The Practice of Teaching in Higher Education REFLECTIVE PORTFOLIO

Dr Bex Lewis

Assignment submitted for ´PE7122: Using the LN to Support Innovation in Learningµ

April 2011

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Table of Contents
Initial Needs Analysis and Contextual Overview ................................ ................................ ................. 3 Evaluation and Reflection on Teaching................................ ................................ ............................... 5 Reflective practice and my programme of teachings ................................ ................................ ...... 5 Critical reflection on observed teaching sessions (Appendix 2)................................ ....................... 7 Description, Analysis and Evaluation of Assessment Activities................................ ............................ 9 Small Scale Learning & Teaching Project ................................ ................................ .......................... 12 Background................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 12 Method ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 14 Results (Appendix 8) and Discussion ................................ ................................ ............................ 16 Reflection on Learning and Development Activities (500 words) ................................ ...................... 18 Bibliography ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 20 Appendix 1: Identification of Needs ................................ ................................ ................................ . 22 Areas of activity ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 22 Core knowledge................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 22 Professional values ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 23 Appendix 2: Formal Observations ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 24 Analysing Visual Cultures, 18/03/09 (Observed by Steven Allen)................................ .................. 24 Design for Digital Media, 22/5/09 (Observed by Yaz El-Hakim) ................................ ..................... 27 Creating and Consuming History : Exam Preparation 28/05/09 (Observed by Steven Allen) ....... 29 . Appendix 3: Reflective Learning Models ................................ ................................ .......................... 33 Model 1: Greenaway................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 33 Model 2: Baud ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 33 Model 3: Schon................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 33 Model 4: Gibbs ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 34 Model 5: Kolb ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 34 Appendix 4: History Learner Experiences ................................ ................................ ......................... 35 Appendix 5: A good history teacher ................................ ................................ .............................. 36 Appendix 6: Reflective Diary (Semester 2 2009) ................................ ................................ ............... 37 Appendix 7: Possible Reasons for Adopting a Teaching Practice................................ ....................... 38 Appendix 8: Survey Monkey Data (June 2009) ................................ ................................ ................. 39 Appendix 9: Researching Media Studies PowerPoint Slides ................................ ............................ 40 Appendix 10: The Classroom Critical Incident Questionnaire................................ ............................ 41

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Initial Needs Analysis and Contextual Overview
By the time that I started this module in February 2009, I had already undertaken a significant amount of University teaching, and taking Education Studies as subsidiary subject for my degree had given me some theoretical grounding. I gave my first lecture in 1998 to Level 6 History students, based upon my PhD research. The feedback was that it was well-received (if over-detailed), as evidenced by the questions asked, as the process of moving from telling people about what I m doing to helping people learn to learn started. As my CV ( demonstrates, this experience has grown, with teaching across a range of subjects, formats, and levels, as well as a great deal of real-world experience .

Taking this assignment as an opportunity to look back on my development over the two years since I started this assignment, I took the UK Professional Standards Framework for Teaching and Supporting Learning in Higher Education1 and mapped out the learning from the past couple of years, as well as areas for continued development (Appendix 1). Much of my initial teaching was in a seminar support role, using teaching materials provided by others, and many of my early lectures were taking over from others at short notice. It is noticeable that the more closely a module is aligned with my particular subject expertise, the more confident I am in teaching the material, and in the learning activities I will choose to use (whether in lecture or seminar format).

One of the seminal moments in my teaching career was in teaching Advertising and Branding , which I took over from a well-liked tutor at short notice. Having spent hours preparing the materials, my first lecture (notes) corrupted shortly before presenting, and I had to talk to the slides, which made my presentation style far more dynamic, something I have continued to try to capture. CIDRA (University of Manchester) gave me experience of a larger institution, an excitement about the interdisciplinary agenda, and an opportunity to challenge students to think outside the box . I am giving an increasing number of conference papers, having identified more conferences which avoid the talk-at-me agenda, and offer a more engaging, interactive and supportive environment methods which I seek to bring back into my teaching. Working as a tour leader gave me a lot of confidence in being timely in situations which changed at short notice, public speaking, being directive in a friendly way, and in dealing with difficult people. A number of training courses, particularly training as a life coach, have given me a great deal of confidence in trusting my instincts more.

Higher Education Academy (February 2006), , accessed 27/03/11.


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As someone who likes to keep their options open, it is enjoyable teaching history, media studies, and digital pedagogy, and seeing how each can inform each other. History students gain the opportunity to gain with a more theoretical perspective, whilst media studies students are challenged to look at the history behind the modern media world, and tutors are encouraged to understand how digital tools can enhance the teaching and learning process. I have always enjoyed seminars more than lectures, especially when the students are engaged (a topic which I look at within my mini project), but as a result of this course, have experimented with bringing some of the seminar dynamic into the lecture hall, which fits with my aspirations to make sessions interesting and inclusive, stirring up passion for the subject.

In choosing sessions for formal observation (Appendix 2), I looked to those in which I had the opportunity to prepare my own learning materials, rather than working with a pre-devised seminar plan, and offered a range of teaching styles. Observations were a half-hour Media Studies lecture, a one-hour History exam revision session, and a three-hour Digital Media workshop. Always seeking for ways in which to get the students to contribute in seminars, I undertook specific research with a Media Studies (Level 1, compulsory) group for the small project for this assignment.

I have already completed the other modules of the PGCLTHE: Using the Learning Network to Support Innovation in Learning, and Examining Professional Practice in Higher Education.

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and R l cti n on Teaching

Reflective practice and my programme of teachings
In 1933 De ey identified three characteristics or attitudes of people who are reflective as openinded, responsible and wholehearted. Models of reflection help us to: Look at an event -

Understand it - Learn from it .2 In undertaking reflective practice, practitioners are encouraged to continuously evaluate the impact of their own pedagogical approaches and choices on their learners. 3 There are a number of models of reflective practice, as outlined in Appendix 3, Greenaway, Baud, Schon, Gibbs and Kolb, all of whom identify the need for experiential learning .

