously influence perception. New objects in familiar settings or familiar objects in new setting will draw the attention of the perceiver. and paranoid perception. or bright light will be noticed more than a soft sound. interests cannot be distinguished from needs. or which are not what people are expecting. Psychological Needs: Needs play a significant role in perceptual selectivity. People tend to perceive what they want to perceive. in their influence on perception. But if the person has a special interest. strong odour. Ambivalence: Another factor in perceptual selection is ambivalence or mixed feelings about a situation. The young managers in turn complain about the “old guards” resisting change and using paper and rules as ends in themselves. ambivalence. . Learning: Learning. age differences. The maintenance engineering staff may pay more attention to a big machine than to a small one. weak odour. Size: Generally objects of larger size attract more attention than the smaller ones. Unreal things often look real because of deprived needs.

This is called perceptual set. colour. perception is said to have taken place only after the data have been interpreted. The individual’s experiences with others in the category in which he has placed them lead him to believe that they have certain traits in common. Such constancy amidst changing stimuli is indispensable if we are to adjust to our world. despite variations in the stimuli that provide us with our information. There are several aspects of constancy such as shape. . occupation. Several factors contribute towards what has been interpreted. In fact. and ascribing all good qualities to one who is liked and all bad qualities to another who is disliked. a person is likely to categories the other according to some silent characteristic such as sex. As too much credit or blame for behaviour is placed on persons rather than on environment. perceptual grouping. This aspect of forming bits of information into meaningful wholes is called the perceptual organization. closure. the perceiver interprets or assigns meaning to the information. and perceptual constancy. size. Attribution Attribution refers to the process by which the individual assigns causes to the behaviour he conceives. or organizational affiliation. and consequences influence the attribution process. intentions. Stereotyping Stereotyping is the tendency for a person’s perceptions of another to be influenced by the social group to which the others belong. according to the principle. In perceiving another. and continuity. More important amongst them are Perceptual Set Previously held beliefs about objects influence an individual’s perceptions of similar objects. The Process of Interpreting After the data have been received and organized. There are critics who argue that perceptual distortion occurs because of attribution.. Halo Effect The halo effect refers to the tendency of perceiving people in terms of good and bad. religion. he is ready to perceive the other as possessing the same trait.The Organizing Process The perceptual selection related to the discussion of external and Internal factors which helped gain the perceiver’s attention. Figure Ground: Figure ground is considered to be the most basic form of perceptual organization. In other words. perceived objects stand out as separable from their general background. Factors such as status. nationality. our ability to perceive certain characteristics of an object as remaining constant. viz. Perceptual Constancy: A more subtle part of perceptual organization is constancy. Perceptual Grouping: The principles of grouping first defined by gestalt psychologists include similarity. figure ground. proximity. The figure ground principle states that the relationship of a target to its background influences perception. There are three dimensions to the perceptual organization. Thus. race.

and attitudes. The action is positive when the perception is favourable. and behaviour of persons in the situation also influence how a situation is perceived. Projection Under certain conditions. Characteristics of the Perceiver A perceiver needs to have. modification of the data received. sex. The Process of Reacting The last phase in perception is the reaction. social and organizational settings of the situation or event in question can influence perceptions. with one another. personality. That is. people tend to see in another person traits that they themselves posses. tendencies. height.Perceptual Context The context in which an object is placed influences perception. He should be someone with a strong need for ego satisfaction. and change in perception itself. He will put a series of questions to himself and the answers will confirm whether his perception about an individual or object is correct or not. The visual stimuli by themselves are meaningless. values. Perceptual Defence According to the principle of perceptual defence. The action depends on whether the perception is favorable or unfavorable. The perceiver shall indulge in some action in relation to his perception. which the perceiver possesses but fails to recognize himself. It is negative when the perception is unfavourable. appearance. Factors Influencing Perception The perceiver. We tend to notice the physical attributes of a person in terms of age. and weight. an individual’s perceptions are influenced by his belief that certain human traits are associated. an individual is likely to put a defence when confronted with conflicting. Characteristics of the Perceived The physical attributes. Another way is to check the veracity about the interpretation with others. . Implicit Personality Theory In judging and making inferences about others. the perceived and situation are some of the factors that influence perception. they project their own feelings. change in perception but refusal to change. The defence mechanisms put up by the perceiver may assume any of the four forms: outright denial. One way of checking is for the person himself to indulge in introspection. Characteristics of the Situation The physical. Only when the doodles are placed in a verbal context do they take on meaning and value to the perceiver. the perceiver tends to check whether his interpretations are right or wrong. or motives into their judgement of others. unacceptable or threatening stimuli. The Process of Checking After data have been received and interpreted. habits. which may influence the perception process. This may be particularly true regarding undesirable traits. past experience.

• You weigh perceptual evidence heavily if it comes from respectable sources.e. not realizing how much weight is given to a single item. Influence of perceptions of other people when they are drawing incorrect or incomplete impressions of events in the work setting.e. they weigh against him in the final selection Specific applications in organization • Employment interview • Performance expectations • Performance evaluation • Employee effort • Employee loyalty Managing the Perception Process • • • • • • Have a high level of self-awareness. Avoid inappropriate attributions. If the inadequacies of the candidate are exposed early. • You are influenced by emotional factors. Be empathetic – that is. Avoid common perceptual distortions that biased in our view of people and situations. as others perceive it. i. Five reasons why a person misperceives – Zalkind and Costello • You are influenced by cues below your own threshold i. i.e. the cues you don’t know you perceived • You respond to irrelevant cues to arrive at a judgment. the interviewers’ judgement about the suitability or otherwise of a candidate depends on how his behaviour is perceived by them. be able to see a situation..Perception and Organisational Behaviour In an interview for the selection of a candidate. But the fact is that interviewers generally form an early impression that becomes quickly entrenched. what is liked is perceived as correct... Seek information from various sources to confirm or disconfirm personal impressions of a decision situation. . A rejected applicant might feel that he was wronged by the interview though he deserved selection. • You are not able to identify all factors.

cognitive learning and social learning. the behviour can be predicted and controlled. It also makes the response reflexive or involuntary after the stimulus-response relationship has been established. Pavlov with dogs. This learning is not caused by biological maturation. First. This relationship is built around two principles. emotions or perceptions but is keyed to the nature of the outcome of such behaviour. Classical Conditioning The most well known experiments on classical conditioning were undoubtedly conducted by I. First is the element that the change must be relatively permanent.” . which differentiates human beings from dogs.P. This means that after “learning” our behaviour must be different. based upon such consequences. certain types of consequences can be used to increase the occurrence of a desired behaviour and other types of consequences can be used to decrease the occurrence of undesired behaviour. Under certain situations classical conditioning does explain human behaviour. You can only help him discover it within himself. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning induces a voluntary change in behaviour and learning occurs as a “consequence” of such change.Learning “ You cannot teach a man anything. operant conditioning. Hence. The second aspect of the definition is that this change must occur due to some kind of experience or practice. There are two primary elements in this definition that must both be present in order to identify the process of learning. This leaves no ground for making choices. From an organizational point of view. Second. and he established a Stimulus-Response (S-R) connection. that behaviour which results in positive rewards tends to be repeated and behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated.Galileo Learning can be defined as a “relatively permanent change in behaviour or potential behaviour as a result of direct or indirect experience”. . Theories of Learning There are four general approaches to learning – classical conditioning. feelings. It is based upon the premise that behaviour or job performance is not a function of inner thoughts. either better or worse as compared to our behaviour prior to this experience of learning. This means that certain responses can be predicted which continuously result from certain induced stimuli. any stimulus from the work environment will elicit a response. It is also known as reinforcement theory and it suggests that behaviour is a function of its consequences. Classical conditioning introduces a simple cause-and-effect relationship between one stimulus and one response.

