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# Elementary Abstract Algebra

W. Edwin Clark

Department of Mathematics University of South Florida (Last revised: December 23, 2001)

Copyright c 1998 by W. Edwin Clark All rights reserved.

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Preface

This book is intended for a one semester introduction to abstract algebra. Most introductory textbooks on abstract algebra are written with a two semester course in mind. See, for example, the books listed in the Bibliography below. These books are listed in approximate order of increasing di culty. A search of the library using the keywords abstract algebra or modern algebra will produce a much longer list of such books. Some will be readable by the beginner, some will be quite advanced and will be di cult to understand without extensive background. A search on the keywords group and ring will also produce a number of more specialized books on the subject matter of this course. If you wish to see what is going on at the frontier of the subject, you might take a look at some recent issues of the journals Journal of Algebra or Communications in Algebra which you will nd in our library. Instead of spending a lot of time going over background material, we go directly into the primary subject matter. We discuss proof methods and necessary background as the need arises. Nevertheless, you should at least skim the appendices where some of this material can be found so that you will know where to look if you need some fact or technique. Since we only have one semester, we do not have time to discuss any of the many applications of abstract algebra. Students who are curious about applications will nd some mentioned in Fraleigh 1] and Gallian 2]. Many more applications are discussed in Birkho and Bartee 5] and in Dornho and Horn 6]. Although abstract algebra has many applications in engineering, computer science and physics, the thought processes one learns in this course may be more valuable than speci c subject matter. In this course, one learns, perhaps for the rst time, how mathematics is organized in a rigorous manner. This approach, the axiomatic method, emphasizes examples, de nitions, theorems and proofs. A great deal of importance is placed on understanding. iii

Or. In such cases the proof will either be assigned in the problems or a reference will be provided where the proof may be located. To a great extent. the course is self-contained. in some cases. This symbol was rst used for this purpose by the mathematician Paul Halmos. the e ort spent trying to do so will help to increase your understanding of the proof when you see it. With su cient e ort. will indicate the fact that no more proof will be given. We assume that students have some familiarity with basic set theory. . except for the requirement of a certain amount of mathematical maturity. I will often use the symbol to indicate the end of a proof.iv PREFACE Every detail should be understood. the student's level of mathematical maturity will increase as the course progresses. But very little of this nature will be needed. This version includes a number of improvements and additions suggested by my colleague Mile Krajcevski. your ability to successfully prove statements on your own will increase. Many problems require the construction of a proof. Even if you are not able to nd a particular proof. Note: when teaching this course I usually present in class lots of hints and/or outlines of solutions for the less routine problems. My advice is to learn each de nition as soon as it is covered in class (if not earlier) and to make a real e ort to solve each problem in the book before the solution is presented in class. Students should not expect to obtain this understanding without considerable e ort. And. linear algebra and calculus. hopefully.

2 vols).. Contemporary Abstract Algebra. A. N. Macmillan. L. 1992. (Seventh Edition. Algebra. Freeman and Company. W. H. 1975. 5] G. Springer Verlag. Jacobson. Hohn. Lang. Heath. Dornho and F. (Third Edition). D. 1989. Birkho and T. C. 7] B. 8] T. 2] J. (Fifth Edition). A. Fredrick Ungar Publishing Co. 1994. 1997. 1978. B. 6] L. 3] G. Addison-Wesley. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Topics in Algebra. Fraleigh. (Second Edition. Modern Applied Algebra. 4] I. 1980.. Gallian. 1994. v . A Survey of Modern Algebra. Addison-Wesley.Bibliography 1] J. Van der Waerden. 2 vols). Modern Algebra. (Third Edition). 1970. Hungerford. Basic Algebra I and II. Applied Modern Algebra. W. Blaisdell. Herstein.C. D. 10] S. 1970. A First Course in Abstract Algebra. Algebra. 9] N. MacLane. Peters Ltd. Bartee. K. (Second Edition). Birkho and S.

vi BIBLIOGRAPHY .

N .Contents Preface 1 Binary Operations 2 Introduction to Groups 3 The Symmetric Groups 4 Subgroups 5 The Group of Units of Zn 6 Direct Products of Groups 7 Isomorphism of Groups 8 Cosets and Lagrange's Theorem 9 Introduction to Ring Theory 10 Axiomatic Treatment of R . Q and C 11 The Quaternions 12 The Circle Group A Some Rules of Logic B Functions vii iii 1 9 17 31 37 39 41 49 55 61 71 75 81 85 . Z.

viii CONTENTS C Elementary Number Theory D Partitions and Equivalence Relations 89 93 .

Lemma 1. this rule must satisfy the condition x = y =) f (x) = f (y) (1. Proof Recall that a function f from set A to set B is a rule which assigns to each element x 2 A an element. This rule must satisfy the following conditions: (a) a 2 S and b 2 S =) a b 2 S . in the set B . If (a b) 2 S S then we write a b to indicate the image of the element (a b) under the function .1 A binary operation on a set S is a function from S S to S .1) 1 .1 A binary operation on a set S is a rule for combining two elements of S to produce a third element of S . Moreover. S is closed under . The following lemma explains in more detail exactly what this de nition means. usually denoted by f (x).] (b) For all a b c d in S a = c and b = d =) a b = c d: Substitution is permissible.] (c) For all a b c d in S a = b =) a c = b c. (d) For all a b c d in S c = d =) a c = a d.Chapter 1 Binary Operations The most basic de nition in this course is the following: De nition 1.

Moreover. if a b 2 S then (a b) 2 S S . it is not part of the de nition of binary operation. says that we can multiply both sides of an equation on the left by the same element. Part (d). as desired. Now implication (1. Equality of ordered pairs is de ned by the rule a = c and b = d () (a b) = (c d): (1. BINARY OPERATIONS On the other hand.3) we obtain a = c and b = d =) a b = c d: (1. To see the need for it.7 below. we can substitute c for a and d for b in the expression a b and we obtain the expression c d which is equal to a b.2) and (1.2 CHAPTER 1. One might not think that such a natural statement is necessary.1) becomes (a b) = (c d) =) a b = c d: (1. _^ \ Just as one often uses f for a generic function. see Problem 1. To prove (c) we assume that a = b. assume that a b is the same as b a. Now.2) Now in this case we assume that is a function from the set S S to the set S and instead of writing (a b) we write a b. Statement (b) says that if a = c and b = d. This establishes (a). Remarks In part (a) the order of a and b is important. Thus we have a = b and c = c and it follows from part (b) that a c = b c. we use to indicate a generic binary operation. The proof of (d) is similar. By re exivity of equality. the Cartesian product S S consists of the set of all ordered pairs (a b) where a b 2 S . So the rule assigns to (a b) the element a b 2 S .4) This establishes (b). we have for all c 2 S that c = c. if : S S ! S is a given binary operation on + Binary operations are usually denoted by symbols such as . Although sometimes it may be true that a b = b a. Part (c) of the above lemma says that we can multiply both sides of an equation on the right by the the same element. We do not ? .3) From (1.

Later in the course. Example 1.1 Ordinary addition on N . for example. and the real numbers by the symbols N . Note that division is not a binary operation on N since.4 Ordinary division on Q . and R . the rational numbers. 1g: . See Appendix C for some basic properties of N and Z that we will need from time to time. Z. This is called in x notation. In practice. We now list some examples of binary operations. 2 2 N and 1 2 Z. Z. Zn = f0 1 2 : : : n .5 For each integer n 2 de ne the set For all a b 2 Zn let a + b = remainder when the ordinary sum of a and b is divided by n. Example 1.3 Ordinary subtraction on Z. the integers. Q . Some should be very familiar to you. we assume that students have a basic knowledge of all these number systems. Notation.f0g and R . We denote the natural numbers. Example 1.f0g. respectively.1 0 1 2 3 : : : g n Q = f : n m 2 Z and m 6= 0g m For now. Example 1. we will often use ab instead of a b for a generic binary operation. Q and R . Q and R .3 a set S . Recall that N = f1 2 3 : : : g Z = f: : : .2 . we will give a list of axioms from which all properties of these number systems can be derived. for example. Note that subtraction 1 is not a binary operation on N and Z since. 1 . = 2 = Also note that we must remove 0 from Q and R since division by 0 is not de ned.2 Ordinary multiplication on N . = Example 1. 2 2 N . Q and R . we write a b instead of (a b). Z. Some may be new to you. and a b = remainder when the ordinary product of a and b is divided by n. we abbreviate even more just as we use ab instead of a b or a b in high school algebra.3 .

Matrix addition and multiplication are de ned by the following rules: a b + a b c d c d 0 0 0 0 b = a+a d+b c+c +d 0 0 0 0 .4 CHAPTER 1. we must be very clear about the value of n. 2 2 = 0 and 1 3 = 3. Let where a b c d are any elements of K .6 For each integer n 1 we let n] = f1 2 A permutation on n] is a function from n] to n] which is both one-to-one and onto. If and are elements of Sn we de ne their product to be the composition of and . 2 + 2 = 4. S2. S3. Example 1. Just to be clear. We de ne Sn to be the set of all permutations on n]. In Z4: 2 + 3 = 1. 0 + 3 = 3. 2 3 = 2. 2 3 = 1. but in the interest of keeping the notation simple we omit the subscript n. The integer n in Zn is called the modulus.7 Let K denote any one of the following: M2 (K ) be the set of all 2 2 matrices a b c d Z Q R Zn .5. Z4 = f0 1 2 3g. We discuss this example as well as the other examples in more detail later. Z3 = f0 1 2g. this means that in any given situation. BINARY OPERATIONS The binary operations de ned in Example 1. In Example 1. 0 + 3 = 3. 2 2 = 4 and 1 3 = 3 Again. it would be more precise to use something like a +n b and a n b for addition and multiplication in Zn. that is. we have an in nite number of examples: S1. we give a few examples of addition and multiplication: ng. Of course. First. etc. S4. we give a few more examples: Example 1. Note also that this is really an in nite class of examples: Z2 = f0 1g.5 are usually referred to as addition modulo n and multiplication modulo n. 2 + 2 = 0. etc. In Z5: 2 + 3 = 0. (i) = ( (i)) for all i 2 n]: See Appendix B if any of the terms used in this example are unfamiliar. The plural of modulus is moduli.

n 2 N . bc: c d . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 + bc + bd = aa + dc ab + dd ca cb 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = f(x1 x2 : : : xn) j xi 2 R for all ig: Addition is de ned by the rule: (x1 x2 : : : xn) + (y1 y2 : : : yn) = (x1 + y1 x2 + y2 : : : xn + yn): where xi + yi denotes the usual addition of the real numbers xi and yi . (This example is important for computer science. Addition is de ned by the rule: (x1 x2 : : : xn) + (y1 y2 : : : yn) = (x1 + y1 x2 + y2 : : : xn + yn): where xi + yi denotes addition modulo 2 (also called exclusive or) of xi and yi.9 Addition modulo 2 for binary sequences of length n. More precisely Example 1. u1 u3 v1 v3 u1 u2 v1 v2 a b = ad .) In this case the set is Zn = f(x1 x2 : : : xn ) j xi 2 Z2 for all ig: 2 Example 1. Rn Example 1.10 The cross product u v of vectors u and v in R 3 . 1 + 0 = 1 and 1 + 1 = 0. 0 + 1 = 1.5 a b a b c d c d for all a b c d a b c d 2 K . More precisely 0 + 0 = 0. Recall that if then u v is de ned by the formula u = (u1 u2 u3) v = (v1 v2 v3) u v= where u2 u3 v2 v3 . n 2 N .8 The usual addition of vectors in R n . Recall that Z2 = f0 1g.

2 Assume that is a binary operation on the set S . Given x 2 S we say that an element y 2 S is an inverse of x if both 2.1 Assume that is a binary operation on the set S . Hint: What is z z ?] 0 0 0 0 0 0 Problem 1. Prove the . (i) If e and e are identities with respect to on S then e = e . Let e 2 S be an identity with respect to . Recall that the set P (X ) is called the power set of X and. then A B is called the union of A and B and A \ B is called the intersection of A and B . We say that an element e in S is an identity with respect to if Example 1. Hint: What is e e ?] (ii) If z and z are zeros with respect to on S then z = z . De nition 1. We say that an element z of S is a zero with respect to if z x = z and x z = z for all x 2 S: following statements. We say that is commutative if x y = y x for all x y 2 S: a a = a: 5. BINARY OPERATIONS P (X ) of all subsets of X . 1. We say that is associative if x (y z) = (x y) z for all x y z 2 S: x e = x and e x = x for all x in S: 3. We say that an element a of S is idempotent with respect to if 6. if A and B are sets.6 CHAPTER 1.11 The set operations and \ are binary operations on the set x y = e and y x = e: 4.

on M2 (R ). Show by speci c example that this rule does not permit substitution. Try to nd all idempotents in each case. (M2 (R ) ).) to indicate the set R with the binary operations multiplication. but does not. If there is an identity. determine whether or not there are non-zero elements whose product is zero. Problem 1. Remark A set may have several binary operations on it. we use this notation for other sets such as the set M2 (R ). We use (M2 (R ) ) and (M2 (R ) +) to denote matrix multiplication and matrix addition.4 Determine which of the examples (R ). respectively.7 determine which are not associative. of 2 2 matrices over the real numbers R . Problem 1. Problem 1. since substitution is not permissible. For example. We write (R ). respectively. (R +). (M2 (R ) ). If there is a zero. Problem 1. (R +). and (P (X ) ) have idempotents. and (P (X ) ) have identities. Show non-commutativity by giving two speci c elements a b such that a b 6= b a. Problem 1. Show non-associativity by giving three speci c elements a b c such that a (b c) 6= (a b) c.5 Determine which of the examples (R ). Let a b c d be integers with b 6= 0 and d 6= 0. consider the set R of real numbers. (R +). addition and subtraction.6 Determine which of the examples (R ). determine the elements which do not have inverses. and (P (X ) ) have zeros. .2 Go through all of the above examples of binary operations and a 2 Q and c 2 Q : b d a c = a+c : b d b2 + d2 a c 2Q b d so Q is closed under . (M2 (R ) ).3 Go through all of the above examples of binary operations and determine which are not commutative.7 Here we give an example of a rule that appears to de ne a binary operation. Then De ne on Q by: Show that Problem 1. Similarly. and (R . (R +).

