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I would like to thank everyone who helped to see this project to completion. In particular, I would like to thank my project incharge Mr. M.M.PETELfor his moral support and guidance to complete my project on time. I express my gratitude to all my friends and classmates for their support and help in this project. Last but not the least I wish to express my gratitude to God almighty for his abundant blessings without which this project would not have been successful.
1 INTRODUCTION .. .. .. 2 WORKING PRINCIPAL 3 CONSTRUCTION
4 COMPONENTS LIST 5 DETAILS OF COMPONENTS 6 COST SCHEDULE 7 TIME OF PROJECT COMPLITS . .. .
For many years the world of power supply design has seen a gradual movement away from the use of linear power supplies to the more practical switched mode power supply (S.M.P.S.). The linear power supply contains a mains transformer and a dissipative series regulator. This means the supply has extremely large and heavy 50/60 Hz transformers, and also very poor power conversion efficiencies, both serious drawbacks. Typical efficiencies of 30% are standard for a linear. This compares wit h efficiencies of between 70 and 80%, currently available using S.M.P.S. designs. Furthermore, by employing high switching frequencies, the sizes of the power transformer and associated filtering components in the S.M.P.S. are dramatically reduced in com parison to the linear. For example, an S.M.P.S. operating at 20kHz produces a 4 times reduction in component size, and this increases to about 8 times at 100kHz and above. This means an S.M.P.S. design can produce very compact and lightweight supplies. This is now an essential requirement for the majority of electronic systems. The supply must slot into an ever shrinking space left for it by electronic system designers. A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, SMPS, or simply switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator in order to be highly efficient in the conversion of electrical power. Like other types of power supplies, an SMPS transfers power from a source like the electrical power grid to a load (e.g., a personal computer) while converting voltage and current characteristics. An SMPS is usually employed to efficiently provide a regulated output voltage, typically at a level different from the input voltage. Unlike a linear power supply, the pas s transistor of a switching mode supply switches very quickly (typically between 50 kHz and 1 MHz) between full-on and full-off states, which minimizes wasted energy. Voltage regulation is provided by varying the ratio of on to off time. In contrast, a linear power supply must dissipate the excess voltage to regulate the output. This higher efficiency is the chief advantage of a switch -mode power supply. Switching regulators are used as replacements for the linear regulators when higher efficiency, smaller size or lighter weight are required. They are, however, more complicated, their switching currents can cause electrical noise problems if not carefully suppressed, and simple designs may have a poor power factor.
At the heart of the converter is the high frequency inverter section, where the input supply is chopped at very high frequencies (20 to200kHz using
present technologies) then filtered and smoothed to produce dc outputs. The circuit configuration which determines how the power istransferred is called the TOPOLOGY of the S.M.P.S., and is an extremely important part of the design process. The topology consists ofanarrangementof transformer, inductors, capacitors and power semiconductors (bipolar or MOSFET power transistors and power rectifiers). Presently, there is a very wide choice of topologies available, each one having its own particular advantages and disadvantages, making it suitable for specific power supply applications. Basic operation, advantages, drawbacks and most common areas of use for the most commontopologies are discussed in the following sections. A selection guide to the Philips range of power semiconductors (including bipolars, MOSFETs and rectifiers) suitable for use in S.M.P.S. applications is given at the end of each section.
This slide shows a block diagram of a basic control system with feedback. The feedback provides information to the contr oller on the state of the ³Item to be controlled´ needed to correct any observed ³misbehavior´. This control diagram is called a ³Control Loop´ because the feedback path creates a loop from the controller , to the ³item to be controlled´, and then back to the controller. This control system features ³Negative Feedback´, the observable output signal is subtracted from the reference signal (desired behavior) to create an ³Error´ signal. The error signal is the input to controller. The controller processes the error signal to create a command signal. The command signal provides the ³force´ needed to ³push´ the ³Item to be controlled´ to the desired state. This simple control loop representation does not repre sent real world
The most important fact is that there are delays associated with each bl ock in this diagram. The PID controller is a program running on a microprocessor (DSP) with a computation delay of about 1 to 2 microseconds. The controller output is converted to a PWM signal which drives the switching circuitry. The transistor drivers and the associated transistors also introduce delays from 50 nanseconds to about 1 microsecond depending on devices used and circuit design.This slide shows a typical SMPS control system. . The sample and hold circuit is typically sampling every 2 to 10 microseconds. The ADC requires about 500 nanseconds to convert the analog feedback signal to a digital value. A very large source of delays is the o utput filter which is typically implemented with an inductor and capacitor (LC) circuit. The pwm generator can int roduce significant delays if it can not immediately update its output when given a new duty cycle.
This slide shows a block diagram of a basic control system with delays. . In this situation. The system will oscillate at a frequency determined by the system¶s delays. The delays are shown lumped together in a single block for clarity. Now the error term (Reference ± Feedback) will become a large negative value. the error term grows in an uncontrolled fashion. then the subtraction operation becomesan addition (Reference + Feedback). As the system saturates. the delayed feedback sig nal will ³catch up´ to the saturated system state. and the system will move rapidly to the negative saturated limit. The system is oscillating. If there are enough delays in a system where the feedback signal is phased shifted (delayed) by 180 degrees. This process will repeat with the system swinging between the positive and negative limits. Control systems assume ³Negative Feedback´. The error signal is supposed to be the reference signal MINUS the feedback signal. Eventually. there are limits to signals and system capabilities and the system will ³Saturate´. the outputs will become stable because they can not go any further. In a real system.
This is a feature of larger supplies to per mit operation from nominally 120 V or 240 V supplies. The current drawn from the mains supply by this rectifier circuit occurs in short pulses around the AC voltage peaks. then the first stage is to convert the input to DC.Theory of operation If the SMPS has an AC input. These pulses have significant high frequency energy which reduces the power factor. The rectifier circuit can be configured as a voltage doubler by the addition of a switch operated either manually or automatically. Special control techniques can be employed by the following SMPS to force the average input current to follow the sinusoidal shape of the AC input voltage thus the designer should . This is called rectification. The rectifier produces an unregulated DC voltage which is then sent to a large filter capacitor.
as is usually the ca se in mains power supplies. Voltage converter and output rectifier If the output is required to be isolated from the input. An SMPS designed for AC input can often be run from a DC supply (for 230 V AC this would be 330 V DC). MOSFETs are a type of transistor with a low onresistance and a high current-handling capacity. and cause them to fail prematurely. This may result in overheating of these components. the inverted AC is used to drive the primary winding of a high-frequency transformer. then a full-wave rectifier is usually used and the downstream inverter stage is simply designed to be flexible enough to accept the wide range of DC voltages that will be produced by the rectifier stage. In higher-power SMPSs. It's however advisable to consult the manual before trying this. this type of use may be harmful to the rectifier stage as it will only use half of diodes in the rectifier for the full load. to make it inaudible to humans. For lower voltages. Schottky diodes are commonly used as the rectifier elements. The output transformer in the block diagram serves this purpose. However. The switching is implemented as a multistage (to achieve high gain) MOSFET amplifier.If a DC output is required. This converts the voltage up or down to the required output level on its secondary wind ing. some form of automatic rangeswitching may be used.try correcting the power factor. whose output transformer is very small with few windings at a frequency of tens or hundreds of kilohertz (kHz). An SMPS with a DC input does not require this stage. to AC by running it through a power oscillator. whether directly from the input or from the rectifier stage described above. The frequency is usually chosen to be above 20 kHz. ordinary silicon diodes are commonly used. If an input range switch is used. though most supplies are quite capable of such operation even though nothing is mentioned in the documentation. as the DC passes through the rectifier stage unchanged. The inverter stage converts DC. the rectifier stage is usually configured to operate as a voltage doubler when operating on the low voltage (~120 V AC) range and as a straight rectifier when operating on the high voltage (~240 V AC) range. Inverter stage This section refers to the block marked chopper in the block diagram. If an input range switch is not used. the AC output from the transformer is rectified. The output voltage is optically coupled to the input and thus very tightly controlled. For output voltages above ten volts or so. they have the advantages of faster recovery times than silicon .
This type includes boost converters. MOSFETs may be used as synchronous rectifiers. equal to. Depending on design/safety requirements. by adding additional active switches. buck converters.Simpler. . called the duty cycle. or less than the magnitude of its input voltage. Monopolar designs also compensate for the magnetic hysteresis of the core. These belong to the simplest class of single input. The output voltage of a boost converter is always greater than the input voltage and the buck-boost output voltage is inverted but can be greater than. Instead. For example an ideal buck converter with a 10 V input operating at a 50% duty cycle will produce an average output voltage of 5 V. A feedback control loop is employed to regulate the output voltage by varying the duty cycle to compensate for variations in input voltage. components with lower capacitance and inductance are needed. non-isolated power supplies contain an inductor instead of a transformer.diodes (allowing low-loss operation at higher frequencies) and a lower voltage drop when conducting. compared to Schottky diodes. which shown in the block diagram serves this purpose. Switching supplies in computers. TVs and VCRs have these opto couplers to tightly control the output voltage. Regulation A feedback circuit monitors the output voltage and compares it with a reference voltage.The feedback circuit needs power to run before it can generate power. and the buck-boost converters. For even lower output voltages.Other types of SMPSs use a capacitordiodevoltage multiplier instead of inductors and transformers. and assume that the output will be correct. so an additional non -switching power-supply for stand-by is added. single output converters which use one inductor and one active switch.The rectified output is then smoothed by a filter consisting of inductors and capacitors. they rely on feeding a constant voltage to the input of the transformer or inductor. By adding a second inductor the uk and SEPIC converters can be implemented. vario us bridge converters can be realised. these have even lower conducting state voltage drops. Open-loop regulators do not have a feedback circuit. These are mostly used for generating high voltages at low currents ( Cockcroft-Walton generator ). or. Regulated designs compensate for the impedance of the transformer or coil. For higher switching frequencies. The buck converter reduces the input voltage in direct proportion to the ratio of conductive time to the total switching period. There are many variations and extensions to this class of converters but these three form the basis of almost all isolated and non-isolated DC to DC converters. The low voltage variant is called charge pump. the controller may contain an isolation mechanism (such as opto-couplers) to isolate it from the DC output.
the skin depth is about 0. much more attention t o the physical layout of the circuit board is required. At line frequencies. the skin effect becomes important when the conduct ors have a diameter larger than about 0.003 inches (0.3 inches (7. However.Transformer SMPS transformers run at high frequency. while the (usually ferrite) core of a high frequency transformer limits leakage. less of such material is needed. Most of the cost savings (and space savings) in off-line power supplies come from the fact that a high frequency transformer is much smaller than the 50/60 Hz transformers formerly used. Core loss There are several differences in the design of transformers for 50 Hz vs 500 kHz. Firstly a low frequency transformer usually transfers energy through its core (soft iron). Transformer size The higher the switching frequency. Because this energy is stored in form of magnetic energy in the transformer core material (like ferrite). Switching power supplies must pay more attention to the skin effect because it is a source of power loss. There are additional design tradeoffs.  .076 mm) ± a dimension smaller than the typical wires used in a power supply.6 mm). higher frequency also means more energy lost during transitions of the switching semiconductor. At 500 kHz. the lesser the amount of energy that needs to be stored intermediately during the time of a single switching cycle. Furthermore. designers can usually ignore the skin effect. The appropriate skin depth is not just the depth at the fundamental. but also the skin depths at the harmonics. and the amount of electromagnetic interference will be more pronounced. Copper loss Main article: Copper loss At low frequencies (such as the line frequency of 50 or 60 Hz). The skin effect is exacerbated by the harmonics present in the switching waveforms.
but increases the complexity (and any cost). Additional circuits are required to counteract the effect of the brief current pulses. During the remaining portion of the AC cycle the capacitor provides energy to the power supply. Such SMPSs draw current from the AC line in short pulses when the mains instantaneous voltage exceeds the voltage across this capacitor. and may cause stability problems in some applications such as in emergency generator systems or aircraft generators.Since the waveforms in a SMPS are generally high speed (PWM square waves). In order to comply with these requirements modern switched-mode power supplies normally include an additional power factor correction (PFC) stage. In addition to the skin effect.Putting a current regulated boost chopper stage after the off -line rectifier (to charge the storage capacitor) can correct the power factor.In 2001. the wiring must be capable of supporting high harmonics of the base frequency due to skin effect. and the power utility may require a business with a very low power factor to purchase and install the filtering onsite. The standard defines four classes of equipment depending on its type and current waveform. increases heating of the utility transformers and standard AC electric motors. Harmonics can be removed through the use of filter banks but the filtering is expensive. The most rigorous limits (class D) are established for personal computers. CONSTRUCTION . a nd TV receivers. This creates extra load on utility lines. which is another source of power loss. As a result. computer monitors. the European Union put into effect the standard IEC/EN61000-3-2 to set limits on the harmonics of the AC input current up to the 40th harmonic for equipment above 75 W. there is also a proximity effect. this distortion cannot be corrected by addition of a single linear component. Power factor Simple off-line switched mode power supplies incorporate a simple full wave rectifier connected to a large energy storing capacitor. Unlike displacement power factor created by linear inductive or capacitive loads. the input current of such basic switched mode power supplies has high harmonic content and relatively low power factor.
an AC Li ne Filter is used between the AC power line and the equipment . also known as electromagnetic interference (EMI) -between the line and the equipment. to attenuate conducted radio frequencies -.Curcuit diagram AC Line Filter:A line filter is the kind of electronic filter that is placed between an electronic equipment and a line external to it.RFI. Types of line filters A Line Filter may be incorporated in a connector. For example: An AC Line Filter may be incorporated in a modular IEC power inlet connector or Power Entry Module A telephone line filter may be incorporated in a modular RJ11 .In particular.