Cognitive Learning Learning is considered as the outcome of deliberate thinking about the problem or situation both intuitively and based upon known facts and responding in an objective and goal oriented manner. responses to certain situations can be applied to similar but different situations. Some reinforcers work by their application to a situation. However. If a person experiences a similar situation that he dealt with before. Principle of Reinforcement Reinforcement is the process by which certain types of behaviours are strengthened. Thus these reinforcers work as behaviour modifiers. discrimination is the ability to differentiate between relatively similar stimuli where generalization would yield negative consequences. This process of self-control is also partially a reflection of societal and cultural influences on the development and growth of human beings. is the act of knowing an item of information and this knowledge affects the behaviour of the person so that the information provides cognitive cues towards the expected goal. There are two concepts that help in explaining the transfer of learning. These are as follows: Generalization No two situations are exactly alike. Transfer of Learning Berelson and Steiner suggested that learning can be transferred from one situation to another and the extent of such transfer is a function of the extent of similarity in the stimulus or response. Cognition. while other reinforcers work by their removal from the situation. the individual can adjust to new learning situations more smoothly because of the previous learning experiences. Discrimination While generalization is a reaction to “similarities” of stimuli or responses. . Thus a “reinforcer” is any stimulus that causes certain behaviour to be repeated or inhibited. Social Learning It is recognized that learning does not take place only because of environmental stimuli (classical and operant conditioning) or of individual determinism (cognitive approach) but is a blend of both views. Because of the principle of generalization. then some of his previous experience would be transferred to the new situation and his learning time in the new situation would be considerably decreased. In addition learning can also be gained by discipline and self-control and an inner desire to acquire knowledge or skills irrespective of the external rewards or consequences. It also emphasizes that people acquire new behaviour by observing or imitating others in a social setting. in fact.

since money can be used for a number of other resources too. The punishment process is similar to the extinction process in that both have the effect of decreasing and eliminating the undesirable behaviour. Negative Reinforcement Also known as “escape conditioning” or “avoidance learning”. it is equally important to examine the various ways or “schedules” of administering these techniques of reinforcement. then such behaviours would become less frequent and eventually die out. which has never been associated with the reward before. Extinction This type of reinforcement is applied to reduce undesirable ‘behaviour. These are continuous and partial reinforcement schedules. The punishment process. unlike the positive reinforcement where an employee works hard to gain financial and other rewards. but technically there is a difference. . This means that if rewards were removed from behaviours that were previously reinforced. the employee works hard to avoid repercussion. especially when such behaviours were previously rewarded. Schedule of Reinforcement While it is necessary to know as to which type of reinforcement would be most effective in a given situation. under avoidance conditioning.Positive Reinforcement A positive reinforcement is a reward for a desired behaviour. However. we withhold rewards for behaviour that has previously been rewarded because the behaviour was not undesirable previously. reprimand and other negative aspects of the organizational environment. In the extinction process. it is also a method of strengthening desired behaviour. The various ways by which the reinforcement can be administered can be categorized into two groups. on the other hand consists of “application” of an undesirable consequence or “withdrawal” of a desirable consequence for an undesirable behaviour. The reward should be sufficiently powerful and durable so that it increases the probability of occurrence of desirable behaviour. Money is probably the most powerful reinforcement for positive behaviour. The method involved is a suitable form of punishment in the form of withholding the positive enforcement or simply ignoring the undesirable behaviour. Punishment Punishment is the most controversial method of behaviour modification and involves delivering an unpleasant consequence contingent upon the occurrence of an undesirable behaviour.

There are: 1. This results in fast acquisition of the desired response and the learning is rapid. 3. are not fixed but vary from situation to situation. the reinforcement is administered only upon the completion of a given number of desirable responses.Continuous Schedule A continuous schedule is the one in which the desirable behaviour is reinforced every time it occurs and the reinforcement is immediate. there are some limitations that make these techniques ineffective in certain situations. the reinforcement is administered at random times that cannot be predicted by the employee. It is important for the management to recognize the power of work-group norms.. 2. Variable-ratio Schedule It is similar to fixed-ratio schedule except that the number of responses required before reinforcement is determined. 2. Limitations of Behaviour Modification While in general. . It is believed that “behaviour tends to be persistent when it is learned under conditions of partial and delayed reinforcement. 1) Behaviour modification is an overall structure and ignores individual differences. Showing errors is how to do something can lead to increase in learning. 4. 3) Behaviour modification is that it ignores prevailing work-group norms. 3. There are four kinds of partial reinforcement schedules. Variable Interval Schedule In this type of schedule. as discussed previously are effective in eliciting desirable behaviours from employees in work situations. However the behaviour learned by continuous reinforcement strategy tends not to persist for which such reinforcement is applied less frequently. The capacities of learners are important in determining what can be learned and how long will it take to learn it. 2) Behaviour modification programs assume that extrinsic rewards are the key factors in behaviour modification and they ignore the fact that employees can be intrinsically motivated. Fixed-ratio Schedules In a fixed-ratio schedule. a response is reinforced at fixed intervals of time. The simple rules of leaning are: 1. some of the behavioural modification techniques. Partial Reinforcement Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule rewards desirable behaviour at specific intervals. Te order of presentation of materials to be learned is very important. Fixed Interval Schedule In this type of schedule.

The rate of forgetting tends to be very rapid immediately after learning. Values.4. Two things are necessary – “belongingness” and “satisfaction”. Learning is aided by active practice rather than passive reception 8. 10. Attitudes and Interest . 5. 9. Learning something new can interfere with the remembering of something learned earlier. 7. 6. The mere repetition of a situation does not necessarily lead to learning. Knowledge of results leads to increase in learning. A passage is more easily learned and accepted if it does not interfere with earlier habits. Repetition of identical materials is often as effective in getting things remembered as repeating the same story but with variations.

pleasure. Importance of Values Values are important to the study of organizational behaviour because they lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes. good. what we think is important influences our attitudes and our behaviour. as you will see. order and morals. or desirable. Social – Here the highest value is given to the love of people. Types of Values The most important early work in categorizing values was done by All-port and his associates. 5. Theoretical – Places high importance on the discovery of truth through a critical and rational approach. that is persecution. On the contrary.George Bernard Shaw Values Is capital punishment right or wrong? The answer to this question is value laden. Further. they contain interpretations of right and wrong. This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to such values as freedom. 6. Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. and motivations. Political – It places emphasis on acquisition of power and influence. Value systems represent a prioritizing of individual values in relation to their relative importance.“When you prevent me from doing anything I want to do. that no government has the right to take anyone’s life. obedience. In other words. but when I prevent you from doing anything you want to do. honesty.” They contain a moral flavor in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right. We all have values and. these notions are not value-free. they imply that certain behaviours or outcomes are preferred over others.” . Individuals enter an organization with preconceived notions of what “ought” and what “ought not” to be. However. that capital punishment is right because it is an appropriate retribution for crimes like murder or treason. Of course. personality. 3. self-respect. They identified six types of values: 1. for example. Economic – Emphasizes the usefulness and practicality of the situation. we all have a set of values that form a value system. and so forth. 2. equality. Some might argue. just as strongly. perceptions. Religious – It is concerned with the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmos as a whole. others may argue. Aesthetic – It places the highest value on form and harmony. that is law. . 4.