8 CHAPTER 1. BINARY OPERATIONS .

2. There is an element e 2 G satisfying e x = x and x e = x for all x in G. The inverse of x 2 R is .x.1 A group is an ordered pair (G ) where G is a set and is a binary operation on G satisfying the following properties 1. For each element x in G there is an element y in G satisfying x y = e and y x = e. (Q +) is a group with identity 0. 3. The inverse of x 2 Z is .x. 9 . Thus. y . and 2. The inverse of x 2 Q is . (Z +) is a group with identity 0. one must verify that the binary operation is associative.x. and that every element in the set has an inverse. (R +) is a group with identity 0. that there is an identity in the set. 2. then the group (G ) may be referred to by its underlying set G alone. Examples of Groups: 1. 3. a binary operation on the set. Convention If it is clear what the binary operation is. to describe a group one must specify two things: 1. z in G. Then.Chapter 2 Introduction to Groups De nition 2. x (y z) = (x y) z for all x. a set.

(Zn +) where + is vector addition modulo 2. the set Sn of all permutations on n] = f1 2 : : : ng is a group under compositions of functions. 5. 6.A = . The identity is the zero 2 vector (0 0 : : : 0) and the inverse of the vector x is the vector itself. (M2(K ) +) where K is any one of Z Q R Zn is a group whose identity is the zero matrix 0 0 0 0 and the inverse of the matrix b A= a d c is the matrix .d : . (Q . 7. 8. f0g is x 1. (Zn +) is a group with identity 0. there is a special name for such groups: De nition 2.x2 : : : . Examples of Non-Abelian Groups: 1. x if x 6= 0. (R . . The inverse of x 2 Q . f0g is x 1. For historical reasons. The inverse of x 2 R .xn ).c . The inverse of x 2 Zn is n .x1 . f0g ) is a group with identity 1. (Rn +) where + is vector addition.10 . For each n 2 N . INTRODUCTION TO GROUPS 4. Note that the binary operations in the above examples are all commutative. The identity is the zero vector (0 0 : : : 0) and the inverse of the vector x = (x1 x2 : : : xn) is the vector .x = (. 9. The group Sn is non-abelian if n 3. This is called the symmetric group of degree n. A group is said to be non-abelian if it is not abelian. CHAPTER 2. f0g ) is a group with identity 1.a .2 A group (G ) is said to be abelian if x y = y x for all x and y in G. We discuss this group in detail in the next chapter. the inverse of 0 is 0.5 in Appendix C for a proof that this binary operation is associative. See Corollary C.b .

(b) The inverse of each element in G is unique.3 Let (G ) be a group.11 2. where p is a prime number. Here represents matrix multiplication. . : GL(2 K ) is called the general linear group of degree 2 over K . These groups are non-abelian. Don't skip any steps.) Theorem 2. Hints: To establish (a) assume that e and e are identities of G and prove that e = e . . but do it again anyhow. 0 Now we can speak of the identity of a group and the inverse of an element of a group. 0 Problem 2. Dene GL(2 K ) to be the set of all matrices in M2 (K ) with non-zero determinant. . Since the inverse of a 2 G is unique. b ad bc a ad bc . Show carefully how each axiom is used. This was done in the previous chapter.1. . Use the group axioms to prove that x = y.1 If (G ) is a group then: (a) The identity of G is unique.] To establish (b) assume that x and y are both inverses of some element a 2 G. Let K be any one of Q R or Zp. Then (GL(2 K ) ) is a group. the following de nition makes sense: De nition 2. We discuss them in more detail later. .1 Prove Theorem 2. . Let a be any element of G. We de ne a 1 to be the inverse of a in the group G. The identity of GL(2 K ) is the identity matrix 1 0 0 1 and the inverse of a b c d is d ad bc c ad bc . Math Joke: Question: What's purple and commutes? (For the answer see page 15.

Then the following hold Left cancellation law for groups. If a b = e then a = b 1 and b = a 1.2. . 9. Problem 2.4. If b a = a for just one a. If a c = a b. Problem 2.3 Restate Theorem 2. .) Problem 2. 10. then b = e.2 Prove Theorem 2. INTRODUCTION TO GROUPS The above de nition is used when we think of the group's operation as being a type of multiplication or product.5 Let be an associative binary operation on the set S and let a b c d 2 S . then c = b. We de ne . 4. Be careful what you assume. Prove the following statements.] If a b = a for just one a. Theorem 2.2 for a group (G +) with identity 0. (a b) 1 = b 1 a 1. 1 b 1. . If instead the operation is denoted by +. De nition 2. 7.] . Problem 2. 5. then a = e. 6. .] (a 1) 1 = a. Let a be any element of G. for all elements a b c d in G: 2.] Given a and b in G there is a unique element x in G such that a x = b.4 Give a speci c example of a group and two speci c elements a and b in the group such that (a b) 1 6= a . . then c = b. Characterization of the inverse of an element.4 Let (G +) be a group. . If a a = a.] If c a = b a. then b = e. 3.2 Let (G ) be a group with identity e. The only idempotent in a group is the identity. (See De nition 2. 8. 1. .a to be the inverse of a in the group G.12 CHAPTER 2. . Given a and b in G there is a unique element x in G such that x a = b. we have instead the following de nition. Right cancellation law for groups. .

.6 Show that if a1 a2 a3 are elements of a group then (a1 a2 a3) 1 = a3 1 a2 1 a1 1 : Show that in general if n 2 N and a1 a2 : : : an are elements of a group then (a1 a2 an) 1 = an 1 a2 1 a1 1 : . . Note. The general case can be proved by induction on n.13 1. . . Proof The case n = 3 is just the associative law itself. The interested reader can nd a proof in most introductory abstract algebra books. unless stated to the contrary. the same element will be obtained regardless of how parentheses are inserted in the product (in a legal manner). we will assume the Generalized Associative Law. See for example Chapter 1. That is. so unless the binary operation is commutative we must still pay close attention to the order of the elements in a product or sum. so to save time. Remark. we see three di erent ways to properly place parentheses in the product: a b c d? Find all possible ways to properly place parentheses in the product a b c d and show that all lead to the same element in S . we will omit them. 2. The case n = 4 is established in Problem 2. then the product 3 a1 a2 an is unambiguous that is. Now that we have the Generalized Associative Law. (a b) (c d) = ((a b) c) d. however. (a b) (c d) = a (b (c d)). we can de ne an for n 2 Z. From now on. the order may still be important.4 of the book Basic Algebra I 9] by Nathan Jacobson. . and 2. . we will place parentheses in a product at will without a detailed justi cation. In 1. If a1 a2 : : : an is a sequence of n elements of S . . The details are quite technical.3 (The Generalized Associative Law) Let be an associative binary operation on a set S . 3. Problem 2. . Theorem 2.5. One of the problems is stating precisely what is meant by \inserting the parentheses in a legal manner".

A complete proof for n m 2 Z involves a number of cases and is a little tedious. 6. We de ne integral powers an . and for n 2: an = an 1 a a n = (a 1 )n Using this de nition. 2 . a3 b3 = (a b)3 . a 2 a2 = a0 . a 2 a 3 = a 5 5. . a2 a 6 = a 4 : .7 Let (G ) be a group with identity e. For a b 2 G: 1. Then for all n m 2 Z we have (an)m = anm for all a 2 G and whenever a b 2 G and a b = b a we have (a b)n = an bn: an am = an+m for all a 2 G This theorem is easy to check for n m 2 N . .5 Let (G ) be a group with identity e.4. Let a be any element a0 = e a1 = a a 1 = the inverse of a . Theorem 2. . Assuming a b = b a. INTRODUCTION TO GROUPS of G. . a a6 = a4 : 4. .4 (Laws of Exponents for Groups) Let (G ) be a group with identity e. Problem 2. it is easy to establish the following important theorem. n 2 Z.5 the following special cases of Theorem 2. . . 2. but the following problem gives some indication of how this could be done. a2 a3 = a5 : 2. as follows: De nition 2. . Prove using De nition 3.14 CHAPTER 2. .

3 b 3 = (a b) 3 .5 for additive notation. Answer to question on page 11: An abelian grape. . . (In this case an is replaced by na.4 for a group whose operation is +.15 7.) Problem 2.9 Restate Theorem 2. Problem 2. Assuming a b = b a.8 Restate De nition 2. a . .

INTRODUCTION TO GROUPS .16 CHAPTER 2.

etc. n] = f1 2 : : : ng. it would be a good idea to take some time to study Appendix B before proceeding. . This problem can always be identi ed by the existence of the same element more than 17 . that is.. . onto function from n] to n] and Sn is the set of all permutations of n]. A permutation of n] is a one-to-one. If these terms are not familiar. For another example. For example. to indicate elements of Sn. . let's say: (1) = 2 (2) = 3 (3) = 1 (4) = 4: Another way to specify is by exhibiting a table which gives its value: = 1 2 3 4 : 2 3 1 4 We call this the two line or two row notation. Let us discuss the di erent ways to specify a function from n] to n] and how to tell when we have a permutation. It is traditional (but not compulsory) to use lower case Greek letters such as . it is a permutation of 4]. The function just de ned is one-to-one and onto. let = 1 2 3 4 : 1 3 1 4 The function is not one-to-one since 1 6= 3 but (1) = (3). We may de ne a function : 4] ! 4] by specifying its values at the elements 1 2 3 and 4. To be speci c let n = 4.Chapter 3 The Symmetric Groups Recall that if n is a positive integer.

18

CHAPTER 3. THE SYMMETRIC GROUPS

once in the second line of the two line notation. is also not onto since the element 2 does not appear in the second line. Let 1 2 n = (1) (2) (n) : be the two line notation of an arbitrary function : n] ! n]. Then: (1) is one-to-one if and only if no element of n] appears more than once in the second line. (2) is onto if and only if every element of n] appears in the second line at least once. Thus is a permutation if and only if the second row is just a rearrangement or shu ing of the numbers 1 2 : : : n.

**The composition of two permutations:
**

If and are elements of Sn, then is de ned to be the composition of the functions and . That is, is the function whose rule is given by: (x) = ( (x)) for all x 2 n]. We sometimes call simply the product of and . Let's look at an example to see how this works. Let and be de ned as follows: = 1 2 3 = 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 3 1 It follows that (1) = (2) = (3) = Thus we have = 1 2 3 1 3 2 ( (1)) = ( (2)) = ( (3)) = (2) = 1 (3) = 3 (1) = 2

19 One can also nd products of permutations directly from the two line notation as follows: 1 2 3 1 2 3 = 1 2 3 First Step: 2 1 3 2 3 1 1 ; ; Second Step: Third Step: 1 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 3 2 3 1 = = 1 2 3 1 3 ; 1 2 3 1 3 2

**Problem 3.1 Compute the following products in S4:
**

(1) (2) (3) (4) 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 4 3 2 4 1 2 3 Whenever we need to prove two functions are equal, we require the following de nition:

**De nition 3.1 If : A ! B and : A ! B are functions then = if
**

and only if

(x) = (x) (x) = (x)

for all x 2 A: for all x 2 n]:

In particular, if and are in Sn then = if and only if

20

CHAPTER 3. THE SYMMETRIC GROUPS

The identity of Sn:

The identity of Sn is the so-called identity function : n] ! n]: which is de ned by the rule: (x) = x for all x 2 n]. In the two line notation is described by n = 1 2 1 2 n The function is clearly one-to-one and onto and satis es = and = for all 2 Sn: So is the identity of Sn with respect to the binary operation of composition. Note that we use the Greek letter (iota) to indicate the identity of Sn.] If 2 Sn, then by de nition rule 1 (y) = x if and only if (x) = y de nes a function 1 : n] ! n]. The function 1 is also one-to-one and onto (check this!) and satis es 1 1 = and = so it is the inverse of in the group sense also. In terms of the two line description of a permutation, if x = y then y 1 = x

; ; ; ; ; ;

The inverse of an element

2 Sn: : n] ! n] is one-to-one and onto. Hence the

= .21 The inverse of a permutation in the two line notation may be obtained by interchanging the two lines and then reordering the columns so that the numbers on the top line are in numerical order. Check in each case that = 1 2 3 4 2 3 1 4 . 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 1 Theorem 3.1 For any three functions :A!B :B!C :C!D we have ( ) = ( ): Proof Let x 2 A. 1 = and . 1 = . Then ( ) (x) = ( (x)) = ( ( (x))): and ( )(x) = ( (x)) = ( ( (x))): It follows that ( ) (x) = ( )(x) for all x 2 A: Hence ( ) = ( ).2 Find the inverses of each of the following permutations in two line notation. Problem 3. Here's an example: = 1 2 3 2 3 1 Interchanging the two lines we have: 2 3 1 : 1 2 3 Reordering the columns we obtain 1 = 1 2 3 : 3 1 2 .

For all i 2 n].1. In this case let ik+1 be the smallest number in n] not yet labeling a dot. With this corollary. (Note that i1 = 1 is possible. you have completed the diagram. Let i1 = (1). Every cycle diagram will look something like this. Consider two cases: (i) There is an arrow leaving every dot drawn so far. We call this picture the cycle diagram of . Draw an arrow from dot j to dot ik+1. = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 : 13 11 7 6 5 4 3 10 2 12 14 1 15 9 8 Notice that the diagram consists of ve \cycles": one \6-cycle".) 3. Draw an arrow from dot 1 to dot i1 .22 CHAPTER 3. The Cycle Diagram of a Permutation Example 3. Number the dots 1 through n. THE SYMMETRIC GROUPS Corollary 3. 2. That's why we call it the cycle diagram.2 The binary operation of composition on Sn is associative. . If there is no dot labeled ik+1 draw a new dot and label it ik+1. An important way to visualize an element of Sn is as follows. we complete the proof that Sn under the binary operation of composition is a group. it is best to use the following technique for drawing the diagram. Now repeat step 3 with k + 1 replacing k. To get a nice picture. one \4-cycle". In this case let ik+1 = (j ). 1. If there are no such then stop. if (i) = j draw an arrow from dot number i to dot number j . 4. otherwise draw a new dot and label it ik+1 (ii) There is a dot numbered j with no arrow leaving it. Arrange n dots in the plane. If i1 6= 1 draw another dot and label it i1. Draw a dot and number it 1. Assume that dots numbered 1 i1 i2 : : : ik have been drawn.1 : The cycle diagram of the following permutation is given in Figure 3. two \2-cycles" and one \1-cycle".