Immunity: It may be used to reduce the level of EMI entering the equipment. For example. at the point where the AC power comes in Characteristics of line filters A line filter may be used to attenuate EMI in either direction. to direct current (DC). which periodically reverses direction.attenuation to signals that appear identically on each of the wires going through the filter Differential Mode . the difference between the term diode and the term rectifier is merely one of usage.attenuation to signals that appear on just one of the lines For each Mode.A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter. For example: Emissions: It may be used to reduce the unintentional conducted emission from the equipment. For example. and measured in dB Rectifier &Smoother:A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC). chassis mounted inside the equipment A facility AC Line Filter is mounted inside a room or cabinet. a process known as rectification.e. the attenuation is characterized over the frequenc y spectrum.When only one diode is used to rectify AC (by blocking the negative or positive portion of the waveform). and other components. to a level sufficiently low not to cause any undesired behavior. in switching power supplies. in equipment used in Radio Transmitter facilities The attenuation of Line filters is measured in 2 areas: Common Mode . vacuum tube diodes. which is in only one direction. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Almost all rectifiers comprise a number of diodes in a specific arrangement for more efficiently converting . Rectifiers may be made of solid statediodes.. mercury arc valves. i.connector A line filter may be mounted on a PCB An AC line filter may be a stand-alone device. to a level sufficiently low to pass regulatory limits (such as FCC part 15). the term rectifier describes a diode that is being used to convert AC to DC.
vacuum tube diodes and copper(I) oxide or selenium rectifier stacks were used. In contrast. a latch can be converted into a Schmitt trigger. There is a close relation between the two kinds of circuits that actually are the same: a Schmitt trigger can be converted into a latch and v. when the input is between the two. typically at a level different from the input voltag e. An SMPS is usually employed to efficiently provide a regulated output voltage. Schmitt trigger is a generic name of threshold circuits with positive feedback having a loop gain> 1.AC to DC than is possible with only one diode. the output is high. the pass transistor of a switching mode supply switches very quickly (typically between 50 kHz and 1 MHz) between full-on and full-off states. Like other types of power supplies. Unlike a linear power supply. which minimizes wasted energy. This dual threshold action is called hysteresis and implies that the Schmitt trigger possessmemory and can act as a bistable circuit (latch). a personal computer) while converting voltage and current characteristics. This sharp rise in voltage is a transient and can damage and lead to failure of the controlling device. a linear power supply must dissipate the excess voltage to regulate the . or simply switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator in order to be highly efficient in the conversion of electrical power. which can cause electromagnetic interference in other circuits. when the input is below a different (lower) chosen threshold. Snubber:Snubbers are frequently used in electrical systems with an inductive load where the sudden interruption of current flow often leads to a sharp rise in voltage across the device creating the interruption. Voltage regulation is provided by varying the rat io of on to off time. an SMPS transfers power from a source like the electrical power grid to a load (e...v. Trigger Circuit:In electronics.g. The snubber prevents this undesired voltage by conducting transient current around the device Main Switching:-A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply. A spark is likely to be generated ( arcing). The circuit is named "trigger" because the output retains its value until the input changes sufficiently to trigger a change: in the non-inverting configuration. Before the development of silicon semiconductor rectifiers. when the input is higher than a certain chosen threshold. the output retains its value. SMPS. the output is low.
and then discharges as it supplies current to the output.output. The capacitor charges quickly near the peak of the varying DC. Voltage Detector & Error Amplifier:An error amplifier is most commonly encountered in feedback unidirectional voltage control circuits where the sampled output voltage of the circuit under control is fed back and compared to a stable reference voltage.12V. This higher efficiency is the chief advantage of a switch -mode power supply. their switching currents can cause electrical noise problems if not carefully suppressed.3.3V. more complicated. Smoothing Smoothing is performed by a large value electrolytic capacitor connected across the DC supply to act as a reservoir. Any difference between the two generates a compensating error voltage which tends to move the output voltage towards the design specificat Output Voltage (1.9V. The bridge rectifier is the most important and it produces fullwave varying DC. Secondary Rectifier & Smoother:Rectifier There are several ways of connecting diodes to make a rectifier to convert AC to DC.17V.5V. The diagram shows the unsmoothed varying DC (dotted line) and the smoothed DC (solid line).) 0. but this method is rarely used now that diodes are cheaper. smaller size or lighter weight are required.24V.5V. Switching regulators are used as replacements for the linear reg ulators when higher efficiency. and simple designs may have a poor power factor.5AMP . A single diode can be used as a rectifier but it only uses the positive (+) parts of the AC wave to produce half-wave varying DC. supplying current to the output when the varying DC voltage from the rectifier is falling. however. They are. A full-wave rectifier can also be made from just two diodes if a centre-tap transformer is used.
COMPONENTS LIST 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 LOW POWER OFF LINE SMPS PRIMARY SWITCHER (IC) SMPS TRANSFORMER OPTOCOUPLER DIODE RESISTOR TRANSISTOR CAPACITOR LINE FILTER FUSE SWITCH LOW POWER OFF LINE SMPS PRIMARY SWITCHER (IC) VIPer22ADIP .
The internal control circuit offers the following benefits Large input voltage range on the VDD pinaccommodates changes in auxiliary supply voltage. Typical applications cover off line power supplies forbattery charger adapters. auxiliary supplies for motor control. Also provides a charging current during start up thanks to a high voltage current source connected to the drain. Automatic burst mode in low load condition. an hysteresis comparator monitors the VDD voltage and provides two thresholds: VDDon: Voltage value (typically 14. etc. BLOCK DIAGRAM PIN FUNCTION VDD Power supply of the control circuits. Overvoltage protection in hiccup mode .5V) at which the device starts switching and turns off the start up current source. VDDoff: Voltage value (typically 8V) at which the device stops switching and turns on the start up current .DESCRIPTIONThe VIPer22A combines a dedicated current modePWM controller with a high voltage Power MOSFET on the same silicon chip. standby power supplies for TV or monitors. For this purpose. This feature is well adapted to battery charger adapter configurations.
Transformers range in si e from a thumbnail-si ed coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of power grids. the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp). The useful voltage range extends from 0V to 1V. is obtained for a B pin shorted to the SOURCE pin. although the range of designs is wide. All operate with the same basic principles. A varying current in the first or prim ry winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secon ary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EM ) or "voltage" in the secondary winding.In the vast majority of transformers.source. air-core transformers being a notable exception. In an ideal transformer. or "stepped down" by making Ns less than Np. If a load is connected to the secondary. a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np. and defines the peak drain MOS ET current. DRAIN Power MOS ET drain. SOURCE Power MOS ET source and circui ground reference. an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. the windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core. which corresponds to the maximum drain current. T A transformer is a static device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors²the transformer's coils. This effect is called mutual induction. Also used by the internal high voltage current source during start up phase for charging the external VDD capacitor. While new technologies have . The current limitation. and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows: By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns. B eedback input.
An ideal transformer An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure. and. Basic principles The transformer is based on two principles: first. Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both Induction law The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from araday's law of induction. which makes long-distance transmission economically practical. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability. such as iron. that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism). transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high-voltage electric power transmission.eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits. second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). which states that: .
this may sometimes be stated as the reciprocal. and is the primary functional characteristic of any transformer. 100 and 150 turns is said to have a turns ratio of 2:3 rather than 0. Ideal power equation The ideal transformer as a circuit element . In the case of step-up transformers.667 or 100:150. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer. The area is constant. Turns ratio is commonly expressed as an irreducible fraction or ratio: for example. respectively. a transformer with primary and secondary windings of. whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. being equal to the crosssectional area of the transformer core. the flux is the product of the magnetic flux densityB and the area A through which it cuts. Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and is the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil.whereVs is the instantaneous voltage. Ns/Np. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals Taking the ratio of the two equations for Vs and Vp gives the basic equationfor stepping up or stepping down the voltage Np/Nsis known as the turns ratio.
If this condition is met. The current required to create the flux is termed the magnetizing current. are equal to the corresponding EM s. Since the ideal windings have no impedance. This relationship is reciprocal. is sometimes termed the "back EM ". The primary EM . since the ideal core has been assumed to have near-zero reluctance. so that the impedance Zp of the primary circuit appears to the secondary to be (Ns/Np)2Zp. Ideally. the incoming electric power must equal the outgoing power: giving the ideal transformer equation Transformers normally have high efficiency. Detailed operation The simplified description above neglects several practical factors. The impedance in one circuit is transformed by the square of the turns ratio or example. If the voltage is increased. all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. and so the voltages VP and VS measured at the terminals of the transformer.Models of an ideal transformer typically assume a core of negligible reluctance with two windings of zero resistance. When a voltage is applied to the primary winding. it appears to the primary circuit to have an impedance of (Np/Ns)2Zs. driving flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. although still required to create the magnetic field. acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage. they have no associated voltage drop.If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow. and the contribution to the field due to current in the secondary circuit. in particular the primary current required to establish a magnetic field in the core. then the current is decreased by the same factor. a small current flows. the magnetizing current is negligible. This is due to Lenz's law which states that . so this formula is a reasonable approximation. electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. if an impedance Zs is attached across the terminals of the secondary coil. the transformer is perfectly efficient.The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EM ) across each winding.
Winding resistance dominates load losses. Energy losses An ideal transformer would have no energy losses. and may be expressed as "no -load" or "full-load" loss. In practical transformers energy is dissipated in the windings. Eddy currents Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors.Experimental transformers using superconducting windings achieve efficiencies of 99. and a core made from such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn throughout its entire length. At higher frequencies. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. so that there is a trade-off between initial cost and running cost. Eddy current losses can be reduced . or even amorphous steel. Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed. increasing initial cost. Transformer losses are divided into losses in the windings. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss.Losses in transformers (excluding associated circuitry) vary with load current. and surrounding structures. and those in the magnetic circuit. and would be 100% efficient. the loss is proportional to the frequency.theinduction of EMF would always be such that it will oppose development of any such change in magnetic field. for the core. and is a function of t he peak flux density to which it is subjected. good -quality silicon steel. termed iron loss.The increase in efficiency can save considerable energy. designing transformers for lower loss requires a larger core. in a large heavily -loaded transformer. (Also see energy efficient transformer). and thicker wire.85%. For a given core material. Eddy currents therefore circulate within the core in a plane normal to the flux. so that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on the electrical supply and a running cost. core. Losses in the transformer arise from: Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors. a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. Larger transformers are generally more efficient. and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 98%. and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. termed copper loss. The no-load loss can be significant. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material thickness. the trade-off is in the additional initial and running cost of the superconducting design. and hence money.
Types of Transformer . These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork.by making the core of a stack of plates electrically insulated from each other.  and can cause losses due to frictional heating . There are also radiative losses due to the oscillating magnetic field. an effect known as magnetostriction. and consuming a small amount of power. Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material. adding to the buzzing noise. Mechanical losses In addition to magnetostriction. any leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive materials such as the transformer's support struc ture will give rise to eddy currents and be converted to heat. causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with each cyc le of the magnetic field. such as the core. all transformers operating at low frequencies use laminated or similar cores. This produces the buzzing sound commonly associated with transformers. However. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating forces between the primary and secondary windings. but these are usually small. since energy supplied to its magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next halfcycle. rather than a solid block. Stray losses Leakage inductance is by itself largely lossless.
widely used in appliances to convert mains voltage to low voltage to power electronics Widely available in power ratings ranging from mW to MWInsulated lamination minimizes eddy current losses Small appliance and electronic transformers may use a split bobbin. giving a high level of insulation between the windingsRectangular core Core laminate stampings are usually in EI shape pairs. Other shape pairs are sometimes used Mu-metal shields can be fitted to reduce EMI (electromagnetic interference) A screen winding is occasionally used between the 2 power windings Small appliance and electronics transformers may have a thermal cut out built in Occasionally seen in low profile format for use in restricted spaces Laminated core made with silicon steel with high permeability Toroidal .Power transformers Laminated core Laminated Core Transformer This is the most common type of transformer.
The higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. an autotransformer is cheaper. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. These use a ring shaped core. lighter cheaper and more efficient. and tape for insulation. which is tapped at some point along the winding. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. smaller and more efficient than an isolating (two-winding) . or voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. lighter. large metal washers and rubber pads bolt and potting resin Over-tightening the central fixing bolt may short the windings Greater inrush current at switch-on Autotransformer An autotransformer has only a single winding. as winding requires more complex and slower equipment Less robust Central fixing is either bolt. Since the current in the windings is lower. the transformer is smaller. or example.Toroidal Transformer Doughnut shaped toroidal transformers are used to save space compared to EI cores. and 115 volts between one end and the tap. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. copper windings wrapped round this ring (and thus threaded through the ring during winding). a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 V across the entire winding. Toroidal transformers compared to EI core transformers: Lower external magnetic field Smaller for a given power rating Higher cost in most cases. or reversed to drive 230 V equipment from 115 V. It can be connected to a 230 V supply to drive 115 V equipment. and sometimes to reduce external magnetic field.
series connected up to 7. to interconnect 33 kV and 66 kV sub-transmission networks. and making the secondary connection through a sliding carbon brush. The output and input currents are low enough to prevent thermal overload under each load condition .e. which is unwanted in most other cases.even if the secondary is shorted. an autotransformer with a near-continuously variable turns ratio can be obtained.5 kV AC working voltage).Hence. for example.Stray field transformers are used for arc welding and high voltage discharge lamps (cold cathode fluorescent lamps. they are practical for transformers over 5 kVA. Polyphase transformers .It can be seen as a power transformer exploiting rotating magnetic fields. It can act as a transformer with inherent current limitation due to its lower coupling between the primary and the secondary winding. Variac By exposing part of the winding coils of an autotransformer. It acts both as voltage transformer and magnetic ballast.transformer of the same rating. allowing for wide voltage adjustment in very small increments. Induction regulatorThe induction regulator is similar in design to a wound-rotor induction motor but it is essentially a transformer whose output voltage is varied by rotating its secondary relative to the primary i. rotating the angular position of the rotor. Large three-phase autotransformers are used in electric power distribution systems.The major advantage of the induction regulator is that unlike variacs. Stray field transformer A stray field transformer has a significant stray field or a (sometimes adjustable) magnetic bypass in its core. such regulators find windspread use in high-voltage laboratories.
and the current available can be much larger than that from electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator or Wimshurst machine. When the primary coil is driven by a periodic source of alternating current. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them.For three-phase power. Due to resonance. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. A resonant transformer operates at the resonant frequency of one or more of its coils and (usually) an external capacitor. These devices are used to generate high alternating voltages. named after its inventor Paul Oudin) D'Arsonval apparatus Ignition coil or induction coil used in the ignition system of a petrol engine Flyback transformer of a CRTtelevision set or video . There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. Resonant transformers A 25 kV flybacktransformer being used to generate an arc. usually the secondary. Delta-Delta and Y-Y. until it is limited by some process such as electrical breakdown. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. The most common connections are Y-Delta. such as a square or sawtooth wave at the resonant frequency. each pulse of current helps to build up an oscillation in the secondary coil. A special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. Delta-Y. and is connected in series with a capacitor. acts as an inductor. a very high voltage can develop across the secondary. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). The resonant coil. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. If the secondary is a Delta winding. Examples: Tesla coil Oudin coil (or Oudin resonator. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded).
