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Type KAVS 100: Check synchronising relay

The KAVS is a check synchronising relay for application to feeders on transmission, sub-transmission and distribution systems.

As a part of the K range or relays, the KAVS can be integrated into an overall protection and control system by utilising its integral
serial communications facility.

Features Application Functions

• Selectable undervoltage blocking The KAVS checks that the voltage, phase
angle and frrequency on either side of Check synchronising
and differential voltage blocking
an open circuit breaker are such that it is
features The relay checks that the two part of the
safe to close. It provides the check
system are in synchronism by measuring
• Flexible operating logic options via synchronising or dead line/bus
the angle and the slip frequency
interlocks required for some auto-reclose
software function links between the line voltage and the bus
applications. It also provides split system
voltage. Auto-reclose is blocked if these
• Measurement of line and busbar detection, and check synchronising
values exceed the phase angle and slip
interlocks for manual reconnection
voltage, system frequency and phase frequency settings. Manual closure is
following a system split.
angle slip frequency blocked if these values exceed the system
Two voltage phase angle comparators angle and system slip settings.
• IEC 870-5 compatible are included, identical in operation, but
communications via K-Bus Selectable undervoltage and differential
having different angle, slip frequency
voltage measurements are available to
and timer settings. This allows different
• Integral event recorder accessible block closure if the line and bus voltages
check synchronising conditions to be
from a remote PC are not compatible.
selected for auto-reclosing and manual
circuit breaker closing. The phase angle To allow the circuit breaker to be closed
• Comprehensive self-checking and comparator is normally applied for auto- onto an uncharged line, live line/dead
alarms reclosing, and the system angle bus, dead line/dead bus and dead
comparator for manual circuit breaker line/live bus detectors are included.
• Integral disturbance recorder closing. These allow reclosure when the voltage
accessible from a remote PC on the line and/or the bus VT is below a
preset value.

Model Available
KAVS 100

Figure 1

Relay type KAVS

KAVS 100

Scheme logic

The KAVS uses ladder logic (Figure 2) to External inputs

implement the scheme. It presents this in
the form of contacts, coils, counters and
timers that are implemented in the Break Software
software. In operation, the left side of the relay coil
ladder is analogous to a positive supply
rail, with the right side being negative. Make Software
The program then acts as an imaginary Function link relay contact Timer Output
current flowing left to right, acting upon
the components on the rungs of the
ladder as appropriate. Changes to the
scheme can be made through a user
interface by opening or closing software
function links, to match the scheme to a
particular application. Full details of the
scheme logic used are included in the Figure 2 Example of ladder logic
relevant scheme description. (See
Additional Information.)

Ancillary Functions Test features

Inputs and outputs
A number of features are provided to
KAVS has 8 optically isolated inputs Measurement enable the relay to be thoroughly tested
which may be reassigned by the user during commissioning, routine
with any of the available functions from The relay can display the magnitude of maintenance and fault finding
the setting menu. the line and bus voltages, line voltage operations:
frequency and slip frequency. The
There are 8 programmable outputs, each • The measurement functions allow the
measurements can be selected by the
comprising a relay with 1 normally open user to be displayed as either primary or analogue input and its associated wiring
contact which may also be reassigned secondary quantities. to be checked.
by the user. A dedicated watchdog • The on/off states of the digital inputs and
output with 1 normaly open and 1 Primary display quantities are based on
relay outputs can be displayed.
normally closed contact is also available. the VT ratios set in the relay. These
quantities can provide a default setting
Typical application diagram on the LCD situated on the relay Power-on diagnostics and
(Figure 5) shows the input and output frontplate. self-monitoring
functions assigned as a factory default
setting. Power-on diagnostic tests are carried out
Event records
by the relay when it is energised. These
Fifty events are stored in a non-volatile tests include checks on the timer,
buffer. Software is available to enable microprocessor, memory and the
the events to be downloaded to a PC. analogue input circuitry. Continuous self-
Any change of state of a control inpu or monitoring, in the form of watchdog
output relay, local setting change or circuitry, memory checks and analogue
operation of a control function, is stored input module tests, is also performed. In
in the relay with a resolution of 1ms. the event of a failure, the relay will either
Alarms are also stored as events. stop operating, which resets the
watchdog contact, or will attempt a
recovery, depending on the type of
Disturbance records failure detected.

The internal disturbance recorder has up

to 2 analogue, 16 digital and 1 time Hardware Description
channel. The recorder can be triggered
from selectable software signals, and
can store one complete record. Data is
KAVS 100

sampled 8 times per cycle and each

channel can store up to 512 samples.
Software is available to allow records to
be accessed and displayed by a PC.

