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Personality is a concept that we use continuously in our day-to-day routine, when dealing with people. We talk about people as having a good personality or a bad personality or arrogant and aggressive personality. Personality can be reflected in a person’s temperament and is a key factor influencing individual behaviour in organizations. Often the wrong type of personality of a superior proves disastrous in terms of worker unrest and protests. Salvatore Maddi has defined personality as: “Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment.” There are several aspects of this definition that need to be considered. The first aspect is that or relative stability of characteristics. These characteristics account for “consistent patterns” of behaviour. The second aspect is the “commonalities and differences” in the behaviour of people. We are interested in understanding as to what an individual has in common with others as well as what sets that individual apart from others. Every person is in certain aspects, • • • Like all other people Like some other people Like no other person
Personality Types There are two types of individual personality Type A and Type B. A person exhibiting Type A behaviour is generally restless, impatient with a desire for quick achievement and perfectionism. Type B is much more easy going relaxed about time pressure, less competitive and more philosophical in nature. Some of the characteristics of Type A personality are given below. • • • • • • • Is restless, so that he always moves, walks and eats rapidly. Is impatient with the pace of things, dislikes waiting and is impatient with those who are not impatient. Does several things at once. Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time, irrespective of whether everything is done or not. Usually does not complete one thing before starting on another. Uses nervous gestures such as clenched fist and banging on table. Does not have time to relax and enjoy life.
Type B behaviour is just the opposite and is more relaxed, sociable and has a balanced outlook on life. Type A behaviour profile tends to be obsessive and managers with such behaviour are hard driving, detailed-oriented people with high performance standards.
Five • • • •
personality traits related to job performance Extraversion Agreeableness Emotional stability Openness to experience.
Factors Contributing to Personality According to Maier, “knowledge, skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications of behaviour. Learned modifications in behaviour are not passed on to children, they must be acquired by them through their own personal experience.” The probable consensus is that heredity and environment jointly affect personality development. The full potential of a person may or may not be achieved due to environmental constraints and requirements, but the potential for development, both physically and psychologically is determined by the complex set of genes. The factors affecting personality development are illustrated as follows: • • • • • • • Heredity Culture Family Environment Personality Social Situational
Personality Dimensions Some of the more important dimensions of personality that are closely linked with interpersonal and organizational behaviour are discussed as follows: Authoritarianism: Authoritarianism refers to blind acceptance of authority. Authoritarian people believe in obedience and respect for authority. Because of their beliefs in hierarchical order, they make good followers; work better under directive supervision and more productive within authoritarian organizational structure. A closely related term to authoritarians is “dogmatism” which refers to the rigidity of a person’s beliefs. Bureaucratic Personality: A bureaucratic persons respect for authority is not total and blind, but is based upon respect for organizational rules and regulations. A bureaucratic person values subordination, rules, conformity, orderly processes in the organization and impersonal and formal relationships. Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism is a term associated with Niccola Machiavelli, a sixteenth century author who identified personality profiles of noble men. This personality merges in manipulating others for purely personal gains and gaining and keeping control of others. People with Machiavellianims have high self-confidence and high self-esteem. They are cool and calculating and
have no hesitation in using others or taking advantages of others in order to serve their own goals. Problem Solving Style: Individuals have their own style of making decisions and this style reflects their personality in certain ways. Some people are very through, meticulous and detail oriented. Others are impulsive and become easily swayed by what seems to be obvious. The problem solving style has two dimensions. One is the information gathering and the second dimension is evaluation of data and taking of decisions. Further, there are two styles involved in information gathering. One is known as Sensation and the second style known as intuitive style, The evaluation style also has two dimensions. One style involves more emphasis on feeling while the other involves more emphasis on thinking. When the two dimensions of information gathering and the two dimensions of evaluation are combined, it results in four problem-solving styles. These are: 1. Sensation-feeling style. These people are dependable, friendly, social and approach facts with human concerns. They are pragmatic, methodical and like jobs that involve human contact and public relations. Some suitable areas of jobs include teaching customer relations, social workers, and sales people. 2. Sensation-thinking style. They are practical, logical, decisive, and sensitive to details they also prefer bureaucratic type organizations. They are not highly skilled in interpersonal relations and are more suited to such technical jobs as those of production, accounting, engineering and computer programming. 3. Intuition-feeling style. These people are enthusiastic, people oriented, charismatic and helpful. Some of the professions suitable for this style are public relations, advertising, politics and personnel. 4. Intuition-thinking style. These people are creative, energetic, ingenious, and like jobs that are challenging in terms of design and analysis such as system design, law, research and development, top management and so on. Locus of Control Locus of control is the extent to which the individuals believes that: • They control their own lives, or • External forces control their lives, which are beyond their control. A person with a strong “internal locus of control” believes that he controls events concerning his own life and that his internal traits determine what happens in given situation. A person with a strong “external locus of control” feels that outside forces are affecting the events in his life and he is at the mercy of destiny, chance or other people. He believes that “whatever will be, will be” and everything happens by the will of God. Introvert and Extrovert Personalities
Introvert persons are basically shy, they prefer to be alone and have difficulty in communicating. Extroverts are outgoing, objective, and aggressive they also relate well with people. Self-esteem Self-esteem is the degree of respect a person has for himself. Self-esteem is a measure of self-confidence and respect for one’s abilities and motivation. It is also a higher level need in Maslow’s model of hierarchical needs. Self-esteem is positively related to assertiveness, independence and creativity.
The socialization process
a) Organizational socialization – values, norms, behavior pattern. b) Characteristics of organizational socialization of employees • Change of attitude, values and behaviour. • Continuity of socialization over time. • Adjustment to new jobs, work groups and organizational practices. • Mutual influence between new recruits and managers. • Criticality of early socialization period. Socializing new employees • Use of mentor or role model • Orientation and training program. • Reward system. • Career planning. Successful organizational socialization includes • Provide a challenging first job • Provide relevant training. • Provide timely and consistent feedback. • Select a good first supervisor to be in change of socialization. • Design a relaxed orientation program. • Place new recruits in work groups with high morals Emphasis on different characteristics. • Administrative skills • Work motivation • Interpersonal skill • Creativity • Social dominance • Maturity • Independence Propositions – Chris Argyris I. There is lack of congruency between the needs of healthy individuals and the demands of the formal organization. II. The resultant of this disturbance are frustration, failre, short – time perspective and conflict. III. Under certain conditions the degree of frustration, failure, short – time perspective and conflict will tend to increase. IV. The nature of the formal principles of the organization cause the subordinate, at any given level, to experience competition, rivalry,
V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.
inter – subordinate hostility and to develop a focus toward the parts rather than the whole. The employee adaptive behaviour maintains self – integration and impedes integration with the formal organization. The adaptive behaviour of the employees has a cumulative effect, feedback into the organization and reinforces itself. Certain management reactions tend to increase the antagonisms underlying the adaptive behaviour. Other management actions can decrease the degree of incongruence between the individual and formal organization. Job or role enlargement and employee – centred leadership will not tend to work to the extent that the adaptive behaviour (propositions III, IV, V and VI) has embedded in organisational culture and the self – concept of the individual. The difficulties involved in proposition IX may be minimized by the use of reality oriented leadership.
There are several theories but the more prominent among them are: (i) type, (ii) trait, (iii) psychoanalytic, (iv) social learning and (v) humanistic. Type Theories Type theories place personalities into clearly identifiable categories. Kretschmer and Sheldon are credited with this classification. In type theories relationship was sought to be established between features of face or body and personality. Thus, a short, plumb person (endomorph) was said to be sociable, relaxed, and even tempered; a tall, thin person (ectomorph) was characterized as restrained, self conscious, and fond of solitude; a heavy set muscular individual (mesomorph) was described as noisy, callous, and found of physical activity. Although a person’s physique may have some influence on personality, the relationship is much more subtle than this sort of classification implies. Thus classification of personalities on body basis is subjective. The second basis to type personalities is psychological factors. Carl Jung, divided all personalities into introverts and extroverts. These terms are normally associated with an individual’s sociability and interpersonal orientation. Extroverts are gregarious, sociable individuals, while introverts are shy, quiet and retiring. Trait Theories Trait theorists assume that a personality can be described by its position on a number of continuous dimensions or scales, each of which represents a trait. Thus, we could rate an individual on a scale of intelligence, emotional stability, aggressiveness, creativeness, or any of a number of other dimensions. Psychologists working in a area of trait theory are concerned with (a) determining the basic traits that provide a meaningful description of personality, and (b) finding some way to measure them. Psychoanalytic theory is based on the in-depth study of individual personalities. Social Learning Theory There are two ways of learning : Learning through reinforcement – direct experience and learning by observing others, also called vicarious learning.
Maslow’s Self-Actualisation Theory Abraham Maslow is regarded as the spiritual father of humanism in American psychology. share a common emphasis on man’s potential for self direction and freedom of choice. This drive of man which is inherent in him. Such an approach to personality emphasizes the self and its characteristics. For Rogers. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are credited with the humanistic theory of personality. Humanistic psychology of Maslow radically differs from psychoanalytic and learning or behaviouristic theories.For social learning theorists reinforcement is not always necessary for learning. * Also refer to “Personality Theories – Ziegler” for Freud’s Personality theory Assertiveness Meaning of Assertiveness Webster defines “assert” as “to state positively with great confidence”. behaviour is utterly dependent upon how one perceives the world – that is. By self-actualisation Maslow meant the development of full individually. Humanistic psychology of Maslow. he can learn by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequences of those actions. the . although different in some respects. They believe that since an individual can make use of complex symbolic processes to code and store his observations in memory. this theory is often. Rogers’ Self Theory Roger’s approach to personality is described as phenomenological. Assertiveness is a term meant to describe the extent of control. Some of the person variables that determine what an individual will do in a particular situation include the following : • Competencies • Cognitive strategies • Outcome expectations • Subjective value outcome • Self regulatory systems and plans The Humanistic Approach The humanistic approach to the study of personality includes number of theories. referred to as self theory of personality because the best vantage point for understanding behaviour is from the internal frame of reference of the individual himself. It is the extent of forcefulness a person (or leader) uses with a view to express himself. behaviour is the result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by the individual. Indeed. postulates man as self actualiser. with all parts of the personality in harmony. Existential philosophy is concerned with man as an individual and each person alone is responsible for his own existence. is called self-actualisation. on the other hand.