” I am expressing my attitude about work. Egocentrism. They are aggressive and selfish. Manipulative. This is most descriptive of newborn babies. Source of Attitudes Attitudes. Level 6. Sociocentric. and peer group members. have difficulty in accepting people whose values differ from their own. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. They respond primarily to power.More recent research suggests that there is a hierarchy of levels that are descriptive of personal values and life-styles. and arbitrary use of authority. These persons believe in rugged individualism. People . Level 2. They are strongly influenced by tradition and the power exerted by authority figures. Level 7. like values. Attitudes are not the same as values. One such study identified seven levels. teachers. Tribalistic. status symbols. These individuals have a high tolerance for ambiguity and people with differing values. These individuals are characterized by high dependence. Conformity. are acquired from parents. Values also contain a moral flavor of rightness or desirability. When I say “I like my job. we begin modeling our attitudes after those we admire. In our early years. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. Level 4. restrictive policies. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. Level 5. respect or may be even fear. So attitudes are more specific than values. Existential. Values are the broader and more encompassing concept. Level 3. These individuals have a low tolerance for ambiguity. and desire that others accept their values. They reflect how one feels about something. Attitudes Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favourable or unfavourable – concerning objects. Reactive. Level 1. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. people. or events. We observe the way family and friends behave and we shape our attitudes and behaviour to align with theirs. “I favor the implementation of an affirmative action program to recruit and develop women for managerial positions in our organization” is an attitude. These individuals are unaware of themselves or others as human beings and react to basic physiological needs. They are outspoken on inflexible systems. The statement that “discrimination is bad” reflects one’s values.

Typically. When there is an inconsistency. attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour. Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitudes toward his or her job. more often then they mean job satisfaction. Attitudes and Consistency People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behaviour. Individuals who express high commitment see their identity as closely attached to that of the organizations. the two are frequently used interchangeably. and organizational commitment. job satisfaction.imitate the attitudes of popular individuals or those they admire and respect. forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behaviour are again consistent. When people speak of employee attitudes. there are three primary attitudes that are of concerned to us i. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job. Changing attitudes: Some basic techniques a) Persuasive messages: Hearing sometimes is believing i) Comunicator’s Characteristics • Attractiveness • Style • Credibility ii) Content of persuasive message • Receiver’s characteristics • Intelligence • Self – esteem/ confidence iii) Enhance persuasion • Build personal attractiveness • Enhance credibility . This means that individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviour so they appear rational and consistent. In organizations. and considers his performance important to his self-worth. actively participates in it. job involvement. while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. In fact. Type of Attitudes But OB focuses our attention on a very limited number of job-related attitudes. The term “job involvement” states that job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies with his job. identification with. These job-related attitudes tap positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. Organizational commitment expresses an individual’s orientation toward the organization by tapping his or her loyalty to. and involvement in the organization.e.

soon wanes. Interest is latent attention. either natively or through experience. friends and peers Barriers to changing attitudes Interest You are driving your automobile. We acquire a great variety of new interests through the building up of sentiments for a great variety of objects. But presently a new element. you notice the new sound and begin to wonder what it means. then. determined by conative interest. and your attention is at once attracted. Knowledge about an object is not in itself a condition of “interest”. while his is not) is that you are “interested” in the sounds made by the automobile and he is not. and the continued roar it makes does not hold or divert or attract your attention. The difference between you (manifested in the fact that your attention is drawn to the sound. We are interested only in those things that evoke in us one or other (or several) of the instinctive impulses. noticing a hundred features which entirely escape his companies. fails to notice the new element. because we quickly exhaust upon it our limited power of discriminative perception. that is can think of the . rather than upon the extent and variety and systematic organization of the cognitive systems of the mind ( knowledge). “Interest. and both are interested in it. or consists in. the possession of appropriate knowledge or (in terms of the “idea” theory) of mass or system of “ideas” related to the object or topic. but the attention of the naturalist is more sustained.b) c) d) e) f) • • • Use social pressure Design appeal with care Repetition can always help Dissonance: when attitude and behaviour don’t match Providing new information Use of fear Influence of family. and is therefore determined by our instincts and our sentiments. even when you ask him to direct his attention to it. or cognitive mental structure. and attention is interest in action. who perhaps is a familiar with the roar as yourself. perhaps of relatively low intensity. is a matter of the enduring setting of our conative tendencies or impulses. It is sometimes alleged that “interest” in any object or topic depends upon. The essential condition of both interest in and attention to any object is that the mind shall be so organized. that enables him to examine it systematically and in detail. To have an “interest” in any object is.” being essentially conative. though such knowledge favours thus sustaining attention: without such knowledge our attention to any object. Thus a naturalist and a layman may discover some strange plant or animal. to be ready to pay attention to it. enters into the complex stimulation. That “interest” is conative rather than cognitive. as well as more effective. for he has the knowledge. that it depends upon the strength of the conative tendencies excited. it excites the curiosity of both. while your friend by your side.

the term motivation can be traced to the Latin word movere. Motivation “Motivation is getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it” Dwight D.” “wishes. which means.” “wants. and that such thinking shall evoke some impulse or desire which maintains a train of activity in relation to the object. activates. virtually all people including lay people and scholars have their own definition of motivation.” “motives.” “drives.” and “incentives. “to move. Usually one or more of the following words are included in the definition: “desires. Eisenhower Today.” Technically. or moves and that directs or channels .” This meaning is evident in the following comprehensive definition: “A motive is an inner state that energizes.object.” “needs.” “goals.