In looking for illustrations of learning cycle diagrams to use within this assignment, I came across Figure 1, a model by a training organisation, keen to encourage people to break out of that safe cycle of we know what works, and we re going to stick with it , which becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. As Brookfield identified, it is natural as a novice tutor to look to more experienced tutors for advice, guidance and knowledge as to what students want, but length of experience does not automatically confer insight and wisdom , as experienced teachers may be caught within self-fulfilling frameworks.4 In having broken out of the safe way of thinking myself (in leaving a safe academic job, experiencing a
Figure 1: Taming Tigers Learning, The Taming Tigers Philosophy (2011) /philosophy.cfm, accessed 27/3/11

range of different cultures and ways of thinking in global travels, and in following my passions on return), I am keen to apply the experiences I have had to engaging my own learners in the

process. Throughout our academic careers, we need to continually evaluate our own practice, and the effects that it is having on our students, as if we do not analyse our own practice, we remain naïve teachers, frustrated and pessimistic as to why things never work as we expect them to: One of the hardest things teachers have to learn is that the sincerity of their intentions does not guarantee the purity of their practice. 5 For example, we may also assume that students like group discussion because they feel involved and respected in such a setting, but Brookfield argues that such groups reflect the power dynamics and communicative ine uities of the larger socie ty, providing a space for egomaniacal grandstanding. Furthermore, should we decide to talk to a group
2 3

Arnold. L, and Tindal, I (2006), accessed 27/3/11 Beetham, H. and Sharpe, R. (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age: Designing anddelivering e-learning, p3 4 Brookfield, S.D. (1995) Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher, p.7 5 Ibid. p.1





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(to provide guidance), students may interpret this as a lack of trust, or their behaviours because you re there, showing you what a good, efficient, task-oriented learners they are rather than thoughtfully analysing and critiquing the task in hand .6

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flick .com/photos/david_jon s/3463514963/siz s/o/, bas d on Kember, 1997, accessed 27/3/11

My original background as a learner, and then my initial teaching, was within the field of history, where much knowledge appeared to come through a transmission model as identified above (Figure 2). Appendix 4 identifies the possible learner experiences in history, in which I would be aiming to get the students work at levels five and six, although level four is fine, but levels one to three, where many, particularly Level 4, history students appear happy to be, is incredibly frustrating. In seeking to be an inspirational history teacher, I refer to Appendix 5, in which students outline their expectations. I now teach across a range of subjects and levels, including Media Studies, which has a far more theoretical and conceptual framework to it; Aim Higher, for students who may otherwise not expect to go into Higher Education; other staff within the University of Winchester, in which I encourage them to use e-tools appropriately within their learning and teaching, and of course giving conference papers as self-contained units (although I now take advantage of social media to extend the conversation ). In all areas I am seeking to become more learner-oriented, and where appropriate, take the opportunity of asking students at the start of a module: Why are you here (as you are now post-compulsory education)? What do you hope to achieve from this module? Di Napoli (Centre for Educational Development, Imperial College London) suggests that PGCLTHE students


Brookfield, S.D. (1995) B o

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yourself why and how things work in a certain way in your classroom, department, institution and in the higher education system. He recommends seeking to identify which factors you have control over, and which have wider ramifications through wider educational literature reading and comparing your findings with others. He also suggests asking students if they find the practices you are adopting helpful for learning and are well received.7 Appendix 6 contains my detailed reflective diary from Semester 2 2008-2009 academic year, which definitely made me think more about the why and the how as my practice changed from week to week, and as I discussed why particular activities may/not be working with colleagues.

Critical reflection on observed teac ing sessions (Appendix 2)
In Appendix 7 we see a number of possible reasons for undertaking a particular form of teaching practice, all of which have influenced my decision making processes at some point, to different degrees at differing times. I wanted to select a number of different activities, across different disciplines, for my observations, and met with each of my observers before the sessions. General feedback was that the sessions were well prepared, that the students were engaged with the material, and that, in the style of Schon, I was adapting my teaching when things didn t go as expected. The first observed session, on Applying Visual Culture , was observed by my mentor, who is also a team tutor on the module. Getting involved in Media Studies has led to my first real experience of team teaching, in which I get to see others teaching, so can both gain ideas for my own teaching, and can ensure that my teaching draws on what has gone before. As Kuhn and Walsh demonstrate in one of their examples from Peer Observation ,8 we can be inspired by other s teaching, and this was my first session at really including student participation activities within the session, rather than giving a straight lecture. The exercises were deemed to be good, although I was encouraged to think about defining the space more, to take the students out of their rows. It was noted that I came across as more dynamic and confident when on the hoof : I have often been guilty of over-preparing and it is

Fry, H., Ketteridge, S., and Marshall, S. (2003) A Handboo fo Tea h ng and Lea n ng in Higher Edu a ion Enhan ing Academic Practice (3rd Edn) , pp476-477 8 Kahn, P. and Walsh, L. (2006) Developing Your Teaching Idea In ight and Action pp.73-77

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interesting to note that Knight refers to the over-conscientiousness of part-timers.9 In this lecture I was guilty of trying to ram in too much content: in future I will look for more material that builds, and in which I can inject more of my own enthusiasm and personality. The second observed session, with the Director of Learning and Teaching observing, encouraged me to focus more upon what I have done well, including really interactive and engaging teaching, with a flexible style and to reframe what didn t work brilliantly as areas for development . He also echoed Di Napoli s advice to focus on those areas in the classroom that you have control over, including positioning in relation to the students, and demonstrating an energetic appreciation for those students who have made the effort to attend, rather than worrying about the poor turnout. The final observed session focused upon revision for a History module. I had already taught this revision session to two other groups, and had warned my observer (my mentor again) that this group was commonly the least responsive, but in this exercise they engaged strongly, and I was able to respond well to further questions they had. Further areas for development offered ideas for a more structured use of discussion time (to include more participants), really questioning myself what I want the students to achieve before the session (confidence), and structuring the material to enable that, to think about body language and managing silence/over-dominant voices, and again to bring my own experiences to the table. In my year as 0.4 Lecturer for History, I was also observed by Tom Lawson, who commented that he thought the lecture was well prepared, the students were well engaged, and there was plenty of opportunity for them to interact (developing from my experiences in the Visual Culture session), although it was clear at which points I was less confident in the material (I read more), there was a danger that the intervals for interaction were becoming slightly formulaic, and how was I going to challenge those who were not keen to respond (e.g. pick names from the register). As I continue to work in a team teaching environment within Media Studies, and present frequently to my peers, informal feedback continues, but I will seek to continue to arrange formal observation sessions, and to observe the teaching practice of staff in other disciplines which may not only enable me to change the way I teach, but give me increased credibility in providing Blended Learning suggestions to colleagues.