he attempts to make things happen. he always strives to make the good try so that win. We state our preference clearly and confidently. It means expressing what you think or feel without endangering the ego of others.” 2. • • • Promotes equality in human relationship It keeps both parties in all situations on an equal footing. The Assertive Personality According to Webster’s Third International Dictionary. It is a positive way of behaving. friends and family. This is what I feel. he accepts his limitations. Assertive people can initiate conversation. He pursues what he desires. • Take initiative in starting conversations. 2. Assertiveness is a skill you can acquire – not a personality trait. He has an active orientation to life. lose or draw. It promotes win .win situations in dyadic relationships. can cope with justified criticism – and can give it too. It confers personal power and restores balance of power. However. activities. It is an essential skill for a leader. This can mean that it is appropriate on occasions to be angry. time schedule. Enabling us to act in our own best interests It assists us to : • Make decisions about career. Through words and actions he makes the statement “This is me. Characteristics of Assertive Behaviour When we are assertive. or ourselves without being threatening or putting other people down. lifestyles. He can communicate with people on all levels – with strangers. that doesn’t involve violating the rights of other people. assertive behaviour is appropriate behaviour. think and want. the verb “assert” means “to state or affirm positively.leader tries to exercise over both the followers as well as the situation. groups • Trust our own judgment • Set own goals and work to achieve them • Ask help from others • Participate socially 3. or it can mean choosing not to be assertive in a particular situation or with a particular person. need. we tell people what we want. 3. without belittling others. Above all. This communication is open. To stand up for ourselves without undue anxiety • Saying “No” . Aware that he cannot always win. In contrast to the passive person who waits for things to happen. assuredly. 4. or would prefer. relationships. plainly or strongly. It is saying what you mean and having self-respect and respect for others. honest and appropriate. he maintains his self-respect. direct.” The assertive person possesses four characteristics: 1. He acts in a way that he respects himself. 1. He feels free to reveal himself. can compliment others and receive compliments gracefully.
consumer. • Act in ways that increase your liking and respect for yourself. • Understand assertion is not a permanent state. life situations change. intimidation. and assertive in another area. gifts. If you can say “Go to the end of the line” to a woman at the supermarket. member of an organisation. affection. whether angry or tender. • To accomplish the above without unfair criticism of others without hurtful behaviour towards others. without name-calling. put-downs. manipulatory behaviour with true assertion. Assertiveness: Principles Whatever your problem. . Assertive Behaviours Assertiveness is a set of congruent behaviours one can learn through persistence and practice. and you face new challenges and need new skills. To exercise personal rights. school. • Realize you may be unassertive in one area. Without denying others’ rights. • Do not confuse glib. workgroup. • Examine your own behaviour and determine areas where you would like to become more assertive. like marriage. company. • Do not confuse aggression with assertion. As you change. friendship To admit fear or anxiety To express agreement or support 5. manipulation and controlling. anger Expressing. you can eventually announce “No I don’t want to do that” to your spouse. 1. • Competency as citizen. Aggressiveness is an act against others. there are certain basic principles for being assertive: • Reveal as much of your personal self as is appropriate to the situation and the relationship. • Strive to express all feelings. Apply the techniques you use successfully in one area to the other. and strengths. like business. 6. • • • • Setting limits on time and energy Responding to criticism.• • • 4. • Practice speaking up with trivia. supporting or defending an opinion To express honest feelings To disagree To show anger. • As participant in public events to express opinions • To work for change • To respond appropriately to violations of own or others’ rights. Think and talk about yourself in a positive way It may help you take time to compile a list of your qualities. Pay attention to what you can do differently rather than how the world can be different. Assertion is appropriate standing up for yourself.
3. In saying ‘No’ there is no need to be rude. Waiting for the other to take the initiative does not always have the desired effect. that is. Ask no more of others than you ask of yourself. Feel comfortable expressing honest compliments You surely appreciate certain things about other people . and the thoughts you think worth expressing both positive. and it is good that they express their appreciation through honest compliments. and be ready to be misunderstood. learn to live peacefully with the results. 5. neither is it necessary to give many explanations. Risks are risks no matter who takes them. 10. Express yourself directly and spontaneously The feelings you actually experience. Take the first step in forming new friendships Friendships are important. Make it clear that you are saying ‘No’ to the request. what that say. Be able to say “No” Specially so if you honestly think others take advantage of you. the way they work. 4. If you wait for them to act. Whatever the outcome you’ll feel better for having stood up for your rights. not to the person. If you are deficient in this behaviour. with due respect for the other person. you assume they are capable of taking risks. depending on the situation 6. firm terms may be enough.something they do.2. 7. stick to the issue without attacking the person. So a reasonable thing to do is to take the first step when you meet someone you would like to know better. they wear. 8. Ask for what you want Clarify yourself about what you want and express it appropriately either as a suggestion or a request or a command. Insist on fair treatment This will often involve you and a person ‘in charge’. then increase the forcefulness of your expression. And recognise the limitations of the situation. Accept compliments without embarrassment Others too appreciate certain things about you. State honest disagreement with ease When you disagree with what someone says. Explore your alternatives: voicing your dissatisfaction in polite. Components of Assertive Behaviour You will recognize the following components of assertiveness: . Keep in touch with friends Valuable friendships often decline because neither party acts to keep it going. as well as negative. you may begin with small issues and gradually move on to bigger ones. if it is not. 9. when you have done all you can.
Level – Both parties: A statement that openly explains the adverse effect a person’s behaviour is having on you. whether it is a school. This is the strongest form of assertion and should only be used when the other types have been tried. unassertive people are ‘institutionalized’ and need a great deal of support before they can ‘come out from under’ and begin to value their role and appreciate that their participation is sought. opinions and feelings. opinions or feelings. However. with their help. Overtly aggressive or manipulative behaviour can bring immediate results. more likely to achieve our objectives in a conflict situation. wants. They can compromise and negotiate. everyone in the organisation suffers. so people work more happily with us than against us. We are then. Often. will probably involve an intense transition period. Empathize – Both parties: This is a behaviour that contains an element of understanding for the other person as well as a statement of your own needs and thoughts. but credibility and integrity are put at risk. Expressing negative feelings or standing up for your rights can be interpreted as ‘out of order’ or ‘insubordinate’. When people feel defensive and have to use their energy for political maneuvering. Ask – The other person: A question or questions designed to clarify where the other person stands. Assertive behaviour is so important to self-esteem and proactive behaviour that it needs to be particularly supported and endorsed in young workers or school children and students. beliefs. Assertive Behaviour at Work Assertive behaviour in the workplace gives everyone a better chance of influencing the system and participating in changes. different ways of expressing your own rights assertively: State – Your rights: A straightforward statement that stands up for your rights by clearly and reasonably stating your needs. there are different types of assertion. . what are his / her needs. an office or shop floor. People behaving assertively make good line mangers. Relationships are more open and working climates are more genuine. Advantages of Assertive Behaviour • Close working relationships: Assertion tends to breed assertion. They will say clearly what they want. The introduction of assertive behaviour into the workplace.• • • • • Giving information Seeking information Expressing feelings Accepting feelings Change desired (in self or other) Assertiveness is a balance between being passive and aggressive. wants. but equally be supportive of staff and take the needs of others into account.
the easier it is to change with Assertiveness Training. In general. A lot of time and energy is wasted on worrying and scheming. the narrower the area. “I’m sorry. An increased change of everyone winning: Assertiveness increases the likelihood that all parties will see their needs met. You allow yourself to be pushed around. If someone steps on your foot. . You seem to be open and honest. Savings in time and energy: We can take decisions more swiftly based on their individual merit and save time when handling disputes. and remain passive in all situations. The split assertive. You may be assertive in a one-to-one relationship.Inappropriate communication. and difficulty with close relationships. You can be able to openly express your tender feelings and yet not be able to show your angry feelings – and vice versa. their ideas and opinions heard and considered and their abilities put to good use. If we are not worried about upsetting people (passive) or scheming how not to miss out (aggression) then we can save ourselves a lot of stress. The person with communication difficulties. Unaware about the realities of social relations. needs etc. A man can be the epitome of passivity at the office. but not in groups. opinions. .Indirect Communication. generally appropriate. reducing the chance of boastfulness (aggression) and hopelessness (passive). lack of clear-cut desires. People may fail at one area of assertiveness and succeed at another. • • . but this seeming assertiveness hides a basic lack of honesty. often extroverted. and behave like a tyrant at home. honesty and appropriateness.” No matter how great your timidity and irresolution. Assertion processes four behavioral characteristics. but often you lack assertion in just one: . you say what you think is the right thing at the wrong time. Blocks Of Assertive Behaviour Following are some of the blocks in the personality that are faced by the individual in being assertive: • The timid soul. a characteristic often accompanied by shallowness of feeling.• • • • • • Greater confidence in yourself: We develop a strong regard for ourselves and a high level of self esteem. You tend to be wordy. our wants. You may be deficient in any or all three of these areas. there is always a point from which you can start to change. The range for split assertive behaviour can be very narrow. Openness and directness.Dishonest or pseudo assertive communication. Greater confidence in others: We have a healthy recognition of the capabilities and limitations of others as opposed to seeing them as inferior (aggression) or superior (passive). rather than blaming others (aggression) or excusing ourselves (passive) Increased self-control: We can channel our thoughts and feelings to produce the behaviour we want. or inner emotions. Increased self responsibility: We take responsibility for ourselves. rather than being controlled by outside events or people. cannot speak up. you say.