Needs. A drive can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive. drives and goals. Needs Goals (Deprivation) (Reduction of drives) Drives (Deprivation with direction) three interacting and In a systems sense. Drives. selectivity. The key to understand motivation. Although not all psychologists would agree. 2. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. He called from activities which. the motives of competence. Primary Motives Physiologists do not totally agree on how to classify the various human motives. The best one-word definition of a need is deficiency. The Competence Motives While proposed a new conceptualization based upon the assumption that all organisms. unlearned. or primary. have a capacity to interact effectively with their environment. lies in the meaning of. at the same time show direction.” Thus defined. and affection seem best to meet the criteria for this classification. To be included in the general category. Yet such a category seems necessary because there are a number of motives. The other general . animal and human. General Motives A separate classification for general motives is not always given. and relationship between. 3. manipulation. Goals. Thus. and goals. A goal in the motivation cycle can be defined as anything. which lie in the gray area between the primary and secondary classifications. but they would acknowledge that some motivates are unlearned and physiologically based.behaviour toward goals. it appears. needs. The use of the term primary does not imply that this group of motives always takes precedence over the general and secondary motives. In the homeostatic sense. needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. motivation consists of interdependent elements: needs. which will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. a motive must be unlearned but not physiologically based. drives. They are more relevant to organizational behaviour than the primary motives. An understanding of these general motives is important to the study of human behaviour – especially in organizations. activity. The last term is used here because it is more comprehensive than the others. curiosity. biological. With a few exceptions drives or motives are set up to alleviate needs. the competence motive is the most inclusive general drive. 1. and persistence in interacting with the environment. Such motives are variously called physiological. Drives are action-oriented and provide an energizing thrust toward goal accomplishment. At the end of the motivation cycle is the goal. though playful and exploratory in character.

the primary drives. Taking moderate risks is probably the single most descriptive characteristic of the person possessing high n Ach. With some glaring exceptions that have yet to be eradicated. . The interactive effects are always present. In particular. The Power Motives It is the need to manipulate other or the drive for superiority over others – Adler developed the concepts of inferiority complex and compensation. the motives of hunger and thirst are not dominant among people living in the economically developed Western world. anyone who has reared or been around small children will quickly support this generalization. and n Aff. and activity can be considered more specific competence drives. affection is sometimes placed in all three categories of motives. when stifled or inhibited. however. For this reason.drives of curiosity. Although these drives often get the small child into trouble. give way to the learned secondary drives in motivating behaviour. The Affection Motives Love or affection is a very complex form of general drive. The Curiosity Manipulation. the learning principle of reinforcement is conceptually and practically related to motivation. achievement. and affiliation. 1. the total society might become very stagnant. and activity drives are quite intense. Part of the complexity stems from the fact that in many ways love resembles the primary drives and in other ways it is similar to the secondary drives. manipulation. Some writer’s regards reinforcement and motivation as equivalent. it should be emphasized that although the various behavioural concepts can be separated for study and analysis. A motive must be learned in order to be included in the secondary classification. manipulation. security and status are also important secondary motives. Once again. and activity. especially in reference to organizational behaviour. in reality concepts like reinforcement and motivation do not operate as separate entities in producing human behaviour. Secondary Motives Whereas the general drives seem relatively more important than the primary ones to the study of human behaviour in organizations. Moderate risk taking. the secondary drives are unquestionably the most important. In addition. and Activity Motives It is generally recognized that human curiosity. and to a lesser degree the general drives. As a human society develops economically and becomes more complex. or as they are commonly referred to today. The Achievement Motive Characteristic of high achievers. Numerous important human motives meet this criterion. n Ach. The relationship is obvious when reinforcement is divided into primary and secondary categories and is portrayed as incentives. curiosity. manipulation. Some of the more important ones are power.

they tend to be totally preoccupied with the task until it is successfully completed. In reality.) • Carefully selecting personnel Performance encouragement (Provide timely rewards) • Values of rewards • Amount of rewards • Timing of rewards • Likelihood of rewards • Fairness of rewards Various approaches to job design for performance . Preoccupation with the task. or society. The Status Motive Status can be simply defined as the relative ranking that a person holds in a group. As presented here. Satisfaction with accomplishment. Three key areas of responsibility A. Gellerman notes that this special drive for security is largely unconscious but that it greatly influences the behaviour of many people. 3. security is much more complex than it appears on the surface. The Affiliation Motive Affiliation plays a very complex but vital role in human behaviour. for it is based largely on fear and is avoidance-oriented. HR etc.2. Sometimes affiliation is equated with social motives and / or group dynamics. Closely connected to high achievers’ taking moderate risks is their desire for immediate feedback. 4. but not for the usual reasons of wanting money for its own sake or for the material benefits that it can buy. material. or they do not expect or necessarily want the accompanying material rewards. Need for immediate feedback. security appears to be much simpler than other secondary motives. Once high achievers select a goal. The Security Motive One the surface. the affiliation motive is neither as broad as is implied by the definition of social motives nor as comprehensive or complex as is implied by the definition of group dynamics. Performance definition (Set Objectives) • Goals • Measures • Assessment Performance facilitation (provide resources) • Elimination of roadblocks to performance • Providing means and adequate resources (finance. organization. High achievers find accomplishing a task intrinsically satisfying in and of itself. A good illustration of this characteristic involves money. infrastructure.

c. interesting and challenging. Social technical approach – making a group or a team responsible for the job and balancing social and technical aspects of the job. Intentions or goals Responses action or Performance reinforcement • • Valid and practical – useful No commitment to work – Goal setting will not work. Scientific Management – Talyor – forerunner of goal setting. feedback and incentives into the structure of the job. Goals provide direction to behaviour. b. Job rotation – doing different jobs for variety. f. d. b. Role of intention in human behaviour. The theoretical background a. Goal – setting – building goals. f. c. Job engineering – concentrates on the efficiency of the job through time and motion analysis of person – machine interfaces. e. People strive to attain goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. Goal – Setting theory Values and value Emotions and Consequences Judgments desires Feedback or Theories of Motivation . e.Appropriately designed job – higher employee satisfaction and quality of performance a. al. Job characteristics approach to Job Design – Hackman & Oldham Equation Motivating (MPS) feedback Potential score = Skill variety + Task identity + Task Sign x autonomy x 3 Goal Setting theory • • The cognitive based work was given by locke et. Emotions or desires are the ways person experiences values. d. Job enlargement – adding more tasks to the job for variety. Importance of values or valence and consequences. Job enrichment – making jobs more meaningful.

Self-actualization Esteem Belonging Safety Physiological McClelland Achievement Theory of Motivation • We have three basic social needs: affiliation. there is a surprising degree of agreement. to strive to succeed. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation In the first category are Maintenance or Hygiene factors. In the Second category are the Motivators since they seem to be effective in motivating people to superior performance. Lower/primary order needs includes basic physiological needs & safety and security. esteem and self-actualization needs. • Need for affiliation : The drive for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. unless the needs of lower order are reasonably satisfied. which are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of job satisfaction. • Need for power : The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Hygiene/Maintenance • Company policy & Adm. But if you look at the theoretical emphasis of the behavioural scientists who have been studying motivation. • Relationship with supervisor • Working conditions • Salary • Relationship with peers Motivators • Achievement Recognition • Work • Responsibility • Advancement • Growth ..e. to achieve in relation to a set of standards. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs or Deficient Theory of Motivation Needs are arranged in a definite sequence of domination i. Absence of these factors may dissatisfy the employee but will not demotivate them. • Need for achievement : The drive to excel. those of the higher order do not dominate.There is no simple formula to motivate people. power & achievement. Higher/secondary needs are belonging or social needs.

close supervision. Evidence suggests that teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills. welfare measures.• Personal life • Relationship with subordinates • Status • Job security • Technical supervision McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X emphasizes on discipline. As organizations have restructured themselves to compete more effectively and . Today. incentive programs. the decision of companies to introduce teams into their production processes made news because no one else was doing it. and experience. pension and other benefit programs. Team Building Twenty years ago. Theory Y represents the democratic approach and gives to the employees scope for creativity and responsibility. responsibility and involvement in serious endeavour. It’s the organisation that doesn’t use teams that has become newsworthy. It stresses man’s need for work. it’s just the opposite. work force is a reservoir of untapped imagination. judgment. intelligence and commitment.