. Problem 3.e. i2 i3 i4 .1 need a systematic way to list the elements S4 to make sure you have not missed any. De ne a permuation in Sn as follows: (i 1 ) = (i2 ) = (i3 ) = . You will We now give a more precise de nition of a \cycle". let be the 3-cycle de ned by = (3 2 1). . For example. . . .2 Let i1 i2 : : : ik be a list of k distinct elements from n].23 diagram goes here] The cycle diagram of from Exercise 3. i. ik i1 (x) = x Such a permutation is called a cycle or a k-cycle and is denoted by (i1 i2 ik ): If k = 1 then the cycle = (i1) is just the identity function. may be considered as an element of S3 in which case in two line notation we have = 1 2 3 : 3 1 2 .3 Draw the cycle diagrams for all 24 elements of S4. . = . . De nition 3. (ik 1) = (ik ) = and if x 2 fi1 i2 : : : ik g then = ..

In general. there are three numbers 1. In which case we would have: = 1 2 3 4 5 : 3 1 2 4 5 Similarly. then = .4 Below are listed 5 di erent cycles in S5. (b) Draw the cycle diagram of each cycle. there are k di erent ways to write a k-cycle. (4) 2. . 3 in the cycle. for example.3 Two cycles (i1 i2 ik ) and (j1 j2 j`) are said to be disjoint if the sets fi1 i2 : : : ik g and fj1 j2 : : : j`g are disjoint. but the cycles (1 2 3) and (4 2 8) are not disjoint. THE SYMMETRIC GROUPS Notice that according to the de nition if x 2 f3 2 1g then (x) = x. (a) Describe each of the given cycles in two line notation.3 If and are disjoint cycles. the cycles (1 2 3) and (4 5 8) are disjoint. (3 4) 3. 2. 1. and we can begin the cycle with any one of these. Problem 3.24 CHAPTER 3. (1 3 5 4) 5. Theorem 3. Note also that we could specify the same permutation by any of the following = (3 2 1) = (2 1 3) = (1 3 2): In this case. (3 2 1) could be an element of Sn for any n 3. In which case we would have: = 1 2 3 4 : 3 1 2 4 Or we could consider (3 2 1) as an element of S5 . So. One can start with any number in the cycle. So we = could also consider (3 2 1) as an element of S4. (1 3 5 4 2) De nition 3. (4 1 5) 4.

Consider. To save time we omit a formal proof of this theorem. the factors are unique except for the order. To obtain this. which will complete the proof. the permutation 2 S15 1 2 8 = 13 11 3 4 5 6 7 10 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 : 7 6 5 4 3 2 12 14 1 15 9 8 The disjoint cycle decomposition of is = (1 13 15 8 10 12)(2 11 14 9)(3 7)(4 6)(5): Compare this with the cycle diagram given for this same permutation on page ??. Let fc1 Problem 3.4 Every element 2 Sn. Also (ai) = aj . i and j are disjoint.5 Show by example that if two cycles are not disjoint they need not commute. Theorem 3. since (1) = 13 we . where j = i + 1 or j = 1 if i = k.25 cmg be the elements of n] that are in neither fa1 : : : ak g nor fb1 b`g. (3. Thus (ai ) = (ai ) = aj = (aj ) = ( (ai ) = (ai ): Thus.1) The factorization (3. that is. for example. To do this we consider rst the case x = ai for some i. for i 6= j . Thus n] = fa1 : : : ak g fb1 b` g fc1 cm g: We want to show (x) = (x) for all x 2 n]. The process of nding the disjoint cycle decomposition of a permutation is quite similar to nding the cycle diagram of a permutation. So also (aj ) = aj . Proof Let = (a1 ak ) and = (b1 b` ). If all 1-cycles of are included. can be written as a product m where 1 2 : : : m are pairwise disjoint cycles. Then ai 2 fb1 = b`g so (ai ) = ai. (ai ) = (ai ). one starts a cycle with 1. It is left to the reader to show that (x) = (x) if x = bi or x = ci. n = 1 2 2.1) is called the disjoint cycle decomposition of .

] (b) Verify that the inverse of each of these cycles is a cycle of the same size. Then we pick the smallest number in 15] not used so far. we observe that (13) = 15.4 An element of Sn is called a transposition if and only if it . This gives the partial cycle (1 13 15.6 Find the disjoint cycle decomposition of the following permutations in S6 : = = = 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 1 6 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 2 4 6 5 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 5 4 3 6 tations in S6: Each permutation is given as a product of cycles. (1) (a b c). THE SYMMETRIC GROUPS have the partial cycle (1 13. 2. Try to do this without converting the cycle notation to the two line notation.7 Find the disjoint cycle decomposition of the following permu(1 2 3)(2 4 5) (3 4 5 1 2)(4 5 6)(1 2 3) (1 3)(1 2) (1 4)(1 3)(1 2) (1) (2) (3) (4) Problem 3. We start a new cycle with 2: Noting that (2) = 11 we have the partial cycle (2 11.7.] Problem 3. Problem 3. (2) (a b c d) (3) (a b c d e). Continuing we obtain the cycle (2 11 14 9).8 (a) Verify that if a b c d e are distinct elements of n] then each of the following cycles can be written as a product of 2-cycles: Hint: look at (3) and (4) in Problem 3. Next. is a 2-cycle. De nition 3. We continue in this way till we obtain the cycle (1 13 15 8 10 12). namely.26 CHAPTER 3. And we continue in this way till all the elements of 15] are in some cycle.

The second part is more di cult to prove and. in the interest of time. The parity of an integer is the property of being even or odd. It transposes i and j .5 Every element of Sn can be written as a product of transpositions.10 Give the disjoint cycle decomposition of each of the 6 elements of S3 . A nice proof may be found in Fraleigh ( 1]. we omit the proof.27 Note that the transposition (i j ) interchanges i and j and leaves the other elements of n] xed. Do it in more than one way. How many transpositions are in each of your products? Problem 3. De nition 3. Two integers have the same parity if they are both even or if they are both odd. In this case to be complete we de ne the identity permutation to be even. sign( ) = 1 if is even . we see that every cycle can be written as a product of transpositions as follows: (i1 i2 i3 ik ) = ( i 1 i k ) (i1 i3 )(i1 i2 ): Then. The rst part of this theorem is easy. It is odd if n = 2k + 1 for some integer k. however.1g by De nition 3. page 108. They have di erent parity if one is even and the Theorem 3. Generalizing Problem 3. then k and ` have the same parity. We de ne the function sign : Sn ! f1 .8. since each permutation is a product of cycles.9 Write the permutation on page ?? as a product of transpositions. we can obtain each permutation as a product of transpositions. Also write each element of S3 as a product of transpositions.6 A permutation is even if it is a product of an even number of transpositions and is odd if it is a product of an odd number of transpositions. .1 if is odd If n = 1 then there are no transpositions.5 An integer n is even if n = 2k for some integer k. if 2 Sn can be written as a product of k transpositions and if the same can also be written as a product of ` transpositions.) Problem 3. The factors of such a product are not unique. other is odd.

Note that jGj may be nite or in nite.) determinant? Problem 3. Remark. If it is nite jGj = n for some positive integer n. if n = 2 we have only two permutations and (1 2).14 Find jGL(2 Z2)j and jM2 (Z2)j.6 jSnj = n! for all n 1. An interesting but di cult problem is that of determining all groups of a xed order n. a12 a21 : Problem 3.28 CHAPTER 3. THE SYMMETRIC GROUPS sign( ) = sign( )sign( ) Problem 3. For small n this can be done as we shall see. (Note that in this case the determinant is a sum of 6 terms. We use jGj to denote the order of G. Theorem 3. the number of elements in G is called the order of G. Since sign( ) = 1 and sign((1 2)) = . The determinant of A may be de ned by the sum det(A) = X 2 Sn sign( )a1 (1) 2 (2) a an (n) : For example.12 Find the sign of each element of S3 and use this information to write out the formula for det(A) when n = 3.1 we obtain det(A) = a11 a22 . .13 If n = 10 how many terms are in the above formula for the De nition 3. but there seems to be no hope of answering the question for all values of n in spite of the e orts of many mathematicians who specialize in the study of nite groups. Problem 3. Let A = aij ] be an n n matrix.11 Show that the function sign satis es for all and in Sn.7 If (G ) is a group.

and more generally . Problem 3. i 2 f1 2 : : : k . 1g and = i = k. Problem 3.i =1 i<k Y (k) . there are altogether n(n . Thus. Thus. Problem 3. Elements of Sn have the form 1 2 3 ::: n a1 a2 a3 : : : an where a1 a2 : : : an is any rearrangement of the numbers 1 2 : : : n. there are n .15 Show that the inverse of a k-cycle is also an k-cycle. Continuing in this way. . . 1)(n .17 (Challenge Problem) For 2 Sn prove that Y (k) . i = . 1)(n . for each choice of a1 a2 . Show that ( (ai )) = ai for all i by considering three cases: i 2 f1 2 : : : kg. Then. (i) is odd () k . Once a choice is made for a1 .16 Show that if is a k-cycle then sign( ) = 1 if k is odd and sign( ) = . 2) 2 1 = n! ways to choose a1 a2 : : : an. we see that there are n(n . a2 a1 ) (a1 a2 ak ) 1 = (ak Hint: Let = (a1 a2 ak ) and = (ak a2 a1 ). there are n. 2) ways to select a1a2 a3 .1 if k is even. (i) is even () k. Hint: Show that if a1 a2 : : : ak are distinct elements of n] then (a1 a2) 1 = (a2 a1 ) (a1 a2 a3) 1 = (a3 a2 a1) (a1 a2 a3 a4) 1 = (a4 a3 a2 a1 ) .29 Proof Let n be any positive integer. there are n(n . 2 remaining possibilities for a3 .1 remaining possibilities for a2 . 1) ways to select a1a2 . So the problem is how many ways can we select the a1 a2 : : : an? Note that there are n ways to select a1 .1 i<k .

THE SYMMETRIC GROUPS .30 CHAPTER 3.

e 2 H: 2. in a way we will make precise later. Problem 4. . If a b 2 H . Also in this case. If a 2 H . From the de nition. then ab 2 H . then the binary operation on G when restricted to H is a binary operation on H . Remark If H is a subgroup of G. De nition 4. The identity of G will be denoted by e and the inverse of a 2 G will be denoted by a 1 . one may easily show that a subgroup H is a group in its own right with respect to this binary operation.1 Translate the above de nition into additive notation. the identity is denoted by 0 and the inverse of a 2 G is denoted by . we may need to discuss groups whose operations are thought of as addition. In such cases we write a + b instead of ab. . Sometimes.1 Let G be a group. 3. A subgroup of G is a subset H of G which satis es the following three conditions: 1. Many examples of groups may be obtained in this way.a. however. unless otherwise stated. G will denote a group whose binary operation is denoted by a b or simply ab for a b 2 G. For convenience we sometimes write H G to mean that H is a subgroup of G. In fact.Chapter 4 Subgroups From now on. 31 . De nitions and results given using multiplicative notation can always be translated to additive notation if necessary. every nite group may be thought of as a subgroup of one of the groups Sn. then a 1 2 H .

B = f0 6g Z12. SL(2 R) is called the Special Linear Group of Degree 2 over R Problem 4. (b) Determine which of the following subsets of Z12 are subgroups of (Here the binary operation is addition modulo 12.) 1. G G. (Here the binary operation is addition. L = f 2 S4 j (1) = 1g. W = f5k + 1 j k 2 Zg SL(2 R ) = fA 2 GL(2 R) j det(A) = 1g: Prove that SL(2 R ) GL(2 R ). H = f (1 2) (3 4) (1 2)(3 4)g 2. feg G.3 (a) Determine which of the following subsets of S4 are subgroups of S4 . 3. U = f5k jk 2 Zg 2.2 Prove that if G is any group. Problem 4.4 Let .) 1. then The subgroups feg and G are said to be trivial subgroups of G. 2. J = f (1 2) (1 2 3)g 4. CHAPTER 4. V = f5k + 1 j k 2 N g 3. SUBGROUPS Problem 4. 1. C = f0 1 2 3 4 5g (c) Determine which of the following subsets of Z are subgroups of Z. A = f0 3 6 9 g 2.32 1. K = f (1 2 3) (1 3 2)g 3.

That is. de ne the order of an element of a group G with binary operation + and identity denoted by 0.10 Find the order of the following permutations: (a) (1 2)(3 4 5) (b) (1 2)(3 4)(5 6 7 8) (c) (1 2)(3 4)(5 6 7 8)(9 10 11) (d) Try to nd a rule for computing the order of a product disjoint cycles in terms of the sizes of the cycles. Problem 4. Problem 4. and we de ne o(a) = minfn 2 N j an = eg If an 6= e for all n 2 N . If n 2. Some authors make matters worse by using the same notation for both concepts. we say that a has in nite order and we de ne o(a) = 1: In either case we call o(a) the order of a. 1 and an = e. So every element of a group other than e has order n 2 or 1. Guess the order of a k-cycle for arbitrary k. Problem 4. Note also that a = e if and only if o(a) = 1.2 Let a be an element of the group G.8 Find the order of each element of S3. De nition 4. Problem 4. let An be the set of all even permutations in the group Sn . Maybe by using di erent notation it will make it a little easier to distinguish the two concepts. .5 For n 2 N .7 Translate the above de nition into additive notation.33 Problem 4. An is called the alternating group of degree n.6 List the elements of An for n = 1 2 3 4. Based on this try to guess the order of An for n > 4. Note carefully the di erence between the order of a group and the order of an element of a group.9 Find the order of a k-cycle when k = 2 3 4 5. Show that An is a subgroup of Sn. If there exists n 2 N such that an = e we say that a has nite order. to prove that o(a) = n we must show that ai 6= e for i = 1 2 : : : n . Problem 4.

a 3 a 2 a 1 a0 a1 a2 a3 : : : g: In particular. So hai H .14 Translate the above de nition of hai and the remark into additive notation. If H is any subgroup of G that contains a.1) = . a = a1 and e = a0 are in hai. since H is closed under taking products and taking inverses. hai is a subgroup of G. if an 2 hai.n we have (an) 1 = a n 2 hai: This proves that hai is a subgroup. De ne We call hai the subgroup of G generated by a. This implies that hai is the smallest subgroup of G that contains a. That is. hai = fai : i 2 Zg: .4 that anam = an+m 2 hai: Also from Theorem 2. every subgroup of G that contains a also contains hai.13 Find the order of the element 2 in the group (R .] De nition 4. . . since n(. Problem 4. Problem 4. Recall that GL(2 Z2) Problem 4.11 Find the order of each element of the group (Z6 +).4.3 Let a be an element of the group G. follows from Theorem 2. an 2 hai for every n 2 Z. hai contains a and is the smallest subgroup of G that contains a. Since n + m 2 Z it . SUBGROUPS Problem 4. Since a = a1 it is clear that a 2 hai. . f0g ).34 CHAPTER 4. Let an am 2 hai. Are there any elements of nite order in this group? is the group of all 2 2 matrices with entries in Z2 with non-zero determinant. Proof As just noted e = a0 2 hai. . Recall that Z2 = f0 1g and the operations are multiplication and addition modulo 2. Remark Note that hai = f: : : Theorem 4.1 For each a in the group G.12 Find the order of each element of GL(2 Z2).