Knight, P.T. (2002) Being a Teacher in Higher Education, p.92

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Description, Analysis and Evaluation of Assessment Activities
Boud and Falchikov note that assessment, rather than teaching, has a major influence on students learning. It directs attention to what is important. It acts as incentive for study. And it has a powerful effect on what students do and how they do it, building the confidence of some, and demonstrating the inadequacy of others.10 They declare that the current dominant practice in assessment constructs learners as passive subjects , subjecting themselves to be measured and clarified through the completion of assignments over which they have little input.11 Until recently, as an hourly paid lecturer, I ve had little opportunity to con truct formal assessment activities, largely enacting decisions that others have already made, with a focus largely upon essays, presentations and exams, with the occasional website. I have written a number of exam paper questions for history, but the definite expectation has been that the question would be very similar to the previous year, with a change in case study. In taking over the Level 5 module Dreams and Nightmares for 2009-10, in which students needed to engage with other student presentations for much of the course, I wanted to use an assessed blog, but revalidation was required, and didn t have the requisite knowledge that Chairs Action could have achieved this. One area over which I have had control has been in the provision of feedback. I have always put a great deal of time, effort and thought into feedback, but am keen to look for more efficient ways of providing feedback which don t disadvantage the students. Training as a coach, and my own experiences as a student have ensured that I am eager to provide more on what has been done right and to reframe what was wrong into areas for development , effort which can take time, but reaps rewards in more engaged students. In writing feedback, I am also looking to give feedforward in the form of more generic advice with what may help them with their overall programme, rather than what they could have done differently the marked assignment (already considered done and dusted), and I am keen to see what others such as Natalie Norton and Lim Teoh have achieved with audio feedback. The University of Winchester TESTA project has already produced useful thinking with regards to provision of feedback, noting that: end of module feedback does not feed forward; feedback followed by unlinked or different tasks is often wasted; late feedback is wasted (definitions of late vary); written feedback is often meaningless to students; without actively engaging students, much

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Boud, D. and Falchikov, N. (2007) Rethin ing Assessment in Higher Education Learning for the longer term , p.3 Ibid p.17


carefully crafted feedback is wasted; modularity leads to compartmentalisation; some students lack the confidence to talk to lecturers.12 A module on which I m teaching, Manipulating Media has emerged from a TESTA audit, and the course has completely changed for the 2010-11 academic year13 I was originally scheduled to lead the module, so I ve had more opportunity for input in this particular module, with all tutors discussing potential assessment opportunities. The double-module is academic skills driven, an area that is traditionally incredibly dry, but drawing upon the work of Buzzetto-More,14 takes an actionlearning approach, in which students undertake group projects (with the marks allocated according to the outcomes briefed for specific roles), submitting their work in an online format, accompanied by regular reflective blog entries.15 Laurillard has noted that the technologically based elements of a course need to be integrated, rather than presented as an optional extra , where students then see them as peripheral to the real teaching, and invest less effort than they otherwise would. For an technologically integrated course such as Manipulating Media , however, this does require thought on the part of the tutors, to identify what counts as good performance.16 Will students will be assessed on the basis of the production values, the content, their imaginativeness in using a particular format, or a strict focus on upon the information generated by a project. As tutors, therefore, we have had to focus on the academic skills the students need to acquire, such as academic writing, appropriate referencing, group work, debates, presentation, and enrobe these within the deliverables of the project. Manipulating Media offers consultancy-style tutorials to students throughout the project, with a focus upon feed-forward, rather than feedback, which students are clearly finding helpful: the video had been something that was worrying me, as I wasn't sure how to convey our work in a 2-3 minute video. However with the pointers Bex gave us, I'm feeling more reassured .17 We got a lot of inspiration from our Friday meeting with Bex, about what we want our video to show and how best to present the work we have done.

TESTA Programme Portrait, University B, Professional Oriented Degree (POD), studies, accessed 27/03/11 13 Manipulating Media (2010-11), accessed 27/03/11 14 Buzetto-More, N., Using Web-Enabled Project Based Learning to Build Information Literacy , in Leaning, M. (eds) (2009) Issues in Information and Media Literacy: Education Practice and Pedagogy , pp51-74 15 Student Blogs (2010-11), accessed 27/03/11 16 nd Laurillard, D. (2002) Rethin ing University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of learning technologies (2 Edn), p.206 17 Jonnud, T. Meeting with Bex II (2011), accessed 27/03/11


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There is still some desire for post-assessment feedback, but as we continue to reflect upon the course, we can adjust this, and draw upon research such as Effective Assessment in a Digital Age produced by JISC in 2010,19 and authors such as Mason/Rennie.20

Martin, A., Going Well (2011), accessed 27/3/11 JISC, Effective Assessment in a Digital Age , (2010) , accessed 27/3/11 20 Mason, R. and Rennie, F. (2008) E-Learning and Social Networking Handbook


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Small Scale Learning & Teac ing Project
A frequent question I and my peers have expressed is how can I get my students to participate more actively in class ? Booth notes that this is particularly important for those seeking to move away from the transmission model of teaching, and the solution is generally not found in a single method, with a particular focus upon activity, which might mean the teacher breaking up teaching sessions with debates, sub-groups, brainstorming, mini-projects, and so on, whilst remaining in charge of the discussion . Booth compares the teacher to a master craftsman, supervising apprentices who are guided through the acquisition of the skills of the trade by practising upon a variety of products . The tutor is responsible identifying the knowledge required, framing the issues, and then building up a repertoire of techniques that help students to engage more actively in the process .21 We need to be sensitive to cultural reasons, in that some of my students may come from cultures that view the lecture as a teaching venue in which the learner should not participate .22 This has been particularly noticeable with oriental students, who appear unprepared to contribute unless they are exceptionally sure of the answer, even more so than other students. Figure 3 outlines a number of factors which may affect students and their engagement with learning and teaching in general, although we are particularly concerned here with participation in small group learning.

Fi ure 3: http://
21 22, p7 accessed 27/3/11

Booth, A. (2003) Teaching History at University: Enhancing Learning and Understan ding, p.61 Kahn, P. and Walsh, L. (2006) Developing Your Teaching: Ideas, Insight and Action, p.13

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Kahn and Walsh stress that it s important to structure teaching in a way that promotes dialogue with your students, as conversations are unlikely if the teacher only presents material, or only asks for questions at the end of the lecture. Instead, you need to build the expectation, or even requirement, of a conversation into the structure of teaching , and don t be afraid if things go offplan.23 Aside from gaining knowledge and understanding from the content of a seminar, students suggest that participation, belonging and being involved are important dimensions of the experience .24 We need to find ways of seeing students as individuals, rather than one of an en masse group. As inexperienced teachers, we may be more prone to putting up physical and intellectual barriers (intentionally or otherwise) to create a defence between us and them , which
25 can include desks, lecterns, or it may make us contemptuous of inane student questions. One

action from my formal observations was that to encourage participation, we need to be prepared to provide positive feedback to whatever input students give. Staff need to create positive learning environments, which allows for trust and respect in all directions, establishing a learning climate that supports and encourages questioning, critical thinking and ultimately deeper learning , 26 but also an environment in which students want to participate (Figure 4), start to act, and start to change their thinking. In order to establish such an environment, you need to be willing to expose something of yourself, even to risk something ,
27 including demonstrating to students where you have messed up and learnt from the process.