• Encourage consideration of individual strengths and weaknesses. stimulating greater personal knowledge. accountability for team outcomes. Members feel responsible for the output of their team and act to clear difficulties standing in their way.The Undeveloped Team: The ‘Forming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Facilitate ‘getting to know you’ exercise. they have turned to teams as a way to better utilize employee talents. therefore. It is imperative to take note of the following key terms to understand the definition of a team. Responsibility for team’s purpose and goals is shared and understood by all members. A team. Management has found that teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than are traditional departments or other forms of permanent groupings. rooted in the feelings as well as the thoughts of its members.efficiently. • Shared responsibility. they actively care about their team’s well being. Teams have the capability to quickly assemble. Definition: An energetic group of people who are committed to achieving common objectives. is more than a collection of individuals. leading hopefully to a final ‘mature’ stage that equates to effective team functioning. Why Have Teams Become So Popular? Effective teams produce outstanding results and succeed in achieving despite difficulties. and disband. • Demonstrate openness by example. refocus. which identifies the focus for the team’s activities and includes both services and products. • All members share outcome. • Interdependence. in which each team member makes individual contributions. a team consists of individuals who relate directly together to get things done. According to the definition. who work well together and enjoy doing so. . The Stages of Team Development When a group of people come together to achieve an objective they will go through a series of stages. deploy. • Make team activities enjoyable. Other members depend on those contributions and share work information with one another. because rarely in practice can more than nine people function as single team. Woodcock presented “Developmental model” in his Team Development Manual. • Give maximum support. and who produce high quality results. This suggests a practical limitation on size. The main stages can be summarized as follows: Stage 1 . • Invite members to share their concerns and problems. It is in part an emotional entity.

• Find opportunities to experiment. • Clarify values.Stage 2 .The Consolidating Team: The ‘Norming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Develop problem-solving skills. • Seek common ground. • Clarify objectives. • Give minimal support. • Develop a capacity for the team to compensate for individual weaknesses. • Consider the possibilities of enhanced inputs into the organisation. • Encourage individual team members to ‘air their grievances’. • Encourage informal communications. • Experiment with different forms of leadership • Allow leadership to change with the needs of the task.The Mature Team : The ‘Performing’ Team The features of this stage are: • Build bridges with other teams.The Disbanding Team: The ‘Mourning’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Competence has been established at a high level. Stage 3 . • Develop decision-making strategies. • Allow conflicts to surface. • Commitment may surge or dip.The Experimenting Team: The ‘Storming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Encourage greater openness. • Give moderate support. • Celebrate successes. • Develop individual skills. • Regularly review performance and plan improvements. • Build bridges between individuals. • Expose team functioning to external scrutiny. Stage 4 . • Begin to involve team members in review of team performance. • Question decision making and problem solving methods. Stage 5 . • Encourage people to share strengths. Implications There are certain implications of these five stages. • Fight insularity. Forming: awareness of the formation process means encouraging discussion on issues such as : • Why are we here? • What’s our real purpose? • What holds us firmly together? . • Give high level of support.

for example by having fun together. socializing.• • • • • What are we prepared to do and NOT do together? What are our rules for working together? What do we expect from one another? How will people outside this group respond to us? What’s the best and worst that could happen if we continue down this route together? Storming: during this stage.for example making space to air them? Norming: during this phase contribute to good communications by helping people realize: • What are our formal rules? • What are our usually unspoken rules? • Who has what formal role? • How far can people challenge the group in some way? • How do we deal with differences of opinion? • How far can an individual follow his or her own interests at the expense of the group? Performing: now you can help the communication process by focusing on • What are our specific targets or goals? • How are we setting about achieving them? • Who has what detailed responsibilities and do they understand these? • Can we make being together more rewarding . which can be exciting and difficult. help group communication by encouraging attention to issues such as: • When do we stop meeting? • Who should we tell? • What remains to do before the last meeting? .for example by compromise or formal voting? • What happens if someone refuses to conform to the group’s wishes? • How do we deal with strong feelings . encourage group communication around issues such as: • What role is each of us to play? • Shall we have a formal leader or chairperson? • Who wants to become the leader? / Whom do we want as leader? • What powers shall we give our formal leader? • How do we resolve conflict if several people want to lead? • Do we encourage disagreement and people expressing a difference of opinion? • How will we resolve differences between us . recognizing one another’s successes? • How best can we support people through difficult times? • Are we listening to one another properly? • Does each speaker build on what the previous person has said? • Do we give each other and the group regular feedback? • Who is showing high or low commitment to group aims? Mourning: when the group is ending.

organising a final party. sending a final report? Could we make the ending into a celebration? .for example handling residual assets or remaining tasks? What do people feel about the group coming to an end? How do we handle these feelings .• • • • Who takes responsibility for post-group matters .for example having a reunion in a year.

solve problems. As a result. but from different work areas. boundaryspanning groups for years. Problem Solving Teams They typically are composed of five to twelve employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality. develop new ideas. Cross-functional teams are an effective means for allowing people from diverse areas within an organisation (or even between organisations) to exchange information. . efficiency. Many organisations have used horizontal. and coordinate complex projects. these responsibilities include collective control over the pace of work. The three most common forms of teams in an organisation are problem solving teams.Team Building Process • • • • • • • • • • Developing Teamwork Identify the need Know one another Form team charter Perform team tasks Use team tools Work Together Consensus Cooperate with other Teams Evaluate Teamwork Types of Teams Teams can be classified on the basis of their objective. Cross-Functional Teams Cross-functional teams are made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level. Too often the members feel frustrated because they cannot find a clear way of meeting their own needs and aspirations. and cross-functional teams. Self-Managed Work Teams Self-managed work teams are generally composed of ten to fifteen people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors. determination of work assignments. Typically. and collective choice of inspection procedures. Symptoms of Ineffective Team Work • As organisations get larger the opportunities for personal expression and satisfaction often becomes less. Fully self-managed work teams even select their own members and have the members evaluate each other’s performance. selfmanaged work teams. supervisory positions take on decreased importance and may even be eliminated. and the work environment. who come together to accomplish a task.