These assertive skills can be learned. inhibit you from carrying out the action. he stops the forward motion of your swing. You know what and how of what has to be done. It never occurs to you to treat the stranger as a stranger and the friend as a friend. Do not fight the feedback. the other person should go along with you. he is in control of what’s happening. Try your best to stay . just won’t. not realizing that the life situation provides problems where anxiety is the appropriate reaction. Visualize a man holding up his hand in front of you. criticism. You don’t understand that different kinds of relationships exist with different people. He accomplishes two things. Use mental Ai-Ki-Do (control) when any negative feedback (mental fist) comes your way. but your fears of rejection. because of his own needs. Since he did not move his hand when you hit it. He asks that you to hit his upheld hand with your fist. and have the skill to accomplish it. scrutiny. he feels no pain. He then backs his hand away. Again you are asked to hit his hand with your fist. You have a wrong concept of social reality. in a split second before you’re about to punch him. You feel that as long as you do the right things.• • • • • • The person with behavioral deficits. but question your right to do it. and hangups. You have an erroneous idea of psychological reality. but the economic state of your firm may prohibit a salary increase. The person with specific blocks. his fingers wrap around your fist. you should win them all. You can’t make eye contact or small talk. Reality doesn’t work that way. closeness. Instead. If you don’t there’s something wrong with you. You possess incorrect ideas. become anxious about being anxious. You think you’re supposed to treat a stranger as a friend. But very often. You don’t grant independence to other people. by offering no resistance to your job. Second. the other person. Assertiveness Techniques The Three techniques for Assertiveness are: • Mental Ai-Ki-Do • Information Building • Echoing • Mental Ai-Ki-Do This technique can help you to accept criticism comfortably without becoming defensive. accept the feedback by allowing it to come to you. handle a confrontation. With all your force. First. tenderness. Stay in control by deciding whether you agree to what is said. while still holding on to yours controlling the force you just threw. or start a conversation. feelings. You think as long as you’re being reasonable. Ai-Ki Do is a martial art. You worry about worrying. Then you use your focused listening skills. you hit his hand. This time. You can demand a raise and deserve it. by directing the momentum of your punch. You don’t comprehend the difference between aggression and assertion. You know what you should do. anger.
and you are still being ordered or intimidated to handle a request. Know What You Want To Say: You won’t appear confident if you are unsure of what you want. • Echoing This technique will strengthen your ability to say “no” respectfully without regrets. offer some assistance or time to help with part of the project or task. Stay composed and state over and over again what you want. and even an irate and unreasonable customer. . After sharing your thoughts and feelings. then use the echoing technique. you will teach others that you are serious and determined. Depending upon how well you know the person and your own comfort level. supervisor.Suggest a more suitable person to take on the assignment.If appropriate. but it should not be used exclusively. You do not have to discuss something of mutual interest. in the process. come right out with it! Practise before you say it and check for appropriateness. non-leading questions to elicit feedback and to keep the conversation relaxed and flowing.even – tempered.Inform whoever is requesting your services that you are unable to do the job as it is not into your priorities. Use this technique only after exhausting these strategies: . use humor and open-ended. Say It: Don’t hesitate or beat about the bush. One of the ways trust is built between associates is by the amount of knowledge that is shared by and about each other. If these strategies do not work. Providing information about yourself first will encourage others to share their thoughts and feelings with you. . When it is inappropriate for you to budge on a certain point. . Remember. The technique certainly is used to get your way. • Information Building This technique will help you initiate and build relationships by sharing information about yourself. Some people feel this technique is a rude one because it requires you to be domineering. you start to lose control by giving in to the force. You could appear foolish by asking of something that you eventually realize is not what you want. The technique is similar to an echo because you repeat what you desire. Once you explode or hide. Before meeting with someone. the echoing technique will help you hold your ground with an associate. building relationships takes time. need-to-know information. vendor. Mention other possible ways to complete the work. peer. start out with general information and work up to sensitive. Nor should you restrict sharing information just because the other person has not disclosed much during your conversation. 2. Expressing One’s Feelings The following are some of the points that are taken into consideration while expressing assertive feelings 1. plan what kind of information would be appropriate to share.
5. It is being manipulative. waving your arms around.3. Look the Person in the Eye: People feel more comfortable if you look directly at them. If you simply look shifty and cannot look them in the eye. On the other hand. Begin with the word “I”. Don’t Whine or be Sarcastic: Be direct and honest. 4. . Whining and pleading can either annoy the person or make them feel guilty. This will confuse the person you are speaking to. you certainly will not come across as someone who knows what they want. Say It as Soon as Possible: Do not let too much time pass. 6. so that there can be no confusion. Being sarcastic. Avoid Laughing Nervously: Smile if it’s appropriate. No long explanations are necessary. do not say it at the peak of your anger. communicates hostility as you put the other person down. Be Specific: Say exactly what you want or do not want. but if you giggle or laugh you won’t look as if you mean what you say. or conversely being too rigid. on the other hand. 8. Practise looking relaxed in a mirror – it’s not as contradictory as it sounds! 7. Wait for that to pass. as this builds up apprehension. Look Relaxed: You’ll convey anxiety by shifting from one foot to another.
External Factors Influencing Selection The external factors influencing selection are: Nature: By nature we mean. Similarly. the object. things would be a lot simpler” -Moorhead & Griffin In its simple sense perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen. interpreting. The meaning of perception will be complete when all the three aspects are stressed. viz. viz. When this location is not possible in a newspaper or a magazine. and reacting to stimuli. checking. A few definitions of perception are given below: “Perception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments.” Perceptual Process Perception. They may be inside also. people or animals. Process of Selecting Stimuli Myriads of stimuli seemingly clamour for our attention at any given time. is composed of six processes. touch and tasting. and the individuals doing the perceiving. .” “Perception includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about his environment – seeing. selecting. The study of these perceptional processes shows that their functioning is affected by three classes of variables – the objects or events being perceived. whether the object is visual or auditory. they receive events or objects that have been repressed. and the environment influence what is seen. organizing. We may not be able to report the existence of certain stimuli but our behaviour reveals that we are often subject to their influence.. tasting. These processes are influenced by the perceived and the situation. We receive stimuli through the organs. There is the sixth sense about which much is speculated and nothing is known. as revealed by the definitions. But the perceiver. smell. and whether it involves pictures. Secondary organs receive not only physical objects. stimuli need not be external to us.Perception “If everyone perceived everything the same way. and the left hand side receives more attention than the right hand side. Two sets of factors govern the selection of stimuli: external and internal. the environment in which perception occurs. feeling.. Location: The best location of a visual stimulus for attracting attention is directly in the front of the eyes in the center of a page. and smelling. hearing. hearing. Process of Receiving Stimuli The human organism is structured with five sensory organs. vision. receiving. We need to filter or screen out most of them so that we may deal with the important or relevant ones. a position in the upper portion of a page in more favourable than one in the lower portions.
in their influence on perception. and paranoid perception. strong odour. A loud noise. or which are not what people are expecting. Repetition: The repetition principle states that a repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a single one. Different perceptions of old and young executives are due to their age differences perceptions. Contrast: The contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out against the background. Movement: The principle of motion states that a moving object receives more attention than an object that is standing still. or dim light. Ambivalence: Another factor in perceptual selection is ambivalence or mixed feelings about a situation. or bright light will be noticed more than a soft sound. weak odour. Novelty and Familiarity: The novelty and familiarity principle states that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as an attention getter.Intensity: Stimuli of higher intensity are perceived more than the objects with low intensity. An architect will notice many details of buildings that he passes only once. psychological needs. New objects in familiar settings or familiar objects in new setting will draw the attention of the perceiver. Age Difference: Older senior executives complain about the inability of the new young to take tough decisions concerning terminating or resigning people and paying attention to details and paper work. That is. age differences. even though the smaller one costs as much and as important to the operation. . Learning: Learning. a cognitive factor. interests cannot be distinguished from needs. Internal Factors Influencing Selection Internal factors influencing selection of stimuli include learning. he is likely to be paranoid. Interest: The interests of the perceiver unconsciously influence perception. These factors relate to oneself. the person with a particular interest has a need to involve himself in activities pertaining to it. his perception is likely to be selective at any time. Psychological Needs: Needs play a significant role in perceptual selectivity. It has been argued that. has considerable influence on perception. interests. The young managers in turn complain about the “old guards” resisting change and using paper and rules as ends in themselves. most needs no longer influence perception. It creates expectancy in people. Yet there is some value in conceiving the two as distinct. But if the person has a special interest. People tend to perceive what they want to perceive. Unreal things often look real because of deprived needs. The maintenance engineering staff may pay more attention to a big machine than to a small one. Paranoid Perception: When the person’s perception is so selective that he can find little common ground for communication with others. Size: Generally objects of larger size attract more attention than the smaller ones. will receive their attention. Once they have been satisfied. ambivalence.
In perceiving another. religion. according to the principle. and perceptual constancy. race. Several factors contribute towards what has been interpreted. More important amongst them are Perceptual Set Previously held beliefs about objects influence an individual’s perceptions of similar objects. Figure Ground: Figure ground is considered to be the most basic form of perceptual organization. intentions. . a person is likely to categories the other according to some silent characteristic such as sex. and consequences influence the attribution process. perception is said to have taken place only after the data have been interpreted. As too much credit or blame for behaviour is placed on persons rather than on environment. This is called perceptual set. figure ground. he is ready to perceive the other as possessing the same trait.The Organizing Process The perceptual selection related to the discussion of external and Internal factors which helped gain the perceiver’s attention. and ascribing all good qualities to one who is liked and all bad qualities to another who is disliked. The Process of Interpreting After the data have been received and organized. nationality. closure. The figure ground principle states that the relationship of a target to its background influences perception. Attribution Attribution refers to the process by which the individual assigns causes to the behaviour he conceives. Perceptual Constancy: A more subtle part of perceptual organization is constancy. Factors such as status. or organizational affiliation. our ability to perceive certain characteristics of an object as remaining constant. In fact. Thus. There are critics who argue that perceptual distortion occurs because of attribution. despite variations in the stimuli that provide us with our information. This aspect of forming bits of information into meaningful wholes is called the perceptual organization. size. Stereotyping Stereotyping is the tendency for a person’s perceptions of another to be influenced by the social group to which the others belong. and continuity.. perceptual grouping. occupation. colour. Such constancy amidst changing stimuli is indispensable if we are to adjust to our world. There are three dimensions to the perceptual organization. There are several aspects of constancy such as shape. perceived objects stand out as separable from their general background. viz. In other words. the perceiver interprets or assigns meaning to the information. Perceptual Grouping: The principles of grouping first defined by gestalt psychologists include similarity. proximity. The individual’s experiences with others in the category in which he has placed them lead him to believe that they have certain traits in common. Halo Effect The halo effect refers to the tendency of perceiving people in terms of good and bad.