and hence much smaller size-to-power ratio than laminated-iron transformers. a transformer can be arranged to automatically keep the secondary winding voltage relatively constant for varying primary supply without additional circuitry or manual adjustment. Electrical breakdown and insulation testing of high voltage equipment and cables. which reduces efficiency. and installing a ferro-resonant tank circuit (a capacitor and an additional winding).Other applications of resonant transformers are as coupling between stages of a superheterodyne receiver. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by the tuned transformers of the intermediate-frequency amplifiers. Constant voltage transformer By arranging particular magnetic properties of a transformer core.Ferrite transformers are not used as power transformers at mains frequency since laminated iron cores cost less than an equivalent ferrite core. the transformer's secondary is resonated with the cable's capacitance. Ferrite core Ferrite core power transformers are widely used in switched-mode power supplies (SMPSs). because regulating action depends on core saturation. Ferro-resonant transformers run hotter than standard power transformers. In the latter case. The powder core enables high-frequency operation. Saturating transformers provide a simple rugged method to stabilize an AC power supply. The output waveform is heavily distorted unless careful measures are taken to prevent this. Planar transformer A planar transformer .monitor.
and in larger ratings an air-cooled radiator is used. The oil is cooled by the outside of the tank in small ratings.Exploded view: the spiral primary "winding" on one side of the PCB (the spiral secondary "winding" is on the other side of the PCB)Manufacturers etch spiral patterns on a printed circuit board to form the "windings" of a planar transformer. since these are now banned. moved by convection. (Manufacturers literally wind pieces of wire on some core or bobbin to form the windings of other kinds of transformers). oil pumps are used to circulate the oil and an oilto-water heat exchanger may also be used. for low-profile applications (even when several PCBs are stacked) y almost all use a ferrite planar core Oil cooled transformer For large transformers used in power distribution or electrical substations. Formerly. or where the transformer is used in a building or underground. Cast resin transformers Cast-resin power transformers encase the windings in epoxy resin. much thinner than other transformers. Where a higher rating is required. without cooling oil. indoor transformers required to be fire-resistant used PCB liquids. The epoxy protects the windings from dust and corrosive atmospheres. These transformers simplify installation since they are dry. Oil circulates through ducts in the coil and around the coil and core assembly. However. . Other planar transformers are one of many components on one large printed circuit board.Some planar transformers are commercially sold as discrete components²the transformer is the only thing on that printed circuit board. substitute fire-resistant liquids such as silicone oils are instead used. the core and coils of the transformer are immersed in oil which cools and insulates. and so require no fire-proof valut for indoor installations.
a 4000:5 CT would provide an output current of 5 amperes when the primary was passing 4000 amperes.because the molds for casting the coils are only available in fixed sizes.Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated bus bar) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. the design of the transformers is less flexible. For example.However the term 'isolating transformer' is normally applied to mains transformers providing isolation rather than voltage transformation. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. often in the presence of high voltages. turns ratio. They are simply 1:1 laminated core transformers. as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer.Specially constructed wideband CTs . Isolating Transformer Most transformers isolate. But this isn't true of all transformers. but to earn the name 'isolating transformer' it is expected that they will usually be used at 1:1 ratio. which may make them more costly if customized features (voltage. Care must be taken that the secondary winding is not disconnected from its load while current flows in the primary. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry where they allow safe measurement of large currents. The secondary winding can be single ratio or have several tap points to provide a range of ratios. taps) are required. meaning the secondary winding is not connected to the primary. Instrument transformers Current transformers Current transformers used in metering equipment for three-phase 400 ampere electricity supplyA current transformer (CT) is a measurement device designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary. Extra voltage tappings are sometimes included.
to measure high frequencywaveforms or pulsed currents within pulsed power systems. 765 kV for power transmission) . X2 and sometimes an X 3 tap may be present. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for radar. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y 1.To minimise distortion of the pulse . The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.) are often referred to as polarity. Y1. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a relatively constant amplitude). X1. or other high energy pulsed power applications. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential.The transformer winding high -voltage connection points are typically labeled as H 1. Correct identification of terminals and wirin g is essential for proper operation of metering and protective relays. used for metering and protection in high voltage circuits. Pulse transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. another. particle accelerators.The terminal identifications (H 1. VTs are typically used for higher voltages (for example. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. etc. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. to match the input ratings of protective relays. usually with an oscilloscope. Voltage transformers Voltage transformers (VT) or potential transformers (PT) are another type of instrument transformer. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X 1. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 V or 120 V at rated primary voltage. requires an external integrator in order to provide a proportional output. This applies to current transformers as well. or where isolation is desired between the meter and the measured circuit. called a Rogowski coil. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high -voltage gates of power semiconductors.Some meters operate directly on the secondary service voltages at or below 600 V.are also used. Y2. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. One type provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measur ed current.
The lack of a core means very low inductance. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. the larger this product. transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower .Pulse transformers by definition have a duty cycle of less than 0. Such transformers may be nothing more than a few turns of wire soldered onto a printed circuit board. Air-core transformers These are used for high frequency work.The core material increases the inductance dramatically. For the same reason. In powertype pulse transformers.5. the larger and more expensive the transformer. and a high open -circuit inductance. Ferrite-core transformers Widely used in intermediate frequency (IF) stages in superheterodyneradio receivers. Generally speaking. the vol tage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers.The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. whatever energy stored in the coil during the pulse must be "dumped" out before the pulse is fired again. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9. RF transformers There are several types of transformer used in radio frequency (RF) work. containing a threaded ferrite slug that is screwed in or out to adjust IF tuning. Transmission-line transformers For radio frequency use. wound around ferrite or other types of core. The transformers are usually canned for stability and to reduce interference. 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. thereby raising its Q factor. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. Steel laminations are not suitable for RF. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. a low coupling capacitance (bet ween the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. are mostly tuned transformers. sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable.shape.
(The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. the speakers require high current at low voltage. Output transformers are on the left. All this makes for an expensive . high power handling increases the required core size. bass guitar) to low impedance signals to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console.) Most solid-state power amplifiers need no output transformer at all.g.Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality when used.A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audiopower amplifier.For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. Baluns Baluns are transformers designed specifically to connect between balanced and unbalanced circuits. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antiqueregenerativeradio receivers.Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert high-impedance instrument signals (e. The power supply toroidal transformer is on right.frequency end of the band. Audio transformers Transformers in a tube amplifier. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers.
low-voltage output of the amplifier to the designed line voltage of the loudspeaker circuit. referring to the nominal voltage of the loudspeaker line. a smaller step-down transformer returns the voltage and impedance to ordinary loudspeaker levels. an inverted signal is required and is obtained from a transformer with a center-tapped winding.Microphones may also be matched to their load with a small transformer.At the audio amplifier.and 100-volt speaker systems. In order for this to be amplified with a reasonable signal -noise ratio. as transistorized buffers are now cheaper. Interstage and coupling transformers In a push-pull amplifier. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them. used to drive two active . Output transformer Valve (tube) amplifiers almost always use an output transformer to match the high load impedance requirement of the valves (several kilohms) to a low impedance speaker. Loudspeaker transformers In the same way that transformers are used to create high voltage power transmission circuits that minimize transmission losses. Such circuits are commonly referred to as constant voltage speaker systems.component. Such systems are also known by other terms such as 25-. Small signal transformers Moving coil phonograph cartridges produce a very small voltage. 70. a transformer is usually used to convert the voltage to the range of the more common moving-magnet cartridges. These transformers are less widely used today. although the audio waveform is a changing voltage. The loudspeaker transformers commonly have multiple primary taps. allowing the volume at each speaker to be adjusted in discrete steps . loudspeaker transformers can be used to allow many individual loudspeakers to be powered from a single audio circuit operated at higher -than normal loudspeaker voltages. which is mumetal shielded to minimise noise pickup. a large audio transformer may be used to step-up the low impedance. At the distant loudspeaker location.Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. This application is common in industrial public address applications.
devices in opposite phase. for example in the internatio nally standardisedEpstein frame method. Transformers are also used extensively in electronic products to step down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain. These phase splitting transformers are not much used today. Applications A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires. permitting generation to be located remotely from points of demand. transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry. Wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire. is "an electronic device designed to transfer electrical signals by utilizing light waves to provide coupling with electrical isolation between its input and output". Audio transformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a single pair of wires. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore low-current) form for transmission and back again afterward. or optical isolator. A balun transformer converts a signal that is referenced to ground to a signal that has balanced voltages to ground." Commercially available opto-isolators withstand input-to-output voltages . Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record players to the input of amplifiers. an opto-isolator. Consequently. All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. OPTO-COUPLER OPTO-COUPLER In electronics. photocoupler.The main purpose of an opto-isolator is "to prevent high voltages or rapidly changing voltages on one side of the circuit from damaging components or distorting transmissions on the other side. such as between external cables and internal circuits. The transformer also electrically isolates the end user from contact with the supply voltage. also called an optocoupler. transformers enable economical transmission of power over long distances. The principle of opencircuit (unloaded) transformer is widely used for characterisation of soft magnetic materials.
and by the end of the 1970s the industry developed all principal types of opto-isolators. Their role in computing and communications is being challenged by new integrated isolation devices based on microminiature transformers. a phototransistor. a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) or a triac. which detects incoming light and either generates electric energy directly.Photoresistor -based opto-isolators were introduced in the 1960s. They are the slowest. and can attain data transfer rates of 50 MBd. shaping and interfacing of the signal detected by the sensor. An optocoupledsolid state relay contains a photodiode opto-isolator which drives a power switch.They attain medium data transfer speed. capacitive couplingor spin valves.up to 10 kV and voltage transients with speeds up to 10 kV/ s. a photodiode. almost always a near infraredlight-emitting diode (LED). that converts electrical input signal into light. Because LEDs can sense light in addition to emitting it. usually a complementary pair of MOSFET transistors. The sensor can be a photoresistor. construction of symmetrical. An optoisolator contains a source (emitter) of light. sufficient for applications like electroencephalography. The majority of opto-isolators on the market use bipolar silicon phototransistor sensors. The fastest opto-isolators use PIN diodes in photoconductive mode and contain electronic circuitry for amplification. Types of opto-isolators Device type Resistive optoisolator (Vactrol) Source of light Sensor type Speed Current transfer ratio Incandescent light Very low CdS or bulb CdSephotoresistor <100% Neon lamp Low (LDR) GaAsinfraredLED Low . bidirectional opto-isolators is possible. Commercialization of LED technology in 1968 ±1970 caused a boom in optoelectronics. allowing modulation of light by external objects obstructing the path of light or reflecting light into the sensor. A slotted optical switch contains a source of light and a sensor. and a photosensor. or modulateselectric current flowing from an external power supply. but its optical channel is open. but also the most linear isolators and still retain a niche market in audio and music industry. a closed optical channel (also called dielectrical channel).
2% Medium 2% .120% Medium 100% 600% Low to >100% medium Low to Very high medium Low to high Low to high Extremely high Practically unlimited .Diode optoGaAs infrared LED Silicon photodiode isolator Bipolar silicon Transistor phototransistor optoGaAs infrared LED Darlington isolator phototransistor OptoSilicon-controlled GaAs infrared LED isolated rectifier SCR Optoisolated GaAs infrared LED TRIAC triac Optoisolated DoNs infrared LED TRIAC maus Stack of photodiodes driving Solid-state Stack of GaAs a pair of MOSFETs relay infrared LEDs or an IGBT Photo-diode and Photo-transistor Opto-couplers Highest 0.1% 0.
However. a diode does not behave linearly with respect to the applied voltage as it has an exponential I -V relationship and therefore can not be described simply by using Ohm's law as we do for resistors.DIODE Semiconductor Basics If Resistors are the most basic passive component in electrical or electronic circuits. before we have a look at how signal or power diodes work we first need to understand their basic construction and concept.Diodes are made from a single piece of Semiconductor material which has a positive "P-region" at one end and a negative "N-region" at the other. But w hat is a "Semiconductor" material?. then we have to consider the Signal Diode as being the most basic "Active" component. Diodes are unidirectional semiconductor devices t hat will only allow current to flow through them in one direction only. . and which has a resistivity value somewhere between that of a conductor and an insulator. (Forward Biased Condition). firstly let's look at what makes something either a Conductor or an Insulator. But. unlike a resistor. acting more like a one way electrical valve.
When a positive voltage potential is applied to the material these "free electrons" leave their parent atom and travel together through the material forming an electron drift. as they have very small resistance values. have electrical properties somewhere in the middle. usually in the region of micro -ohms per metre with the resistivity of conductors increasing with temperature because metals are also generally good conductors of heat. plastics. Examples of good insulators are marble. They are made of materials. most metals are good conductors of electricity. that have very few or no "free electrons" floating about within their basic atom structure because the electrons in the outer valence shell are strongly attracted by the positively charged inner nucleus.Generally speaking. Semiconductor Semiconductors materials such as silicon (Si). Insulators Insulators on the other hand are the exact opposite of conductors.ConductorsFrom above we now know that Conductors are materials that have a low value of resistivity allowing them to easily pass an electrical current due to there being plenty of free electrons floating about within their basic atom structure. millions of ohms per metre. insulators made of glass or porcelain are used for insulating and supporting overhead transmission cables while epoxy -glass resin materials are used to make printed circuit boards. fused quartz. between those of a "conductor" and an "insulator". rubber etc. producing a "Domino Effect" through the material thereby creating an electrical current.c. p. This allows them to flow freely through the material until they join up with other atoms.v. and are generally not affected by normal temperature changes (although at very high temperatures wood becomes charcoal and c hanges from an insulator to a conductor). generally non -metals. So if a potential voltage is applied to the material no current will flow as there are no electrons to move a nd which gives these materials their insulating properties. Examples of good conductors are generally metals such as Copper. Aluminium. because without them electrical circuits would shor t together and not work. germanium (Ge) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). Silver or non metals such as Carbon because these materials hav e very few electrons in their outer "Valence Shell" or ring. Insulators also have very high resistances. For example. PCB's etc. resulting in them being easily knocked out of the atom's orbit. They are not good .Insulators play a very important role within electrical and electronic circuits.