Figure 4: Light, G & Cox, R. (2001 Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: The Reflective Professional p47

Ibid p.34 Fry, H., Ketteridge, S., and Marshall, S. (2003) Op Cit., p74 25 Kahn, P. and Walsh, L. (2006) Op. Cit., p.36-37 26 Ibid. p.35-36 27 Ibid. p.36-37

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Students feel short-changed if small-group work appears to continue expositions that began in lectures, as small groups offer a space to consolidate learning, and correct misconceptions.28 Teachers tend to continue to talk to fill the silence caused by learner not being ready, willing or able to contribute. Race suggests that if silence goes on for too long, rather than filling it with answers , the tutor should clarify the question, putting it into other words, or breaking it down into more manageable sub-questions .29 As can be seen from the background material, it s already standard in Learning and Teaching textbooks to devote a significant amount of space to small-group teaching, designed to allow students to find their voice, and effective tutors will exhibit the following characteristics:

Figure 5: Race, P. (2005) Maki

Lear i

appe , p145

The module used for this project was a Level 4 module: Introducing Media Studies , Semester 1 2009-10, held post-Monday-afternoon lecture, for which I had two tutorial groups. After the first 2-3 weeks in which the same voices were contributing to debates, I sought for methods to encourage greater class discussion, and I preinformed the students that I would be doing so. Taking into account The Learning Pyramid depicted in Figure 6, and bearing in mind that the Learning Outcomes and activities in general were defined by the lead tutor (to ensure consistency across seminar groups), I sought more activities where students could be more engaged in practice by doing , and teach others . In looking for activities to use with students, a number of activity suggestion books were used to generate

Figure 6: Saranne Magennis and Alison Farrell, Teaching and Learning Acti ities: Expanding the Repertoire to Support Student Learning (2005), accessed 27/03/11



Cockburn, B. and Ross, A. (1975) Participatory Discussion, p.iii Race, P. (2005) Making Learning Happen: A Guide for Post -Compulsory Education, p142

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creative ideas to allow the students to engage, including Chambers, Tiberius, Habeshaw et al, Kahn, and Fry et al.30 In the first few weeks I had already been encouraging students to work in small groups before contributing to a class discussions, and encouraged summaries of this material on the board throughout the course, firstly from the students (to teach each other), then adding further notes as debate continued, an example from the end of a session can be seen in Figure 7:

Figure 7: Introduction to Media Studies: Has the internet produced significant change between producers/consumers?

The activities that had pre-existed before research were:
y y y

Free choice (no requirement to contribute) Small groups before contributing to whole class debate 1-2-1 confirmation before contributing to the whole-class debate

The activities that were added for the research were:


Taking names out of a hat . The last person to speak would pick the next name out. The names would then be placed on the desk until all names had been read out, when the process could start again. Number bingo . A number was generated by an internet site, and the name corresponding to the number was expected to answer. It was possible to be picked more than once.

Chambers, R. (2002) Participatory Workshops: a Sourcebook of 21 sets of ideas and activities; Tiberius, R.G. (1999) Small nd Group Teaching: A Trouble-Shooting Guide (2 Edn); Habeshaw, S. Habeshaw, T, and Gibbs, G. (1992) 53 Interesting things to do in your seminars and tutorials; Kahn, P. and Walsh, L. (2006) Developing Your Teaching: Ideas, Insight and Action; and Fry, H., Ketteridge, S., and Marshall, S. (2003) Op. Cit.


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y y

Sweets . Quality Streets were brought to the session, and each time that a student contributed to the debate, they were rewarded with a sweet. Work faster for a reward . Students were encouraged to fill up the board fast in order to be allowed to either watch a fun YouTube or leave the session earlier.

We returned to free choice in the final week to see what students would do. In the last teaching week of the semester, students were asked (personally, and via a group email) to fill in a survey via Survey Monkey: (I used the free version, as I had less than 10 questions, and less than 100 responses were required). Responses were stressed to be both voluntary and anonymous.

Results (Appendix 8) and Discussion
Survey Monkey returned some very interesting results, with a strong response rate: 25 students (out of a possible 30) responded.
y y y y



The gender split was: 68% female ; 32% male; we had established via dialogue that none of the group was over 30, but the official response was 80% aged 18-21; 20% over 22. There was a wide variety of subject combinations in the group, including History, Film, Journalism, Drama, and Creative Writing. The students main reasons for attending university were: Vocational/Career (44%), Interested in the Subject (44%), the thing to do (8%), and develop general skills (8%). 22 students answered the question why do you think your tutor wants you to contribute to seminar debates , with the majority of answers illustrating that most felt that it was to ensure that students demonstrated understanding , but it was also encouraging to see contributions with regards to sharing ideas amongst the group, and to develop confidence in public speaking. 22 students answer the question re: which method encouraged you to contribute the most, with the majority (54.5%) indicating that the opportunity to discuss in small groups before a whole class debate was best. Qualitative responses were sought regarding each of the methods used: o The general consensus was that talking in small groups before contributing to a whole class exercise was less pressurised, allowed experimentation with ideas, and built confidence, although it was still possible for one member of the group to take over. o 1-2-1 discussions were seen as the ideal method, providing reassurance, but there was a recognition that this was time-consuming and impractical, and maybe hindered original thinking. o For names out of a hat, a couple felt that this was childish, but the main response appeared to be fear, panic, anxiety and feeling under-pressure. There were some positive responses however, including alert and prepared , would make me do the reading , nice to have the chance to say something and it did make me talk .

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y y


For number bingo the responses were largely the same as names out of hat . The unpredictableness and pressurised to speak on a subject with no contribution to make were clearly causing difficulties here. o Sweets. There were a couple of negative responses of unnecessary and demeaning , but the response was overwhelmingly positive to this (with a request for more sweets in further weeks). In contrast to previous weeks, students didn t feel forced to get involved, but encouraged to come up with answers in order to gain a treat. The mood was also felt to be much lighter, fun whilst learning . o Work Faster for Reward: Some noted that this encouraged them to contribute, but the general feeling was that this meant that ideas/thoughts were rushed, overpressurised, and that important information might be skipped. o Free Choice: Students noted that this could be quiet, and it was hard to be the first person to contribute, although it was good to be responsible for your own contributions, and a number felt that when they had something to say, they would say it. Some liked to hear the opinions of others, but tended to hear the same people repeatedly, those not participating don t get as much out of it , and it s easy to hide if not forced to respond. Interestingly, 31.8% of the group felt that some methods would cause them to contribute less than usual, although 78.2% saw no (real) difference. The main reasons for remaining quiet within group debate was a fear of getting it wrong /looking stupid, a lack of confidence, feeling they had nothing to contribute, dislike of public speaking. An interesting response from a methodical thinker was that by the time s/he is ready to say something, it doesn t seem relevant any longer. There s an encouraging number happy to speak up, or to allow others their turn. Ideas which may encourage students to contribute more include: the board work was particularly popular (more was requested), tutorials, more time to think things through, not being put under pressure if you have no answer. A couple requested that the tutor explain more (which we have previously referred to as undesirable, as we re seeking to expand student engagement and deeper understanding).