The relay is housed in a Midos size 4
case, suitable for either rack or panel
mounting as shown in
Figure 6.

A highly integrated 16-bit micro-

controller uses digital signal processing
techniques to analyse power system
quantities and implement scheme logic.
The micro-controller performs all of the
major software functions such as input
signal processing, scheme logic, output
relay control and handling of the
operator interface.

The front panel contains a 2 x 16

character alphanumeric back-lit liquid
crystal display (LCD) and 4 pushbuttons
to provide local access to the relay’s
menu. There are also 3 light emitting
diodes (LED) for visual indication of the
relay’s status, ie. relay healthy, trip,
K bus screened
Standard Midos terminal blocks are 2 core cable
located at the rear of the relay providing
connections for all input and output
circuitssuch as dc supply, ac voltage and
a K-Bus communications port. Figure 3 Communications terminal arrangement

Relay 32 Relay 4 Relay 3 Relay 2 Relay 1

Desktop converter

KAVS 100

Figure 4 Basic communication system

User Interface Relay interconnection Communications protocol

The relays are interconnected via a The communications protocol used with
Front panel user interface shielded, twisted wire pair known as K- K Range relays is designated Courier.
The features of the relay can be Bus. Up to 32 relays may be connected The Courier language has been
accessed through a menu driven system. in parallel across the bus. developed specifically for the purpose of
The menu is arranged in the form of a developing generic PC programs that
The K-Bus is connected through a will, without modification, communicate
table, into each column of which, related
protocol converter known as KITZ, either with any device using the Courier
items (menu cells) are grouped.
directly or via a modem, to the RS232 language.
The user can move around the menu by port of the PC. The KITZ provides signals
means of the keys on the frontplate. This over the bus which are RS485 based In the Courier system, all information
can be done with the cover in place, but and are transmitted at 64kbits/s. The K- resides within the relay. Each time
any change to the settings requires the Bus connection is shown in Figure 3. communication is established with the
cover to be removed. relay, the requested information is
This system allows up to 32 relays to be loaded to the PC. The protocol includes
accessed through one RS232 extensive error checking routines to
Remote access user interface communications port. ensure the system remains reliable and
A pictorial representation of this is secure.
The menu table can also be accessed via shown in Figure 4.
the remote communications facility. This
allows all of the menu cells in a column Software is available with each KITZ to
to be displayed simultaneously on the provide access to the relay to read and
screen of a PC. Changes to a menu cell change settings. Additional software
Password protection
can be made from the PC keyboard. entitled ‘Protection Access Software &
Toolkit’ is available. This provides access Password protection is provided on
to the event recorder and other settings which alter the configuration
additional functions. of the relay, any accidental change
to which could seriously affect the
Each relay is directly addressable over
ability of the relay to perform its
the bus to allow communication with any
intended function, ie.
selected relay. Global commands may
enable/disable settings, protection
also be given to all relays on the
function characteristic selection and
scheme logic settings.
It should be noted that protection
tripping and blocking signals are not
routed via the K-Bus. Separate
conventional cabling is used for this
purpose; where appropriate the isolated
48V dc supply available on each relay is
used to energise the optically-isolated
inputs via external contacts.
KAVS 100

Figure 5 Typical application diagram KAVS

KAVS 100

Technical Data Phase angle settings Contacts
• Phase angle Output relays
Ratings 5° to 90° Eight single make
• System angle • Contact ratings
5° to 90° Make: 30A and carry for 0.2s
• AC voltage
• System split Carry: 5A continuous
• Vn (nominal)
90° to 175° Break: dc 50W resistive
57V to 120V
25W inductive
• Operating range Slip frequency settings
0 to 440V (L/R = 0.04s
• Phase angle check at 300V max)
• Maximum withstand 0.005Hz to 2.000Hz
• System angle check Durability
• Auxiliary voltage Vx 0.005Hz to 2.000Hz
24/125V or 48/250V ac or dc • Loaded contact

• Frequency Time settings 10,000 operations minimum

50/60Hz • Unloaded contact
• Phase angle check delay
• Frequency range 0.1s to 99s 100,000 operation minimum
45Hz to 65Hz
• System angle check delay
0.1s to 99s Communications port (K-Bus)
• System split time • Transmission mode
• Field voltage 0.01s to 600s
48V dc (current limit: 60mA) Synchronous
• Auto-reclose inhibit
after manual close • Signal levels
Burdens 0.01s to 300s RS485
• AC voltage • Message format
0.02VA at 110V phase/neutral Voltage settings
• Auxiliary voltage • Undervoltage
The burden on the auxiliary 22V to 132V • Data rate
supply depends upon the number 64 kbits/s
output relays and control inputs • Differential voltage
energized. 0.5V to 22V • Connection
• Line/bus dead voltage Multidrop (32 units)
No. of No. of Typical 5V to line/bus line voltage
• K-Bus cable
output control burden • Line/bus live voltage
relays inputs Line/bus dead voltage to 132V Screened twisted pair