By controlling the amount of impurities added to the semiconductor material it is possible to control its conductivity. As there are very few free electrons available to move from place to place producing an electrical current. they leave behind positively charged donor ions (ND) on the negative side and now the holes from the acceptor impurity migrate across the junction in the opposite direction into the region were there are large numbers of free electrons. crystals of pure silicon (or germanium) are therefore good insulators. These impurities are called donors or acceptors depending on whether they produce electrons or holes. producing more free electrons than holes or vice versa. They have very few "fee electrons" because their atoms are closely grouped together in a crystalline pattern called a "crystal lattice". However.conductors nor good insulators (hence their name "semi" -conductors). Silicon atoms are arranged in a definite symmetrical pattern making them a crystalline solid structure. A crystal of pure silicon (silicon dioxide or glass) is generally said to be an intrinsic crystal (it has no impurities). because the electrons have moved across the junction from the N -type silicon to the P-type silicon. It has four valence electrons in its outer most shell which it shares with its adjacent atoms in forming covalent bonds.When the N and P-type semiconductor materials are first joined together a very large density gradient exists between both sides of the junction so some of the free electrons from the donor impurity atoms begin to migrate across this newly formed junction to fill up the holes in the P-type material producing negative ions. the charge density of .The most commonly used semiconductor material by far is silicon. However. o r at the very least very high value resistors. This is all well and good. The PN junction In the previous tutorial we saw how to make an N-type semiconductor material by doping it with Antimony and also how to make a P-type semiconductor material by doping that with Boron. their ability to conduct electricity can be greatly imp roved by adding certain "impurities" to this crystalline structure thereby. but when we join (or fuse) them together these two materials behave i n a very different way producing what is generally known as a PN Junction. This process of adding impurity atoms to semiconductor atoms (the order of 1 impurity atom per 10 million (or more) atoms of the semiconductor) is called Doping. but these semiconductor N and P-type materials do very little on their own as they are electrically neutral. As a result. The structure of the bond between two silicon atoms is such that each atom shares one electron with its neighbour making the bond very stable.
the P-type along the junction is filled with negatively charged acceptor ions (NA). The regions on both sides of the junction become depl eted of any free carriers in comparison to the N and P type materials away from the junction. If the depletion layer region has a distance D. This area around the junction is now called the Depletion Layer. This charge transfer of electrons and holes across the junction is known as diffusion. and the charge density of the N-type along the junction becomes positive. Eventually a state of equilibrium (electrically neutral situation) will occur producing a "potential barrier" zone around the area of the junction as the donor atoms repel the holes and the acceptor atoms repel the electrons. The PN junction The total charge on each side of the junction must be equal and opposite to maintain a neutral charge condition around the junction. Since no free charge carriers can rest in a position where there is a potential barrier the regions on both sides of the junction become depleted of any more free carriers in comparison to the N and P type materials away from the junction. it therefore must therefore penetrate into the .This process continues back and forth until the number of electrons which have crossed the junction have a large enough electrical charge to repel or prevent any more carriers from crossing the junction.
The problem now is that a free charge requires some extra energy to overcome the barrier that now exists for it to be able to cross the depletion region junction.silicon by a distance of Dp for the positive side. The Junction Diode The effect described in the previous tutorial is achieved without any external voltage being applied to the actual PN junction resulting in the junction being in a state of equilibrium. However. the N-type material has become positive with respect to the P -type. However.NA = Dn.If a suitable positive voltage (forward bias) is applied . The behaviour of the PN junction with regards to the potential barrier width produces an asymmetrical conducting two terminal device. PN junction Distance As the N-type material has lost electrons and the P-type has lost holes. Then the presence of impurity ions on both sides of the junction cause an electric field to be established across this region with the N-side at a positive voltage relative to the P-side. and a distance of Dn for the negative side giving a relationship between the two of Dp.ND in order to maintain charge neutrality also called equilibrium. which has the characteristic of passing current in one direction only.A diode is one of the simplest semiconductor devices. an additional energy source now exists to overcome the barrier resulting in free charges being able to cross the depletion region from one side to the other. better known as the Junction Diode. unlike a resistor. if we were to make electrical connections at the ends of both the N-type and the P-type materials and then connect them to a battery source. a diode does not behave linearly with respect to the applied voltage as the diode has an exponential I -V relationship and therefore we can not described its operation by simply using an equation such as Ohm's law.
between the two ends of the PN junction, it can supply free electrons and holes with the extra energy they require to cross the junction as the width of the depletion layer around the PN junctio n is decreased. By applying a negative voltage (reverse bias) results in the free charges being pulled away from the junction resulting in the depletion layer width being increased. This has the effect of increasing or decreasing the effective resistance o f the junction itself allowing or blocking current flow through the diode. Then the depletion layer widens with an increase in the application of a reverse voltage and narrows with an increase in the application of a forward voltage. This is due to the differences in the electrical properties on the two sides of the PN junction resulting in physical changes taking place. One of the results produces rectification as seen in the PN junction diodes static I-V (current-voltage) characteristics. Rectification is shown by an asymmetrical current flow when the polarity of bias voltage is altered as shown below.
Junction Diode Symbol and Static I-V Characteristics.
But before we can use the PN junction as a practical device or as arectifying device we need to firstly bias the junction, ie connect a voltage potential across it. On the voltage axis above, "Reverse Bias" refers to an
external voltage potential which increases the potential barrier. An external voltage which decreases t he potential barrier is said to act in the "Forward Bias" direction.
Junction Diode Summary
The PN junction region of a Junction Diode has the following important characteristics: 1). Semiconductors contain two types of mobile charge carriers, Holes and Electrons. 2). The holes are positively charged while the electrons negatively charged. 3). A semiconductor may be doped with donor impurities such as Antimony (N-type doping), so that it contains mobile charges which are primarily electrons. 4). A semiconductor may be doped with acceptor impurities such as Boron (P-type doping), so that it contains mobile charges which are mainly holes. 5). The junction region itself has no charge carriers and is known as the depletionregion. 6). The junction (depletion) region has a physical thickness that varies withtheappliedvoltage 7).When a diode is Zero Biased no external energy source is applied and a natural Potential Barrier is developed across a depletion layer which is approximately 0.5 to 0.7v for silicon diodes and approximately 0.3 of a volt forgermaniumdiodes. 8). When a junction diode is Forward Biased the thickness of the depletion region reduces and the diode acts like a short circuit allowing full current to flow. 9).When a junction diode is Reverse Biased the thickness of the depletion region increases and the diode acts like an open circuit blocking any current flow, (only a very small leakage curren t).
Types of semiconductor diode
There are several types of junction diodes, which either emphasize a different physical aspect of a diode often by geometric scaling, doping level, choosing the right electrodes, are just an application of a diode in a special circuit, or are really differ ent devices like the Gunn and laser diode and the MOSFET:Normal (p-n) diodes, which operate as described above, are usually made of doped silicon or, more rarely, germanium. Before the development of modern silicon power rectifier diodes, cuprous oxide and later selenium was used; its low efficiency gave it a much higher forward voltage drop (typically 1.4 to 1.7 V per ³cell´, with multiple cells stacked to increase the peak inverse voltage rating in high voltage rectifiers), and
required a large heat sink (often an extension of the diode¶s metal substrate), much larger than a silicon diode of the same current ratings would require. The vast majority of all diodes are the p -n diodes found in CMOSintegrated circuits, which include two diodes per pin and many other internal diodes.
Diodes that conduct in the reverse direction when the reverse bias voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage. These are electrically very similar to Zener diodes, and are often mistakenly called Zener diodes, but break down by a different mechanism, the avalanche effect . This occurs when the reverse electric field across the p -n junction causes a wave of ionization, reminiscent of an avalanche, leading to a large current. Avalanche diodes are designed to break down at a well-defined reverse voltage without being destroyed. The difference between the avalanche diode (which has a reverse breakdown above about 6.2 V) and the Zener is that the channel length of the former exceeds the ³mean free path´ of the electrons, so there are collisions between them on the way out. The only practical difference is that the two types have temperature coefficients of opposite polarities.
Cat¶s whisker or crystal diodes
These are a type of point-contact diode. The cat¶s whisker diode consists of a thin or sharpened metal wire pressed against a semiconducting crystal, typically galena or a piece of coalThe wire forms the anode and the crystal forms the cathode. Cat¶s whisker diodes were also called crystal diodes and found application in crystal radio receivers. Cat¶s whisker diodes are generally obsolete, but may be available froma few manufacturers.
Constant current diodesThese are actually a JFETwith the gate
shorted to the source, and function like a two-terminal current-limiter analog to the Zener diode, which is limiting voltage. They allow a current through them to rise to a certain value, and then level off at a specific value. Also called CLDs, constant-current diodes, diode-connected transistors, or current-regulating diodes.
Esaki or tunnel diodes
high magnetic fields. and higher-frequency diodes have been developed over time. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) In a diode formed from a direct band-gap semiconductor. dipole domains form and travel across the diode. Because of these properties. to form an opto-isolator. such as gallium arsenide. The first LEDs were red and yellow. may be used at low (mK) temperatures. allowing high frequency microwaveoscillators to be built. a laser can be formed. All LEDs produce incoherent.The forward potential of these diodes depends on the wavelength of the emitted photons: 1.4 V to violet. wavelengths (or colors)from the infrared to the near ultraviolet may be produced.These have a region of operation showing negative resistance caused by quantum tunneling allowing amplification of signals and very simple bistable circuits. or a blue LED with a yellow scintillator coating. ³white´ LEDs are actually combinations of three LEDs of a different color. Laser diodes When an LED-like structure is contained in a resonant cavity formed by polishing the parallel end faces. Laserdiodes are commonly used in optical storage devices and for high speed optical communication.2 V corresponds to red. LEDs can also be used as low-efficiency photodiodes in signal applications. tunnel diodes are very fast. An LED may be paired with a photodiode or phototransistor in the same package. With appropriate biasing. 2. Thermal diodes This term is used both for conventional PN diodes used to monitor temperature due to their varying forward voltage with temperat ure. narrow-spectrum light. carriers that cross the junction emit photons when they recombine with the majority carrier on the other side. they are often used in spacecraft. Due to the high carrier concentration. . Gunn diodes These are similar to tunnel diodes in that they are made of materials such as GaAs or InP that exhibit a region of negative differential resistance. and in high radiation environments. Depending on the material.
Photodiodes are intended to sense light(photodetector). Multiple photodiodes may be packaged in a single device. Furthermore. in photometry. layer. and are usually PIN (the kind of diode most sensitive to light). such as IGBTs. They are also used as large volume ionizing radiation detectors and as photodetectors. and thyristors. Point-contact diodes These work the same as the junction semiconduct or diodes described above. or intrinsic. or in optical communications. PIN diodes are also used in power electronics. These arrays should not be confused with chargecoupled devices. as their central layer can withstand high voltages. the PIN structure can be found in many power semiconductor devices. A block of n-type semiconductor is built. and a conducting sharp -point contact made with some group-3 metal is placed in contact with the semiconductor. forming a ptype/intrinsic/n-type structure. A photodiode can be used in solar cells. The long -popular 1N34 germanium version is still used in radio receivers as a detector and occasionally in specialized analog electronics. Some metal migrates into the semiconductor to make a small region of p-type semiconductor near the contact.. but their construction is simpler. so they are packaged in materials that allow light to pass. PIN diodes A PIN diode has a central un-doped. either as a linear array or as a twodimensional array. they use the differing behaviour of charge carriers in N and P type semiconductor to move heat.and for Peltier heat pumps for thermoelectric heating a nd cooling. power MOSFETs. Photodiodes All semiconductors are subject to optical charge carrier generation. though they do not have any rectifying junctions. They are used as radio frequency switches and attenuators. Peltier heat pumps may be made from semiconductor. This is typically an undesired effect. Schottky diodes . so most semiconductors are packaged in light blocking material.
Gold-doped diodes As a dopant.A typical example is the 1N914. thereverse conduction will cease very abruptly (as in a step waveform). which makes them useful in voltage clamping applications and prevention of transistor saturation. Gold doped diodes are faster than other p -n diodes (but not as fast as Schottky diodes). which help a fast recombination of minority carriers. SRDs can therefore provide very fast voltage transitions by the very sudden disappearance of the charge carriers. They also have less reverse -current leakage than Schottky diodes (but not as good as other p -n diodes). This allows the diode to operate at signal frequencies. They also tend to have much lower junction capacitance than p-n diodes which provides for high switching speeds and their use in high-speed circuitry and RF devices such as switched-mode power supply.15 V to 0. Super barrier diodes Super barrier diodes are rectifier diodes that incorporate the low forward voltage drop of the Schottky diode with the surge -handling capability and low reverse leakage current of a normal p -n junction diode. After a forward current has been passing in an SRD and the current is interrupted or rever sed. Their forward voltage drop at forward currents of about 1 mA is in the range 0. They have a lower forward voltage drop than p -n junction diodes. at the expen se of a higher forward voltage drop. They can also be used as low loss rectifiers although their reverse leakage current is generally higher than that of other diodes. mixers and detectors.Schottky diodes are constructed from a metal to semiconductor contact. Transient voltage suppression diode (TVS) . Snap-off or Step recovery diodes The term step recovery relates to the form of the reverse recovery characteristic of these devices.45 V. gold (or platinum) acts as recombination centers. Schottky diodes are majority carrier devices and so do not suffer from minority carrier storage problems that slow down many other diodes ² so they have a faster ³reverse reco very´ than p-n junction diodes.
to lock quickly. occurs at a precisely defined voltage. Clarence Melvin Zener of Carnegie Mellon University. but prone to integer harmonic locking (if one attempts to lock to a broadband signa l). replacing older designs that took a long time to warm up and lock. The history of this discovery is treated in depth in . allowing them to conduct large currents to ground without sustaining damage. such as those in television receivers. but fixed -frequency. Some devices labeled as high -voltage Zener diodes are actually avalanche diodes (see above). These are important in PLL (phase-locked loop) and FLL (frequency-locked loop) circuits. Zener diodes Diodes that can be made to conduct backwards. This effect. They also enabled tunable oscillators in early discrete tuning of radios. Applications Radio demodulation The first use for the diode was the demodulation of amplitude modulated (AM) radio broadcasts. Two (equivalent) Zeners in series and in reverse order. a registered trademark). allowing the diode to be used as a precision voltage reference. constitute a transient absorber (or Transorb. The Zener diode is named for Dr. where a cheap and stable. In practical voltage reference circuits Zener and switching diodes are connected in series and opposite directions to balance the temperature coefficient to near zero. called Zener breakdown. in the same package. A PLL is faster than an FLL. allowing tuning circuits. inventor of the device.These are avalanche diodes designed specifically to protect other semiconductor devices from high-voltage transientsTheir p-n junctions have a much larger cross -sectional area than those of a normal diode. crystal oscillator provided the reference frequency for a voltage-controlled oscillator . Varicap or varactor diodes These are used as voltage-controlled capacitors.