Theorem 4. If o(a) = 1. j . 1g. . 2. Now using Theorem 2. The case n = 1 is left to the reader. . . So the assumption that ai = aj where 0 i < j n . So there must be positive integers i < j such that ai = aj . then every element of G has nite order. assume that ai = aj where 0 i < j n . a1 a2 a3 : : : ai : : : of elements in G. o(a) = jhaij: Proof Assume that o(a) = n. then hai = feg.3 If G is a nite group. . 1 is false. . Suppose n 2. . . Since i < j .4 we have ai = anq+r = anq ar = (an)q ar = eq ar = ear = ar : This proves 1. all the elements in the list cannot be di erent. then hai = fe a a2 : : : an 1g and the elements e a a2 : : : an 1 are distinct. Here q is the quotient and r is the remainder when i is divided by n. that is. Since G is nite. Proof Let a be any element of G. . o(a) = jhaij: Theorem 4. . i is a positive integer less than n. It follows that hai contains exactly n elements. The elements e a a2 : : : an 1 are distinct. that is.35 If o(a) = n where n 2. 1. so aj i = e contradicts the fact that o(a) = n.4 we have aj i = aj+( i) = aj a i = aia i = a0 = e: That is.2 Let G be a group and let a 2 G. 1. This implies that 2 holds. To prove 2. i. . So a has nite order. . We must prove two things. i is a positive integer. If i 2 Z then ai 2 fe a a2 : : : an 1g. It follows that aj i = aj+( i) = aj a i = aia i = a0 = e: But j . . Consider the in nite list . an = e for the positive integer n = j . which is what we wanted to prove. . Then using Theorem 2. To establish 1 we note that if i is any integer we can write it in the form i = nq + r where r 2 f0 1 : : : n .

CHAPTER 4.1 0 . a = 5. a = (1 2 3). G = S4 . a = (1 2)(3 4). G = S4 . 8. 6. 5. G = Z15. G = Z. G = Z15. 4. G = S3 . a = 5. a = (1 2).] am = e if and only if n j m. a = .15 For each choice of G and each given a 2 G list all the ele- a= 1 1 . Prove that may be useful for the proof in one direction.16 Suppose a is an element of a group and o(a) = n. SUBGROUPS Problem 4. 1. 2.1.36 ments of the subgroup hai of G. Problem 4. G = GL(2 R). G = GL(2 Z2). a = . 0 1 0 1 10. Hint: The Division Algorithm from Appendix C . a = 1. 9. G = Z. 7. G = S3 . 3. a = (1 2 3 4).

This theorem is established in number theory courses.2 For which n 2 f2 3 4 : : : 12g is there an element a 2 Un such that Un = hai? Theorem 5. The order of Un is denoted by (n). the order of the group Un is important enough to have its own name and notation. Un = fa 2 Zn : gcd(a n) = 1g. An element a 2 Zn is said to be a unit if there is an element b 2 Zn such that ab = 1. 2 and 3 are both units. We denote the set of all units in Zn by Un . . Remark. is called the Euler totient function and is pronounced fee of n. we must keep in mind that by 2 1 in this context we do not mean the rational number 1=2. .1 List all the elements of Un for n 2 f2 3 4 : : : 12g. We say that 2 and 3 are inverses of each other.1 Un is a group under multiplication modulo n.Chapter 5 The Group of Units of Z n De nition 5. In number theory it is proved that if a 37 . Note that 2 is a unit in Z5 since 2 3 = 1. Since the multiplication is commutative. But note that if we write 2 1 = 3. Problem 5.1 Let n 2. Problem 5. Here the product is multiplication modulo n. In number theory. Theorem 5. The following theorem is easy to prove if we assume that multiplication modulo n is associative and commutative.2 For n 2. We call Un the group of units of Zn.

f0g such that ab = 0.3 for all primes p < 12. for example. then a is not a unit. . These facts make it easy to compute (n) if one can write n as a product of primes. or 2pk where p is an odd prime and k 2 N . In fact. : capital Greek letter Phi 3. Theorem 5. the following theorem from advanced number theory tells us exactly when such an a exists. and b are positive integers such that gcd(a b) = 1 then (ab) = (a) (b) and if p is prime and n 2 N then (pn) = pn . 4.3 If p is a prime then there is an element a 2 Up such that Up = hai. but Danish) and symbol for the empty set Problem 5. show that if a 2 Zn Theorem 5. ] Proof. pk .38 CHAPTER 5. abstract algebra. ' : lower case script Greek letter phi 4. This theorem is proved in advanced courses in number theory or Problem 5. But there is no known easy way to compute (n) if the factorization of n is unknown. and gcd(a n) = d > 1. f0g and ab = 0 then a is not a unit.4 If n 2 then Un contains an element a satisfying Un = hai if and only if a has one of the following forms: 2. (2) If b 2 Zn .3 Prove the easy part of Theorem 5. So.4 Demonstrate Theorem 5. : lower case Greek letter phi (pronounced fee ) 2. THE GROUP OF UNITS OF ZN . Hint: Show (1) that if a 2 Zn and gcd(a n) = d > 1 there is an element b 2 Zn . nor for n = 12 or 15. Note that there are four di erent but similar symbols used in mathematics: 1. Remark It will be noted that sometimes even when n is not prime there is an a 2 Un such that Un = hai. there is no such a in Un if n = 2k when k 3. pn 1.2 namely. : slashed zero (not Greek.

in this group (1 1) + (1 1) = (1 + 1 1 + 1) = (0 2): The identity is clearly (0 0) and.1 If G1 G2 : : : Gn is a list of n groups we make the Cartesian (x1 x2 : : : xn) = (y1 y2 : : : yn) () xi = yi for all i 2 f1 2 : : : ng: . Equality for n-tuples is de ned by product G1 G2 Gn into a group by de ning the binary operation (a1 a2 : : : an) (b1 b2 : : : bn) = (a1 b1 a2 b2 : : : an bn): Here for each i 2 f1 2 : : : ng the product ai bi is the product of ai and bi in the group Gi. for example. we use + for the operation in the direct product. the inverse of (1 1) is (1 2). It is clear that this is a group. for example.Chapter 6 Direct Products of Groups Recall that the Cartesian product X1 X2 Xn of n sets X1 X2 : : : Xn is the set of all ordered n-tuples (x1 x2 : : : xn) where xi 2 Xi for all i 2 f1 2 : : : ng. Since the binary operation in each factor is addition. 39 De nition 6. More generally we have the following result. We call this group the direct product of the groups G1 G2 : : : Gn. As an example. consider the direct product Z2 Z3 of the two groups Z2 and Z3. So. Z2 Z3 = f(0 0) (0 1) (0 2) (1 0) (1 1) (1 2)g: We add modulo 2 in the rst coordinate and modulo 3 in the second coordinate.

. if for each i. 3. .1 If G1 G2 : : : Gn is a list of n groups the direct product G = G1 G2 Gn as de ned above is a group. GL(2 U7 Z2 .2 Find the order of each of the following groups. 2. Problem 6. and if a = (a1 a2 : : : an) 2 G . . ei is the identity of Gi then (e1 e2 : : : en) is the identity of G. DIRECT PRODUCTS OF GROUPS Theorem 6. S3 U5 Z3 Z2 Z4 Z2) 4. Also give the 1. then the inverse of a is given by a 1 = (a1 1 a2 1 : : : an 1) where ai 1 is the inverse of ai in the group Gi . Problem 6. Moreover.1 Prove the above theorem for the special case n = 2. .40 CHAPTER 6. Z2 Z3 Z Z2 identity of each group and the inverse of just one element of the group other than the identity.

For example. For example. let's look at some small groups and see if we can see whether or not they meet our intuitive notion of sameness.Chapter 7 Isomorphism of Groups Two groups may look di erent yet be essentially the same. Problem 7. the following groups have order 6: GL(2 Z2 ) Z6 S3 U7 U9 Z2 Z3: Make a similar list for all integers from 1 to 12.2 Consider the following list of properties that may be used to distinguish groups. We say that the sequence (k1 k2 : : : km ) is the order sequence of the group G. 41 . This concept of sameness is formalized in mathematics by the concept of isomorphism (from the Greek: isos meaning the same and morphe meaning form). The order of the group. the order sequence of S3 is (1 2 2 2 3 3). The order sequence of the group. 2. 1. De nition 7. List them according to their orders. Before we give a precise de nition of isomorphism.1 Let G = fg1 g2 : : : gng.1 Go through the examples of groups we have covered so far and make a list of all those with order 12. Problem 7. To make the sequence unique we assume that the elements are ordered so that k1 k2 kn. Let o(gi) = ki for i = 1 2 : : : n.

isms are: f (a b) = f (a) f (b) Examples 7. A function f : G ! H is said to be a homomorphism from G to H if for all a b 2 G.1g is a homomorphism since sign( ) = sign( )sign( ) 3. det : GL(2 R ) ! R . is an isomorphism since from calculus we know that log is one-to-one and onto and for all 2 Sn .1 Some familiar examples of homomorphisms and isomorph1.] . f is said to be an isomorphism from G to H . where R + denotes the positive real numbers and the operations are respectively multiplication and addition. We say that G and H are isomorphic if and only if there is an isomorphism from G to H . f0g is a homomorphism since for all A B 2 GL(2 R ). det(AB ) = det(A) det(B ) 2. We write G = H to indicate that G is isomorphic to H.2 Let (G ) and (H ) be groups. sign : Sn ! f1 . log(xy) = log(x) + log(y) for all positive real numbers x and y . Whether the group is abelian or not. log : R + ! R .42 CHAPTER 7. Here log(x) = ln(x). ISOMORPHISM OF GROUPS 3. Look carefully at the groups in the list you made for the previous problem and see which may be distinguished by one or more of the three listed properties. De nition 7. If in addition f is one-to-one and onto.

2 Let (G ) and (H ) be groups and let f : G ! H be a .43 4. The last two examples show that the group of positive real numbers under multiplication is isomorphic to the group of all real numbers under addition. Problem 7. and 3.8 Prove that if G and H are groups then G H = H G.7 Prove that if G and H are isomorphic groups then jGj = jH j. is an isomorphism since from calculus we know that exp is one-to-one and onto and exp(x + y) = exp(x) exp(y) for all real numbers x and y. eH denote the identity of H .1. Then 1. Theorem 7. Theorem 7. Problem 7.6 Prove that every group of order 3 is isomorphic to the group homomorphism. Problem 7.4 Prove that every group of order 1 is isomorphic to the group U2 . then G = K . exp : R ! R + . 2. H and K are groups then 1. If G = H then H = G. Note that exp(x) is an alternative notation for ex .3 Prove Theorem 7. Let eG denote the identity of G and.5 Prove that every group of order 2 is isomorphic to the group Z2. f (eG ) = eH . If G = H and H = K . G = G. Problem 7. Z3. Problem 7. Problem 7. where R + denotes the positive real numbers and the operations are respectively addition and multiplication.1 (Isomorphism is An Equivalence Relation) If G.

Theorem 7. Problem 7. (b) in the case where G uses additive notation and H uses multiplicative notation. Problem 7. The general case of Theorem 7.44 2. Then o(a) = o(f (a)) for all a 2 G. isomorphism.13 Prove Theorem 7.2 3 . Problem 7.2 for n = 2 .4. f (an) = f (a)n for all n 2 Z. and (c) in the case where G uses multiplicative notation and H uses additive notation. .11 Restate Theorem 7. generator. De nition 7. Problem 7.12 Prove Theorem 7. and G is abelian.10 Prove part 3 of Theorem 7. Problem 7. We will come back to this later.2 (a) in the case that both G and H use Theorem 7. cyclic.9 Prove parts 1 and 2 of Theorem 7.14 Find an example of a cyclic group that has more than one Theorem 7.5 If G and H are isomorphic groups and G is cyclic then H is Problem 7.3. additive notation.2. Problem 7. Hint: Use the Theorem 7. then so is H . If hai = G then we say that a is a generator for G. f (a 1) = f (a) 1 . .4 If G and H are isomorphic groups.2 can be proved by induction on n. It follows that G and H have the same number of elements of each possible order. CHAPTER 7.3 Let (G ) and (H ) be groups and let f : G ! H be an Problem 7.16 Determine which of the following groups are cyclic and which are not cyclic.2.5.3 A group G is cyclic if there is an element a 2 G such that hai = G. ISOMORPHISM OF GROUPS 3. and .15 Prove Theorem 7.3.

If o(a) = n 2 N then hai = Zn. A3 .6 Let a be an element of a group G. This contradicts the assumption that o(a) = 1. Hint: Let G = hai. 7. Un for n 12. Hence Z = hai. Z2 Z3. n 2 N . Z group of order n then G has (n) generators. 2. Theorem 7.45 1. So we must have n = m. Since '(n + m) = an+m = anam = '(n)'(m) ' is a homomorphism and it follows that ' is an isomorphism. ' is onto by de nition of hai. De ne the function ' : Z ! hai by the rule '(n) = an for n 2 Z. Then an = am . 2. If n 6= m by symmetry we can assume n < m. Zn under addition modulo n. 8. 6. 1. S4.1 hai = Z. GL(2 Z2). Then e = a0 = an n = ana n = ama n = am n: But n < m so m . 5. Z2 Z2. . 3. Proof of 2 Assume that o(a) = n 2 N . S3. Z3 Z5. under ordinary addition. If o(a) = 1 then hai = Z.17 (Challenge Problem) Prove that if G is a nite cyclic . . 9. By Theorem 7. Problem 7. To prove that ' is one-to-one let '(n) = '(m) for some n m 2 Z. . Show than an element b = ai 2 G is a generator of G if and only if gcd(i n) = 1. . This shows that ' is one-to-one. 10. 4. For our proof we need to introduce the following notation from Appendix C. Proof of 1 Assume that o(a) = 1.