Overall, it appears that the more positive reinforcements are appreciated by the students: opportunities to sound out their ideas before open discussion, and no-pressure. Whether students always know best is, of course, a topic for a much larger debate!

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Reflection on Learning and Development Activities (500 words)
The PGCLTHE has provided both challenges and encouragement. It has provided a space in which to discuss with others going through similar stages in the learning and teaching process similarities and differences, and to share good practice through case studies. It has also challenged me to provide a much greater theoretical underpinning to my teaching. Throughout the programme I have developed both skills and knowledge, but my most pronounced development has been an encouragement to experiment more with new methods in both lectures and seminars, and to seek other types of learning interactions. Previous practice, my own and others, accompanied by theoretical perspectives, informs new choices made. In 2009 and 2010 I taught Researching Media Studies , a compulsory Semester 2 module for Level 4. In Appendix 9, you can see the difference made in the course of a year. Knowing that there s no need to start from scratch, and taking some of the findings from the previous semester s project into seminar engagement, I looked to embed more group activities within a 3 hour lecture session. In the first year I had struggled to make the material mine; in the second I took more ownership of it and was prepared to experiment more. The students responded well, particularly as I sought to find ways in which they could undertake discussions in smaller groups, rather than to the entire class. Later in the module, we had a fully interactive session with the clickers, which came through in the Learning Diaries and feedback forms as the favourite part of the module for many students:

Figure 8: Student blog from 'Researching Media' module

In my role as Blended Learning Fellow, I will continue to develop my professional practice, but aside from engagement and motivation, I am also interested in the debates surrounding student feedback of teaching, with Fry et al noting that when teaching evaluation was first mooted some academics

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considered it an affront to their academic autonomy, whilst others viewed it as needles kowtowing to student opinion .31 Throughout my teaching career, until 2009-10, all my class feedback had been positive, but I then received negative feedback from two history modules, one of which said I was too friendly and appeared under-prepared, another that I spoke from notes too much. I naturally wanted to refute this and explain the processed involved, but was advised to keep the responses factual (so another learning lesson there). It was frustrating, as throughout I had sought to make myself approachable, and encouraged students to talk to me if anything was an issue so that I could resolve it. Brookfield offers an interesting dynamic on this, as he used his troubleshooting times to ask students to speak up re any problems, to be met with silence and by serried ranks of benign, smiling faces , followed by take no prisoners final evaluations which indicated that students said the course was of no real use to them, was uninspiringly taught, and was a waste of their time. Student may be reluctant to voice misgivings and criticism to people who exercise substantial influenced (through the awarding of grades) over their career destinies and their self-concerns.

He developed The Classroom Critical Incident Questionnaire (Appendix 10), to allow anonymous student feedback throughout the course, lessening the risks to the students, and allowing the tutor an opportunity to correct the issue.


Fry, H., Ketteridge, S., and Marshall, S. (2003) Op. Cit., p198 Brookfield, S.D. (1995) Op. Cit. , p.118

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Arnold. L, and Tindal, I (2006), accessed 27/3/11 Beetham, H. and Sharpe, R. (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age: Designing and delivering e-learning London: Routledge Booth, A. (2003) Teaching History at University: Enhancing Learning and Understanding London: Routledge Boud, D. and Falchikov, N. (2007) Rethinking Assessment in Higher Education: Learning for the longer term London: Routledge Brookfield, S.D. (1995) Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher San Francisco: Wiley Chambers, R. (2002) Participatory Workshops: a Sourcebook of 21 sets of ideas and activities London: Earthscan Cockburn, B. and Ross, A. (1975) Participatory Discussion Lancaster: School of Education Fry, H., Ketteridge, S., and Marshall, S. (2003) A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: Enhancing Academic Practice (3rd Edn) London: Routledge Habeshaw, S. Habeshaw, T, and Gibbs, G. (1992) 53 Interesting things to do in your seminars and tutorials Bristol; Technical and Educational Services Higher Education Academy (February 2006), ardsFramework.pdf, accessed 27/03/11. Jessop, T. and El-Hakim, Y., (2009-2012), accessed 27/03/11 JISC, Effective Assessment in a Digital Age , (2010), accessed 27/3/11 Kahn, P. and Walsh, L. (2006) Developing Your Teaching: Ideas, Insight and Action Abingdon: Routledge Knight, P.T. (2002) Being a Teacher in Higher Education Buckingham: Open University Press

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Laurillard, D. (2002) Rethinking University Teaching: a framework for the effective use of learning technologies (2nd Edn) London: RoutledgeFalmer Leaning, M. (eds) (2009) Issues in Information and Media Literacy: Education, Practice and Pedagogy California: Informing Science Press Light, G. and Cox, R. (2001) Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: The Reflective Professional London: Paul Chapman Publishing Magennis, S and Farrell, A. (2005) Teaching and Learning Activities: Expanding the Repertoire to Support Student Learning, accessed 27/03/11 Mason, R. and Rennie, F. (2008) E-Learning and Social Networking Handbook London: Routledge Race, P. (2005) Making Learning Happen: A Guide for Post-Compulsory Education London: SAGE Taming Tigers Learning, The Taming Tigers Philosophy (2011), accessed 27/3/11 Tiberius, R.G. (1999) Small Group Teaching: A Trouble-Shooting Guide (2nd Edn) London: Kogan Page

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Appendix 1: Identification of Needs
Based on the UK Professional Standards Framework for Teaching and Supporting Learning in Higher Education, certain areas of activity and core knowledge are required. My reflection on how my needs have developed, based on this framework, is represented below.