where they are used to convert alternating current (AC) electricity into direct current (DC). When the voltage rises above the normal range. an AM signal consists of alternating positive and negative peaks of voltage. For example. The audio is extracted using a simple filter and fed into an audio amplifier or transducer. In electronics. Ionizing radiation detectors In addition to light. The diode (originally a crystal diode) rectifies the AM radio frequency signal. diodes are used in ( stepper motor and H-bridge) motor controller and relay circuits to de-energize coils rapidly without the damaging voltage spikes that would otherwise occur. with thousands or millions of electron volts of . provides better performance than the commutator of earlier dynamo. minus atmospheric noise. Automotive alternators are a common example. semiconductor diodes are sensitive to more energetic radiation. Similarly. mentioned above. diodes are also used in Cockcroft±Waltonvoltage multipliers to convert AC into higher DC voltages. Specialized diodes are used to protect from over voltages at higher power (see Diode types above). They are usually reverse-biased (nonconducting) under normal circumstances. leaving an audio signal which is the original audio signal. which rectifies the AC into DC. cosmic rays and other sources of ionizing radiation cause noisepulses and single and multiple bit errors. This is referred to as diode logic. the diodes become forward -biased (conducting). Over-voltage protection Diodes are frequently used to conduct damaging high voltages away from sensitive electronic devices. Many integrated circuits also incorporate diodes on the connection pins to prevent external voltages from damaging their sensitive transistors. where the diode. whose amplitude or ³envelope´ is proportional to the original audio signal. A single particle of radiation. Logic gates Diodes can be combined with other components to construct ANDandORlogic gates. This effect is sometimes exploited by particle detectors to detect radiation. which generates sound waves.the radio article. Power conversion Rectifiers are constructed from diodes. (Any diode used in such an application is called a flyback diode). In summary.
simply by measuring the charge conducted and without the complexity of a magnetic s pectrometer or etc. Current steering Diodes will prevent currents in unintended directions. as its energy is deposited in the semiconductor material. they need any contact or un-depleted semiconductor on at least one surface to be very thin. Typically. To supply power to an electrical circuit during a power failure. Silicon and germanium are quite different in their ability to convert gamma rays to electron showers. Because of energy loss fluctuations. generates many charge carrier pairs. They are often cooled by liquid nitrogen. Similarly. Semiconductor detectors for high energy particles are used in large numbers.energy. If the depletion layer is large enough to catch the whole shower or to stop a heavy particle. since the forward voltage drop across the diode depends on temperature. They have a finite life. as in a Silicon bandgap temperature sensor. it appears the voltage has a positive temperature coefficient (at a constant current) but depends on doping concentration and operating temperature (Sze 2007). silicon diodes have approximately í2 mV/ÛC temperature coefficient at room temperatur e. Temperature measurements A diode can be used as a temperature measuring device. one used for domestics. small boats typically have two circuits each with their own battery/batteries: one used for engine starting. a fairly accurate measurement of the particle¶s energy can be made. From the Shockley ideal diode equation given above. An Uninterruptible power supply may use diodes in this way to ensure that current is only drawn from the battery when necessary. For short range particles. the circuit can draw current from a battery. Germanium and silicon are common materials. Some of these detectors sense position as well as energy. because of radiation damage. The temperature coefficient can be negative as in typical thermistors or positive for temperature sense diodes down to about 20 kelvins. For longer range (about a centimetre) particles they need a very large depletion depth and large area. These semiconductor radiation detectors need efficient and uniform charge collection and low leakage current. Normally both are charged from a single alternator. especially when detecting heavy particles. The back-bias voltages are near breakdown (around a thousan d volts per centimetre). accurate measurement of the energy deposited is of less use. and a heavy duty split charge diode is used to prevent the higher charge battery (typically t he .
Diodes are also used in electronic musical keyboards. these instruments often use keyboard matrix circuits. The keyboard controller scans the rows and columns to determine which note the player has pressed. the current can flow backwards through the circuit and trigger "phantom keys" that cause ³ghost´ notes to play.engine battery) from discharging through the lower charged battery when the alternator is not running. . most keyboard matrix circuits have diodes soldered with the switch under each key of the musical keyboard. mega ohms [M ]. milli ohm and so on. To reduce the amount of wiring needed in electronic musical keyboards. Its is measured in ohms and is represented by letter µR¶ and symbol is Unit of resistance The SI-unit of resistance is Ohm [ ]. The higher multiple and sub-multiple values of ohm is kilo ohms [K ]. The same principle is also used for the switch matrix in solid state pinball machines. The problem with matrix circuits is that when several notes are pressed at once. which oppses the flow of an electric current through it is called a resistance. Resistor Whats is a resistance? The property of a substance. To avoid triggering unwanted notes.
Each resistor has two main characteristics.1ohms to many mega ohms are manufatured. As resistors are used in wide applications there values like power rating. . The power rating may be as low as 1/10 watts and can be in several hundred watts.20% to as low as +/-.R value. Acceptable tolerance levels range from +/ . electric and electronic circuit elements and in current limiting devices. Its resistance value in ohms and its power dissipating capacity in watts Resistors are employed for many purposes such as electric heaters. Resistors of resistance value ranging from .001%. tolerance etc vary.telephoneequipments. These all vary in range and type of application a particular resistor is used.
Classification of Resistors: 1Fixed resistors 2 Adjustable/ variable resistors .
To include all types would make this section very large so I shall limit it to the most commonly used. advantages and disadvantages compared to the others.Carbon Composition Resistor:-Made of carbon dust or graphite paste. The mixture is moulded into a cylindrical shape with metal wires or leads are attached to each end to provide the electrical connection as shown. Their resistive element is manufactured from a mixture of finely ground carbon dust or gra phite (similar to pencil lead) and a nonconducting ceramic (clay) powder to bind it all together. very low wattage values Wire-wound Resistor:-Metallic bodies for heatsink very high wattage ratings mounting. Composition Type Resistors Carbon Resistors are the most common type of Composition Resistors. low wattage values Film or Cermet Resistor:-Made from conductive metal oxide paste. the lower the overall resistance. with each one having its own particular characteristics. Carbon Resistor The ratio of carbon dust to ceramic (conductor to insulator) determines the overall resistive value of the mixture and the higher the ratio of carbon. Carbon resistors are a cheap general purpose resistor used in electrical and electronic circuits. and readily available general purpose types of resistors. . Semiconductor Resistor :-High frequency/precision surface mount thin film technology There are a large variety of fixed and variable resistor types with different construction styles available for each group. before being coated with an outer insulating material and colour coded markings to denote its resistive value.
a laser is used to cut a high precision spiral helix groove type pattern into this film. onto an insulating ceramic rod or substrate. film type resistors are used instead. Carbon Film and Metal Oxide Film resistor types. The cutting of . Carbon composite resistors are generally prefixed with a "CR" notation (egCR10k ) and are available in E6 ( 20% tolerance (accuracy) ). The resistive value of the resistor is controlled by increasing the desired thickness of the deposited film giving them the names of either "thick -film resistors" or "thin-film resistors". Film Type Resistors The generic term " Film Resistor" consist of Metal Film. due to their manufacturing process carbon type resistors have very large tolerances so for more precision and high value resistances.Carbon Resistor The Carbon Composite Resistor is a low to medium type power resistor which has a low inductance making them ideal for high frequency applications but they can also suffer from noise and stability when hot. Carbon composite resistors are very cheap to make and are therefore commonly used in electrical circuits. E12 ( 10% tolerance) and E24 ( 5% tolerance) packages with power ratings from 0. which are generally made by depositing pure metals. such as tin -oxide. Once deposited. However.125 or 1/4 of a Watt up to 2 Watts. such as nickel. or an oxide film.
a bit like taking a long length of straight wire and forming it into a coil .6 ohms. 103.6%. This method of manufacture allows for much closer tolerance resistors (1% or less) as compared to the simpler carbon composition types. called Cermet. Metal Oxide Resistors have better high surge current capability with a much higher temperature rating than the equivalent metal film resistors.e. Another type of film resistor commonly known as a Thick Film Resistor is manufactured by depositing a much thicker conductive paste of CERamic and METal.5%.e.25% . Film Resistor Metal Film Resistors have much better temperature stability than their carbon equivalents. The tolerance of a resistor is the difference between the preferred value (i. Metal Film Resistors are prefixed with a "MFR" notation (eg MFR100k ) and a CF for Carbon Film types. Metal film resistors are available in E24 ( 5% & 2% tolerances). 100 ohms) and its actual manufactured value i. 0. for example 5%. low noise.the film has the effect of increasing the conductive or resistive path. onto an alumina ceramic substrate. lower noise and are generally better for high frequency or radio frequency applications. They have good temperature stability. and good voltage ratings but low surge current properties. E96 ( 1% tolerance) and E192 ( 0. Film type resistors also achieve a much higher maximum ohmic value compared to other types and values in excess of 10M (10 Million s) are available. Cermet resistors have similar properties to metal film resistors and are generally used for making small surface mount chip type resistors. and is expressed as a percentage. and in our example the actual tolerance is 3. multi-resistor networks in one package for pcb's and high frequency resistors. 10% e tc.
01 to 100k ) due to the gauge of the wire and number of turns possible on the former making them ideal for use in measuring circuits and Whetstone bridge type applications. These types of resistors are generally only available in very low ohmic high precision values (from 0. The non-inductive resistance wire is wound around a ceramic or porcelain tube covered with mica to prevent the alloy wires from moving when hot. These are high temperature. called a Wirewound Resistor. Another type of wirewound resistor is the Power Wirewound Resistor. They are designed to be physically mounted onto heatsinks or metal plates to further dissipate the generated heat increasing their current carrying capabilities even further. They are also able to handle much higher electrical currents than other resistors of the same ohmic value with power ratings in excess of 300 Watts. Generally speaking Film resistors are precision low power components.1% tolerances) packages with power ratings of 0. These types of resistors are called "Chassis Mounted Resistors".05 (1/20th) of a Watt up to 1/2 Watt. is made by winding a thin metal alloy wire (Nichrome) or similar wire onto an insulating ceramic former in the form of a spiral helix similar to the film resistor above. high power non -inductive resistor types generally coated with a vitreous or glass epoxy enamel for use in resistance banks or DC motor/servo control and dynamic braking applications. These high power resistors are moulded or pressed into an aluminum heat sink body with fins attached to increase their overall surface area to promote heat loss and cooling. They can even be used as space or cabinet heaters. Wirewound resistors are available in a variety of resistance and power ratings with one main use of power wirewound resistor is in the electrical heating elements of an electric fire which converts the electrical current . Wirewound Type Resistors Another type of resistor.& 0.
When used in AC circuits this inductance value changes with frequency (inductive reactance. 5% & 10% tolerance) or the W vitreous enamelled package ( 1%. the overall value of the resistor changes. Wirewound Resistor Wirewound resistor types are prefixed with a "WH" or "W" notation (eg WH10 ) and are available in the WH aluminium cladded package ( 1%. we will look at the different ways of identifying the resistive value of the different types of fixed resistors with . (1kW) of energy. XL = 2 L) and therefore. special non-inductive wirewound resistors are also available. it acts like an inductor causing them to have inductance as well as resistance and this affects the way the resistor behaves in AC circuits by producing a phase shift at high frequencies especially in the larger size resistors. wirewound resistors must not be designed into AC or amplifier type circuits where the frequency across the resistor changes. 2% & 5% tolerance) with power ratings from 1W to 300W or more. Then. Because the wire is wound into a coil.flowing through it into heat with each element dissipating up to 1000 Watts. measured in ohms and for a series AC circuit is given as. impedance (Z) is the combined effect of resistance (R) and inductance (X). The length of the actual resistance path in the resistor and the leads contributes inductance in series with the "apparent" DC resistance resulting in an overall impedance path Z. In the next tutorial about Resistors. However. Inductive reactance increases with frequency but is zero at DC (zero frequency). 2%. Z2 = R2 + X2.
An international and universally accepted resistor colour coding scheme was developed many years ago as a simple and quick way of identifying a resistors value no matter what its size or condition. resistors are manufactured in what are called "preferred values" with their resistance value printed onto their body in coloured ink. and wattage rating are generally printed onto the body of the resistor as numbers or letters when the resistors body is big enough to read the print. with the larger width tolerance band oriented to the right side indicating its tolerance. 4 Coloured Bands The resistance value. By matching the . 3 . 4 etc. if not millions of different resistors would need to exist to cover all the possible values. Resistors are available in a range of different resistance values from fractions of an Ohm ( ) to millions of Ohms. Obviously. small resistors use coloured painted bands to indicate both their resistive value and their tolerance with the physical size of the resistor indicating its wattage rating. But in order to do this the actual resistor needs to have some form of "resistive" or "resistance" value. it would be impractical to have available resistors of every possible value for example. These coloured painted bands produce a system of identification generally known as a Resistors Colour Code. these specifications must be shown in some other manner as the print would be too small to read. 2 . So to overcome this. The resistors colour code is always read one band at a time starting from the left to the right. Instead. because literally hundreds of thousands. Resistor Colour Code We saw in the previous tutorial that there are many different types of Resistors available and that they can be used in both electrical and electronic circuits to control the flow of current or voltage in many different ways. It consists of a set of individual coloured rings or bands in spectral order representing each digit of the resistors value. such as large power resistors. tolerance. But when the resistor is small such as a 1/4W carbon or film type. 1 .the most common method of identification being the use of Colour Codes and colour bands around the body of the resistor.
by matching the colour of the second band with its associated number in the digit column of the colourchart we get the second digit of the resistance value and so on as illustrated below: The Standard Resistor Colour Code Chart. .colour of the first band with its associated number in the digit column of the colour chart below the first digit is identified and this represents the first digit of the resistance value. Again.
000 1. The "left-hand" or the most significant coloured band is the band which is nearest to a connecting lead with the colour coded bands being read from left-to-right as follows. Resistors with tolerances lower than 2% are called precision resistors with the or lower tolerance resistors being more expensive. The fourth and fifth bands are used to determine the percentage tolerance of the resistor. Colour x 10 colour in Ohm's ( 's) For example.5% ± 0.1% 0.000 100.1 0. Colour Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White Gold Silver None Digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Multiplier 1 10 100 1. Digit.000 Tolerance ± 1% ± 2% ± 0.25% ± 0.000 10.000. a resistor has the following coloured markings.01 ± 5% ± 10% ± 20% Calculating Resistor Values The Resistor Colour Code system is all well and good but we need to understand how to apply it in order to getthe correct value of the resistor. Resistor tolerance is a measure of the resistors variation from the specified resistive value and is a c onsequence of the manufacturing process and is expressed as a percentage of its "nominal" or preferred value.000. Typical resistor tolerances for film resistors range from 1% to 10% while carbon resistors have tolerances up to 20%. Most five band resistors are .000 10.The Resistor Colour Code Table. Digit. Multiplier = Colour. Yellow Violet Red = 4 7 2 = 4 7 x 102 = 4700 or 4k7.