Implicit Personality Theory In judging and making inferences about others. social and organizational settings of the situation or event in question can influence perceptions. personality.Perceptual Context The context in which an object is placed influences perception. Characteristics of the Perceiver A perceiver needs to have. past experience. The action is positive when the perception is favourable. people tend to see in another person traits that they themselves posses. One way of checking is for the person himself to indulge in introspection. The Process of Checking After data have been received and interpreted. the perceiver tends to check whether his interpretations are right or wrong. an individual is likely to put a defence when confronted with conflicting. Perceptual Defence According to the principle of perceptual defence. which may influence the perception process. Characteristics of the Situation The physical. and change in perception itself. The defence mechanisms put up by the perceiver may assume any of the four forms: outright denial. Factors Influencing Perception The perceiver. The visual stimuli by themselves are meaningless. Another way is to check the veracity about the interpretation with others. tendencies. He should be someone with a strong need for ego satisfaction. appearance. Projection Under certain conditions. and attitudes. The Process of Reacting The last phase in perception is the reaction. and behaviour of persons in the situation also influence how a situation is perceived. they project their own feelings. unacceptable or threatening stimuli. The perceiver shall indulge in some action in relation to his perception. Only when the doodles are placed in a verbal context do they take on meaning and value to the perceiver. It is negative when the perception is unfavourable. That is. change in perception but refusal to change. . Characteristics of the Perceived The physical attributes. and weight. This may be particularly true regarding undesirable traits. height. He will put a series of questions to himself and the answers will confirm whether his perception about an individual or object is correct or not. or motives into their judgement of others. values. with one another. sex. the perceived and situation are some of the factors that influence perception. habits. an individual’s perceptions are influenced by his belief that certain human traits are associated. The action depends on whether the perception is favorable or unfavorable. which the perceiver possesses but fails to recognize himself. We tend to notice the physical attributes of a person in terms of age. modification of the data received.
e. A rejected applicant might feel that he was wronged by the interview though he deserved selection. what is liked is perceived as correct.e. they weigh against him in the final selection Specific applications in organization • Employment interview • Performance expectations • Performance evaluation • Employee effort • Employee loyalty Managing the Perception Process • • • • • • Have a high level of self-awareness. Seek information from various sources to confirm or disconfirm personal impressions of a decision situation. Influence of perceptions of other people when they are drawing incorrect or incomplete impressions of events in the work setting. • You are not able to identify all factors. be able to see a situation. i. If the inadequacies of the candidate are exposed early. Be empathetic – that is.Perception and Organisational Behaviour In an interview for the selection of a candidate.. Five reasons why a person misperceives – Zalkind and Costello • You are influenced by cues below your own threshold i. i. Avoid inappropriate attributions. • You weigh perceptual evidence heavily if it comes from respectable sources. not realizing how much weight is given to a single item. the cues you don’t know you perceived • You respond to irrelevant cues to arrive at a judgment. Avoid common perceptual distortions that biased in our view of people and situations. as others perceive it... . the interviewers’ judgement about the suitability or otherwise of a candidate depends on how his behaviour is perceived by them. But the fact is that interviewers generally form an early impression that becomes quickly entrenched.e. • You are influenced by emotional factors.
This means that after “learning” our behaviour must be different. From an organizational point of view. Second.P. Pavlov with dogs. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning induces a voluntary change in behaviour and learning occurs as a “consequence” of such change. feelings. based upon such consequences. This learning is not caused by biological maturation.Galileo Learning can be defined as a “relatively permanent change in behaviour or potential behaviour as a result of direct or indirect experience”. You can only help him discover it within himself. emotions or perceptions but is keyed to the nature of the outcome of such behaviour. Hence. which differentiates human beings from dogs. the behviour can be predicted and controlled. This leaves no ground for making choices. First is the element that the change must be relatively permanent. either better or worse as compared to our behaviour prior to this experience of learning. Classical Conditioning The most well known experiments on classical conditioning were undoubtedly conducted by I. and he established a Stimulus-Response (S-R) connection. operant conditioning. There are two primary elements in this definition that must both be present in order to identify the process of learning. Theories of Learning There are four general approaches to learning – classical conditioning. . The second aspect of the definition is that this change must occur due to some kind of experience or practice. First. It is based upon the premise that behaviour or job performance is not a function of inner thoughts. Classical conditioning introduces a simple cause-and-effect relationship between one stimulus and one response. that behaviour which results in positive rewards tends to be repeated and behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated. It is also known as reinforcement theory and it suggests that behaviour is a function of its consequences. cognitive learning and social learning.” . any stimulus from the work environment will elicit a response. This means that certain responses can be predicted which continuously result from certain induced stimuli. Under certain situations classical conditioning does explain human behaviour. This relationship is built around two principles. It also makes the response reflexive or involuntary after the stimulus-response relationship has been established.Learning “ You cannot teach a man anything. certain types of consequences can be used to increase the occurrence of a desired behaviour and other types of consequences can be used to decrease the occurrence of undesired behaviour.
These are as follows: Generalization No two situations are exactly alike. Social Learning It is recognized that learning does not take place only because of environmental stimuli (classical and operant conditioning) or of individual determinism (cognitive approach) but is a blend of both views. . It also emphasizes that people acquire new behaviour by observing or imitating others in a social setting. is the act of knowing an item of information and this knowledge affects the behaviour of the person so that the information provides cognitive cues towards the expected goal. Cognition. discrimination is the ability to differentiate between relatively similar stimuli where generalization would yield negative consequences. However. If a person experiences a similar situation that he dealt with before. Principle of Reinforcement Reinforcement is the process by which certain types of behaviours are strengthened. Discrimination While generalization is a reaction to “similarities” of stimuli or responses. then some of his previous experience would be transferred to the new situation and his learning time in the new situation would be considerably decreased. in fact. the individual can adjust to new learning situations more smoothly because of the previous learning experiences. There are two concepts that help in explaining the transfer of learning. Because of the principle of generalization. responses to certain situations can be applied to similar but different situations. Transfer of Learning Berelson and Steiner suggested that learning can be transferred from one situation to another and the extent of such transfer is a function of the extent of similarity in the stimulus or response. Some reinforcers work by their application to a situation. while other reinforcers work by their removal from the situation.Cognitive Learning Learning is considered as the outcome of deliberate thinking about the problem or situation both intuitively and based upon known facts and responding in an objective and goal oriented manner. Thus these reinforcers work as behaviour modifiers. Thus a “reinforcer” is any stimulus that causes certain behaviour to be repeated or inhibited. This process of self-control is also partially a reflection of societal and cultural influences on the development and growth of human beings. In addition learning can also be gained by discipline and self-control and an inner desire to acquire knowledge or skills irrespective of the external rewards or consequences.
then such behaviours would become less frequent and eventually die out. but technically there is a difference. The punishment process. especially when such behaviours were previously rewarded. In the extinction process. The punishment process is similar to the extinction process in that both have the effect of decreasing and eliminating the undesirable behaviour. This means that if rewards were removed from behaviours that were previously reinforced. Schedule of Reinforcement While it is necessary to know as to which type of reinforcement would be most effective in a given situation. Punishment Punishment is the most controversial method of behaviour modification and involves delivering an unpleasant consequence contingent upon the occurrence of an undesirable behaviour. The various ways by which the reinforcement can be administered can be categorized into two groups. which has never been associated with the reward before.Positive Reinforcement A positive reinforcement is a reward for a desired behaviour. However. Negative Reinforcement Also known as “escape conditioning” or “avoidance learning”. unlike the positive reinforcement where an employee works hard to gain financial and other rewards. the employee works hard to avoid repercussion. we withhold rewards for behaviour that has previously been rewarded because the behaviour was not undesirable previously. it is also a method of strengthening desired behaviour. The reward should be sufficiently powerful and durable so that it increases the probability of occurrence of desirable behaviour. These are continuous and partial reinforcement schedules. since money can be used for a number of other resources too. reprimand and other negative aspects of the organizational environment. Money is probably the most powerful reinforcement for positive behaviour. Extinction This type of reinforcement is applied to reduce undesirable ‘behaviour. on the other hand consists of “application” of an undesirable consequence or “withdrawal” of a desirable consequence for an undesirable behaviour. under avoidance conditioning. The method involved is a suitable form of punishment in the form of withholding the positive enforcement or simply ignoring the undesirable behaviour. it is equally important to examine the various ways or “schedules” of administering these techniques of reinforcement. .
the reinforcement is administered only upon the completion of a given number of desirable responses. It is believed that “behaviour tends to be persistent when it is learned under conditions of partial and delayed reinforcement. Fixed Interval Schedule In this type of schedule. Fixed-ratio Schedules In a fixed-ratio schedule. The simple rules of leaning are: 1. 2. It is important for the management to recognize the power of work-group norms. 2) Behaviour modification programs assume that extrinsic rewards are the key factors in behaviour modification and they ignore the fact that employees can be intrinsically motivated. 2. However the behaviour learned by continuous reinforcement strategy tends not to persist for which such reinforcement is applied less frequently. Variable Interval Schedule In this type of schedule.Continuous Schedule A continuous schedule is the one in which the desirable behaviour is reinforced every time it occurs and the reinforcement is immediate. there are some limitations that make these techniques ineffective in certain situations. 3. 4. 1) Behaviour modification is an overall structure and ignores individual differences. Te order of presentation of materials to be learned is very important.. 3) Behaviour modification is that it ignores prevailing work-group norms. The capacities of learners are important in determining what can be learned and how long will it take to learn it. . as discussed previously are effective in eliciting desirable behaviours from employees in work situations. some of the behavioural modification techniques. There are four kinds of partial reinforcement schedules. 3. There are: 1. the reinforcement is administered at random times that cannot be predicted by the employee. a response is reinforced at fixed intervals of time. are not fixed but vary from situation to situation. This results in fast acquisition of the desired response and the learning is rapid. Partial Reinforcement Schedule A partial reinforcement schedule rewards desirable behaviour at specific intervals. Variable-ratio Schedule It is similar to fixed-ratio schedule except that the number of responses required before reinforcement is determined. Limitations of Behaviour Modification While in general. Showing errors is how to do something can lead to increase in learning.
5. 7. Values. A passage is more easily learned and accepted if it does not interfere with earlier habits. The mere repetition of a situation does not necessarily lead to learning. 10. Repetition of identical materials is often as effective in getting things remembered as repeating the same story but with variations. Two things are necessary – “belongingness” and “satisfaction”.4. 6. Knowledge of results leads to increase in learning. Attitudes and Interest . The rate of forgetting tends to be very rapid immediately after learning. Learning something new can interfere with the remembering of something learned earlier. 9. Learning is aided by active practice rather than passive reception 8.
they contain interpretations of right and wrong. perceptions. pleasure. personality. Values represent basic convictions that “a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.” . Of course. 3. 2. for example. On the contrary. they imply that certain behaviours or outcomes are preferred over others. that is persecution. Religious – It is concerned with the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmos as a whole. others may argue.George Bernard Shaw Values Is capital punishment right or wrong? The answer to this question is value laden. Types of Values The most important early work in categorizing values was done by All-port and his associates. Some might argue. 6. 4. but when I prevent you from doing anything you want to do. Individuals enter an organization with preconceived notions of what “ought” and what “ought not” to be. self-respect. that capital punishment is right because it is an appropriate retribution for crimes like murder or treason. and motivations. as you will see. we all have a set of values that form a value system. However. . Value systems represent a prioritizing of individual values in relation to their relative importance. Theoretical – Places high importance on the discovery of truth through a critical and rational approach.“When you prevent me from doing anything I want to do. these notions are not value-free. order and morals. Aesthetic – It places the highest value on form and harmony. obedience. In other words. or desirable. and so forth. that is law. that no government has the right to take anyone’s life. Economic – Emphasizes the usefulness and practicality of the situation. good. Further. just as strongly. They identified six types of values: 1. Political – It places emphasis on acquisition of power and influence. This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to such values as freedom.” They contain a moral flavor in that they carry an individual’s ideas as to what is right. 5. We all have values and. equality. what we think is important influences our attitudes and our behaviour. honesty. Social – Here the highest value is given to the love of people. Importance of Values Values are important to the study of organizational behaviour because they lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes.