Areas of activity
1. Design and planning of learning activities and/or programmes of study. I have moved from a reliance upon the material of others (although always a good starting point), and become more confident in developing my own learning activities, with a focus upon what I think the students will gain from engaging with those activities. I have also become more sophisticated at pitching my material to different audiences. 2. Teaching and/or supporting student learning. This project has considered ways to encourage more engaged and motivated students, but this is an area I want to continue to develop. 3. Assessment and giving feedback to learners. I need to continue to develop understanding of what works as a form of assessment, what truly measures learning, and what will encourage student engagement. How to get a better balance of feed-forward and feedback. 4. Developing effective environments and student support and guidance. I have been learning to balance being friendly with the students, to being the person they know will give them honest support and guidance. 5. Integration of scholarship, research and professional activities with teaching and supporting learning. To continue to develop the practice of applying lessons from workshops, conferences and independent research to professional practice. 6. Evaluation of practice and continuing professional development. To continue to evaluate my own practice once the PGCLTHE is finished, finding appropriate training to continue developing my skillsbase.

Core knowledge
Knowledge and understanding of: 1. The subject material This is an area that is continual, and in starting to repeat some material/working with material closer to my core knowledge, it s becoming easier to add to and develop materials. 2. Appropriate methods for teaching and learning in the subject area and at the level of the academic programme. We have been allowing time to experiment with new forms of teaching (particularly within the Media Studies programme), which ties in with an appropriate level. 22 | P a g e

3. How students learn, both generally and in the subject. The PGCLTHE, CET Lunches, and participation in the Learning and Teaching Development Unit have given a greater theoretical understanding of teaching and learning, which I need to continue to find time for within my Blended Learning role. 4. The use of appropriate learning technologies. This is a strong part of my role as Blended Learning Fellow, and I continue to experiment with tools I am keen for others to use in my own practice, in order to provide case studies . 5. Methods for evaluating the effectiveness of teaching. Feedback forms can be a dispiriting return on the effort involved in teaching, and are not always produced at a helpful time in order to be act on any negative feedback. I am keen to look for other ways to gain ongoing feedback, e.g. within Manipulating Media, students undertake reflective blogs, and Tweet us. 6. The implications of quality assurance and enhancement for professional practice. I know about the QAA benchmarking statements, but need to understand more about how the QAA affects teaching in practice.

Professional values
1. Respect for individual learners. It becomes very easy to talk to the students en masse , and with a lack of continuity between subjects, to get to know the students enough to know who they are. I need to develop memory practices for this. 2. Commitment to incorporating the process and outcomes of relevant research, scholarship and/or professional practice. To continue to develop the practice of applying lessons from workshops, conferences and independent research to professional practice. 3. Commitment to development of learning communities. I have developed a real interest in developing Communities of Practice (CoP), and will continue to apply this with a particular concern for the Blended Learning CoP 4. Commitment to encouraging participation in higher education, acknowledging diversity and promoting equality of opportunity. I have been involved in Aim Higher events, and continue to look for ways to provide a range of opportunities for students to participate and present their learning (e.g. more audio-visual methods for dyslexic students). 5. Commitment to continuing professional development and evaluation of practice To . continue to evaluate my own practice once the PGCLTHE is finished, finding appropriate training to continue developing my skillsbase.

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Appendix 2: Formal Observations
Analysing Visual Cultures, 18/03/09 (Observed by Steven Allen)
Year 2: Compulsory module for Media, Film and Journalism students, approximately half-hour towards the end of a much longer session. Had struggled to get the material down from a 2-hour interactive postgraduate session to 35 minute 2nd year material. Still felt a bit stilted, but had deliberately looked for ways to still make it interactive and challenging thinking! Were large chunks which applied the PhD mentality to would you fight for it over this bit . Noted: when needed people to come forward to have a look at the database as quite small/lots of detail, could have made even more of that made it a part of the session: invited them to move around/asked them to talk to the other lecturers really take advantage of the fact that it s a team taught session. The aims/purpose of the session were very clear, but could have made more of the learning outcomes as related to the session/module... reference to why it is relevant for media/film/journalism students, building up previous and future learning. From the title, it s obvious we re dealing with visual culture in all those subjects (in different ways, and that is what this session was intended to draw out). End felt a bit rushed (Paul had given permission to take as long as possible, but at 20 to, either needed to go on til the end or let Paul have some time!). Would have been worth re-using the introduction before going onto the methods (and note that film students tend not to use methodology).... tick off what we ve already gone through so have an idea of how much more to come! Clearly well prepared, with a lot of research gone into the material. Agree possibly pitched it a little high, but manageable. Was logically structured for the discipline base. Still quite a traditional lecture at the end of the day. Demonstration of the database really useful, not seen anything really like that before, and good to get the students thinking about how the methods can be used for real. Be MORE EXPLICIT about your own process, reverse it, and show how you get back to where they are now. What are the student expectations and pare the material back to fit that? Paul may have been over-repetitive... look for ways to repeat without repeating.

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Film Studies will have used psychoanalysis a lot, and media studies will have used discourse analysis a lot. Students were clearly engaged, but could have drawn on this knowledge even more and highlighted the different disciplinary foci! Was good to have an early activity, and were well spaced (keep a pattern), although would have been good to use that first activity that you alluded to.... rather than saying I did this last time, but nuh-nuh you can t do it! Images used well, could have used those blank images to get the 2 halves of the room to discuss the images, and the different disciplinary aspects (refer back to Week 2, Traditions). Who can think of different questions? Be careful about using terms without a chance to draw them out... e.g. ocular-centric and postmodern felt like were using them because should rather than because what the students need, and INTERESTINGLY, think about what you are asking about the session, questions are largely about own performance, when are aiming to be a student-focused teacher, thinking about what THEY need to learn. Change the questions from Did I...? to Did they ... Lecture had a clear focus in that it was clearly to give information, and summarise/an overview of visual methodologies, so great as an introductory session. For THEORISTS, check out Gallespie, Open University text, has great information on content analysis and discourse analysis. Institution question their understanding of this term (and other terms) would be a really useful exercise contributing to overall goals of the module. Use it as an example of discourse analysis is it meaningful? Why do they use the term quack do the students understand what this means

highlights the dangers of using historical materials without giving them an understanding of the historical context/terminology. The pre-prepared questions you used were quite difficult, and the postgraduate origins were fairly obvious. The questions you used on the spot were excellent as follow ups when you got no response. Used good open questions, e.g. what would this be like with no picture? ; when expressing own ideas helpful to expand and push in new directions. At one point almost objective/aims of the thesis... too much! Include team to walk around and ensure students are engaging with the exercises (if can t see, encourage them to come to the front/work collaboratively), engaging with each other and the tutors.