10% and 20%. these sayings are often very crude but never the less effecti ve for remembering the colours. the Capacitor. Here are just a few of the more "cleaner" versions but many more exist: Capacitor Introduction to Capacitors Just like the Resistor. When used in a direct-current or DC circuit. but when it is connected to an alternating -current or AC circuit. mica or ceramic called the Dielectric. a current flows charging up the plates with electrons giving one plate a positive charge and the other plate an equal and opposite negative charge. The colour code used to denote the tolerance rating of a resistor is given as. Gold = 5%. Silver = 10 % If resistor has no fourth tolerance band then the default tolerance would be at 20%. It is sometimes easier to remember the resistor colour code by using mnemonics or phrases that have a separate word in the phrase to represent each of the Ten + Two colours in the code.precision resistors with tolerances of either 1% or 2% while most of the four band resistors have tolerances of 5%. The conductive plates of a capacitor can be either square. Brown = 1%. sometimes referred to as a Condenser. and one which stores its energy in the form of an electrostatic field producing a potential difference ( Static Voltage ) across its plates. the current appears to pass straight through it with little or no resistance. is a passive device. circular or rectangular. Red = 2%. If a DC voltage is applied to the capacitors conductive plates. At thispoint the capacitor is said to be fully charged with electrons with the strength of this charging current at its maximum when the plates are fully discharged and slowly . This flow of electrons to the plates is known as the Charging Current and continues to flow until the voltage across both plates (and hence the capacitor) is equal to the applied voltage Vc. a capacitor blocks the f low of current through it. In its basic form a capacitor consists of two or more pa rallel conductive (metal) plates that do not touch or are connected but are electrically separated either by air or by some form of insulating material such as paper. However. or be of a cylindrical or spherical shape with the shape and construction of a parallel plate capacitor depending on its application and voltage rating.
In other words. By applying a voltage to a capacitor and measuring the charge on the plates. more capacitance. charging it up. as the current flows out of the capacitor.reduces in value to zero as the plates charge up to a potential difference equal to the applied supply voltage and this is illustrated below. Likewise. Also. The parallel plate capacitor is the simplest form of capacitor and its capacitance value is fixed by the surface area of the conductive plates and the distance or separation between them. When an electric current flows into the capacitor. larger plates. the ratio of the charge Q to the volt age V will give the capacitance value of the capacitor and is therefore given as: C = Q/V this equation can also be re-arranged to give the more familiar formula for the quantity of charge on the plates as: Q = C x V Although we have said that the charge is stored on the plates of a capacitor. Altering any two of these values alters the the value of its capacitance and this forms the basis of operation of the variable capacitors. because capacitors store the energy of the electrons in the form of an electrical charge on the plates the larger the plates and/or smaller their separation the greater will be th e charge that the capacitor holds for any given voltage across its plates. discharging it. smaller distance. the electrostatic field beco mes more stronger as it stores more energy. the potential difference between the two . it is more correct to say that the energy within the charge is stored in an "electrostatic field" between the two plates.
84 x 10 -12 F/m or 1/4.000000000001 = 10-12 F The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is proportional to the area.000. Capacitance.9 x 10 9. The property of a capacitor to store charge on its plates in the form of an electrostatic field is called the Capacitance of the capacitor. .e.000 = 0.000001 = 10 -6 F Nanofarad (nF) 1nF = 1/1. Units of Capacitance Microfarad ( F) 1 F = 1/1. the Farad is a very large unit of measurement to use on its own so sub-multiples of the Farad are generally used such as micro-farads.000. The Capacitance of a Capacitor The unit of capacitance is the Farad (abbreviated to F) named after the British physicist Michael Faraday and is defined as a capacitor has the capacitance of One Farad when a charge of One Coulomb is stored on the plates by a voltage of One volt.000. nano-farads and pico-farads. d (i.000 = 0. C is always positive and has no negative units. However. Not only that. which is the permittivity of free space. A of the plates and inversely proportional to their distance or separation.000000001 = 10 -9 F Picofarad (pF) 1pF= 1/1.000. Generally. . the dielectric thickness) giving us a value for capacitance of C = k( A/d ) where in a vacuum the value of the constant k is 8. for example. the conductive plates of a capacitor are separated by air or some kind of insulating material or gel rather than the vacuum of free space.000. but capacitance is also the property of a capacitor which resists the change of voltage across it.000.platesdecreases and the electrostatic field decreases as the energy moves out of the plates.000 = 0.
another factor which affects the overall capacitance of the device is the type of dielectric material being used. Plastic Film. Mylar. or a variety of other materials. Polystyrene. increases the capacitance of the capacitor compared to air is known as the Dielectric Constant. or insulator. Polarized Capacitorssuch as Electrolytic's. glas s. Tantalum's. Medium Loss. The factor by which the dielectric material. k and a dielectric material with a high dielectric constant is a better insulator than a dielectric material with a lower dielectric constant. paper. ceramic. This dielectric material can be made from a number of insulating materials or combinations of these materials with the most common types used being: air. polyester. The various insulating materials used as the dielectric in a capacitor differ in their ability to block or pass an electrical charge. . polypropylene. Medium Stabilitysuch as Paper. The actual permittivity or "complex permittivity" of the dielectric material between the plates is then the product of the permittivity of free space ( o) and the relative permittivity ( r) of the material being used as the dielectric and is given as: Low Loss. In other words the "Permittivity" ( ) of the dielectric.The Dielectric of a Capacitor As well as the overall size of the conductive plates and their distance or spacing apart from each other. Dielectric constant is a dimensionless quantity since it is relative to free space. Low-K Ceramic. oil. High Stabilitysuch as Mica. The conductive plates are generally made of a metal foil or a metal film but the dielectric material is an insulator. High-K Ceramic .
very large variety of different types of capacitor available in the market place and each one has its own set of characteristics and applications from small delicate trimming capacitors up to large power . and provides the following advantages. mica different plastics etc. All capacitors have a maximum working voltage rating. d between the two plates. A of the two conductive plates whi ch make up the capacitor. the larger the area the greater the capacitance. its WV DC so select a capacitor with a rating at least 50% mor e than the supply voltage. the higher the permittivity of the dielectric the greater the capacitance. The type of material which separates the two plates called the "dielectric". glass. The amount of electrical charge that a capacitor can store on its plates is known as its Capacitance value and depends upon three main factors. Permittivity of the dielectric increases the capacitance. The dielectric increases the maximum operating voltage compared to air.Introduction to Capacitors Summary The job of a capacitor is to store charge onto its plates. The dielectric provides mechanical support between the two plates allowing the plates to be closer together without touching. The dielectric constant is the property of the dielectric material and varies from one material to another increasing the capacitance by a factor of k. disadvantage and characteristics.The dielectric of a capacitor is a non -conducting insulating material. The distance. The surface area. Types of Capacitor There are a very. To include all types would make this tutorial section very large so in the next tutorial about The Introduction to Capacitors I shall limit them to the most commonly used types. the smaller the distance the greater the capacitance. each one having its own particular advantage. such as waxed paper. There are a large variety of capacitor styles and types.
Variable dielectric capacitors are multi -plate air-spaced types that have a set of fixed plates (the stator vanes) and a set of movable plates (the rotor vanes) which move in between the fixed plates. capacitors play an important part in electronic circuits so here are a few of the more "common" types of capacitor available. preset type variable capacitors are also available called Trimmers. These are generally small devices that can be adjusted or "pre-set" to a particular capacitance value with the aid . The capacitance is generally at maximum when the two sets of plates are fully meshed together. Variable Capacitor Symbols As well as the continuously variable types. Commercial types of capacitor are made from metallic foil interlaced with thin sheets of either paraffin-impregnated paper or Mylar as the dielectric material. Small capacitors are often constructed from ceramic materials and then dipped into an epoxy resin to seal them. High voltage t ype tuning capacitors have relatively large spacings or air -gaps between the plates with breakdown voltages reaching many thousands of volts. Either way. Dielectric Capacitor Dielectric Capacitors are usually of the variable type were a continuous variation of capacitance is required for tuning transmitters. Like resistors. receivers and transistor radios. The position of the moving plates with respect to the fixed plates determines the overall capacitance value. this is because the metal foil plates are rolled up into a cylinder to form a small package with the insulating dielectric material sandwiched in between them.metal-can type capacitors used in high voltage power correction and smoothing circuits. Some capacitors look like tu bes. there are also variable types of capacitors which allow us to vary their capa citance value for use in radio or "frequency tuning" type circuits.
Metal Hermetically Sealed (Rectangular & Round) . The main advantage of plastic film capacitors compared to impregnated-paper types is that they operate well under conditions of high temperature. metalli sed paper. polycarbonate or Teflon as their dielectrics are sometimes called "Plastic capacitors". Film Capacitor Film Capacitors are the most commonly available of all types of capacitors. Epoxy Case (Rectangular & Round) . a very long service life and high reliability. polystyrene. These include polyester (Mylar).where the capacitor is encased in a metal tube or can and again sealed with epoxy. Radial Lead Type . The construction of plastic film capacitors is similar to that for paper film capacitors but use a plastic film instead of paper.where the capacitor is wrapped in a tight plastic tape and have the ends filled with epoxy to seal them.of a small screwdriver and are available in very small capacitances of 500pF or less and are non-polarized.where the capacitor is encased in a moulded plastic shell which is then filled with epoxy. Film Capacitors which use polystyrene. Film capacitors also come in an assortment of shapes and case styl es which include: Wrap & Fill (Oval & Round) . have smaller tolerances. Film type capacitors are available in capacitance ranges from as small as 5pF to as large as 100uF depending upon the actual type of capacitor and its voltage rating. polypropylene. with all the above case styles available in both Axial and Radial Leads. polycarbonate. Teflon etc. Examples of film capacitors are the rectangular metallised film and cylindrical film & foil types as shown below. consisting of a relatively large family of capacitors with the difference being in their dielectric properties.
Axial Lead Type The film and foil types of capacitors are made from long thin strips of thin metal foil with the dielectric material sandwiched together which are wound into a tight roll and then sealed in paper or metal tubes. This allows for higher capacitance values and smaller case sizes for a given capacitance. These film types require a much thicker dielectric film to reduce the risk of tears or punctures in the film. Film and foi l capacitors are generally used for higher power and more precise applications. and is therefore more suited to lower capacitance values and larger case sizes. Ceramic Capacitors . Metallised foil capacitors have the conductive film metallised sprayed directly onto each side of the dielectric which gives the capacitor self-healing properties and can therefore use much thinner dielectric films.
a ceramic disc capacitor with the markings 103 would indicate 10 and 3 zero's in pico-farads which is equivalent to 10. Here instead of using a very thin metallic film layer for one of the electrodes. Letter codes are sometimes used to indicate their tolerance value such as: J = 5%. K = 10% or M = 20% etc. They exhibit large non-linear changes in capacitance against temperature and as a result are used as de-coupling or by-pass capacitors as they are also non-polarized devices.000 pF or 150nF. For very low capacitance values a single ceramic disc of about 3 -6mm is used. Electrolytic Capacitors Electrolytic Capacitors are generally used when very large capacitance values are required. The dielectric is a very thin layer of oxide which is grown electro chemically in production with the thickness of the film being less than ten microns.000 pF or 10nF. Ceramic capacitors have a high dielectric const ant (High-K) and are available so that relatively high capacitances can be obtained in a small physical size.000 pF or 100nF and so on. For example. Ceramic capacitors have values ranging from a few picofarads to one or two microfarads but their voltage ratings are generally quite low. Likewise. the digits 104 would indicate 10 and 4 zero's in pico-farads which is equivalent to 100. a semi -liquid electrolyte solution in the form of a jelly or paste is used which serves as the second elec trode (usually the cathode).Ceramic Capacitors or Disc Capacitors as they are generally called. This insulating layer is so thin that it is possible to make . Generally the first two digits indicate the capacitors value and the third digit indicates the number of zero's to be added. Then on the image of a ceramic capacitor above th e numbers 154 indicate 15 and 4 zero's in pico-farads which is equivalent to 150. are made by coating two sides of a small porcelain or ceramic disc with silver and are then stacked together to make a capacitor. Ceramic Capacitor Ceramic types of capacitors generally have a 3 -digit code printed onto their body to identify their capacitance value in pico -farads.
it follows then that they must not be used on AC supplies.e. Electrolytic Capacitor Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors . d is very small.capacitors with a large value of capacitance for a small physical size as the distance between the plates. One main disadvantage of electrolytic capacitors is their relatively low voltage rating and due to the polarisation of electrolytic capacitors. i. that is the DC voltage applied to the capacitor terminals must be of the correct polarity. Electrolytic Capacitors are generally used in DC power supply circuits du e to their large capacitances and small size to help reduce the ripple voltage or for coupling and decoupling applications. positive to the positive terminal and negative to the negative terminal as an incorrect polarisation will break down the insulating oxide layer and permanent damage may result. Electrolytic Capacitor The majority of electrolytic types of capacitors are Polarised. All polarised electrolytic capacitors have their polarity clearly marked with a negative sign to indicate the negative terminal and this polarity must be followed. Electrolytic's generally come in two basic forms. Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors and Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors.
Since the electrolyte has the properties to self heal a damaged plate. the plain foil type and the etched foil type. the capacitor would allow current to pass from one plate to the other destroying the capacitor. "so be aware". Since the electrolyte has the ability to conduct electricity. This gives a smaller sized capacitor than a plain foil type of equivalent value but has the disadvantage of not being able to withstand high DC currents compared to the plain type. DC blocking and bypass circuits while plain foil types are better suited as smoothing capacitors in power supplies. The dielectric properties of tantalum oxide is also much better than those of aluminium oxide giving a lower leakage currents and better capacitance stability which makes them suitable for use in blocking. Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors and Tantalum Beads. The foi l plates of the capacitor are anodized with a DC current. As the anodizing process can be reversed. Typical values of capacitance for an aluminium electrolytic capacitor range from 1uF up to 47. However. the electrolyte has the ability to remove the oxide coating from the foil as would happen if the capacitor was connected with a reverse polarity. by-passing. filtering and timing applications. the electrolyte used within the capacitor helps heal a damaged plate if the damage is small. if the aluminum oxide layer was removed or destroyed. it also has the ability to re-anodize the foil plate. But aluminiumelectrolytic'sare "polarised" devices so reversing the applied voltage on the leads will cause the insulating la yer within the capacitor to become destroyed along with the capacitor.There are basically two types of Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitor. are available in both wet (foil) and dry (solid) electrolytic types with the dry or solid tantalum being the most common. The thickness of the aluminium oxide film and high breakdown voltage give these capacitors very high capacitance values for their size. This anodizing process sets up the polarity of the plate material and determines which side of the plate is positive and which side is negative. Solid tantalum capacitors use manganese dioxide as their second terminal and are physically smaller t han the equivalent aluminium capacitors. Etched foil electrolytic's are best used in coupling. The etched foil type differs from the plain foil type in that the aluminium oxide on the anode and cathode foils has been chemically etched to increase its surface area and permittivity. Also their tolerance range is quite large at up to 20%. decoupling. .000uF.