1. . Problem 7. Problem 7. 1: Now we have '(i j ) = '(r) = ar = ai+j qn = aiaj a qn = ai aj (an ) q = aiaj e q = aiaj e = aiaj = '(i)'(j ): Hence '(i j ) = '(i)'(j ). What about groups that are not generated by one element but are \generated" by two (or more elements)? The following exercise introduces a notation to make precise such matters. On the other hand by Theorem 4. It remains to show that ' is a homomorphism. Since it is also one-to-one and onto it is an isomorphism. The above shows that a group generated by one element is easily describable. To prove this note rst that i j = r means that i + j = qn + r where 0 r n .19 (Challenge Problem) Let G be a group and let S G. Hence Zn = hai and by Theorem 7. Now using this we can de ne precisely addition modulo n by the rule: a b = (a + b) mod n: Note that here we write a + b for addition in Z and a b for addition in Zn.18 Prove that if G is a cyclic group then G is isomorphic to Z or Zn. Prove .1 hai = Zn. . Recall that Zn = f0 1 2 : : : n . 1g. si 2 S and i = 1 for i = 1 2 : : : n.4 Let n 2 N .46 CHAPTER 7.2 since o(a) = n we have hai = fa0 a1 : : : an 1g: So the mapping ' : Zn ! hai de ned by the rule '(i) = ai for i = 0 1 2 : : : n . . a mod n is the remainder when a is divided by n. For each a 2 Z by the Division Algorithm there are unique integers q and r satisfying a = nq + r and 0 r < n: We denote r by a mod n. by Zn we mean the group (Zn ). is clearly one-to-one and onto. That is. . That is. . ISOMORPHISM OF GROUPS De nition 7. De ne hS i to be the subset of G whose elements have the form s11 s22 snn where n 2 N . So to be precise. ' is a homomorphism.

that is. hS i is a subgroup of G.20 Find a group of order 120 which is ismorphic to a subgroup . 3. Problem 7. unlike the cyclic groups one can say very little about groups generated by two elements. Show that for n 3 the group Sn is not cyclic.7 (Cayley's Theorem) If G is a nite group of order n. if K is a subgroup of G and S K then hS i K . it is generated by two elements. n 3. Note that a group of order k may well be isomorphic to a subgroup of Sn where n < k. On the other hand. 4]. then This makes precise the idea that every nite group is \contained" in Sn for some positive integer n.e. there is a subgroup H of Sn such that G = H . is not cyclic. 1. You may be interested in the curious fact ( rst discovered by Philip Hall) that (A5)19 (i. the group (Z2)n. A proof may be found. but Sn = hf = (1 2) and = (1 2 n). hS i is the smallest subgroup of G that contains S . However. of Sn where n < 120. gi where Note that the above problem shows that although Sn. 2. the direct product of 19 copies of the alternating group of degree 5) can be generated by two elements. Theorem 7. the group U8 = f1 3 5 7g is isomorphic to the subgroup H = f (1 2) (3 4) (1 2)(3 4)g of S4. the direct product of n copies of Z2. that is. For example. requires a minimum of n generators for each positive integer n. 3.47 2. but (A5)20 cannot. in any of the references 1.. We state without proof the following theorem.

48 CHAPTER 7. ISOMORPHISM OF GROUPS .

Hence 24 has order 3 so H = h24i = f1 24 28g 49 Problem 8. but 2i 6= 1 for 1 i 11. but (24)3 = 212 = 1. so U13 = f1 2 22 23 : : : 211g: Since 2 has order 12. we will leave o the modi er left. Remark In the case of additive notation the coset of H in G generated by a is written in the form a + H = fa + h j h 2 H g Sometimes aH is called a left coset and the set Ha = fha j h 2 H g is called a right coset. For each element a of G we de ne aH = fah j h 2 H g: We call aH the coset of H in G generated by a. It follows that (24)2 = 28 6= 1. 212 = 1. U13 = f1 2 : : : 11 12g and that the element 2 2 U13 has order 12. Recall that .1 Let G be a group and let H be a subgroup of G.1 Here we consider all the cosets of a particular subgroup of the group U13 .Chapter 8 Cosets and Lagrange's Theorem De nition 8. Since we will only use left cosets.

Problem 8. If we remove all repetitions from the list we are left with what we shall call the distinct cosets of H in G. Note that none of the cosets overlap. Show that the subgroup H just de ned has exactly four di erent cosets in U13 . Theorem 8. Let a1H a2 H : : : asH be the distinct cosets of H in G.1 (Lagrange's Theorem) If G is a nite group and H G then jH j divides jGj. jaH j = jH j. . if two cosets are di erent.3 Let G be a nite group and let H be a subgroup of G. COSETS AND LAGRANGE'S THEOREM is a subgroup of U13 . then aH = bH . Then if we form the list of all cosets of H in G we have g1 H g2H : : : gnH: Remark Suppose G = fg1 g2 : : : gng is a group with n elements and But as noted in the above examples some of the cosets in this list are repeated several times. then their intersection is the empty set. Let a b 2 G. If aH \ bH 6= . 3. Prove the following statements.50 CHAPTER 8. We want to show that k j n. Problem 8. H G. Note that if we list all the cosets 2H 22H 23H : : : 211 H 212 H it appears that there are 12 cosets. If there are s distinct cosets we may denote them by a1 H a2H : : : asH . 1. and let k be the order of H . that is. Also note that every element of U13 is in one and only one of the four di erent cosets and each coset of H has the same number of elements as H . a 2 aH . 2. Proof Let n be the order of G. Show however that there are only four di erent cosets.2 Find all cosets of the subgroup H = h(1 2)i of the group S3 .

The following problems give some important corollaries of Lagrange's Theorem. This shows that k j n. Here the product is multiplication modulo p. and proves the theorem.4 Prove that if G is a nite group and a 2 G then o(a) divides jGj.9 Prove that if G and H are groups of order p where p is prime then G = H .8 Prove that if jGj = p where p is a prime then G is a cyclic Problem 8.7 Prove that if n 2 N and a 2 Un then a (n) = 1.6 Prove that if p is a prime and a is a non-zero element of Zp j j . Problem 8. Problem 8. If jGj = 2 then G = Z2. 1. G = a1 H a2H asH and aiH \ aj H = when i 6= j: 2 Since also each coset has the same number of elements as H . then ap 1 = 1. By Problem 8.] In number theory this is called Fermat's Little Theorem product is multiplication modulo n. That is. we have jGj It follows that n = ks. Here the Problem 8. group. Problem 8.10 Let G be a group. Prove the following statements.] In number theory this is called Euler's Theorem. these cosets are pairwise disjoint and their union is the whole group.3. .5 Prove that if G is a nite group and a 2 G then a G = e: Problem 8.51 Note that s is the number of distinct cosets. = = = = k+k+ ks: ja H j + ja H j + + jasH j jH j + jH j + + jH j 1 +k Problem 8.

16 32.cs. etc.2 We say that there are k isomorphism classes of groups of order n if there are k groups G1 G2 : : : Gk such that (1) if i 6= j then Gi and Gj are not isomorphic. 3. There are. A. The research announcement may be found at http://www. for example. COSETS AND LAGRANGE'S THEOREM 2. 4. In a recent paper The groups of order at most 2000 by H. If jGj = 3 then G = Z3. In more advanced courses in algebra. 56092 non-isomorphic groups of order 256. Problem 8.uwa. De nition 8.11 Find two groups of order 4 that are not isomorphic.52 CHAPTER 8. Eick. for example.ams.org/jourcgi. O'Brien it is announced that they have been able to extend known results so that the number of groups of each order up to 2000 is now known. and E. Besche. Gordon Royle has such a list for groups of order up to 1000 (with the exception of orders 512 and 768). But now we may give easier proofs. Problem 8. that one may nd 14 groups of order 16 such that every group of order 16 is isomorphic to one and only one of these 14 groups. that is for 2.12 Find two groups of order 6 that are not isomorphic. . U. If jGj = 5 then G = Z5. This is sometimes expressed by saying that there are k groups of order n up to isomorphism or that there are k non-isomorphic groups of order n. 8. Note that we have seen the rst two items previously.au/~gordon/ and follow the link to Combinatorial Data. it is shown that the number of isomorphism classes of groups of order n for n 17 is given by the following table: Order : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number : 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 5 2 2 1 5 1 2 1 14 1 This table means.edu. and (2) every group of order n is isomorphic to Gi for some i 2 f1 2 : : : kg. For the entire list go to Gordon Royle's homepage at http://www. B. It is interesting to note that the largest number of groups seems to appear when the order is a power of 2.

1: The ten most di cult orders Order Number 10 2 49 487 365 422 29 3 408 641 062 9 2 10 494 213 8 2 5 1 116 461 8 2 3 1 090 235 28 7 1 083 553 7 2 3 5 241 004 7 2 2 3 157 877 28 56 092 6 3 2 3 47 937 At the opposite extreme there are some orders for which there is only one isomorphism class of groups.164. Table 8. i . The Fundamental Theorem of Finite Abelian Groups If G is a nite abelian group of order at least two then G = Zpn1 1 Zpn2 2 Zpns s where for each i.062 remaining groups of order 2000.422 groups of order 210 and only 423. Although the number isomorphism classes of groups of order n is not known in general. No formula is known for the number of isomorphism classes of groups of order n. et al and the number of groups of each order. the prime powers pni are unique except for the order of the factors. Moreover. But there are some non-primes that have this property. Thus in excess of 99 % of the groups of order 2000 are of order 210. we list the ten most challenging orders as taken from the paper by Besche. for example.365. there is only one isomorphism class of groups of order n if n is prime. 487. 15.1. It is interesting to note that according to this paper there are 49. pi is a prime and ni is a positive integer. For example. it is possible to calculate easily the number of isomorphism classes of abelian groups of order n using the following famous theorem which we state without proof.53 In Table 8.

However. Remark: In number theory it is proven that if n = ab and gcd(a b) = 1 then Zn = Za Zb . Note that each corresponds to a way of factoring 72 as a product of prime powers.13 Determine the number of non-isomorphic abelian groups of order n where n 2 f4 6 8 16 1800g Problem 8. Z9 Z9 Z9 Z3 Z3 Z3 Z2 Z4 Z8 Z3 Z3 Z3 Z2 Z2 Z2 Z4 Z8 Z2 Z2 Z2 Z2 72 = 9 72 = 9 72 = 9 72 = 3 72 = 3 72 = 3 2 4 8 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 8 Thus there are exactly 6 non-isomorphic abelian groups of order 72. if G is an abelian group of order 72 = 32 23 then G is isomorphic to one and only one of the following groups.14 Prove that Z6 = Z2 Z3. This is called the Chinese Remainder Theorem. COSETS AND LAGRANGE'S THEOREM If the group G in the above theorem has order n then n = pn1 pn2 : : : pns : 1 2 s So the pi may be obtained from the prime factorization of the order of the group G. so we cannot say what the ni are. . the number of isomorphism classes of abelian groups of order n is equal to the number of ways to factor n as a product of prime powers (where the order of the factors does not count). These primes are not necessarily distinct.54 CHAPTER 8. For example. Corollary For n 2. we can nd all possible choices for the ni. Problem 8.

M1 a (b c) = (a b) c for all a.Chapter 9 Introduction to Ring Theory De nition 9. b. b in R. c in R. much less that elements have inverses with respect to multiplication. c in R. we have not assumed that 0 a = a 0 = 0 for all a 2 R. D1 a (b + c) = a b + a c for all a. b. A3 There is an element 0 2 R satisfying a + 0 = a for all a in R. c in R. c in R. The element 0 mentioned in A3 is called the zero of the ring. A2 a + b = b + a for all a. We do not assume that multiplication is commutative and we have not assumed that there is an identity for multiplication. Note that we have not assumed that 0 behaves like a zero . What A3 says is that 0 is an identity with respect to addition. b. Terminology If (R + ) is a ring. A4 For every a 2 R there is an element b 2 R such that a + b = 0.1 A ring is an ordered triple (R + ) where R is a set and + and are binary operations on R satisfying the following properties: A1 a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c for all a. In the future we will usually write ab instead of a b. the binary operation + is called addition and the binary operation is called multiplication. Note that negative (as the opposite of positive ) has no meaning for most rings. b. D2 (b + c) a = b a + c a for all a. 55 . that is.

3. the ring is said to be non-commutative. If a. Subtraction in a ring is de ned by the rule a .1 How could one state properties A1{A4 in a more compact manner using previous de nitions? De nition 9. For each x 2 R such that x 6= 0. De nition 9. b = a + (.56 CHAPTER 9.a and we call it minus a or the additive inverse of a. De nition 9.b) for all a. R is commutative. R contains an identity 1 6= 0. 2. Of course.5 A ring R is said to be an integral domain if the following conditions hold: 1. from now on we will refer to the ring R rather than the ring (R + ). R is commutative. If such an element exists. it is called the identity of the ring and is usually denoted by 1. .6 A ring R is said to be a eld if it satis es the following properties. Otherwise. 3.3 Let R be a ring. 1. there is a y 2 R such that xy = 1. if we de ne a ring. Note that the addition in a ring is always commutative. INTRODUCTION TO RING THEORY De nition 9. b 2 R and ab = 0 then either a = 0 or b = 0. R contains an identity 1 6= 0.4 We say that a ring R is commutative if the multiplication is commutative. we must say what the binary operations of addition and multiplication are. De nition 9. we say that R is a ring with identity. Unless otherwise stated.2 The element b mentioned in A4 is written . the identity of a ring may be denoted by some symbol other than 1 such as e or I . In some cases. but the multiplication may not be commutative. If there is an identity with respect to multiplication. Problem 9. b in R. 2.