They are aggressive and selfish. Sociocentric. Tribalistic. respect or may be even fear. Manipulative. status symbols. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. In our early years. people. Level 6. One such study identified seven levels. and desire that others accept their values.” I am expressing my attitude about work. We observe the way family and friends behave and we shape our attitudes and behaviour to align with theirs. and peer group members. Level 2. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. These individuals are characterized by high dependence. are acquired from parents. People . like values.More recent research suggests that there is a hierarchy of levels that are descriptive of personal values and life-styles. When I say “I like my job. Level 4. Attitudes are not the same as values. Egocentrism. These individuals are unaware of themselves or others as human beings and react to basic physiological needs. Level 1. This is most descriptive of newborn babies. Reactive. They are outspoken on inflexible systems. Conformity. They respond primarily to power. The statement that “discrimination is bad” reflects one’s values. restrictive policies. They reflect how one feels about something. or events. have difficulty in accepting people whose values differ from their own. These individuals have a low tolerance for ambiguity. Level 5. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by manipulating things and people. Source of Attitudes Attitudes. Level 7. These persons believe in rugged individualism. These individuals have a high tolerance for ambiguity and people with differing values. Values are the broader and more encompassing concept. we begin modeling our attitudes after those we admire. Existential. and arbitrary use of authority. “I favor the implementation of an affirmative action program to recruit and develop women for managerial positions in our organization” is an attitude. So attitudes are more specific than values. Level 3. Values also contain a moral flavor of rightness or desirability. They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and recognition. teachers. They are strongly influenced by tradition and the power exerted by authority figures. Attitudes Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favourable or unfavourable – concerning objects.
In organizations. In fact. The term “job involvement” states that job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies with his job. and involvement in the organization. Type of Attitudes But OB focuses our attention on a very limited number of job-related attitudes. and considers his performance important to his self-worth. Organizational commitment expresses an individual’s orientation toward the organization by tapping his or her loyalty to. while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. there are three primary attitudes that are of concerned to us i. When there is an inconsistency. actively participates in it. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job. and organizational commitment. This means that individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behaviour so they appear rational and consistent. more often then they mean job satisfaction. job satisfaction.e. Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitudes toward his or her job. forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behaviour are again consistent.imitate the attitudes of popular individuals or those they admire and respect. Typically. attitudes are important because they affect job behaviour. the two are frequently used interchangeably. Individuals who express high commitment see their identity as closely attached to that of the organizations. Changing attitudes: Some basic techniques a) Persuasive messages: Hearing sometimes is believing i) Comunicator’s Characteristics • Attractiveness • Style • Credibility ii) Content of persuasive message • Receiver’s characteristics • Intelligence • Self – esteem/ confidence iii) Enhance persuasion • Build personal attractiveness • Enhance credibility . identification with. When people speak of employee attitudes. Attitudes and Consistency People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behaviour. job involvement. These job-related attitudes tap positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment.
and the continued roar it makes does not hold or divert or attract your attention. “Interest. friends and peers Barriers to changing attitudes Interest You are driving your automobile. that is can think of the . But presently a new element. fails to notice the new element. rather than upon the extent and variety and systematic organization of the cognitive systems of the mind ( knowledge). To have an “interest” in any object is. The difference between you (manifested in the fact that your attention is drawn to the sound. That “interest” is conative rather than cognitive.” being essentially conative. then. because we quickly exhaust upon it our limited power of discriminative perception. and your attention is at once attracted.b) c) d) e) f) • • • Use social pressure Design appeal with care Repetition can always help Dissonance: when attitude and behaviour don’t match Providing new information Use of fear Influence of family. determined by conative interest. or consists in. that enables him to examine it systematically and in detail. We are interested only in those things that evoke in us one or other (or several) of the instinctive impulses. and is therefore determined by our instincts and our sentiments. to be ready to pay attention to it. We acquire a great variety of new interests through the building up of sentiments for a great variety of objects. it excites the curiosity of both. while his is not) is that you are “interested” in the sounds made by the automobile and he is not. but the attention of the naturalist is more sustained. either natively or through experience. is a matter of the enduring setting of our conative tendencies or impulses. and attention is interest in action. the possession of appropriate knowledge or (in terms of the “idea” theory) of mass or system of “ideas” related to the object or topic. Knowledge about an object is not in itself a condition of “interest”. Interest is latent attention. Thus a naturalist and a layman may discover some strange plant or animal. that it depends upon the strength of the conative tendencies excited. enters into the complex stimulation. while your friend by your side. or cognitive mental structure. and both are interested in it. perhaps of relatively low intensity. for he has the knowledge. as well as more effective. The essential condition of both interest in and attention to any object is that the mind shall be so organized. soon wanes. who perhaps is a familiar with the roar as yourself. even when you ask him to direct his attention to it. you notice the new sound and begin to wonder what it means. though such knowledge favours thus sustaining attention: without such knowledge our attention to any object. It is sometimes alleged that “interest” in any object or topic depends upon. noticing a hundred features which entirely escape his companies.
Eisenhower Today. Usually one or more of the following words are included in the definition: “desires. “to move.” “motives.” and “incentives. the term motivation can be traced to the Latin word movere. and that such thinking shall evoke some impulse or desire which maintains a train of activity in relation to the object.” Technically. or moves and that directs or channels .” “drives. virtually all people including lay people and scholars have their own definition of motivation.” “wishes.” This meaning is evident in the following comprehensive definition: “A motive is an inner state that energizes. activates.” “needs. which means.” “goals. Motivation “Motivation is getting people to do what you want them to do because they want to do it” Dwight D.object.” “wants.
Although not all psychologists would agree. or primary. and relationship between. unlearned. it appears. lies in the meaning of. drives and goals. Goals. He called from activities which. A goal in the motivation cycle can be defined as anything. have a capacity to interact effectively with their environment. 3. They are more relevant to organizational behaviour than the primary motives. and affection seem best to meet the criteria for this classification. An understanding of these general motives is important to the study of human behaviour – especially in organizations. Such motives are variously called physiological. activity. which will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. the competence motive is the most inclusive general drive. The key to understand motivation. Yet such a category seems necessary because there are a number of motives. selectivity.” Thus defined. To be included in the general category. The other general . but they would acknowledge that some motivates are unlearned and physiologically based. At the end of the motivation cycle is the goal. and persistence in interacting with the environment. Drives are action-oriented and provide an energizing thrust toward goal accomplishment. curiosity. drives. In the homeostatic sense. A drive can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. a motive must be unlearned but not physiologically based. Primary Motives Physiologists do not totally agree on how to classify the various human motives. The best one-word definition of a need is deficiency. 1. needs. The last term is used here because it is more comprehensive than the others. the motives of competence. at the same time show direction. Needs. motivation consists of interdependent elements: needs. which lie in the gray area between the primary and secondary classifications. manipulation. With a few exceptions drives or motives are set up to alleviate needs. Needs Goals (Deprivation) (Reduction of drives) Drives (Deprivation with direction) three interacting and In a systems sense. The Competence Motives While proposed a new conceptualization based upon the assumption that all organisms. Drives. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. and goals. needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. though playful and exploratory in character. The use of the term primary does not imply that this group of motives always takes precedence over the general and secondary motives. Thus.behaviour toward goals. 2. attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive. biological. animal and human. General Motives A separate classification for general motives is not always given.
Part of the complexity stems from the fact that in many ways love resembles the primary drives and in other ways it is similar to the secondary drives. and Activity Motives It is generally recognized that human curiosity. and to a lesser degree the general drives. the total society might become very stagnant. the primary drives. The interactive effects are always present. The relationship is obvious when reinforcement is divided into primary and secondary categories and is portrayed as incentives. manipulation. For this reason. 1. The Curiosity Manipulation. Some of the more important ones are power. The Affection Motives Love or affection is a very complex form of general drive. and activity. Although these drives often get the small child into trouble. and affiliation. and activity drives are quite intense. Some writer’s regards reinforcement and motivation as equivalent. or as they are commonly referred to today. the secondary drives are unquestionably the most important. Secondary Motives Whereas the general drives seem relatively more important than the primary ones to the study of human behaviour in organizations. The Power Motives It is the need to manipulate other or the drive for superiority over others – Adler developed the concepts of inferiority complex and compensation. curiosity.drives of curiosity. however. Once again. In addition. As a human society develops economically and becomes more complex. Taking moderate risks is probably the single most descriptive characteristic of the person possessing high n Ach. give way to the learned secondary drives in motivating behaviour. anyone who has reared or been around small children will quickly support this generalization. the learning principle of reinforcement is conceptually and practically related to motivation. n Ach. With some glaring exceptions that have yet to be eradicated. the motives of hunger and thirst are not dominant among people living in the economically developed Western world. A motive must be learned in order to be included in the secondary classification. achievement. when stifled or inhibited. Moderate risk taking. manipulation. especially in reference to organizational behaviour. The Achievement Motive Characteristic of high achievers. it should be emphasized that although the various behavioural concepts can be separated for study and analysis. Numerous important human motives meet this criterion. affection is sometimes placed in all three categories of motives. security and status are also important secondary motives. manipulation. and activity can be considered more specific competence drives. and n Aff. . in reality concepts like reinforcement and motivation do not operate as separate entities in producing human behaviour. In particular.