Typical values of capacitance range from 47nF to 470uF. In the next tutorial about Capacitors.reverse voltage will cause self-destruction of the oxide layer and failure. Generally.excessive voltage will cause current to leak through the dielectric resulting in a short circuit condition. the positive lead is identified on the capacitor body by a polarity mark. However. Aluminium& Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitor Electrolytic's are widely used capacitors due to their low cost and small size but there are three easy ways to destroy an electrolytic capacitor: Over-voltage .excessive heat dries out the electrolytic and shortens the life of an electrolytic capacitor. Tantalum Capacitors although polarised. connected negative-to-negative to form a "nonpolarised" capacitor for use in low voltage AC ci rcuits as a non-polarised device. Reversed Polarity .Also. Over Temperature . some tantalum capacitor types contain two capacitors in-one. can tolerate being connected to a reverse voltage much more easily than the aluminium types but are rated at much lower working voltages. Solid tantalum capacit ors are usually used in circuits where the AC voltage is small compared to the DC voltage. we will look at some of the main characteristics to show that there is more to the Capacitor than just voltage and capacitance. Capacitor Characteristics . with the body of a tantalum bead capacitor being an oval geometrical shape.
the increased voltage may damage the smaller capacitor. film. C of a capacitor is measured in picoFarads (pF). as with any other electronic component. These Capacitor Characteristics can always be found in the datasheets that the capacitor manufacturer provides to us so here are just a few of the more important ones. Each family or type of capacitor uses its own unique identification system with some systems being easy to understand. The best way to figure out what a capacitor label me ans is to first figure out what type of family the capacitor belongs to whether it is ceramic. The capacitance of a capacitor can change value with the circuit frequency (Hz) y with the ambient temperature. the positive lead must go to the positive connection and the negative lead to the negative connection otherwise it may again become damaged. colours or symbols. An example of capacitor markings is given below. they may have different voltage ratings. Also we remember from the last tutorial that with a polarised electrolytic capacitor. Smaller ceramic capacitors can have a . So it is always better to substitute an old or damaged capacitor with the same type as the specified one.There are a bewildering array of capacitor characteristics and specifications associated with the humble capacitor and reading the information printed onto the body of a capacitor can sometimes be difficult especially when colours or numeric codes are used. plastic or electrolytic. nano-Farads (nF) or micro-Farads ( F) and is marked onto the body of the capacitor as numbers. Capacitor Characteristics The capacitor. Even though two capacitors may have exactly the same capacitance value. and others that use misleading letters. comes defined by a series of characteristics. letters or coloured bands. Nominal Capacitance. (C) The nominal value of the Capacitance. If a smaller rate d voltage capacitor is substituted in place of a higher rated voltage capacitor.
All capacitors have a tolerance rating that can range from -20% to as high as +80% for aluminiumelectrolytic's affecting its actual or real value. Also. 100V. the working voltage printed onto the side of a capacitors body refers to its DC working voltage. Any DC voltage in excess of its working voltage or an excessive AC ripple current may cause failure. The tolerance value is the extent to which the actual capacitance is allowed to vary from i ts nominal value and can range anywhere from -20% to +80%. capacitors also have a Tolerance rating expressed as a plus-or-minus value either in picofarad's ( pF) for low value capacitors generally less than 100pF or as a percentage ( %) for higher value capacitors generally higher than 100pF. ( 1pF ) while larger electrolytic's can have a nominal capacitance value of up to one Farad. The most common tolerance variation for capacitors is 5% or 10% but some plastic capacitors are rated as low as 1%. The choice of capacitance is determined by the circuit configuration but the value read on the side of a capacitor may not necessarily be its actual value.nominal value as low as one pico-Farad.30°C to + 70°C. Generally. ( WV-DC ). Tolerance. value and NOT the maximum or peak value which is 1. 50V.m. Working Voltage. (WV) The Working Voltage is the maximum continuous voltage either DC or AC that can be applied to the capacitor without failure during its working life. normally .s. 16V. 400V and 1000V and are printed onto the body of the capacitor. 250V. 35V.414 times greater. DC and AC voltage values are usually not the same for a capacitor as the AC voltage value refers to the r. Leakage Current The dielectric used inside the capacitor to separate the conductive plates is not a perfect insulator resulting in a very small current flowing or . Common working DC voltages are 10V. Thus a 100 F capacitor with a 20% tolerance could legitimately vary from 80 F to 120 F and still remain within tolerance. the specified DC working voltage is valid within a certain temperature range. (±%) As with resistors. ( 1F ). that a capacitor will have a longer working life if operated in a cool environment and within its rated v oltage. Capacitors are rated according to how near to their actual values they are compared to the rated nominal capacitance with coloured bands or letters used to indicated their actual tolerance. 160V. 63V. 25V. It follows therefore.
Capacitor leakage current is an important parameter in amplifier coupling circuits or in power supply circuits. The normal working range for most capacitors is -30°C to +125°C with nominal voltage ratings given for a Working Temperature of no more than +70°C especially for the plastic capacitor types. . When the leakage current is high as in electrolytic's it is referred to as a "leakage current" as electrons flow directly through the electrolyte. Generally for electrolytic capacitors and especially aluminium electrolytic capacitor. polystyrene. but they also have very high leakage currents (typically of the order of about 5 -20 A per F) due to their poor isolation resistance. Working Temperature."leaking" through the dielectric due to the influence of the powerful electric fields built up by the charge on the plates when applied to a constant supply voltage. Electrolytic-type capacitors (tantalum and aluminum) on the other hand may have very high capacitances. If the air or surrounding temperature becomes to hot or to cold the capacitance value of the capacitor may change so much as to affect the correc t operation of the circuit. the higher the insulation resistance. with the best choices for coupling and/or storage applications being Teflon and the other plastic capacitor types (polypropylene. Leakage current is a result of electrons physically making their way through the dielectric medium. at high temperatures (over +85°C the liquids within the electrolyte can be lost to evaporation. around its edges or across its leads and which will over time fully discharging the capacitor if the supply voltage is removed. and the body of the capacitor (especially the small sizes) may become deformed due to the internal pressure an d leak outright. (T) Changes in temperature around the capacitor affect the value of the capacitance because of changes in the dielectric properties. Also. etc) because the lower the dielectric constant. and are therefore not suited for storage or coupling applications. When the leakage is very low such as in film or foil type capacitors it is generally referred to as "insulation resistance" ( Rp ) and can be expressed as a high value resistance in parallel with the capacitor as shown. Also. the flow of leakage current for aluminiumelectrolytic's increases with temperature. This small DC current flow in the region of nano amps (nA) is called the capacitors Leakage Current.
It is also possible to connect a capacitor with a positive temperature coefficient in series or parallel with a capacitor having a negative temperature coefficient the net result being that the two opposite effects will cancel each other out over a certain range of temperatures. with regards to their electrical connection. below about 10°C. or as a percent change over a particular range of temperatures.electrolytic capacitors can not be used at low temperatures. (TC) The Temperature Coefficient of a capacitor is the maximum change in its capacitance over a specified temperature range. Polarization Capacitor Polarization generally refers to the electrolytic type capacitors but mainly the AluminiumElectrolytic's. positive to positive and negative to negative. such capacitors have a zero temperature coefficient or "NPO". However. that is the voltage connected to the capacitor terminals must have the correct polarity. The temperature coefficient of a capacitor is generally expressed linearly as parts per million per degree centigrade (PPM/°C). i. as the electrolyte jelly freezes. Most capacitors. For example "P100" is +100 ppm/°C or "N200". These types of capacitors such as Mica or Polyester are generally referred to as Class 1 capacitors. such as inductors or resistors etc. which is -200 ppm/°C etc. some capacitors do not change their value and remain constant over a certain temperature range.e. Another useful application of temperature coefficient capacitors is to use them to cancel out the effect of temperature on other components within a circui t. especially electrolytic's lose their capacitance when they get hot but temperature compensating capacitors are available in the ra nge of at least P1000 through to N5000 (+1000 ppm/C through to -5000 ppm/C). Incorrect polarization can cause the oxide layer inside the capacitor to break down resulting in very large currents flowing through the device resulting in . Temperature Coefficient. Some capacitors decrease their value as the temperature rises giving them a temperature coefficient that is expressed as a negative "N". Some capacitors are non linear ( Class 2 capacitors) and increase their value as the temperature rises giving them a temperature coefficient that is expressed as a positive "P". The majority are polarized types.
-ve terminal clearly marked with either a black stripe. Some larger electrolytic's have their metal can or body connected to the negative terminal but high voltage types have their metal can insulated with the electrodes being brought out to separate spa de or screw terminals for safety.the transistor operates as an amplifier and Ic = . Transistors are three terminal active devices made from different semiconductor materials that can act as either an insulator or a conductor by the application of a small signal voltage. when using aluminiumelectrolytic's in power supply smoothing circuits care should be taken to prevent the sum of the peak DC voltage and AC ripple voltage from becoming a "reverse voltage". If we now join together two individual signal diodes backto-back. or BJT for short. either silicon or germanium to form a simple PN-junction and we also learnt about their properties and characteristics. three terminal device forming the basis of a Bipolar Junction Transistor.Ib Saturation . Transistor Transistor Basics In the Diode tutorials we saw that simple diodes are made up from two pieces of semiconductor material. Then bipolar transistors have the ability to operate within three different regions: Active Region . The majority of electrolytic capacitors have their negative. band. this will give us two PN-junctions connected together in series that share a common P or N terminal. two junction. arrows or chevrons down one side of their body as shown.destruction as we have mentioned earlier. Also. The fusion of these two diodes produces a three layer.the transistor is "fully-ON" operating as a switch and Ic = I(saturation) . to prevent any incorrect connection to the DC supply. The transistor's ability to change between these two states enables it to have two basic functions: "switching" (digital electronics) or "amplification" (analogue electronics).
These three terminals are known and labelled as the Emitter ( E ). and is a combination of the words Transfer Varistor used to describe their mode of operation way back in their early days of development. Bipolar Transistor Construction . There are two basic types of bipolar transistor construction. NPN and PNP. is exactly the same the only difference being in their biasing and the polarity of the power supply for each type. which ba sically describes the physical arrangement of the P -type and N-type semiconductor materials from which they are made. Bipolar Transistors are current regulating devices that control the amount of current flowing through them in proportion to the amount of biasing voltage applied to their base terminal acting like a current -controlled switch.the transistor is "fully-OFF" operating as a switch and Ic = 0 Typical Bipolar Transistor The word Transistor is an acronym. The principle of operation of the two transistor types NPN and PNP.Cut-off . The Bipolar Transistor basic construction consists of two PN-junctions producing three connecting terminals with each terminal being given a name to identify it from the other two. the Base ( B ) and the Collector ( C ) respectively.
.The construction and circuit symbols for both the NPN and PNP bipolar transistor are given above with the arrow in the circuit symbol always showing the direction of "conventional current flow" between the base terminal and its emitter terminal. exactly the same as for the standard diode symbol. Each method of connection responding differently to its input signal within a circu it as the static characteristics of the transistor vary with each circuit arrangement. Bipolar Transistor Configurations As the Bipolar Transistor is a three terminal device. The direction of the arrow always points from the positive P-type region to the negative N-type region for both transistor types. there are basically three possible ways to connect it within an electronic circuit with one terminal being common to both the input and output.
Common Base. Common Collector Configuration . .has both Current and Voltage Gain. Common Emitter Configuration . In this tutorial we will look more closely at the "Common Emitter" configuration using NPN Transistors with an example of the construction of a NPN transistor along with the transistors current flow characteristics is given below. Common Emitter and Common Collector. with the characteristics of the different transistor configurations given in the following table: Characteristic Input Impedance Output Impedance Phase Angle Voltage Gain Current Gain Power Gain Common Base Low Very High 0o High Low Low Common Emitter Medium High 180o Medium Medium Very High Common Collector High Low 0o Low High Medium The NPN Transistor In the previous tutorial we saw that the standard Bipolar Transistor or BJT. with the most commonly used transistor type being the NPN Transistor. An NPN (Negative-Positive-Negative) type and a PNP (Positive-Negative-Positive) type. comes in two basic forms.has Current Gain but no Voltage Gain. We also learnt that the transistor junctions can be biased in one of three different ways .has Voltage Gain but no Current Gain.Common Base Configuration .
is positive at the Base and negative at the Emitter because for an NPN transistor.) The construction and terminal voltages for an NPN transistor are shown above. The Base supply voltage VB is connected to the Base resistor RB. We know that the transistor is a "current" operated device (Beta model) and that a large current ( Ic ) flows freely through the device between the collector and the emitter terminals when the transistor is switched "fully- . which again is used to limit the maximum Base current. "out" for an NPN transistor. Also the Collector supply voltage is positive with respect to the Emitter ( VCE ). The voltage between the Base and Emitter ( VBE ). NPN Transistor Connections Then the voltage sources are connected to an NPN transistor as shown.An NPN Transistor Configuration (Note: Arrow defines the emitter and conventional current flow. So for an NPN transistor to conduct the Collector is always more positive with respect to both the Base and the Emitter. RL which also acts to limit the maximum current flowing through the device. The Collector is connected to the supply voltage VCC via the load resistor. the Base terminal is always positive with respect to the Emitter.
in this type of transistor construction the two diodes are reversed with respect to the NPN type giving a Positive-Negative-Positive configuration.950 to 0. A PNP Transistor Configuration . and it is this large ratio between Ic and Ib that makes the NPN transistor a useful amplifying device when used in its active region as Ib provides the input and Ic provides the output. PNP transistors use a small output base current and a negative base voltage to control a much larger emitter-collector current. all the polarities for a PNP transistor are reversed which means that it "sinks" current as opposed to the NPN transistor which "sources" current. and is a function of the transistor itself (electrons diffusing across the junction). Note that Beta has no units as it is a ratio. called the DC Current Gain of the device and is given the symbol of hfe or nowadays Beta. is very close to unity.999 The PNP Transistor The PNP Transistor is the exact opposite to the NPN Transistor device we looked at in the previous tutorial. is called Alpha. Ic/Ie. ( ). ( ). the current gain of the transistor from the Collector terminal to the Emitter terminal. The value of can be large up to 200 for standard transistors.ON". Basically. The transistor current in an NPN transistor is the ratio of these two currents ( Ic/Ib ). However. The main difference between the two types of transistors is that holes are the more important carriers for PNP transistors. Also. with the arrow which also defines the Emitter terminal this time pointing inwards in the transistor symbol. The construction of a PNP transistor consists of two P-type semiconductor materials either side of the N-type material as shown below. the value of alpha . As the emitter current Ie is the product of a very small base current plus a very large collector current. this only happens when a small biasing current ( Ib ) is flowing into the base terminal of the transistor at the same time thus allowing the Base to act as a sort of current control input. Then. and for a typical low-power signal transistor this value ranges from about 0. Also. whereas electrons are th e important carriers for NPN transistors.