If such a b exists we write b = a 1. (2Z + ) where 2Z is the set of even integers. The rules for multiplication and addition of polynomials are exactly as in high school algebra. (Z3 + ).57 which are commutative. The only exception is that we permit the coe cients to be from any eld F . De nition 9. 9. We sometimes call a 1 the multiplicative inverse of a. (Z + ). (M2 (Zn) + ). Example 9. 8. 2. we use the binary operations in F .) Let F be a eld. 3. (M2 (R ) + ). (N + ). Problem 9. . (Z2 + ). An element a 2 R is said to be a unit of R if there is an element b 2 R such that ab = ba = 1. 5. . But F x] is not a eld since the only units of F x] are the non-zero constants. It is called the group of units of R.1 (The ring F x] of polynomials in x over the eld F . 6. (R + ).2 Which of the following are rings? If so which have identities. 4. which are integral domains and which are elds? 1. A polynomial in the indeterminate (or variable) x over F is an expression of the form a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + anxn where the coe cients ai are elements of the eld F and n may be any nonnegative integer. that is polynomials of the form a0 where a0 is a non-zero element of F . 7. then U (R) is a group under multiplication. . and when coe cients are added or multiplied.7 Let R be a ring with an identity 1. 10. This ring is usually denoted by F x]: For each eld F the ring F x] is an integral domain. It is easy to see that if R is a ring with identity 1. (Z4 + ). (Q + ). We let U (R) denote the set of all units of R.

ac. c 2 R. a0 = 0 and 0a = 0. c) = ab . Problem 9.1. Zn.1 Let R be a ring and let a.5 Prove Theorem 9. a 1 = multiplicative inverse of a. (. M2 (R). rules: De nition 9.a) + (. . INTRODUCTION TO RING THEORY Problem 9. 3. Then the following hold. (b .58 CHAPTER 9. a 6= 0 and ab = ac then b = c. a n = (a 1 )n for n 2. 7. an = aa a (n copies of a) if n 2. 1.b) = ab.a) = a. If a + b = a + c then b = c.(a + b) = (. Note that since generally an element a of a ring is not a unit.b) = (. a(.3 Find the group of units of each of the following rings: Z. 8. 4. If R has an identity 1 and a is a unit then we can also de ne: a0 = 1. 9. . a 2 R and n 2 N we de ne an by the following Problem 9. b. 6. a(b . .(.(ab). Problem 9. 2.4 What is the smallest ring? What is the smallest eld? Theorem 9. c)a = ba .8 If R is a ring. . we cannot expect an to be de ned for negative integers. a1 = a. b. . ca.a)(.b).a. If a + b = 0 then b = . c 2 R. .a)b = .6 Show that condition 3 in the de nition of integral domain can be replaced by the following cancellation law: If a. 5. R .

If a b 2 S . Problem 9. If a 2 S . 0 2 S . if two rings are isomorphic.7 Prove that every eld is an integral domain. We will give a non-trivial example below of two isomorphic rings. Problem 9. As in the case of groups. now that we have homomorphisms for both groups and rings. De nition 9. Similarly.9 Prove that Zn is a eld if and only if n is a prime. In this case we say R and S are isomorphic and write R = S . then they share almost all properties of interest. for isomorphisms. A function is a homomorphism if for all a b 2 R we have f :R!S f (a b) = f (a) f (b) f (a + b) = f (a) f (b): If also f is one-to-one and onto we call f an isomorphism. Although it will usually be clear from the context. Show by example Problem 9. 3.a 2 S . . then R is a eld if and only if S is a eld.8 Prove that Zn is a eld if and only if it is an integral domain. sometimes we will say ring homomorphism or group homomorphism to be speci c. 1 2 S . 2. De nition 9. if R and S are isomorphic rings.10 A subset S of a ring R is said to be a subring of R if the 1. If R is a eld and the following conditions also hold: following conditions hold: 4. then a + b 2 S and ab 2 S .9 Let (R + ) and (S ) be two rings.59 that the converse of this statement is not true. For example. then .

60

**CHAPTER 9. INTRODUCTION TO RING THEORY
**

;

**5. If a 6= 0 and a 2 S , then a 1 2 S . we say that S is a sub eld of R.
**

If S is a subring (sub eld) of the ring ( eld) R, then it is easy to verify that S is itself a ring ( eld) with respect to the addition and multiplication on R. Some obvious examples are the following. 1. Z is a subring of Q and of R . 2. Q is a sub eld of R . 3. 2Z is a subring of Z.

Problem 9.10 Prove that there is no element x 2 Q such that x2 = 2. p Problem 9.11 Assume there is a positive element 2 2 R such that

( 2)2 = 2:

De ne the following subset of R :

p

Prove that Q ( 2) is a sub eld of R . (The tricky part is showing that all non-zero elements are units.)

p

Q(

p 2) = fa + bp2 j a b 2 Q g:

Problem 9.12 Let

S=

2. Show that S = Q ( 2).

a b 2b a

: a b2Q :

1. Show that S is a subring of the ring M2 (Q ).

p

**Chapter 10 Axiomatic Treatment of R , N , Z , Q and C
**

There are several ways to axiomatize the standard number systems R , N , Z, and Q . One way is to start by laying down axioms for N and then using N and set theory to build successively the number systems Z, Q and R . A quicker way is to start with axioms for R and using these axioms nd N , Z, and Q inside of R . We follow the latter approach here. We begin by de ning an ordered ring.

**De nition 10.1 An ordered ring is a quadruple
**

(R + <)

where (R + ) is a commutative ring and < is a binary relation on R which satis es the following properties for all a b c 2 R. 1. a < b and b < c =) a < c. 2. a < b =) a + c < b + c.

3. a < b and 0 < c =) ac < bc.

4. Given a b 2 R one and only one of the following holds:

a=b

a<b

61

b < a:

62 CHAPTER 10. AXIOMATIC TREATMENT OF R , N , Z, Q AND C Note that we could develop some of the theory of ordered rings without the assumption of commutativity however, this assumption will make things a little easier. All of the ordered rings we are interested in are commutative anyhow. Terminology The binary relation < is as usual called less than. Condition 1 above is called transitivity and condition 4 is called the Law of Trichotomy. We also refer to < as an ordering or order relation on the ring R. We use the following abbreviations:

**Problem 10.1 Let R be an ordered ring with identity 1 6= 0. Prove that for
**

all a b c 2 R the following statements hold: 1. 0 < a and 0 < b =) 0 < ab. 2. a < 0 =) 0 < ;a. 3. 0 < 1. 4. a 6= 0 =) 0 < a2 .

b > a () a < b a b () a < b or a = b b a () a b a < b < c () a < b and b < c a b c () a b and b c An element a is said to be positive if a > 0 and, negative if a < 0. Note that ;a may be positive or negative, depending on whether or not a is positive or negative. Hence it is best to read ;a as minus a rather that negative a.

5. If a < b and c < d then a + c < b + d. 6. a < b =) ;b < ;a. 7. a < b and c < 0 =) bc < ac.

**8. If a is a unit and 0 < a then 0 < a 1.
**

;

**9. If a is a unit and 0 < a < 1 then 1 < a 1.
**

;

10. R is in nite.

b) for S if ` is an upper bound for S and ` b for all upper bounds b of S . S has no upper bound. This was p historically a di cult thing to accomplish. An element ` 2 R is a least upper bound (l. Now we can distinguish Z from Q and R by the fact that Z is an ordered domain and not an ordered eld. An element b of R is called an upper bound for S if x b for all x 2 S . As we shall see the eld of complex numbers is an in nite ring that cannot be made into an ordered ring. 0 1] = fx 2 R j 0 x 1g. we call R an ordered domain (or ordered eld).3 Give examples of subsets S of R satisfying the following conditions: 1. If S has an upper bound we say that S is bounded from above.4 Give least upper bounds for the following subsets of R . Problem 10. whereas both Q and R are ordered elds. The main examples of ordered rings are Z. Problem 10. The rst clue was the fact that 2 is not a rational number. De nition 10.3 Let S be a subset of an ordered ring R which is bounded from above. We will give a rigorous de nition of the complex numbers later. S is bounded from above but has no upper bound b 2 S . The problem is how to distinguish Q from R . .2 Show that if a ring R has an identity 1 6= 0 and contains an element i such that i2 = . To describe the di erence. 3. we need a few more de nitions.1.2 Let R be an ordered ring. S has an upper bound b 2 S . 2. If an ordered ring R is a integral domain (or eld). 2. then R cannot be an ordered ring.u. 0 1) = fx 2 R j 0 x < 1g. De nition 10.63 Note that some rings cannot be ordered. 1. Q and R . For example. the last statement of the above problem shows that there is no way to make the rings Zn into ordered rings. Problem 10. Let S be a subset of R.

Q AND C following: De nition 10.5 The unique complete ordered eld whose existence is asserted by Theorem 10. Q and Z. First we de ne N . 1 Under the assumption of the existence of a complete ordered eld R . AXIOMATIC TREATMENT OF R .1 There exists a complete ordered eld. Many books on analysis begin by just assuming that there exists such a eld. Actually we began this course by assuming familiarity with R as well as N . We also observe that just as we de ned subtraction in a ring by the rule a . If b 6= 0 we de ne where b 1 is the inverse of b with respect to multiplication. a=b = a = a b = a b b .4 An ordered eld R is said to be complete if it satis es the Least Upper Bound Axiom Every non-empty subset of R which is bounded from above has a least upper bound. For example. Since we assume R is complete. the set S does have a least upper bound ` in R which one can prove is positive and satis es `2 = 2. It can be shown that Q is not complete. The proof of this is beyond the scope of this course.1 is called the eld of real numbers and denote by R. b = a + (. then there is a unique element x 2 R such that x2 = a and x > 0. . All properties of the real numbers follow from the de ning properties of a complete ordered eld. N . one can prove that if a 2 R and a > 0. Theorem 10. the set S = fx 2 Q j x2 < 2g is bounded from above but has no least upper bound in Q . Z. For example.64 CHAPTER 10. we can de ne N . . De nition 10. Z. Any two such elds are isomorphic.6 Let a and b be elements of a eld. and Q as follows.b) we de ne division in a eld as follows: De nition 10.

1 2 S . f1 2g fx 2 R j x 3g. De nition 10.3. 2. then n + 1 2 S .1 Show that each of the following is an inductive subset of R . 6 = 5 + 1.7. 3 = 2+1. 4 = 3 + 1. Theorem 10. f1 2 3g fx 2 R j x 4g. 2.3 . N .a 2 R we get also .65 De nition 10.4 . 8 = 7 + 1.3 (The Principle of Mathematical Induction) If S and S is inductive then S = N . as well as numbers such as 1 = 2 1 1 = 3 1 1 = 4 1 2 = 2 3 1 ::: 2 3 4 3 Example 10. 4.9. we have initially only the numbers 0 and 1.1 . If we start with only the axioms for a complete ordered eld. 5 = 4 + 1. From the above de nition we obtain in addition the numbers 2. Theorem 10. .9 Let 1 denote the identity of R .4.6. If n 2 S . 7 = 6 + 1. . Using the fact that for each a 2 R we have .8 Then we de ne the natural numbers N to be the intersection of the collection of all inductive subsets ofR . .5.7 Say that a subset S of R is inductive if it satis es both of the following conditions: 1. De ne 2 = 1+1. De nition 10.2 N is an inductive subset of R . 9 = 8 + 1.8 one may prove the following two theorems: 1g. .2 .5 : : : .7 and 10. R . From De nitions 10. 1. fx 2 R j x 3.8.

All of the properties of Z that we are accustomed to follow from the axioms for R and the above de nitions.6 Prove that n 1 for all n 2 N . Problem 10. Problem 10. Conclude from the Principle of Mathematical Induction that S = N .2. and p p The set Z is a subring of the ring R which we call the ring of integers.N where . (b) Prove that 2 + 2 = 4. This is equivalent to the statement n 1 for all n 2 N and completes the proof. Q AND C Problem 10. N . AXIOMATIC TREATMENT OF R . Hint: Let S = fn 2 N j n 1g: Here are a few examples of things that can be proved by using induction (this is short for The Principle of Mathematical Induction ). . Hint: divide the problem into 1 Problem 10. Part 2 and the laws of exponents to handle the case where n is negative.66 CHAPTER 10. Use Theorem 7.2. Part 1 to handle the case n = 0 and use Theorem 7.8 Prove Part 3 of Theorem 7. two parts.5 (a) Prove that 2 3 4 and 5 are elements of N . In this course we will not take the time to develop all the known results of this nature. (c) Prove that 1 < 2 < 5.7 Prove that 2n > n for all n 2 N . Z. Problem 10. This includes things such as there is no integer x such that 1 < x < 2. Problem 10.9 Prove that 0 < 2 < 1. Prove that S N and S is inductive.10 As noted above it may be proved that if a 2 R and a > 0 there exists ap unique number x 2 R satisfying x2 = a and x > 0. First prove f (an ) = f (a)n for all n 2 N using induction.n j n 2 N g. Prove that 1< 2< 3<2 5 < p8 < 3: 2 De nition 10.N = f. The number x is denoted a.2. 2 2 = 4.10 De ne Z = N f0g .

(a b) of (a b) 2 C is given by (. That is.(1 0) and that if (a b) 6= (0 0) then the multiplicative inverse of (a b) is given as stated in the theorem.b 2 : a +b a +b This theorem is straightforward to prove. Problem 10. To save time we prove only the following: Problem 10.67 De nition 10. the additive inverse of (a b) is given by (.11 Prove that (0 0) is the zero of C and the additive inverse . identity given by (1 0).b) and if (a b) 6= (0 0) then the multiplicative inverse of (a b) is given by (a b) 1 = 2 a 2 2. C . We lack the time in this course to discuss any of the many applications of complex numbers in mathematics.(c d) 2 C : (a b) + (c d) = (a + c b + d) (a b) (c d) = (ac . De nition 10.11 Q = fn=m j n m 2 Z and m 6= 0g: The set Q is a sub eld of R called the eld of rational numbers.12 The eld of complex numbers is the triple (C + ) = f(a b) j a b 2 R g and addition and multiplication are de ned as follows for (a b). in this notation R is a sub eld of C .a . engineering and physics.b). bd ad + bc) Theorem 10. where .4 C is a eld with zero given by (0 0). Remark: If we write for a b 2 R a + bi = (a b) a = (a 0) bi = (0 b) i = (0 1) then i2 = .a .12 Prove that (1 0) is an identity for C . that (0 1)2 = .1 and we can consider R as a subset of C and the addition and multiplication on R agrees with that on C for elements of R .