• • • • Team members lose their inspiration and lack the commitment and motivation to work. Productivity: is the team getting enough done? Empathy: do the team members feel comfortable with each other? . which are the essential ingredients of effective teamwork. Dishonest statements and the taking of false bargaining stances. Low quality of relationship between the team members is indicated when people cannot confide in or trust their leader.they enjoy backbiting and playing dirty tricks and politics on their own teammates. Occasionally they become tedious and dull. He does not represent their view and they do not subscribe to his. The leader becomes increasingly isolated from his team. The unhealthy competition between team members . • • • • Avoiding Blowups Usually team-building sessions are interesting and constructive. The following guidelines can help you to use these team-building materials successfully: • • • • • • • Voluntary Involvement Adequate Discussion Time Appropriate Sequence Careful Preparation Relevant Choices Avoid Undue Threat Work Through Conflicts and Difficulties Appraisal of Team Functioning Following is a checklist for making on-the-spot appraisal of team functioning by acronym PERFORMS. it can easily be rewarding place where people love to be. Team members often spend a lot of time on retaliation. they provide a potential for significant progress. which employees wear on their faces. Work does not have to be a dull and unenjoyable place. Mistakes become an excuse for punishing those who have committed thus giving a vent to their frustrations. The low quality of meetings can usually be determined by the way in which individuals either look forward to or dread the normal weekly or monthly get together. Poor teamwork is indicated by the dull expression. If group difficulties and blowups are handled with care. Rarely team-building events can blow up with uncomfortable or hurtful incidents. They do not use mistakes as opportunities for increased learning and improvements. where they are fearful of him or where their conversations are on a superficial or trivial level than real team work. Effective team work breeds happiness and the uninformed visitor often gets an immediate impression of whether work is a happy place to be or whether he is likely to be ‘killed in the rush’ if he is around.

• High Motivation. The team feeds the individual’s need to have personal significance. potentially the most flexible and competent tool known to mankind. Individuals often feel that it is hard to influence organisations and make any impact outside their immediate area. can achieve much. the use of a team approach improves the overall quality of decisions. about the “fortress . Well-developed teams are capable of responding quickly and energetically. can support a positive management strategy in the following ways: • Management of Complexity. • Collective Strength. Team building is time consuming and can be expensive.Roles & goals: do they know what they are supposed to be doing? Flexibility: are they open to outside influence and contribution? Openness: do they say what they think? Recognition: do they praise each other and publicize achievement? Morale: do people want to be in this team? The most common indicators of problems in any of these areas: Productivity: a boss in a bad temper. • Rapid Response. The breadth of resources available to the team enables complex situations to be creatively managed. the level of commitment to team decisions is much higher. Perhaps more importantly. It is important to identify how the approach can be used to give useful benefits. Empathy: no coffee at team meetings Roles & goals: puzzled faces Flexibility: annoyed outsiders talking mentality”. • High Quality Decisions. Mature teams are capable of making better quality decisions than all but the most brilliant individual. together. and team processes encourage activity and achievement. The team changes this as team members extend their viewpoint to see that they. Hence. Openness: silence Recognition: backbiting Morale: everyone’s left! Benefits of Team Building The team.

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Approach – approach conflict. change. Conflict: An Inevitable Product of Change In its simplest term. conflict is no more than a by – product of growth. A variety of ways that drives and roles can be expressed. Casey Stengel We define conflict to be a process in which an effort is purposely made by A to offset the efforts of B by some form of blocking that will result in frustrating B in attaining his goals or furthering his interests. and improve employee morale and productivity.Conflict Part of my job is to keep the five guys who hate me away from the five guys who are undecided. withdrawal. Frustration may lead to any of the defense mechanism used by the human organism. Many types of barriers that can occur between the drive and the goal. 2. or mental – sociopsychological). guarantee achieving desired results. And like change itself. or physical) or covert (inward. psychologists felt that frustration always led to the defense mechanism of aggression. Traditionally. Both positive and negative aspects attached to desired goals. or innovation.” Types Of Conflict Intraindividual Conflict Within every individual there are 1. . or two or more competing goals. The frustration model can be useful in the analysis not only of behaviour in general but also the specific aspects of on – the – job behaviour. Although there are many such mechanism. Conflict can be defined as: “Conflict is a set of divergent behaviours. or methods. it’s practically inevitable. A nmber of competing needs and roles. The barrier may be overt (outward. 3. Goal Conflict Another common source of conflict for an individual is a goal that has both positive and negative features. fixation and compromise. But it’s also something that. three separate types of goal conflict are generally identified: 1. they can be grouped according to four broad categories: aggression. For ease of analysis. and 4. when handled correctly can actually promote better communication. Conflict due to Frustration Frustration occurs when a motivated drive is blocked before a person reaches a desired goal. where the individual is motivated to approach two or more positive but mutually exclusive goals. aims.

Here the needs of both parties in the conflict situation are met. In a lose – lose approach to conflict resolution. Win – win. where the individual is motivated to avoid two or more negative but mutually exclusive goals. and both parties receive rewarding outcomes. 1. Win – lose. both parties lose. One of the more common approaches is to compromise or take the middle ground in a dispute.2. Intergroup behaviour and conflict Antecedents to intergroup conflict. 3. A third is to use an outside third party or arbitrator. and the other party loses. where the individual is motivated to approach a goal and at the same time is motivated to avoid it. Jurisdictional ambiguity 4. In the win – lose strategy one party in a conflict situation attempts to marshal its force to win. Task interdependence 3. Approach – avoidance conflict. A second approach is to pay off one of the parties in the conflict. In the win – win strategy of conflict resolution energies and creativity are aimed at solving the problems rather than beating the other party. Features of Conflict • • • • • Conflict is inevitable Conflict is neither good / bad Conflict is not always caused by trouble makers Conflict is part of change Conflict is sometime desirable . Competition for resources 2. Avoidance – avoidance conflict. Several antecedent conditions have been identified for explaining intergroup conflict. Interpersonal Conflict Sources of interpersonal conflict • Personal difference • Information deficiency • Role incompatibility • Environmental stress Strategies for interpersonal conflict resolution Lose – lose. Status struggles. And finally the fourth type would be parties involved in conflict resolve to bureaucratic rules or existing regulations to resolve the conflict.

accuracy. as well as present. In what. Get Feedback: Take the time to find out what your associates are 3. they reduce serious conflict and build stronger working relationships. Sharing your thoughts and feelings first. communicate openly about how they are (or are not) working together. Ask yourself who. Why. Define Expectations: Meet on a weekly basis with your associates 4. conflict. and timeliness of information that you can provide to an individual will help you to understand that person’s point of view. in a non-threatening way. Review Performance Regularly: When supervisors and employees Ways of Resolving Conflict • Clarify reporting Relationship • Eliminate communication gap / misunderstanding • Restructure the organisation • Introduce new blood/ new thinking • Create Competition Benefits of Dealing with Conflict . often encourages others to tell you what is on their minds.When to Stimulate Conflict • • • • • • • When you have “Yes” men around you When individuals are afraid to admit ignorance When team members create an impression of peace When individuals display too much concern When individuals believe in popularity When individuals lack new ideas When individuals offer resistance to change Five Ways to Sense Conflict Be Visionary: Visualize how your actions or those of others will cause. or are causing. 2. and why questions to determine potential. what. where. Probe for more information by asking questions such as: How so. thinking and feeling. 1. when. sources of conflict. and Can you tell me more? to determine priorities for the upcoming week. how. Do not wait until the last moment to discover that trouble is upon you. Give Feedback: The amount. Any major discrepancies between your expectations will alert you to potential conflict.