Need for immediate feedback. or society. infrastructure. Closely connected to high achievers’ taking moderate risks is their desire for immediate feedback. Gellerman notes that this special drive for security is largely unconscious but that it greatly influences the behaviour of many people. Preoccupation with the task. Sometimes affiliation is equated with social motives and / or group dynamics. 4. The Security Motive One the surface. organization. Satisfaction with accomplishment. Three key areas of responsibility A. A good illustration of this characteristic involves money. High achievers find accomplishing a task intrinsically satisfying in and of itself.) • Carefully selecting personnel Performance encouragement (Provide timely rewards) • Values of rewards • Amount of rewards • Timing of rewards • Likelihood of rewards • Fairness of rewards Various approaches to job design for performance . they tend to be totally preoccupied with the task until it is successfully completed. HR etc. material. or they do not expect or necessarily want the accompanying material rewards. for it is based largely on fear and is avoidance-oriented. but not for the usual reasons of wanting money for its own sake or for the material benefits that it can buy. Performance definition (Set Objectives) • Goals • Measures • Assessment Performance facilitation (provide resources) • Elimination of roadblocks to performance • Providing means and adequate resources (finance. security appears to be much simpler than other secondary motives. As presented here. Once high achievers select a goal. The Affiliation Motive Affiliation plays a very complex but vital role in human behaviour. the affiliation motive is neither as broad as is implied by the definition of social motives nor as comprehensive or complex as is implied by the definition of group dynamics. In reality.2. security is much more complex than it appears on the surface. The Status Motive Status can be simply defined as the relative ranking that a person holds in a group. 3.
Emotions or desires are the ways person experiences values. e. d. interesting and challenging. Role of intention in human behaviour. Goal – setting – building goals. Goal – Setting theory Values and value Emotions and Consequences Judgments desires Feedback or Theories of Motivation . The theoretical background a. c. f. Job enlargement – adding more tasks to the job for variety. Intentions or goals Responses action or Performance reinforcement • • Valid and practical – useful No commitment to work – Goal setting will not work. b. Job rotation – doing different jobs for variety. d. Scientific Management – Talyor – forerunner of goal setting. Job engineering – concentrates on the efficiency of the job through time and motion analysis of person – machine interfaces. al. Job characteristics approach to Job Design – Hackman & Oldham Equation Motivating (MPS) feedback Potential score = Skill variety + Task identity + Task Sign x autonomy x 3 Goal Setting theory • • The cognitive based work was given by locke et. People strive to attain goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. e. Goals provide direction to behaviour. feedback and incentives into the structure of the job.Appropriately designed job – higher employee satisfaction and quality of performance a. f. Social technical approach – making a group or a team responsible for the job and balancing social and technical aspects of the job. c. Importance of values or valence and consequences. b. Job enrichment – making jobs more meaningful.
• Relationship with supervisor • Working conditions • Salary • Relationship with peers Motivators • Achievement Recognition • Work • Responsibility • Advancement • Growth . which are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of job satisfaction. Self-actualization Esteem Belonging Safety Physiological McClelland Achievement Theory of Motivation • We have three basic social needs: affiliation. power & achievement. • Need for achievement : The drive to excel. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs or Deficient Theory of Motivation Needs are arranged in a definite sequence of domination i. Lower/primary order needs includes basic physiological needs & safety and security. there is a surprising degree of agreement. those of the higher order do not dominate. In the Second category are the Motivators since they seem to be effective in motivating people to superior performance. But if you look at the theoretical emphasis of the behavioural scientists who have been studying motivation. Higher/secondary needs are belonging or social needs. Hygiene/Maintenance • Company policy & Adm. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation In the first category are Maintenance or Hygiene factors. • Need for power : The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. to achieve in relation to a set of standards. unless the needs of lower order are reasonably satisfied.. Absence of these factors may dissatisfy the employee but will not demotivate them.e. • Need for affiliation : The drive for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. to strive to succeed. esteem and self-actualization needs.There is no simple formula to motivate people.
the decision of companies to introduce teams into their production processes made news because no one else was doing it. Evidence suggests that teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills. As organizations have restructured themselves to compete more effectively and . incentive programs. It’s the organisation that doesn’t use teams that has become newsworthy. Today. Theory Y represents the democratic approach and gives to the employees scope for creativity and responsibility. It stresses man’s need for work. responsibility and involvement in serious endeavour. judgment. welfare measures.• Personal life • Relationship with subordinates • Status • Job security • Technical supervision McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X emphasizes on discipline. work force is a reservoir of untapped imagination. intelligence and commitment. it’s just the opposite. pension and other benefit programs. and experience. Team Building Twenty years ago. close supervision.
Management has found that teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than are traditional departments or other forms of permanent groupings. rooted in the feelings as well as the thoughts of its members. A team. leading hopefully to a final ‘mature’ stage that equates to effective team functioning. • Make team activities enjoyable. • Give maximum support. Other members depend on those contributions and share work information with one another. Members feel responsible for the output of their team and act to clear difficulties standing in their way. • All members share outcome. because rarely in practice can more than nine people function as single team. in which each team member makes individual contributions. According to the definition. accountability for team outcomes. Definition: An energetic group of people who are committed to achieving common objectives.efficiently. is more than a collection of individuals. they have turned to teams as a way to better utilize employee talents. stimulating greater personal knowledge. and disband. This suggests a practical limitation on size. Why Have Teams Become So Popular? Effective teams produce outstanding results and succeed in achieving despite difficulties. • Shared responsibility. refocus. • Invite members to share their concerns and problems. The main stages can be summarized as follows: Stage 1 . a team consists of individuals who relate directly together to get things done. . therefore. they actively care about their team’s well being.The Undeveloped Team: The ‘Forming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Facilitate ‘getting to know you’ exercise. which identifies the focus for the team’s activities and includes both services and products. Woodcock presented “Developmental model” in his Team Development Manual. and who produce high quality results. deploy. It is imperative to take note of the following key terms to understand the definition of a team. Responsibility for team’s purpose and goals is shared and understood by all members. Teams have the capability to quickly assemble. It is in part an emotional entity. who work well together and enjoy doing so. • Encourage consideration of individual strengths and weaknesses. The Stages of Team Development When a group of people come together to achieve an objective they will go through a series of stages. • Interdependence. • Demonstrate openness by example.
• Question decision making and problem solving methods. • Develop decision-making strategies. Implications There are certain implications of these five stages.The Experimenting Team: The ‘Storming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Encourage greater openness. • Clarify values. Stage 5 . Stage 3 . • Encourage people to share strengths. • Encourage individual team members to ‘air their grievances’. • Develop a capacity for the team to compensate for individual weaknesses.The Mature Team : The ‘Performing’ Team The features of this stage are: • Build bridges with other teams. • Begin to involve team members in review of team performance. • Allow conflicts to surface.The Disbanding Team: The ‘Mourning’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Competence has been established at a high level. • Encourage informal communications. • Celebrate successes. • Experiment with different forms of leadership • Allow leadership to change with the needs of the task. • Build bridges between individuals.Stage 2 . • Give moderate support. • Find opportunities to experiment. • Give minimal support. Stage 4 . Forming: awareness of the formation process means encouraging discussion on issues such as : • Why are we here? • What’s our real purpose? • What holds us firmly together? . • Expose team functioning to external scrutiny. • Commitment may surge or dip. • Fight insularity. • Clarify objectives. • Give high level of support. • Regularly review performance and plan improvements. • Seek common ground. • Develop individual skills. • Consider the possibilities of enhanced inputs into the organisation.The Consolidating Team: The ‘Norming’ Stage The features of this stage are: • Develop problem-solving skills.
encourage group communication around issues such as: • What role is each of us to play? • Shall we have a formal leader or chairperson? • Who wants to become the leader? / Whom do we want as leader? • What powers shall we give our formal leader? • How do we resolve conflict if several people want to lead? • Do we encourage disagreement and people expressing a difference of opinion? • How will we resolve differences between us .for example making space to air them? Norming: during this phase contribute to good communications by helping people realize: • What are our formal rules? • What are our usually unspoken rules? • Who has what formal role? • How far can people challenge the group in some way? • How do we deal with differences of opinion? • How far can an individual follow his or her own interests at the expense of the group? Performing: now you can help the communication process by focusing on • What are our specific targets or goals? • How are we setting about achieving them? • Who has what detailed responsibilities and do they understand these? • Can we make being together more rewarding . socializing.• • • • • What are we prepared to do and NOT do together? What are our rules for working together? What do we expect from one another? How will people outside this group respond to us? What’s the best and worst that could happen if we continue down this route together? Storming: during this stage.for example by compromise or formal voting? • What happens if someone refuses to conform to the group’s wishes? • How do we deal with strong feelings .for example by having fun together. help group communication by encouraging attention to issues such as: • When do we stop meeting? • Who should we tell? • What remains to do before the last meeting? . which can be exciting and difficult. recognizing one another’s successes? • How best can we support people through difficult times? • Are we listening to one another properly? • Does each speaker build on what the previous person has said? • Do we give each other and the group regular feedback? • Who is showing high or low commitment to group aims? Mourning: when the group is ending.
• • • • Who takes responsibility for post-group matters .for example handling residual assets or remaining tasks? What do people feel about the group coming to an end? How do we handle these feelings . sending a final report? Could we make the ending into a celebration? .for example having a reunion in a year. organising a final party.
As a result. Cross-functional teams are an effective means for allowing people from diverse areas within an organisation (or even between organisations) to exchange information. supervisory positions take on decreased importance and may even be eliminated. Fully self-managed work teams even select their own members and have the members evaluate each other’s performance. solve problems. who come together to accomplish a task. Symptoms of Ineffective Team Work • As organisations get larger the opportunities for personal expression and satisfaction often becomes less. and cross-functional teams. efficiency. Cross-Functional Teams Cross-functional teams are made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level. but from different work areas.Team Building Process • • • • • • • • • • Developing Teamwork Identify the need Know one another Form team charter Perform team tasks Use team tools Work Together Consensus Cooperate with other Teams Evaluate Teamwork Types of Teams Teams can be classified on the basis of their objective. boundaryspanning groups for years. selfmanaged work teams. these responsibilities include collective control over the pace of work. and collective choice of inspection procedures. Typically. Self-Managed Work Teams Self-managed work teams are generally composed of ten to fifteen people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors. Too often the members feel frustrated because they cannot find a clear way of meeting their own needs and aspirations. develop new ideas. determination of work assignments. Problem Solving Teams They typically are composed of five to twelve employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality. and coordinate complex projects. . Many organisations have used horizontal. and the work environment. The three most common forms of teams in an organisation are problem solving teams.