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TOO MANY WORDS use visual image almost immediately to break the ice, and give an easy example/way in. Otherwise generally good balance of images and other information. Early questions were a bit closed, afterwards were more open and got better responses. Held with the silence in some instances could hold longer! Rest of room couldn t always hear the responses, so echo those out, as relaxed started to thank the students more for their contributions, good to have lots of positive feedback. As echo it back can reframe the material into a way that it would be useful for the whole group. The exercises were good, could be a way to use more, and break up the space (get students moving around a bit so not in rows ). Students were clearly engaged as there was not much chatting going on, they were clearly listening/thinking. When reading out your material, you were putting used sheets to one side but still had a BIG pile in your hand... implies there s a lot to come, so not a good look, so tuck the sheets under! Gave students option to move forward, but none of them did... had said if they could hear, fine, Bit quiet at times (but had explained recent cold), and would have expected to see more enthusiasm for your own work! Why did you do your research? What did you do in your research? Go through and find the excitement and demonstrate I m doing similar to you, maybe at a different level, but.. Explain how they can use this information in their seminars... Pace was good, not too quick even though there was lots of information to get through. Flagged up rather than explained (fine for overview). Looked down/up and made eye contact! The 5 images for this session how used/found PERSONALISE it create rapport: We re all students/researchers . Your confidence is clearer when you re on the hoof far more animated! More eye/hand gestures, more engaging. Less preparation obviously works for you. Summary advice:
y y y y

Well prepared The students were engaged You weren t flustered when the students weren t Bring pitch/words down, look for more repeatability.

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y y y y

Take content back Inject more of your own personality Was good to refer to more information on content analysis/discourse analysis, etc. SPOT ON FOR THE MODULE

Design for Digital Media, 22/5/09 (Observed by Yaz El-Hakim)
Year 1: Design for Digital Media, compulsory 3 hour workshop (but students have found that they are still able to submit assignments even if they don t attend/is confusion over time slots)

Collaborative Enhancement of Teaching : Peer Observation of Teaching Form
Feedback on Teaching Session Lecturer: Dr Bex Lewis Teaching Session: Workshop Date, Time & Venue: 22-05-09, Tom Atkinson Building, 2.00pm, Programme: Digital Design for Media Session Title: Workshop - presenting their portfolio websites/briefs

Preparation and brief description

The following feedback is based upon areas identified in the pre -observation discussion and reflections on the session from the post -observation discussion.

Preparing for a workshop is not always easy as there is always an uncontrollable of how many people will have done the work required for the workshop to occur as it has been prepared for. This session started slowly as there were only 3 from an expected 11 students and this clearly impacted the session on a quite profound level, in terms of planning and structure. Bex worked very hard to maximize the benefit of the session and its context, for the 3 students that had turned up and had completed the desired work. Bex followed the initial plan for the workshop and used PowerPoint slides to draw the attention of the students to key points for consideration and this clearly took less time than if there had been a full class. However, Bex remained professional throughout and flexibly moved into the presenting section of the workshop and not flogging a dead horse in this case move and showed good connection to the class mood and environment. a wise

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Positive Features of the Session During the observation and our discussion, we discussed a range of features that were identifiable as good practice including: - well prepared for the session and was there in plenty of time to be sure there were no technical problems given the use of computers was essential to the session. - clearly had a good working rapport with the students who listened to feedback and interacted well around the questions posed - worked flexibly within the session and reacted to the situation very well - clearly enjoyed working with the students who seemed to be very passionate about what they were doing Areas for Feedback During our discussions a few suggestions were made about areas where performance could be improved: 1. There was a clear issue with the lack of people present in the room and I thought you may have been disappointed with the poor turnout and that may have slightly reduced your zest for the discursive aspect of the session and to always think (controllable/uncontrollable). For example, the students arriving is uncontrollable (therefore don t worry about it or take it personally), however, your preparation and delivery of the content is controllable (therefore allow nothing to interfere with your plan except you). It s a difficult one to manage but you are still growing in confidence and developing your teaching style (which was really interactive and engaging), it will grow quickly over the next year and you will soon have your own strategies for overcoming disappointment. 2. Consider your positioning which at times was directly behind the students and this can sometimes be disconcerting over periods of time. The students take an awful lot of information from body language and facial expressions and therefore if looking at their work and showing your interest (as you clearly were) would add to their confidence in what they are doing. 3. I liked the fact that the three students worked on the one computer and that seemed to work but you may consider the three of them using some of the extra time from a shorter Q&A section to polish their presentations before going through them. That way you could possibly speak with them

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individually and then they could more formally present their websites/briefs after you have worked round the three of them. This obviously would need to be a limited period of time and that could be another thing to consider in your reflections, in terms of time management. Developmental Action Points During our discussions a few suggestions were made about future developmental activities that you may be interested in pursuing? - Observing other lecturers from your subject - Identifying good practice in ensuring students come to class - Maintain eye contact when communicating with the students even if it is difficult in the context of looking at computer screens - Set the environment and the energy levels for the class you want (lead from the front your disappointment is contagious, just as your smile is) Summary Overall, this was a good session given the poor turnout and I thought you would learn lots from this experience even if it was not ideal considering your preparation. The conversation following the session showed me you were certainly reflective as a practitioner and that is essential in becoming an excellent teacher at University.

Observer Yaz El Hakim

Date 23-06-09

Creating and Consuming History : Exam Preparation 28/05/09 (Observed by Steven Allen)
Year 1: Creating and Consuming History, compulsory History module (for which I had three seminar groups: the observation was with the third group).

Students were responsive, taking actions, and continued talking [and this was a group which have been hard to get going in the past]


Question of room layout using the formal/informal room, had thought the room had worked fine earlier in the day, with the students working in mini groups and then feeding

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back generally, but in this, they had their backs to each other, so was less group inter-action, as they inter-acted with me, rather than each other, find ways to minimise this!
y y

Questions were participatory, could open up even more. Cut the thinking/planning more, and focus more on the time that they have to focus on their own findings/material.


Encourage those GOOD IDEAS more, any kind of participation.

Can use the 10 minutes in a variety of ways, e.g.
y y y y

2 minutes individually 3 minutes groups 2 minutes to summarise group findings 2 minutes feedback

Push on the variety of methods [i.e. I tried linear and mind-mapping, and few took up the mindmapping option], but generally worked well! Identify the relationship to the rest of the module more, part of the bigger picture

I m not at the lecture, is this an institutional issue, that they don t see my full engagement? My comment I m not marking it (what impact does this have?), and not 100% sure if the marking criteria focused on grammar/spelling, indicates lack of cohesion in some ways...

Generally students seemed to think film=bad , history=good , how to challenge this. Information from University of Manchester was good, but make it more concise, and see if it s possible to split over the slides, as wasn t sure which bit needed to look at. Had a sense was trying to pack it all in, but the students have a responsibility, see their compulsion over facts [or was that mine?]. Felt some tension over the start time, but wait if you know people are coming. Question self, what do you want from the students?