Causes of Conflict For a variety of reasons. Benefits to Your Organisation Improved efficiency & effectiveness: Employees will be able to do their jobs more efficiently and effectively by focusing their efforts where they will produce the greatest results. Increased self-respect: You will be able to feel good about yourself and will learn not to take criticism personally. Synergy or teamwork: Managers and associates will be able to focus on serving their customers and each other. and Discuss the Real Problem Three: Ask Questions and Listen! Four: Set Goals and Create an Action Plan Five: Follow Up . the organisation will reap the benefits of creative thinking. you will learn more and gain support from others. Define. and learn from their mistakes. Creative thinking: By encouraging people to make.Benefits to Individual Stronger relationships: You will be able to build stronger relationships as a result of being comfortable expressing your true thoughts. Personal development and growth: When you break down some of your own invisible barriers and become more assertive in resolving or preventing conflict. Many factors contribute to the difficulty in identifying the correct cause of a conflict: • • • • • • • • • • Personality Perceptions Exclusive Goals Deliberate Behaviour Scarce Resources Status Power Rewards Membership Decision Making The Five Steps to Successful Conflict Management Step Step Step Step Step One: Take Responsibility for Dealing with Conflict Two: Uncover. share. Fewer mind games will be played resulting in a less stressful day. many people have difficulty sensing or finding the causes of conflict.

even if negative Blow up.Fourteen Methods for Dealing with Conflict Win / Win • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Be indirect. let people know just exactly how you feel Hide your feelings. only reveal them later to friends or confidants in private Attempt to seek clarification & information about the situation Sublimate your feelings. by talking with those involved Back down under pressure rather than dealing with conflict Make an active attempt to compromise Complain to others about unfairness of the situation Make an effort to seek creative alternatives to the situation Basic Skills to Resolve Conflict Intellectual Skills • Analytical • Learning Ability • Judgement • Planning • Organising • Perception • Conceptualizing • Objectivity • Flexibility Emotional Skills • Honesty • Persistence • Ambition • Self-discipline • Result-orientation • Fast pace • Initiative • Enthusiasm • Assertiveness . put energy & attention in unrelated activities/ interests Spend time listening & gathering additional info. only hint at the problem Find something outside yourself on which to blame situation Use sarcasm in talking about the situation with others Seek a specific scapegoat Make efforts to smooth over tension / live with situation. let off steam.

Arbitration. defined as. Withdrawal. Consistency or inconsistency of results that conflict with expectations. Appeasement. . of course.Interpersonal Skills • Persuasiveness • Gregariousness • Listening • Communication • Writing • Sensitivity Managerial Skills • Gives guidance • Motivates • Delegates • Selects competent people • Terminates incompetent associates • Expects Professionalism Conflict management styles • • • • • • • • Resignation. Persistent or severe punishment. Pressure from behind. Defusion. blocking ongoing goal directed behaviour that may operate in a manner similar to provocation and serve both as an instigator and an external justification for violating normative constraint against aggression. they lean toward the generalization that frustrating situation is frustrating when it involves the experience of failure and this. Confrontation. Compromise. In general. Frustration Frustration – A Western Overview Frustration. is a far cry from the original very rigid definition of a frustrating situation. Maier and Ellen ( 1955 ) describe frustration in the following manner: • • • • • An insoluble problem. Barriers preventing escape. Negotiation.

When this is not possible. “Poorly managed anger is at the root of many serious physical. Two important properties are that the emotions are aversive. there are at least four major classes of behaviour. which has received considerable attention in the laboratory. is the emotional reaction. which can be related to finding alternative means. which needs to be delineated. The most troublesome and often mentioned reaction is aggression. and the type of behaviour that is selected in Frustration is a matter of its availability at the time as well as of a number of other factors. integrate. is withdrawal from the situation. On the behavioural end. It stands for recognize. Frustration instigated behaviour may be directed along different channels by the introduction or removal of barriers and other forms of restraints or by various forms of guidance. Rethink It is an acronym developed and used by IMHI in anger management workshops to help people have new control and power over learning to channel their anger. In this sense. This type of behaviour is altered most readily by a reduction in the state of Frustration. think. notice and keep. At a personal level “Frustration and anger can be evoked when we perceive an inconsistency between what is expected and what is obtained. Frustration leads to some sort of negative emotional state. Probably the most common reaction. aggression induced by economic hardships may be directed away from government offices and towards food stores or racial groups. That is. which can result from frustration. and that it produces or results in increased physiological arousal. it can be tackled at a personal as well as organizational level. the behaviour is compulsive in nature. Conquering Frustration In order to understand how to overcome frustration. empathize. hear.Basic Characteristics of Frustration Instigated Behaviour The Frustration process produces behaviour that is purely an end in itself and not a means to an end. is to try a different response or find an alternate and hopefully unblocked means to the goal. The increased around tends to increase the vigor or strength of whatever response is elicited and this arousal is implications for task performance.” It can be taken care of in the following methods: Fight or Flight People should rethink situations they are confronted with before “blowing up”. Reactions of Frustration The first response to frustration. social and emotional problems. especially to mild frustration. the individual can . from heart disease to neighborhood violence”. The behaviour thus elicited is not an expression of preference since it is not influenced by what it accomplishes. Thus. The aversive nature means that the individual will be highly motivated or reduced in it. Another possible response.

Thus frustration might have positive. Aggression can be directed either against other people. It can also be directed covertly against a person. To be perfect is to change often”. These include the emotional response of anger and associated increased physiological arousal. To the extent it induces increased physiological arousal. frustration can lead a person to try alternative courses of action to achieve goals or fulfill needs. Covert acts would include sabotage. In fact mild frustrations. as shown previously. Overt acts might include strikes. which interfere rather than block can add challenge and include greater overall effort. The organizational aggression could be overt to covert. and the behavioural responses of trying alternative course of action.leave the situation entirely. it may facilitate or inhibit task performance depending upon task complexity. Aggression in organizations can take many forms. that is. Change Management “To improve is to change. work slowdowns. It can be directed covertly against the source of frustration (if a person) either verbally or physically. Effects of Organizational Frustration There are at least four possible reactions to frustration by individuals. covert. Arousal itself. A critical variable causing a person to choose overt. or no aggression would be expectation of punishment for the act. and find another setting in which to achieve the goal. Alternatively. To the extent that it interferes with or blocks task performance. secret withholding of output and stealing. or the effects of frustration on task performance. or against the organization itself. which can hurt another person. motivating effects. continued or severe frustration might result in aggression or withdrawal. Frustration can increase task speed with no additional errors for simple task. an individual can secretly perform behaviours. the individual can abandon the goal entirely and other leave or remain in the situation. to the extent it induces aggression or withdrawal frustration can have damaging effects on organizations. Withdrawal can be manifested temporarily as absenteeism and tardiness. Finally. differentially affects performance depending upon the complexity of the task. Concerned with either aggression. which have potential effects on organizations. or lawsuits. Although it may be possible that mild frustration can increase arousal and facilitate task performance with no additional negative effects in the short run. Finally. Aggression can also be directed against the organization itself. aggression. grievances. and withdrawal. or permanently as turnover. . but interferes with correct performance on complex tasks. frustration can be directly harmful to organizations.