Effective team work breeds happiness and the uninformed visitor often gets an immediate impression of whether work is a happy place to be or whether he is likely to be ‘killed in the rush’ if he is around. which employees wear on their faces. • • • • Avoiding Blowups Usually team-building sessions are interesting and constructive. Poor teamwork is indicated by the dull expression. The unhealthy competition between team members . they provide a potential for significant progress. Dishonest statements and the taking of false bargaining stances. Rarely team-building events can blow up with uncomfortable or hurtful incidents. which are the essential ingredients of effective teamwork. Team members often spend a lot of time on retaliation. Mistakes become an excuse for punishing those who have committed thus giving a vent to their frustrations.• • • • Team members lose their inspiration and lack the commitment and motivation to work. They do not use mistakes as opportunities for increased learning and improvements. The following guidelines can help you to use these team-building materials successfully: • • • • • • • Voluntary Involvement Adequate Discussion Time Appropriate Sequence Careful Preparation Relevant Choices Avoid Undue Threat Work Through Conflicts and Difficulties Appraisal of Team Functioning Following is a checklist for making on-the-spot appraisal of team functioning by acronym PERFORMS. The low quality of meetings can usually be determined by the way in which individuals either look forward to or dread the normal weekly or monthly get together. The leader becomes increasingly isolated from his team. He does not represent their view and they do not subscribe to his. Occasionally they become tedious and dull. Productivity: is the team getting enough done? Empathy: do the team members feel comfortable with each other? . If group difficulties and blowups are handled with care.they enjoy backbiting and playing dirty tricks and politics on their own teammates. Work does not have to be a dull and unenjoyable place. Low quality of relationship between the team members is indicated when people cannot confide in or trust their leader. where they are fearful of him or where their conversations are on a superficial or trivial level than real team work. it can easily be rewarding place where people love to be.
Well-developed teams are capable of responding quickly and energetically. It is important to identify how the approach can be used to give useful benefits. together. • Collective Strength. Empathy: no coffee at team meetings Roles & goals: puzzled faces Flexibility: annoyed outsiders talking mentality”. the level of commitment to team decisions is much higher. • High Motivation. The team changes this as team members extend their viewpoint to see that they. potentially the most flexible and competent tool known to mankind. The breadth of resources available to the team enables complex situations to be creatively managed. can achieve much. about the “fortress . • High Quality Decisions. • Rapid Response. Mature teams are capable of making better quality decisions than all but the most brilliant individual.Roles & goals: do they know what they are supposed to be doing? Flexibility: are they open to outside influence and contribution? Openness: do they say what they think? Recognition: do they praise each other and publicize achievement? Morale: do people want to be in this team? The most common indicators of problems in any of these areas: Productivity: a boss in a bad temper. the use of a team approach improves the overall quality of decisions. Openness: silence Recognition: backbiting Morale: everyone’s left! Benefits of Team Building The team. Perhaps more importantly. and team processes encourage activity and achievement. Individuals often feel that it is hard to influence organisations and make any impact outside their immediate area. can support a positive management strategy in the following ways: • Management of Complexity. The team feeds the individual’s need to have personal significance. Team building is time consuming and can be expensive. Hence.
aims. withdrawal. or two or more competing goals. or physical) or covert (inward. Approach – approach conflict. Goal Conflict Another common source of conflict for an individual is a goal that has both positive and negative features. and 4. A variety of ways that drives and roles can be expressed. For ease of analysis. Conflict due to Frustration Frustration occurs when a motivated drive is blocked before a person reaches a desired goal. conflict is no more than a by – product of growth. Many types of barriers that can occur between the drive and the goal. Frustration may lead to any of the defense mechanism used by the human organism. or innovation. three separate types of goal conflict are generally identified: 1. 3. Although there are many such mechanism. Both positive and negative aspects attached to desired goals. they can be grouped according to four broad categories: aggression.” Types Of Conflict Intraindividual Conflict Within every individual there are 1. . it’s practically inevitable. Traditionally.Conflict Part of my job is to keep the five guys who hate me away from the five guys who are undecided. And like change itself. and improve employee morale and productivity. or methods. or mental – sociopsychological). Conflict: An Inevitable Product of Change In its simplest term. The frustration model can be useful in the analysis not only of behaviour in general but also the specific aspects of on – the – job behaviour. The barrier may be overt (outward. Casey Stengel We define conflict to be a process in which an effort is purposely made by A to offset the efforts of B by some form of blocking that will result in frustrating B in attaining his goals or furthering his interests. fixation and compromise. when handled correctly can actually promote better communication. Conflict can be defined as: “Conflict is a set of divergent behaviours. But it’s also something that. 2. psychologists felt that frustration always led to the defense mechanism of aggression. change. A nmber of competing needs and roles. where the individual is motivated to approach two or more positive but mutually exclusive goals. guarantee achieving desired results.
Task interdependence 3. Interpersonal Conflict Sources of interpersonal conflict • Personal difference • Information deficiency • Role incompatibility • Environmental stress Strategies for interpersonal conflict resolution Lose – lose. Win – win. where the individual is motivated to approach a goal and at the same time is motivated to avoid it. Features of Conflict • • • • • Conflict is inevitable Conflict is neither good / bad Conflict is not always caused by trouble makers Conflict is part of change Conflict is sometime desirable . 3. And finally the fourth type would be parties involved in conflict resolve to bureaucratic rules or existing regulations to resolve the conflict. and both parties receive rewarding outcomes. both parties lose. Intergroup behaviour and conflict Antecedents to intergroup conflict. A third is to use an outside third party or arbitrator. Competition for resources 2. In the win – win strategy of conflict resolution energies and creativity are aimed at solving the problems rather than beating the other party. In the win – lose strategy one party in a conflict situation attempts to marshal its force to win. Win – lose. Jurisdictional ambiguity 4. where the individual is motivated to avoid two or more negative but mutually exclusive goals. Several antecedent conditions have been identified for explaining intergroup conflict. A second approach is to pay off one of the parties in the conflict.2. and the other party loses. Approach – avoidance conflict. 1. In a lose – lose approach to conflict resolution. Status struggles. One of the more common approaches is to compromise or take the middle ground in a dispute. Here the needs of both parties in the conflict situation are met. Avoidance – avoidance conflict.
when. sources of conflict. and timeliness of information that you can provide to an individual will help you to understand that person’s point of view. how. accuracy. Get Feedback: Take the time to find out what your associates are 3. and why questions to determine potential. and Can you tell me more? to determine priorities for the upcoming week. Define Expectations: Meet on a weekly basis with your associates 4. in a non-threatening way. Review Performance Regularly: When supervisors and employees Ways of Resolving Conflict • Clarify reporting Relationship • Eliminate communication gap / misunderstanding • Restructure the organisation • Introduce new blood/ new thinking • Create Competition Benefits of Dealing with Conflict . 2. Sharing your thoughts and feelings first. 1. where. In what. thinking and feeling. Probe for more information by asking questions such as: How so. Any major discrepancies between your expectations will alert you to potential conflict. Give Feedback: The amount.When to Stimulate Conflict • • • • • • • When you have “Yes” men around you When individuals are afraid to admit ignorance When team members create an impression of peace When individuals display too much concern When individuals believe in popularity When individuals lack new ideas When individuals offer resistance to change Five Ways to Sense Conflict Be Visionary: Visualize how your actions or those of others will cause. communicate openly about how they are (or are not) working together. conflict. often encourages others to tell you what is on their minds. as well as present. Do not wait until the last moment to discover that trouble is upon you. Why. what. or are causing. Ask yourself who. they reduce serious conflict and build stronger working relationships.
and Discuss the Real Problem Three: Ask Questions and Listen! Four: Set Goals and Create an Action Plan Five: Follow Up . many people have difficulty sensing or finding the causes of conflict. Benefits to Your Organisation Improved efficiency & effectiveness: Employees will be able to do their jobs more efficiently and effectively by focusing their efforts where they will produce the greatest results. Causes of Conflict For a variety of reasons. Many factors contribute to the difficulty in identifying the correct cause of a conflict: • • • • • • • • • • Personality Perceptions Exclusive Goals Deliberate Behaviour Scarce Resources Status Power Rewards Membership Decision Making The Five Steps to Successful Conflict Management Step Step Step Step Step One: Take Responsibility for Dealing with Conflict Two: Uncover. Creative thinking: By encouraging people to make. you will learn more and gain support from others. and learn from their mistakes. Increased self-respect: You will be able to feel good about yourself and will learn not to take criticism personally. Define. Synergy or teamwork: Managers and associates will be able to focus on serving their customers and each other. Fewer mind games will be played resulting in a less stressful day. share.Benefits to Individual Stronger relationships: You will be able to build stronger relationships as a result of being comfortable expressing your true thoughts. the organisation will reap the benefits of creative thinking. Personal development and growth: When you break down some of your own invisible barriers and become more assertive in resolving or preventing conflict.
by talking with those involved Back down under pressure rather than dealing with conflict Make an active attempt to compromise Complain to others about unfairness of the situation Make an effort to seek creative alternatives to the situation Basic Skills to Resolve Conflict Intellectual Skills • Analytical • Learning Ability • Judgement • Planning • Organising • Perception • Conceptualizing • Objectivity • Flexibility Emotional Skills • Honesty • Persistence • Ambition • Self-discipline • Result-orientation • Fast pace • Initiative • Enthusiasm • Assertiveness . only hint at the problem Find something outside yourself on which to blame situation Use sarcasm in talking about the situation with others Seek a specific scapegoat Make efforts to smooth over tension / live with situation. let off steam. even if negative Blow up. let people know just exactly how you feel Hide your feelings.Fourteen Methods for Dealing with Conflict Win / Win • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Be indirect. only reveal them later to friends or confidants in private Attempt to seek clarification & information about the situation Sublimate your feelings. put energy & attention in unrelated activities/ interests Spend time listening & gathering additional info.
Arbitration. Frustration Frustration – A Western Overview Frustration. of course. Maier and Ellen ( 1955 ) describe frustration in the following manner: • • • • • An insoluble problem. defined as. Confrontation. Barriers preventing escape. Appeasement. Defusion. Persistent or severe punishment. Pressure from behind. In general. Consistency or inconsistency of results that conflict with expectations. Withdrawal. . blocking ongoing goal directed behaviour that may operate in a manner similar to provocation and serve both as an instigator and an external justification for violating normative constraint against aggression. they lean toward the generalization that frustrating situation is frustrating when it involves the experience of failure and this.Interpersonal Skills • Persuasiveness • Gregariousness • Listening • Communication • Writing • Sensitivity Managerial Skills • Gives guidance • Motivates • Delegates • Selects competent people • Terminates incompetent associates • Expects Professionalism Conflict management styles • • • • • • • • Resignation. Negotiation. is a far cry from the original very rigid definition of a frustrating situation. Compromise.