except that the polarities (or biasing) of the current and voltage directions are reversed for any one of the possible three configurations looked at in the first tutorial. Also the Emitter supply voltage is positive with respect to the Collector ( V CE ). the Base terminal is always biased negative with respect to the Emitter. is now negative at the Base and positive at the Emitter because for a PNP transistor. Common Base. The voltage sources are connected to a PNP transistor are as shown. Common Emitter and Common Collector. So for a PNP transistor to conduct the Emitter is always more positive with respect to both the Base and the Collector. The Base voltage V B which is biased . The PNP Transistor has very similar characteristics to their NPN bipolar cousins.(Note: Arrow defines the emitter and conventional current flow. "in" for a PNP transistor. This time the Emitter is connected to the supply voltage V CC with the load resistor. RL which limits the maximum current flowing through the device connected to the Collector terminal. PNP Transistor Connections The voltage between the Base and Emitter ( V BE ).) The construction and terminal voltages for an NPN transistor are shown above.
uses the voltage that is applied to their input terminal. which again is used to limit the maximum Base current. . or simply FET however.negative with respect to the Emitter and is connected to the Base resistor RB. we saw that the output Collector current of the transistor is proportional to input current flowing into the Base terminal of the device. thereb y making the bipolar transistor a "CURRENT" operated device (Beta model).7 volts for a silicon device or 0. this then makes the Field Effect Transistor a "VOLTAGE" operated device. .3 volts for a germanium device with the formulas used to calculate the Base resistor. Base current or Collector current are the same as those used for an equivalent NPN transistor and is given as. To cause the Base current to flow in a PNP transistor the Base needs to be more negative than the Emitter (current must leave the base) by approx 0. The Field Effect Transistor. called the Gate to control the current flowing through them resulting in the output current being proportional to the input voltage. As their operation relies on an electric field (hence the name field effect) generated by the input Gate voltage. Transistor resistance values for a PNP transistor and a NPN transistor Between Transistor Terminals Collector Collector Emitter Emitter Base Base Emitter Base Collector Base Collector Emitter PNP RHIGH RLOW RHIGH RLOW RHIGH RHIGH NPN RHIGH RHIGH RHIGH RHIGH RLOW RLOW The Field Effect Transistor In the Bipolar Junction Transistor tutorials.
Bipolar Transistors are "Bipolar" devices because they operate with both types of charge carriers. The field effect transistor is a three terminal device that is constructed with no PN-junctions within the main current carrying path between the Drain and the Source terminals. instant operation. The Field Effect Transistor has one major advantage over its standard bipolar transistor cousins. We remember from the previous tutorials that there are two basic types of Bipolar Transistor construction. The control of current flowing in this channel is achieved by varying the voltage applied to the Gate.Typical Field Effect Transistor The Field Effect Transistor is a three terminal unipolar semiconductor device that has very similar characteristics to those of their Bipolar Transistor counterparts ie. high efficiency. robust and cheap and can be used in most electronic circuit applications to replace their equivalent bipolar junction transistors (BJT) cousins. The Field Effect Transistor on the other hand is a "Unipolar" device that depends only on the conduction of e lectrons (N-channel) or holes (P-channel). called the N channel FET and the P-channel FET. which basically describes the physical arrangement of the P-type and N-type semiconductor materials from which they are made. which correspond in function to the Collector and the Emitter respectively of the bipola r transistor. in that their input impedance. NPN and PNP. ( Rin ) is very . Holes and Electrons. Field effect transistors can be made much smaller than an equivalent BJT transistor and along with their low power consumption and power dissipation makes them ideal for use in integrated circuits such as the CMOS range of digital logic chips. As their name implies. The current path between these two terminals is called the "channel" which may be made of either a P-type or an N-type semiconductor material. This is also true of FET's as there are also two basic classifications of Field Effect Transistor.
This makes the N-channel JFET's a more efficient conductor compared to their P -channel counterparts. Comparison of connections between a JFET and a BJT . (thousands of Ohms). The relationship between the connections of a junction field effect transistor and a bipolar junction transistor are compared below. But within this channel there is a third electrical conne ction which is called the Gate terminal and this can also be a P-type or N-type material forming a PNjunction with the main channel. while the BJT is comparatively low. the Junction Field Effect Transistor or JFET and the Insulatedgate Field Effect Transistor or IGFET). We have said previously that there are two ohmic electrical connections at either end of the channel called the Drain and the Source. which is more commonly known as the standard Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor or MOSFET for short. but the price of this high sensitivity also means that they can be easily damaged by static electricity. the P-channel JFET's channel is doped with acceptor impurities meaning that the flow of current through the channel is positive (hence the term P-channel) in the form of holes. The Junction Field Effect Transistor We saw previously that a bipolar junction transistor is constructed using two PN-junctions in the main current carrying path between the Emitter and the Collector terminals. the N channel JFET and the P-channel JFET. The N-channel JFET's channel is doped with donor impurities meaning that the flow of current through the channel is negative (hence the term N -channel) in the form of electrons. since electrons have a higher mobility through a conductor compared to holes.high. There are two main types of field effect transistor. The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JUGFET or JFET) has no PN-junctions but instead has a narrow piece of high-resistivity semiconductor material forming a "Channel" of either N type or P-type silicon for the majority carriers to flow through with two ohmic electrical connections at eit her end commonly called the Drain and the Source respectively. There are two basic configurations of junction field effect transistor. Likewise. N-channel JFET's have a greater channel conductivity (lower resistance) than their equivalent P -channel types. This very high input impedance makes them very sensitive to input voltage signals.
Field Effect Transistor Emitter - (E) >> Source - (S) Base - (B) >> Gate - (G) Collector - (C) >> Drain - (D)
The symbols and basic construction for both configurations of JFETs are shown below.
The semiconductor "channel" of the Junction Field Effect Transistor is a resistive path through which a voltage V DS causes a current I D to flow. The JFET can conduct current equally well in either direction. A voltage gradient is thus formed down the length of the channel with this voltage becoming less positive as we go from the Drain terminal to the Source terminal. The PN-junction therefore has a high reverse bias at the Drain terminal and a lower reverse bias at the Source terminal. This bias causes a "depletion layer" to be formed within the channel and whose width increases with the bias. The magnitude of the current flowing through the channel between the Drain and the Source terminals is controlled by a voltage applied to the Gate terminal, which is a reverse-biased. In an N-channel JFET this Gate voltage is negative while for a P-channel JFET the Gate voltage is positive. The main difference between the JFET and a BJT device is that when the JFET junction is reverse-biased the Gate current is practically zero,
whereas the Base current of the BJT is always some value greater than zero.
Bias arrangement for an N-channel JFET and corresponding circuit symbols.
The cross sectional diagram above shows an N-type semiconductor channel with a P-type region called the Gate diffused into the N -type channel forming a reverse biased PN-junction and it is this junction which forms the depletion region around the Gate area when no external voltages are applied. JFETs are therefore known as depletion mode devices. This depletion region produces a potential gradient which is of varying thickness around the PN-junction and restrict the current flow through the channel by reducing its effective width and thus increasing the overall resistance of the channel itself. The most-depleted portion of the depletion region is in between the Gate and the Drain, while the least-depleted area is between the Gate and the Source. Then the JFET's channel conducts with zero bias voltage applied (i.e. the depletion region has near zero width). With no external Gate voltage ( V G = 0 ), and a small voltage ( V DS ) applied between the Drain and the Source, maximu m saturation current ( I DSS ) will flow through the channel from the Drain to the Source restricted only by the small depletion region around the junctions. If a small negative voltage ( -VGS ) is now applied to the Gate the size of the depletion region begins to increase reducing the overall effective area of the channel and thus reducing the current flowing through it, a sort of "squeezing" effect takes place. So by applying a reverse bias v oltage increases the width of the depletion region which in turn reduces the conduction of the channel. Since the PN-junction is reverse biased, little
current will flow into the gate connection. As the Gate voltage ( -VGS ) is made more negative, the width of the channel decreases until no more current flows between the Drain and the Source and the FET is said to be "pinched-off" (similar to the cut-off region for a BJT). The voltage at which the channel closes is called the "pinch -off voltage", ( VP ).
The Metal Oxide FET - MOSFET
As well as the Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET), there is another type of Field Effect Transistor available whose Gate input is electrically insulated from the main current carrying channel and is therefore called an Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor or IGFET. The most common type of insulated gate FET which is used in many different types of electronic circuits is called the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor or MOSFET for short. The IGFET or MOSFET is a voltage controlled field effect transistor that differs from a JFET in that it has a "Metal Oxide" Gate electrode which is electrically insulated from the main semiconductor N-channel or P-channel by a thin layer of insulating material usually silicon dioxide (commonly known as glass). This insulated metal gate electrode can be thought of as one plate of a capacitor. The isolation of the controlling Gate makes the input resistance of the MOSFET extremely high in the Mega-ohms ( M ) region thereby making it almost infinite. As the Gate terminal is isolated from the main current carrying channel "NO current flows into the gate" and just like the JFET, the MOSFET also acts like a voltage controlled resistor were the current flowing through the main channel between the Drain and Source is proportional to the input voltage. Also like the JFET, this very high input resistance can easily accumulate large amounts of static charge resulting in the MOSFET becoming easily damaged unless carefully handled or protected. Like the previous JFET tutorial, MOSFETs are three terminal devices with a Gate, Drain and Source and both P-channel (PMOS) and N-channel (NMOS) MOSFETs are available. The main difference this time is that MOSFETs are available in two basic forms:
It connects to the main semiconductive channel through a diode junction to the body or metal tab of the MOSFET. Enhancement Type .the transistor requires the Gate -Source voltage. this substrate lead .Depletion Type .the transistor requires a Gate-Source voltage. ( VGS ) to switch the device "OFF". In discrete type MOSFETs. The depletion mode MOSFET is equivalent to a "Normally Closed" switch. The four MOSFET symbols above show an additional terminal called the Substrate and is not normally used as either an input or an output connection but instead it is used for grounding the substrate. The enhancement mode MOSFET is equivalent to a "Normally Open" switch. ( VGS ) to switch the device "ON". The symbols and basic construction for both configurations of MOSFETs are shown below.
MOSFETs are ideal for use as electronic switches or as common-source amplifiers as their power consumption is very small. When this is the case. MOSFETs can be easily damaged by static electricity if not carefully protected or handled. MOSFET Summary The Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET. MOSFET has an extremely high input gate resistance with the current flowing through the channel between the source and drain being controlled by the gate voltage. Memories. If this is a solid unbroken line then this represents a "Depletion" (normally closed) type MOSFET and if the channel line is shown dotted or broken it is an "Enhancement" (normally open) type MOSFE T. Calculators and Logic CMOS Gates etc. as in enhancement types it is omitted from the symbol. MOSFET type N-Channel Depletion N-Channel Enhancement P-Channel Depletion P-Channel Enhancement VGS = +ve ON ON OFF OFF VGS = 0 ON OFF ON OFF VGS = -ve OFF OFF ON ON . Typical applications for MOSFETs are in Microprocessors. The direction of the arrow indicates either a P-channel or an N-channel device. Because of this high input impedance and gain. The line between the drain and source connections representsthe semiconductive channel. This can be summarised in the following switching table. notice that a dotted or broken line within the symbol indicates a normally "OFF" enhancement type showing that "NO" current can flow through the channel when zero gate -source voltage V GS is applied. A continuous unbroken line within the symbol indicates a normally "ON" Depletion type showing that current "CAN" flow through the channel with zero gate voltage.is connected internally to the source terminal. For P-channel types the symbols are exactly the same for both types except that the arrow points outwards. Also.
. (MOSFET) configurations are given as: Junction FET Type Bias Nchannel Pchannel Depletion Mode ON 0v 0v OFF -ve +ve Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET Enhancement Depletion Mode Mode ON OFF ON OFF 0v 0v -ve +ve +ve -ve 0v 0v Differences between a FET and a Bipolar Transistor Field Effect Transistors can be used to replace normal Bipolar Junction Transistors in electronic circuits and a simple comparison between FET's and transistors stating both their advantages and their disadvantages is given below. (JFET) and the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor.The Field Effect Transistor Family-tree Biasing of the Gate for both the junction field effect transistor.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Low voltage gain High voltage gain High current gain Low current gain Very input impedance Low input impedance High output impedance Low output impedance Low noise generation Medium noise generation Fast switching time Medium switching time Easily damaged by static Robust Some require an input to turn it Requires zero input to turn it "OFF" "OFF" Field Effect Transistor (FET) Voltage controlled device Exhibits the properties of a Resistor More expensive than bipolar Difficult to bias Current controlled device Cheap Easy to bias Switch Simpal on. an ideal switch describes a switch that: has no current limit during its ON state has infinite resistance during its OFF state has no voltage drop across the switch during its ON state has no voltage limit during its OFF state has zero rise time and fall time during state changes switches only once without "bouncing" between on and off positions .off switch In electronics engineering.
or PCB. It is also referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board. tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a nonconductive substrate. . also known as a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electroniccomponents using conductive pathways. A PCB populated with electronic components is a printed circuit assembly (PCA). Printed circuit boards are used in virtually all but the simplest commercially-produced electronic devices.PCB Printed circuit board A printed circuit board.
COST SCHEDULE SR. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 List of Component Resistor Ceramic Capacitor Electrolyte Capacitor Transistor Transformer Viper 22A (ic) Optocoupler Diode Line Filter Fuse Switch Mains Switch 7808 Lm1117 PCB Mains cord Wire Ply wood bord Qty. Required 8 5 7 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 10 Cost/Unit (Rs.) 8 15 43 5 45 30 15 44 20 7 25 20 12 18 40 18 65 50 .) 1 3 25×1+3×6 5 45 30 15 4 20 7 25 20 12 9 40 18 65 5 Total Cost (Rs.