. they can occur as a result of reading a book or an article or hearing something new from a respected person.. Organizations either become more adaptive. services and technology. family planning program. products. g.. they must be able to anticipate the changing patterns of people. Cycles of Change The levels of change become very significant when you examine two different change cycles Participative Change Cycle Directive Change Cycle Participative Change . Automation in industry : irrigation. In an era of accelerating change. Therefore. stagnant and react to change after the fact. Market. • Change in Assumptions and Values: e. • Change in Behaviour : e. flexible and anticipative or they become rigid. 1.g. Changes in individual behaviour seem to be significantly more difficult and time consuming. Attitude structures differ from knowledge structures in that they are emotionally charged in a positive or a negative way. product and competitive conditions are rapidly changing. amendments to the Constitution. patriotism and social discipline in time of war or emergencies. While individual behaviour is difficult enough to change. • Change in Methodology : e. 4. desire for socialistic pattern of society. Change is an alteration in the existing field of forces (external & internal) that tends to affect the equilibrium of an organisation. Types Of Changes in Organizations Macro level • Change in Structure : e. 2. nationalisation of banks.g. liberation movements. markets.. 3. Managers must do more than just react. chemical fertilizers and crop rotation in agriculture. often when it is too late. organization’s degree to excellence is judged by its ability to cope with these changes. Levels of Change Knowledge Changes Attitudinal Changes Individual Behaviour Changes Group or Organisational Performance Changes Changes in knowledge tend to be the easiest to make. it becomes even more complicated when you try to implement change within groups or organisations. g.Winston Churchill Change Change is the name of the game in management today.

Logical Dimension: Based on the technical evidence of economics and science. which tend to develop predispositions towards or against the change. such as higher management. Is the change consistent with norms of the group? Does it maintain group teamwork? These questions need to be resolved keeping in mind society norms. It is hoped that the group will accept the data and will develop a positive attitude and commitment in the direction of the desired change. • Skill to enlist the support of people involved and affected by change. Once this is accomplished. The new contacts and modes of behaviour create new knowledge. 2.A participative change cycle is implemented when new knowledge is made available to the individual or group.) • Skill to devise successful methods to accomplish the objectives and solve the problems. Directive Change This change cycle begins by change being imposed on the total organisation by some external force. Psychological Dimension: Based on the fact that change is logical on terms of the human values and feelings in the situation. the community. This evidence needs to be presented to employees so that they can understand the technical and economic reasons for change. 3. Change Process Managing change means managing the conversation between the people leading the change effort and those who are expected to implement the new strategies. A Model Of Adaptive Orientation Low Anticipative Management Environmental Stability Reactive Management . Sociological Dimension: Based on change logical from the point of view of social values. The critical factors of a change process are : • Skill to identify and analyze the objectives of change (knowledge of understanding what the problem is & finding solutions to it. organisational change may be effected by getting other people to begin to pattern their behaviour. The next step will be to attempt to translate this commitment into actual behaviour. This step is significantly more difficult to achieve. Three Dimensions of Change 1. new laws. An effective strategy may be to identify the informal and formal leaders among the work group(s) and concentrate on gaining their behavioral support for the desired change.

can be divided into three basic types of strategies.Satisficing Management High High Conservative Management Low Adaptive Orientation Strategies For Dealing With Change In some cases where change is forced the new behaviour engaged in creates the kind of knowledge that develops commitment to the change and therefore. An organization may be in greater danger when the environment changes slowly. Normative Re-educative Strategies : The normative re-educative strategies believe that human beings are guided in their actions by sociocultural norms and their commitment to these norms. and the pail is placed on a . and values. The hope is that “if people will only have a chance to see how the new system works they will support it. Big problems are easy to spot. Empirical – Rational Strategies : The fundamental assumption underlying empirical-rational strategies is that human beings are rational and will follow their self-interest once this is revealed to them. because the perceived need for change is what sets the stage for subsequent actions that create a new product or technology. change is not exclusively at the cognitive or intellectual level but is often at a more personal level : habits. they jump out – they don’t want to boil to death. Power-Coercive Strategies : Power-coercive strategies are based on the assumption of compliance of those with less power to the will of those with more power. attitudes. as illustrated in the following passage : When frogs are placed in a boiling pail of water. he will obviously adopt the proposed change if the logic can be effectively communicated. begins to approximate a participative change as it reinforces the individual and group behaviour. Since the person is rational and motivated by his selfinterest. Sensitive monitoring systems are needed to detect gradual changes that can fool managers into thinking their company is doing fine. This strategy is basically straightforward and uncomplicated. Resistance to Change Managers in every company must be alert to problems and opportunities. Failing to use planned change to meet small needs can place the organization in hot water.” Planned change according to Benne and Chin. However. when frogs are placed in a cold pail of water. Consequently. because managers may fail to trigger an organizational response.

Several explanations have been given for resistance to change. Some of these are as follows: 1. Top management • Change involves multiple departments or support reallocation of resources. There exists a deep seated human characteristic to go against change 3. Insecurity created by the ambiguity related to change Resistance has a protective function for the individual. To implement a change. over time the frogs will boil to death. The basic anxieties aroused by the working conditions 4. When a change is introduced. management should analyze . • Users need accurate information and analysis to understand change.stove with the heat turned very low. education When to Use • Change is technical. • Initiators clearly have power. Coercion • A crisis exists. Organisations may be in a state of equilibrium. • Design requires information from others. Kurt Lewin expressed this phenomenon in his field force theory. The change itself produces disequilibrium 2. Tactics for Overcoming Resistance to Change Approach Communication. • Other implementation techniques have failed. Psychologists have studied the phenomenon of resistance to change during the past few decades. Negotiation • Group has power over implementation. with forces pushing for change on one hand and forces resisting change by attempting to maintain the status quo on the other. Participation • Users need to feel involved. • Users doubt legitimacy of change. • Users have power to resist. some forces drive it and other forces resist it. Some opposition to change may be perfectly logical. Techniques for initiating Change Strategies for overcoming resistance to change typically involve two approaches: the analysis of resistance through the force field technique and the use of selective implementation tactics to overcome resistance. • Group will lose out in the change. which suggests that an equilibrium is maintained by driving forces and restraining forces. All behaviour which opposes change is not necessarily resistance.

and one that is usually more effective. stabilizes the change. they may see the need for change. refreezing The first stage. The third stage. the driving forces will be strong enough to enable implementation. Another approach. unfreezing. Thus. refreezing. In organizations. to be effective. therefore. creates motivation for change. or development of a different perspective. in some cases an ethical question may arise regarding the legitimacy of deliberately creating discomfort that may initiate change. reinforcement of the new behaviour is essential. .the change forces. moving or changing 3. By selectively removing forces that restrain change. Change. This change may occur through assimilation of new information exposure to new concepts. However. a change in policy is less resisted when those affected by it participate in the change. If people feel uncomfortable with the present situation. The second stage is the change itself. chances are that the person will revert back to the old behaviour. is to reduce or eliminate the restraining forces and then move to a new level of equilibrium. If the change is incongruent with the attitudes and behaviors of others in the organization. The change process involves three steps : 1. has to be congruent with a person’s self-concept and values. unfreezing 2.

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