2.68 CHAPTER 10.13 Using the notation above for elements of C . .16 Compare the formula in Theorem 10.14 Prove the the mapping ' : C ! C de ned by '(z) = z is a ring isomorphism from C to itself which is its own inverse. for all z w 2 C prove: 1. z 1 . AXIOMATIC TREATMENT OF R .2 + 4i and = (. Problem 10. Another way to de ne C is given in the next problem. z = z De nition 10. The complex number z = a . p 4. Prove that R is isomorphic (as a ring) to C . z + w. zw. Problem 10. let z = 2 + 3i. R is a eld. Q AND C w = . bi is called the conjugate of z. Problem 10. 3 . In fact. That is. Z. z + w = z + w and 3. Problem 10.b a : .15 Let R= a b .b j a b 2 R a : This is a subring of the ring of all 2 2 matrices M2 (R ).13 Let a b 2 R and let z = a + bi 2 C . N .1=2) + ( 3=2)i. Write the following in the form a + bi where a and b are real numbers: 1. 3. z is read \ z conjugate".4 for the inverse of a complex number to the formula for the inverse of a matrix of the form a b . zw = z w 2.

A set S is said to be countable if it is nite or if there is a one-to-one correspondence between S and N . . Theorem 10.8 The set of algebraic numbers forms a countable sub eld of R.11 (Lindemann 1882) is transcendental. Theorem 10. A real number which is not in Q . algebraic since it is a root of x6 . A real number which is not algebraic is said to be transcendental. 4.10 (Hermite 1873) e is transcendental. A rational number q is algebraic since it is a root of x . Proofs may be found in introductory analysis courses and advanced algebra courses. p2 is algebraic since it is a root of x2 .69 not have time to cover in this course. 2x3 . Theorem 10. A real number is said to be algebraic if it is a root of some non-zero polynomial anxn + + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 where the coe cients ai are rational numbers. is said to be an irrational number. Theorem 10. 2 and q(1 + p5) is 3 For example. Theorem 10. However it is very di cult to prove that a particular real number is transcendental. that is.5 Q is countable. q.7 The set of irrational numbers is uncountable. A set which is not countable is said to be uncountable.6 R is uncountable. is not rational. Important examples of transcendental numbers are and e. Remarks We mention here a few interesting theorems about R that we will Theorem 10.9 The set of transcendental numbers is uncountable. Theorem 10.

70 CHAPTER 10. Z. Q AND C . AXIOMATIC TREATMENT OF R . N .

but he nally found a way to de ne multiplication on R 4 so that the multiplication together with ordinary vector addition of elements of R 4 would satisfy all the eld axioms except for commutativity of multiplication. like complex numbers. He was unable to do this. yd + za + wb xd + yc . They turned out. zb + wa) where x y z w a b c d 2 R .Chapter 11 The Quaternions The quaternions were invented by Sir William Rowan Hamilton about 1850. This \number system" is denoted by H for Hamilton since Q is already taken to denote the rational numbers. The addition and multiplication inside the 4tuples on the right represent addition and multiplication in R . Hamilton was perhaps the rst to note that complex numbers could be thought of as a way to multiply points in the plane. wd xb + ya + zd . to have many applications in engineering and physics. H De nition 11. yb .1 The ring of quaternions is the ring (H + ) where 71 . He then had the idea of trying to nd a way to multiply points in R 3 so that the eld axioms would be satis ed. wc xc . = R 4 = f(a b c d) j a b c d 2 R g and where + and are de ned by the rules: (x y z w) + (a b c d) = (x + a y + b z + c w + d) (x y z w) (a b c d) = (xa . He called these new objects quaternions. zc .

.kj = i ki = . This means that if we de ne for a 2 R and (x y z w) 2 R 4 the scalar by vector product a(x y z w) = (ax ay az aw) the quaternion q = (x y z w) may be written uniquely in the form q = x1 + yi + zj + wk: Now if we abbreviate x = x1. THE QUATERNIONS Stated this way the rules for multiplication are hard to remember. There is a simpler way to describe them: Let 1 = (1 0 0 0) i = (0 1 0 0) j = (0 0 1 0) k = (0 0 0 1) Note that here we are being a little lazy in letting 1 stand for both the vector (1 0 0 0) and the real number 1.72 CHAPTER 11.ji = k jk = . The set f1 i j kg is what is called in linear algebra a basis for R 4 .1 ij = .ik = j: Using these rules. and the fact that if q1 and q2 are any quaternions and a 2 R then a(q1 q2 ) = (aq1 )q2 = q1(aq2 ) one easily calculates the product of two quaternions q1 = x + yi + zj + wk and q2 = a + bi + cj + dk. the quaternion takes the form q = x + yi + zj + wk: Addition now becomes (x + yi + zj + wk)+(a + bi + cj + dk) = (x + a)+(y + b)i +(z + c)j +(w + d)k: Products of the basis elements 1 i j k are de ned as follows: 1q = q1 = q for all q 2 H i2 = j 2 = k2 = . the distributive law.

5 Show that the 8 element set Q = f1 . It is called. The following theorem shows why Hamilton had di culty nding a division ring whose underlying set is R 3 .2 A ring which satis es all the eld axioms except possibly for commutativity of multiplication is called a division ring. Theorem 11. i . Problem 11.1 Use the above rules to calculate the product q1 q2 of the quater- Problem 11. From the above problems we know that H has an identity and every non-zero element has an inverse.kg under quaternion multiplication is a group. Here 0 = (0 0 0 0). All elds are division rings. From linear algebra we already know that vector addition on R 4 is an abelian group. Proof. . The proofs of these properties are straightforward and we leave them for the interested reader. Write the product in standard form a + bi + cj + dk. Note that a division ring may be de ned as a ring whose non-zero elements form a group under multiplication. where a b c d 2 R . the quaternion group.73 nions q1 = 1 + i + 2j + 3k and q2 = 1 .4 Show that there are in nitely many quaternions q satisfying q2 = . 3k. zj . A commutative ring which is a division ring is a eld.j k . Problem 11.2 Show that (1 0 0 0) acts as an identity for H and that H is not a commutative ring. The ring of quaternions is one of the rare examples of a non-commutative division ring. yi . naturally enough. It remains only to prove associativity for multiplication and the two distributive laws.1 i . Problem 11. wk) where c = 1=(x2 + y2 + z 2 + w2) provided that q 6= 0. 2j .3 Show that the quaternion q = x + yi + zj + wk has an inverse Problem 11.1 H is a division ring. This is one of the ve nonisomorphic groups of order 8. De nition 11.i j . Hint: consider quaternions of the form q = xi + yj + zk. given by q = c(x .1.

w j z w 2 C z : 2.i J= 0 i i 0 K= 0 1 . we do not have time to go into these matters. Prove that H is a division ring. or H .K JK = I KJ = . However. De ne the matrices z w . (b) Show that 1= 1 0 0 1 I= i 0 0 .1 0 a1 + bI + cJ + dK I 2 = J 2 = K 2 = . C . . Problem 11. 3.1 IJ = K JI = .I KI = J IK = . This result implies that there is no \nice" way of de ning multiplication on R n so that it becomes a division ring unless n 2 f1 2 4g. There are many interesting and useful ways to make R n into a ring which is not a division ring for other values of n. (a) Show that every element of H can be written in the form: where a b c d 2 R . Hint: it su ces to show that the each non-zero matrix in H has an inverse that is also in H. THE QUATERNIONS Theorem 11.J Remark: You need not verify it.74 CHAPTER 11.6 De ne H= 1. Then D is isomorphic to R . See Chapter 7 of 4] to see what it means to be algebraic over R and how to prove this theorem.2 (Frobenius) Let D be a division ring which is algebraic over R . Prove that H is a subring of the ring M2 (C ). but it follows from this that H = H .

Thus the absolute value jzj of z is de ned by jz j = px 2 + y 2: Note that since zz = x2 + y2 we also have: jzj = pzz: Problem 12. 2. A typical element z of C will be written z = x + yi where s y 2 R . Then we have . jzj 0. The directed angle that the segment from 0 to z makes with the positive side of the x-axis is called the argument or polar angle of z. and 3.Chapter 12 The Circle Group Before de ning the circle group we rst discuss some geometric aspects of the eld of complex numbers.1 Prove that for z w 2 C 1. As in polar coordinates we write r = jz j. We know from analytic geometry that jzj represents the distance from z to x = r cos y = r sin 75 the origin 0 in the plane. jzj = 0 () z = 0. jzwj = jzjjwj. We identify z = x + yi with the point (x y) in the plane.

if in the form ei = cos + i sin : From the above we have immediately the following: Theorem 12. THE CIRCLE GROUP z = r(cos + i sin ) (12.2) 2 R we have z = rei where r = jz j > 0 and 0 <2 ..2. j = 1 : : : n are complex numbers then z1 z2 zn = r1r2 rne(i 1 + 2+ + n) : Taking rj = 1 for all j we obtain the following famous theorem: .1 Every non-zero complex number z may be written uniquely (12.1 For z 2 C let z = x + yi where x y 2 R . We de ne the exponential function z 7! ez by ez = ex+yi = ex(cos y + i sin y:) in particular. We extend the de nition of this function from R to C . Theorem 12. Note that.1) for real numbers r and satisfying r > 0 and 0 <2 . This easily generalizes via induction to the following: If zj = rj ei j .2 says: The argument of the product is the sum of the arguments of the factors and the absolute value of the product is the product of the absolute values of the factors. We assume that students are familiar with the exponential function x 7! ex where x 2 R .2 Let z1 = r1ei 1 and z2 = r2 ei 2 where ri 0 and numbers. Then i are real Problem 12.2 Use the addition identities for the sine and cosine to prove z1 z2 = r1r2 ei( 1 + 2) : Theorem 12.1) From trigonometry we know that every non-zero complex number z may be written uniquely in the form (12. De nition 12. Theorem 12.76 and CHAPTER 12. in words. Note that the expression ei is well-de ned for all 2 R .

it's points are exactly the points on the unit circle x2 + y2 = 1.5 (a) Prove that the mapping ' : T ! C de ned by '( ) = ei Recall that in Problem 10.4 Prove that T is a subgroup of U (C ).2 We de ne T = fz 2 C jjzj = 1g C group. sin cos j 2R : of degree 2. that is.3 (De Moivre's Theorem) For all equivalently. the form z = ei where 0 Problem 12. Problem 12. De nition 12. 2 R and n 2 Z.3 De ne SO(2) = cos sin . So it should come as no surprise that the circle groups can also be represented by certain 2 2 matrices over the real numbers. we (cos( ) + i sin( ))n = cos(n ) + i sin(n ) (ei )n = ein : T De nition 12. Problem 12.77 have Theorem 12.3 Show that every element z 2 T may be uniquely written in <2 .15 we showed that complex numbers can be represented as certain 2 2 matrices over the real numbers. is a homomorphism from (R +) onto the circle group T. is a group with respect to multiplication in and is called the circle Note that geometrically T is the set of complex numbers which are at a distance 1 from the origin. It turns out that this set of matrices also has another name which we give in the following de nition. SO(2)is a subgroup of SL(2 R ) and is called the special orthogonal group . (b) Show that for every point z 2 T there are in nitly many 2 R such that '( ) = z .

4 For 2 R. this says that ei = 1 if and only if = 2 k for some integer k. (b) R(0) is the 2 2 identity matrix. We now determine the order of an element ei 2 T. Problem 12.] Remark The above problem also justi es referring to the circle group as the group of rotations of the plane. Conversely. Solving for we see that = 2nk = k where k = 2k.78 CHAPTER 12. Problem 12. That is. Problem 12. Then by De Moivre's Theorem we have ein = 1 and by the previous remark.6 Prove (a) that R( 1 )R( 2) = R( 1 + 2 ). Then k (ei )2n = ei( 2n) = ei n 2n = eik2 = 1: This shows that the order of ei is nite and at most 2n. ). THE CIRCLE GROUP cos . and (c) R( ) 1 = R(.8 Prove that if we represent a point p = (x y) in the plane by a 2 1 matrix x then the point R( )p given by the matrix product y De nition 12. if and only if is a rational multiple of if = 2 k for some integer k.7 Prove that SO(2 R) = T. 0 . that is. n = 2 k for some integer k. sin sin cos With this de nition we have SO(2 R) = fR( ) j 2 R g. sin x R( )p = cos . Using exponentional notation. Conclude that SO(2 R) is a subgroup of GL(2 R ). 0 Proof First we recall from trignometry that (cos sin ) = (1 0) if and only .4 An element z = ei 2 T has nite order if and only if = n for some n 2 N and k 2 Z. Hint use the polar coordinate representation (x y) = (r cos r sin ) of the point p. de ne R( ) = . k Theorem 12. cos sin y is obtained by rotating p through radians counter-clockwise about the origin. suppose that = n for some n 2 N and k 2 Z. is a rational n k multiple of . Assume that ei has nite order.

6 The set (12.3) is a subgroup of U (C ).10 Prove that for n 2 N the set fz 2 C j zn = 1g (12.5 Let n 2 N .79 What about the element transcendental.) Problem 12. Figure 12. An element z 2 C is said to be an n-th root of unity if zn = 1. Problem 12.9 Show that the order of the element ei ei p 2 in T is in nite. ? (For the latter you may assume that is 2 p De nition 12. .11 Prove that z 2 C is an n-th root of unity if and only if z is an element in T of nite order k where k j n.3) of all n-th roots of unity is a subgroup of U (C ) called the group of n-th roots of unity. De nition 12.1: The 12th roots of unity (= the vertices of the regular 12-gon). Problem 12.

we have = k 2n . One generator of the group is n ( n)k = eik 2n k = 0 1 : : : n . Note that the powers Problem 12. THE CIRCLE GROUP i2 n=e n: De nition 12. Also sketch the location in the plane of the n-roots of unity for each n. Problem 12.80 CHAPTER 12. Express the coordinates of the answer as rational numbers and/or radicals. jzj is a positive real number whose n-th power is 1. Hence z = ei . This proves that o( n) = n. (1 1) 2 R 2 after it has been rotated 30o counter-clockwise about the origin. Do the same for 60o.15 Prove that the group h under addition modulo n.7 For n 2 N de ne Theorem 12. By the argument in the proof of Theorem 12.4 since zn = 1. 1 are the vertices of the regular n-gon centered at the origin. .13 Show that if z = ei then z = e i . and therefore lies in the subgroup h n i generated by n.5 The group of n-th roots of unity is cyclic of order n.14 Use the formula for R( ) to nd the coordinates of the point . Hence ( n)k 6= 1 for 0 < k < n. Note that jzjn = jzn j = 1. n i is isomorphic to the group Zn ( n)k for k 2 f0 1 n . Problem 12. This shows that z = eik 2n = ( n)k . Proof From De Moivre's Theorem it is clear that ( n)n = 1. . It follows that jzj must be equal to 1. Problem 12. not trig functions. Now.16 For each n 2 f1 2 3 4 6 8g nd all the n-th roots of unity Problem 12. That is.17 Prove that h ei p 2 i = Z. Express them in the form a + bi where a and b are real numbers not involving trig functions. Problem 12. suppose that z is any n-th root of unity. 1g.12 Show that z 2 T if and only if z 1 = z .

then we may conclude by transitivity of equality that x = r.1) (A. Implications are crucial to the development of mathematics.] For example. Nevertheless. Transitivity.Appendix A Some Rules of Logic Constructing mathematical proofs is an art that is best learned by seeing many examples of proofs and by trying to imitate these examples when constructing one's own proofs. Re exivity and symmetry of equality are also very useful. We begin with some basic assumptions concerning equality. Instead of (A. An implication is a statement of the form If P then Q (A. It is not necessary to quote these rules everytime they are used. Symmetry.] 2. z = w and w = r. Their full understanding only comes with experience. Most of these are very natural and will be used without comment.] 3.1) we will sometimes write P =) Q: 81 . if we are able to prove x = y.2) where P and Q are statements. y = z. there are a few rules of logic and language that it is useful to be aware of. x = x holds for all x. 1. but it is good to be aware of them (in case someone asks). Re exivity. If x = y then y = x. If x = y and y = z then x = z.