The increased around tends to increase the vigor or strength of whatever response is elicited and this arousal is implications for task performance. is withdrawal from the situation. Frustration instigated behaviour may be directed along different channels by the introduction or removal of barriers and other forms of restraints or by various forms of guidance. When this is not possible. At a personal level “Frustration and anger can be evoked when we perceive an inconsistency between what is expected and what is obtained. It stands for recognize. and the type of behaviour that is selected in Frustration is a matter of its availability at the time as well as of a number of other factors.Basic Characteristics of Frustration Instigated Behaviour The Frustration process produces behaviour that is purely an end in itself and not a means to an end. especially to mild frustration. from heart disease to neighborhood violence”. Probably the most common reaction. The aversive nature means that the individual will be highly motivated or reduced in it. think. Two important properties are that the emotions are aversive.” It can be taken care of in the following methods: Fight or Flight People should rethink situations they are confronted with before “blowing up”. That is. it can be tackled at a personal as well as organizational level. there are at least four major classes of behaviour. is to try a different response or find an alternate and hopefully unblocked means to the goal. social and emotional problems. “Poorly managed anger is at the root of many serious physical. aggression induced by economic hardships may be directed away from government offices and towards food stores or racial groups. Rethink It is an acronym developed and used by IMHI in anger management workshops to help people have new control and power over learning to channel their anger. which can be related to finding alternative means. which has received considerable attention in the laboratory. The behaviour thus elicited is not an expression of preference since it is not influenced by what it accomplishes. empathize. Conquering Frustration In order to understand how to overcome frustration. the behaviour is compulsive in nature. which needs to be delineated. integrate. The most troublesome and often mentioned reaction is aggression. hear. This type of behaviour is altered most readily by a reduction in the state of Frustration. Another possible response. In this sense. is the emotional reaction. the individual can . Frustration leads to some sort of negative emotional state. which can result from frustration. notice and keep. and that it produces or results in increased physiological arousal. Reactions of Frustration The first response to frustration. Thus. On the behavioural end.
or against the organization itself. secret withholding of output and stealing. it may facilitate or inhibit task performance depending upon task complexity. which interfere rather than block can add challenge and include greater overall effort. Thus frustration might have positive. frustration can lead a person to try alternative courses of action to achieve goals or fulfill needs. Effects of Organizational Frustration There are at least four possible reactions to frustration by individuals. Finally. In fact mild frustrations. Alternatively. which have potential effects on organizations. or permanently as turnover. To the extent that it interferes with or blocks task performance. frustration can be directly harmful to organizations. or no aggression would be expectation of punishment for the act. Aggression in organizations can take many forms. Arousal itself. To be perfect is to change often”. Covert acts would include sabotage. and the behavioural responses of trying alternative course of action. covert. A critical variable causing a person to choose overt. motivating effects. that is. which can hurt another person. These include the emotional response of anger and associated increased physiological arousal. as shown previously. To the extent it induces increased physiological arousal. Aggression can be directed either against other people. Finally. Aggression can also be directed against the organization itself. The organizational aggression could be overt to covert. or the effects of frustration on task performance. aggression. the individual can abandon the goal entirely and other leave or remain in the situation. work slowdowns. continued or severe frustration might result in aggression or withdrawal. It can also be directed covertly against a person. It can be directed covertly against the source of frustration (if a person) either verbally or physically. Concerned with either aggression. and find another setting in which to achieve the goal. Overt acts might include strikes. differentially affects performance depending upon the complexity of the task. or lawsuits. grievances. Although it may be possible that mild frustration can increase arousal and facilitate task performance with no additional negative effects in the short run. an individual can secretly perform behaviours. Change Management “To improve is to change.leave the situation entirely. and withdrawal. but interferes with correct performance on complex tasks. . Frustration can increase task speed with no additional errors for simple task. to the extent it induces aggression or withdrawal frustration can have damaging effects on organizations. Withdrawal can be manifested temporarily as absenteeism and tardiness.
g. liberation movements. Therefore. it becomes even more complicated when you try to implement change within groups or organisations. 3.. Changes in individual behaviour seem to be significantly more difficult and time consuming... chemical fertilizers and crop rotation in agriculture. they must be able to anticipate the changing patterns of people. services and technology. While individual behaviour is difficult enough to change. Levels of Change Knowledge Changes Attitudinal Changes Individual Behaviour Changes Group or Organisational Performance Changes Changes in knowledge tend to be the easiest to make. often when it is too late.g. desire for socialistic pattern of society. Cycles of Change The levels of change become very significant when you examine two different change cycles Participative Change Cycle Directive Change Cycle Participative Change . amendments to the Constitution.. • Change in Behaviour : e.Winston Churchill Change Change is the name of the game in management today. stagnant and react to change after the fact. Automation in industry : irrigation. products. patriotism and social discipline in time of war or emergencies. product and competitive conditions are rapidly changing. Organizations either become more adaptive. Change is an alteration in the existing field of forces (external & internal) that tends to affect the equilibrium of an organisation. organization’s degree to excellence is judged by its ability to cope with these changes. family planning program.g. Types Of Changes in Organizations Macro level • Change in Structure : e. In an era of accelerating change. 2. 1. 4. Attitude structures differ from knowledge structures in that they are emotionally charged in a positive or a negative way. they can occur as a result of reading a book or an article or hearing something new from a respected person. flexible and anticipative or they become rigid. • Change in Assumptions and Values: e. Market. nationalisation of banks. Managers must do more than just react. • Change in Methodology : e. g. markets.
The new contacts and modes of behaviour create new knowledge. Three Dimensions of Change 1. Directive Change This change cycle begins by change being imposed on the total organisation by some external force. 2. new laws.) • Skill to devise successful methods to accomplish the objectives and solve the problems. The next step will be to attempt to translate this commitment into actual behaviour. organisational change may be effected by getting other people to begin to pattern their behaviour. The critical factors of a change process are : • Skill to identify and analyze the objectives of change (knowledge of understanding what the problem is & finding solutions to it. • Skill to enlist the support of people involved and affected by change. A Model Of Adaptive Orientation Low Anticipative Management Environmental Stability Reactive Management . Logical Dimension: Based on the technical evidence of economics and science. the community. Sociological Dimension: Based on change logical from the point of view of social values.A participative change cycle is implemented when new knowledge is made available to the individual or group. Is the change consistent with norms of the group? Does it maintain group teamwork? These questions need to be resolved keeping in mind society norms. which tend to develop predispositions towards or against the change. Change Process Managing change means managing the conversation between the people leading the change effort and those who are expected to implement the new strategies. An effective strategy may be to identify the informal and formal leaders among the work group(s) and concentrate on gaining their behavioral support for the desired change. 3. Once this is accomplished. Psychological Dimension: Based on the fact that change is logical on terms of the human values and feelings in the situation. It is hoped that the group will accept the data and will develop a positive attitude and commitment in the direction of the desired change. This evidence needs to be presented to employees so that they can understand the technical and economic reasons for change. such as higher management. This step is significantly more difficult to achieve.
and values.Satisficing Management High High Conservative Management Low Adaptive Orientation Strategies For Dealing With Change In some cases where change is forced the new behaviour engaged in creates the kind of knowledge that develops commitment to the change and therefore. they jump out – they don’t want to boil to death. when frogs are placed in a cold pail of water. he will obviously adopt the proposed change if the logic can be effectively communicated. Failing to use planned change to meet small needs can place the organization in hot water. can be divided into three basic types of strategies. because the perceived need for change is what sets the stage for subsequent actions that create a new product or technology. However. Since the person is rational and motivated by his selfinterest.” Planned change according to Benne and Chin. Consequently. Resistance to Change Managers in every company must be alert to problems and opportunities. begins to approximate a participative change as it reinforces the individual and group behaviour. Normative Re-educative Strategies : The normative re-educative strategies believe that human beings are guided in their actions by sociocultural norms and their commitment to these norms. Empirical – Rational Strategies : The fundamental assumption underlying empirical-rational strategies is that human beings are rational and will follow their self-interest once this is revealed to them. The hope is that “if people will only have a chance to see how the new system works they will support it. Power-Coercive Strategies : Power-coercive strategies are based on the assumption of compliance of those with less power to the will of those with more power. as illustrated in the following passage : When frogs are placed in a boiling pail of water. change is not exclusively at the cognitive or intellectual level but is often at a more personal level : habits. This strategy is basically straightforward and uncomplicated. Big problems are easy to spot. because managers may fail to trigger an organizational response. Sensitive monitoring systems are needed to detect gradual changes that can fool managers into thinking their company is doing fine. An organization may be in greater danger when the environment changes slowly. and the pail is placed on a . attitudes.
• Design requires information from others. with forces pushing for change on one hand and forces resisting change by attempting to maintain the status quo on the other. • Initiators clearly have power. Several explanations have been given for resistance to change. • Users have power to resist. some forces drive it and other forces resist it. All behaviour which opposes change is not necessarily resistance. Coercion • A crisis exists. which suggests that an equilibrium is maintained by driving forces and restraining forces. When a change is introduced. management should analyze . Some opposition to change may be perfectly logical. • Group will lose out in the change. Organisations may be in a state of equilibrium. over time the frogs will boil to death. Kurt Lewin expressed this phenomenon in his field force theory. Participation • Users need to feel involved. • Users need accurate information and analysis to understand change. Techniques for initiating Change Strategies for overcoming resistance to change typically involve two approaches: the analysis of resistance through the force field technique and the use of selective implementation tactics to overcome resistance. education When to Use • Change is technical. The change itself produces disequilibrium 2. Top management • Change involves multiple departments or support reallocation of resources. Some of these are as follows: 1. To implement a change. Negotiation • Group has power over implementation. • Other implementation techniques have failed. • Users doubt legitimacy of change. Insecurity created by the ambiguity related to change Resistance has a protective function for the individual. Tactics for Overcoming Resistance to Change Approach Communication. The basic anxieties aroused by the working conditions 4. Psychologists have studied the phenomenon of resistance to change during the past few decades.stove with the heat turned very low. There exists a deep seated human characteristic to go against change 3.
and one that is usually more effective. The second stage is the change itself. chances are that the person will revert back to the old behaviour. reinforcement of the new behaviour is essential. If people feel uncomfortable with the present situation. The third stage. unfreezing. . stabilizes the change. unfreezing 2.the change forces. a change in policy is less resisted when those affected by it participate in the change. Change. therefore. or development of a different perspective. refreezing The first stage. to be effective. has to be congruent with a person’s self-concept and values. If the change is incongruent with the attitudes and behaviors of others in the organization. This change may occur through assimilation of new information exposure to new concepts. refreezing. Another approach. they may see the need for change. the driving forces will be strong enough to enable implementation. Thus. The change process involves three steps : 1. In organizations. However. moving or changing 3. is to reduce or eliminate the restraining forces and then move to a new level of equilibrium. By selectively removing forces that restrain change. in some cases an ethical question may arise regarding the legitimacy of deliberately creating discomfort that may initiate change. creates motivation for change.