Confidence (as outlined at start of session) to revise appropriate material and enter the exam, so questions/exemplars to use had a clear focus.

Small Groups, find ways to deal with questions:


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y y

Structures Comparisons

Question of a difference of focus, on argument, or content? Warmed up for the second set of questions, encouraged the students by opening up the questions more, and were more positive about their feed back (1st set, was very much about time awareness). Say thank you and ID positive body language (at points had arms folded, what might students read from that?)... think about the noisy shoes? Probe with WHY, to action... Great idea to talk about funding for the researcher, how it s not 100% impartiality (so history = not all good , as also impacted by external factors). Encourage Question me: don t take what I say as gospel PUSH or ENCOURAGE to speak? Big debate! Allow silence? How do you deal with the dominant voice? Manchester, used that well. Churchill quote = bit dismissive. If you re dismissive they will be..... Could say Can you see this is interesting... and I ll leave you to ponder that if time is running short, and think how helpful the OU video is (and about being dismissive with that!) Possible Changes?
y y y

Reflect on the Question Have a Countdown Clock ticking on the screen They have 5 minutes to come up with a PLAN (as that s about how long they d have for an exam!

Get them to identify What do you need to do to prepare for an exam? (Long Used (what did that mean?!))

Historians tend to interrogate the text, then construct arguments, it s more implicit than media studies! The group did REALLY well considering they usually don t speak! Move around (me and/or them?) change the view!

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The student engagement with the tasks was good, not perfunctory, and they were dealing with real issues. Bex was responsive to the questions, ready to chat to the group!? More of an informal style, than formal. Does sitting on the table give a hierarchical clue? Is there scope for more invitation to DISCUSS, as it s more about trying to get right answers in preparation for the exam... Option to be MORE informal, be prepared for own vulnerability.
y y

Own experience of exams, did you like/not like, and how did you overcome any fears, etc? Own interest in the topic, how you engage in it

Think about external factors maybe influencing the group good weather, had time to stand outside and have a chat/ciggie before the session, what else? Film, encouraged a more balanced view, that films aren t ALL bad!

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Appendi 3: Reflective Learning Models
Model 1: Greenaway

Figure 9: accessed 27/3/11 ,

Model 2: Baud

Figure 10:, accessed 27/3/11

Model 3: Schon
Schon identified two kinds of reflection
1. Reflection-in-action: reflecting on the hoof, during an event....this isn't going well; what can I do now to improve things This is going well; how can I maintain the momentum? Making informed decisions based on intuitive split second reflections. 2. Reflection-on-action: retrospective reflection, you reflect on actions that have already occurred, usually, but not always, fairly soon after the event. Structured or ruminatory thinking re: things that didn't go well; what can I do next time to improve things; thinks that went well; how can I make use of what I have learned?33

Figure 11:, accessed 27/3/11


Summarised from Arnold. L, and Tindal, I (2006), accessed 27/3/11

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Model 4: Gibbs

Figure 12: , accessed 27/3/11

Model 5: Kolb

Figure 13:, accessed 27/3/11

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Appendix 4: History Learner Experiences
Marton & Saljo (1976) 1) Learning as acquiring knowledge one knows a little or a lot. Understanding means being able to reproduce what one has learned. I know I ve understood a topic when I know the main areas very well. 2) Learning as memorising. Detail is still important but there is some discrimination between points of importance. I know I understand something when I can remember parts of it without having to consult notes. 3) Learning as application being able to apply the knowledge in assignments. I know I ve understood a topic when I can write an essay on it and know how to get a good mark. 4) Learning as understanding being able to see the author s intention, interpret material in the subject and relate it to previous understanding. I know I understand when something makes sense and I can tie all the different views together and come to my own view. 5) Learning as an interpretative process aimed at understanding reality. I know I ve understood a topic when it all comes together and I can see a period in a different way and trace its significance in the past and for today. Marton, Dall Alba, Beaty (1993) 6) Learning experienced as personal transformation: through studying one s subject one also develops as a person. Booth, A. (2003) Teaching History at University: Enhancing Learning and Understanding, pp.31-32

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Appendix 5: A good history teacher
The principal qualities of effective teachers in the eyes of history undergraduates are listed:
y y y y

Approachability: accessible and willing to help students Enthusiasm for the subject An obvious commitment to teaching Expertise (most often mentioned by first-year students): possesses sound knowledge of the topic or period

y y y y y y

Communicates ideas clearly and cogently Brings the subject to life Respects student views and is open to their ideas Encourages student participation Gives clear guidance on reading Provides constructive feedback on assignments

Booth, A. (2003) Teaching History at University: Enhancing Learning and Understanding, p.43

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Appendix 6: Reflective Diary (Semester 2 2009)
44 pages

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Appendix 7: Possible Reasons for Adopting a Teaching Practice
Category Personal Reason for adopting a practice
y y y y y

This has worked for me in the past I am interested in taking this on I m comfortable teaching in this fashion I found it helpful when I was a student This aligns with my personal approach to teaching Students say they like it this way Students learn effectively and get good grades Students were able to complete the required tasks I am able to address a wide range of learning outcomes I receive positive feedback from students This leads to good relationships with the students The students get involved and ask perceptive questions Students choose my question on the examination above other questions The resources (technology, technicians, materials, etc.) are in place I have time for this approach This fits with the pattern of teaching in my department/discipline I am allowed to do this The process is efficient Colleagues tell me they like it


y y y y y y y y


y y y y y y

Kahn, P. and Walsh, L. (2006) Developing Your Teaching: Ideas, Insight and Action, p.12

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Appendix 8: Survey Monkey Data (June 2009)
14 pages

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Appendix 9: Researching Media Studies PowerPoint Slides
25 pages

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Appendix 10: The Classroom Critical Incident Questionnaire
Please take five minutes to respond to each of the questions below about this week s class(es). Don t put your name on the forum your responses are anonymous. When you have finished writing, put one copy of the form on the table by the door and keep the other copy for yourself. At the start of next week s class, I will be sharing the responses with the group. Thanks for taking the time to do this. What you write will help me make the class more responsive to your concerns. 1) At what moment in the class this week did you feel most engaged with what was happening? 2) At what moment in the class this week did you feel most distanced from what was happening? 3) What action that anyone (teacher or student) took in class this week did you find most affirming and helpful? 4) What action that anyone (teacher or student) took in class this week did you find most puzzling or confusing? 5) What about the class this week surprised you the most? (This could be something about your own reactions to what went on, or something that someone did, or anything else that occurs to you.) Brookfield, S.D. (1995) Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher, p.115

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