DC 0 0 2.5 – 6.0W • K-Bus cable length

supply Transformer ratios 1000m (maximum)
2 2 4.0 – 8.0W
• Voltage transformers • K-Bus loading
8 8 5.5 – 12W 1:1 to 9999:1
32 units (multi-drop system)
AC 0 0 6.0 – 12VA
supply Digital inputs • Connector
2 2 6.0 – 14VA
Screw terminals
Opto-isolated inputs
8 8 13 – 23VA
• Isolation
Eight- energized from 48V field voltage
2kV rms for 1 minute
• Nominal rating
KAVS 100

50V dc
• Off voltage
• On voltage

High voltage withstand • Electrostatic discharge Atmospheric environment
• Dielectric withstand IEC 255-22-2: 1996 Class III • Temperature
IEC 255-5: 1977 8.0kV discharge in air with cover in IEC 68-2-1: 1990 (cold)
2kV rms for 1 minute between all place.
Storage and transit
case terminals (except terminals 1) Class II 4.0kV point contact
–25°C to +70°C
connected together and the case discharge with cover removed.
earth/terminals 1. IEC 68-2-2: 1974 (dry heat)
No additional tolerances are required
Operating –25°C to +55°C
2kV rms for 1 minute between all for the operating time or the unit’s
terminals of independent circuits with thresholds. • Humidity
terminals on each independent IEC 68-2-3: 1969
circuit connected together. • EMC Compliance 56 days at 93% RH and +40°C
1.5kV rms for 1 minute across open 89/336/EEC • Enclosure Protection
contacts of output relays. Compliance to the IEC 529: 1989
European Commission Directive
1kV rms for 1 minute across the on EMC is claimed via the IP50 (dust protected)
open contacts of the watchdog Technical Construction File route.
relays. Mechanical environment
EN 50081-2: 1994
• High voltage impulse EN 50082-2: 1995 • Vibration
IEC 255-5: 1977 Generic Standards were used
IEC255-21-1: 1988
Three positive and three negative to establish conformity.
Response Class 1
impulses of 5kV peak, 1.2/50µs, • Product safety Endurance Class 1
0.5J between all terminals and all 73/23/EEC Compliance • Shock and bump
terminals (except terminals 1) and
with European Commission
case earth/terminal 1. IEC255-21-2: 1988
Low Voltage Directive. Shock response Class 1
EN 6101-1: 1993/A2: 1995 Shock withstand Class 1
Electrical Environment Bump Class 1
EN 60950: 1992/A3: 1995
• DC supply interruption Compliance is demonstrated by • Seismic
IEC 255-11: 1979 reference to generic safety standards. IEC255-21-3: 1993 Class 1
10ms interruption in the auxiliary
• AC ripple on dc supply
The relay is housed in a size 4 Midos case as shown in Figure 6.
IEC 255-11: 1979
12% ac ripple on the dc supply.
• High frequency disturbance
97 4 holes Ø 4.4
IEC 255-22-1: 1988 Class III
2.5kV peak between independent
circuits and case.
All dimensions in mm.
• 1.0kV peak across terminals of the 168 159
same circuit.
No additional tolerances are
required for the operating time Push button
or the unit’s thresholds. projection 10 max. 99
Panel cut-out:
• Fast transient disturbance Flush mounting fixing details.
IEC 255-22-4: 1992 Class III
32 212
2.0kV, 5kHz applied directly to all 25 min.
IEC 801-4: 1988 Level 3
4.0kV, 2.5kHz applied to auxiliary
KAVS 100

voltage inputs and the watchdog 177 157 max.

relay contacts.

103 11
Flush mounting.

Figure 6 Case outline size 4

Information required with order

Unit type KAVS 100 0 1 L 1 J E


Standard 0 1

Case size

Size 4 Midos flush mounting L 1

Auxiliary voltage

24/125V 2

48/250V 5


Vn = 57.7/120V J


English E


Courier A communications language developed to provide generic control,

monitoring, data extraction and setting changes on remote devices
(primarily on protective relays) within the substation environment.

K-Bus The 64 kbit/s twisted pair cable used to connect Courier

compatible devices and transfer Courier data.

KITZ The interface unit which converts between K-Bus and IEC870
format data.

PC Personal computer

Additional Information

KAVS 100 service manual R8506

KAVS 100