The statement (A. Q the conclusion of the implication (A.4) This is called the contrapositive of the implication (A. if you need to prove P () Q you really have two things to prove: both P =) Q and Q =) P ." And sometimes we use the abbreviation \i " for \if and only if".5) is P i Q .] 2.] . Re exivity. So an acceptable alternative to (A. Transitivity. SOME RULES OF LOGIC The statement (A.2) is read. P =) P holds for all P . It is sometimes easier to prove the equivalent statement Q is false =) P is false (A. Students should be careful when using this notation.5) is read \P is equivalent to Q" or \P holds if and only if Q holds.82 APPENDIX A. start by assuming that P is true and use this assumption to establish the validity of Q. We assume that implication satis es the following rules: 1.3).2). If P =) Q and Q =) R then P =) R. do not write If P =) Q when you mean P =) Q (A. We write P () Q (A.5) as an abbreviation for the two statements P =) Q and Q =) P So. for example. For example.3) To prove the implication P =) Q.\P implies Q". We call P the hypothesis and.

Re exivity. Convention In de nitions the word if means if and only if. there is 3. students should pay close attention to the following words and phrases: 1. there are 4. 1. for all 5. an 14. for every 7. for example. P () P holds for all P .] We will often use these rules for implication and equivalence without comment.2. one and only one 10. unique 9. at least one 12. If P () Q then Q () P . Compare. Transitivity. for each 6.] 2. De nition 2. If P 3. for some 8.] () Q and Q () R then P () R. the 13. at most one 11. a.83 We assume that equivalence satis es the following rules. there exists 2. Symmetry. Important Phrases In addition to looking for implications and equivalences. such that .

hence 17. therefore The use of these phrases and words will be clari ed if necessary as the course progresses. Some techniques of proof such as proof by contradiction and proof by induction are best understood by examples of which we shall see many as the course progresses. implies 16. SOME RULES OF LOGIC 15.84 APPENDIX A. .

but strictly speaking the domain and the codomain are integral parts of the de nition. If x is in the domain of f then f (x) is the element in the codomain of f that f assigns to x. mapping and transformation may be used interchangeably. x = y =) f (x) = f (y): (B. We leave the proofs of all the results in this appendix to the interested reader. When a function is de ned it is often given a name such as f or . The set A is called the domain of f and the set B is called the codomain of f . Here we just use the term function. map.Appendix B Functions Here we collect a few basic facts about functions.1 hold. Often we speak of \the function f ". 85 . So we speak of the function f or the function . De nition B.1 A function f from the set A to the set B is a rule which assigns to each element a 2 A an element f (a) 2 B in such a way that the following condition holds for all x y 2 A: To indicate that f is a function from A to B we write f : A ! B . so this is short for \the function f : A ! B . it is customary to say that the function is well-de ned." To describe a function one must specify the domain (a set) and the codomain (another set) and specify its e ect on a typical element (variable) in its domain. We sometimes write x 7! f (x) to indicate that f sends x to f (x). Note that the words function.1) If the conditions of De nition B.

the following de nition is required. FUNCTIONS We can also use the barred arrow to de ne a function without giving it a name. Note that it is correct to say the function sin or the function x 7! sin(x).3) De nition B. For example. (B.4) Some mathematicians use injective instead of one-to-one.3 A function f : A ! B is said to be one-to-one if the following condition holds for all x y 2 A : f (x) = f (y) =) x = y: (B. we may speak of the function x 7! x2 + 2x + 4 from R to R . We write f = g if and only De nition B. 7! As in x 7! x2 + 3x + 4 =) Means implies () Means is equivalent to Some people use in place of 7! It is often important to know when two functions are equal. and bijective for one-to-one and onto. Alternatively one could de ne the same function as follows: Let h : R ! R be de ned by the rule h(x) = x2 + 2x + 4 for all x 2 R . Arrows: We consistently distinguish the following types of arrows: ! As in f : A ! B.86 APPENDIX B. . if De nition B. A = C . Then. If f : A ! B is bijective f is sometimes said to be a bijection or a one-to-one correspondence between A and B .4 A function f : A ! B is said to be onto if the following condition holds: For every b 2 B there is an element a 2 A such that f (a) = b.2) Note carefully the di erence and similiarity between (B.2 Let f : A ! B and g : C ! D.1) and (B. (B.3). B = D and f (a) = g(a) for all a 2 A. surjective instead of onto. But it is not correct to say the function sin(x).

1. 1 Theorem B. but we will not do this. A.1 Prove that A : A ! A is one-to-one and onto. for all x 2 A. If f and g are onto then gf : A ! C is onto. de nes a function f onto and satis es 1 : B ! A. B and f 1 f = A. The function f (B. 3. Some people write g f instead of gf .5 For any set A.87 De nition B. If f and g are one-to-one then gf : A ! C is one-to-one. If A is understood.8) The function f . we de ne the function rule A (x) = x A : A ! A by the (B. Theorem B. Some people write 1A instead of A to indicate the identity function on Problem B. . .5) We call A the identity function on A. (B. 2.1 If f : A ! B and g : B ! C then the rule de nes a function gf : A ! C . we write simply instead of A . . 1 is itself one-to-one and ff 1 = . If f and g are one-to-one and onto then gf : A ! C is also one-to-one and onto.6) g and f . This function is called the composition of gf (a) = g(f (a)) for all a 2 A (B.3 Let f : A ! B and g : B ! C .7) . de ned in the above theorem is called the inverse of f . .2 If f : A ! B is one-to-one and onto then the rule for every b 2 B de ne f 1(b) = a if and only if f (a) = b. Theorem B.

FUNCTIONS .88 APPENDIX B.

We write b 6 j a if b does not divide a. etc.e. a. Recall that we use N to denote the set of natural numbers (also known as the positive integers) and we use Z to denote the set of all integers. c. i. or 3] given in the bibliography. we simply divide a by b and see if the 6 Z= and Lemma C. 2]. Unless otherwise stated in this appendix.Appendix C Elementary Number Theory Here we review some basic number theoretic de nitions and results. all lower case letters. will be integers. N = f1 2 3 : : : g remainder is 0 or not.2 . For the most part. we have the following fundamental result. If b j a we also sometimes say that b is a factor of a or that a is a multiple of b. To tell if b divides a where b = 0.1 (The Division Algorithm) For any integers a and b with b 6= 0 there exists unique integers q and r such that a = bq + r 89 0 r < jbj: . For a more detailed treatment. the student is referred references 1]. More generally. f: : : . b.1 Let a b 2 Z.. we will just state the results.1 0 1 2 3 : : : g: De nition C. We say b divides a and we write b j a if there is an element c 2 Z such that a = bc.3 .

17) mod 5 = 3 since 17 = 3 5 + 2 and 0 2 < 5 since . lcm(a b). Perhaps the most fundamental result concerning integers is the following theorem. then there exists a unique list of primes p1 p2 : : : pk such that the following two conditions hold: 1. An important property of primes is given by the following lemma.3 An integer p is said to be prime if p positive factors of p are p and 1. which is sometimes called The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. 2.4 Let a and b be integers. The greatest common divisor of a and b is the greatest positive integer. that divides both a and b. If a = 0 or b = 0.2 The number r in the above Lemma is denoted by a mod b. at least one of which is non-zero. we de ne lcm(a b) = 0. (. For example we have 17 mod 5 = 2 and .2 If p is prime and pjab then pja or pjb. De nition C.3 (Unique Factorization for N ) If n 2 is an integer. We de ne gcd(0 0) = 0.90 APPENDIX C. gcd(a b). De nition C.17 = (.5 If a and b are non-zero integers. Lemma C. Theorem C. the least common multiple of a and b is the smallest positive integer. that is a multiple of both a and b. ELEMENTARY NUMBER THEORY De nition C. p1 p2 pk pk .4) 5 + 3 and 0 3 < 5 2 and the only De nition C. n = p1 p2 .

1g and that multiplication and addition in Zn are de ned by a + b = remainder when the ordinary sum of a and b is divided by n.91 For example.1) (C. This implies that a = nq1 + r1 0 r1 < n and b = nq2 + r2 0 r2 < n Hence a + b = nq1 + r1 + nq2 + r2 = n(q1 + q2 ) + r1 + r2 Now f (a) f (b) = r1 r2 = r where r1 + r2 = qn + r 0 r < n Hence a + b = n(q1 + q2 + q) + r 0 r < n (C. 3.2) . and a b = remainder when the ordinary product of a and b is divided by n. Thus we have a b = (a + b) mod n a b = (ab) mod n Theorem C. 3. if n = 72 the unique list of primes is 2. we temporarily denote addition in Zn by and multiplication in Zn by . 2. This way we can use + and for ordinary addition and multiplication in Z. To facilitate the proof that these two binary operations are associative.4 Let n be a positive integer. Recall that Zn = f0 1 : : : n . Then and f (a + b) = f (a) f (b) f (a b) = f (a) f (b): Proof Let r1 = f (a) and r2 = f (b). Now x a positive integer n. 2. De ne f : Z ! Zn by the rule f (a) = a mod n.

. f (b) = b and f (c) = c. Proof Using the notation in the theorem. ELEMENTARY NUMBER THEORY f (a + b) = (a + b) mod n = r f (a + b) = r = f (a) f (b): and we conclude that This proves (C.1). The proof for to the interested reader. The proof of (C. we have for a b c 2 Zn: f (a) = a.2) is similar and left to the interested reader. Corollary C.92 and it follows that APPENDIX C. Hence (a b) b = = = = = = = (f (a) f (b)) f (c) f (a + b) f (b) f ((a + b) + c) f (a + (b + c)) f (a) f (b + c) f (a) (f (b) f (c)) a (b c) is similar and left This proves that is associative on Zn.5 The binary operations and on Zn are associative.

Appendix D Partitions and Equivalence Relations De nition D. Each block is a non-empty subset of X . The number of blocks may be any integer from 1 to 4.1 A partition of a set X is a collection P of pairwise disjoint. and f4 6 7g. if X = 9] = f1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9g then is a partition of X . It is just more natural to say collection of sets than to say set of sets. 2. List them according to the numbers of blocks in each partition. P are For example. The elements of called the blocks of the partition. This is just another name for set. No two di erent blocks have an element in common. Every element of X lies in at least one block. 93 . f5 8 9g. 3. So in fact. Note that this partition has four blocks f1 2g. non-empty subsets of X whose union is X . Problem D. P = ff1 2g f3g f5 8 9g f4 6 7gg Remark: In the de nition of partition we used the term collection. a partition of X is a set whose elements are themselves sets which we choose to call blocks { satisfying three properties: 1. f3g.1 Find all partitions of the set 4].

and a 2 X we de ne the set a] = fx 2 X j x ag: a] is called the equivalence class of a relative to the equivalence relation . If x y then y x. we use the symbol .4. Conversely.3 A relation on a set X is an equivalence relation on X if the following properties hold for all x y z 2 X . transitivity. and = on the class of all groups. 2. De nition D. De nition D.2 Find a partition Pk of the set Z that has exactly k blocks for . If (a b) 2 R we write a b and we say that a is related to b with respect to the relation R. Theorem D. 1. x x. Since we will only be concerned with binary relations. The most common equivalence relation is equality.2 A (binary) relation on a set X is a subset of the Cartesian product X X .3.1 If is any equivalence relation on the set X then the collection of all equivalence classes is a partition of X . given any partition P of the set X .4 If is an equivalence relation on the set X .2. Examples of relations are < and on the set R . respectively. De nition D. If x y and y z then x z. 3. = on any set. Equality is an equivalence relation on any set. The properties in the above de nition are called re exivity. one may de ne an equivalence relation on X by the rule a b () a b 2 B for some block B 2 P in which case the equivalence classes of are precisely the blocks of the partition P . Rather than use for a generic relation.5. PARTITIONS AND EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS each of the following values of k: 1.94 APPENDIX D. we will leave o the modi er binary.10. Problem D. symmetry.

H. 23 abelian group. 81 even permutation. 67 composition. 85 Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. 6 associativity of composition of functions. 52 binary operation. 6 commutative ring. B. 89 Division Algorithm. 5 95 cycle.. 77 codomain of a function. 69 alternating group. 44 . 74 function. 76 exponents. 13 generator. 87 coset. 28 direct product of groups. 47 Chinese Remainder Theorem. 39 Cayley's Theorem. 44 De Moivre's Theorem. 58 eld. 73 domain of a function. 10 absolute value. 56 complete ordered eld. 5 bounded from above.Index k-cycle. 54 circle group. 53 Generalized Associative Law. U. 23 cycle diagram of a permutation.. 33 arrows. 12 Cartesian product of sets. 85 commutative. 27 exponential function. 39 disjoint cycle decomposition. 89 division ring. 25 disjoint cycles. 22 cyclic group. 77 determinant formula. 75 addition modulo n. 56 Frobenius. 85 Eick. 4 composition of functions. 94 equivalent statements. 49 cross product. 24 divides. 14 exponents in rings. 64 complex numbers (de nition). 1 binary sequences. 86 associative. 52 equivalence relation. 22 Besche. 4 algebraic numbers. 90 Fundamental Theorem of Finite Abelian Groups. 63 cancellation laws for groups.

90 least upper bound. 66 integral domain. 63 ordered ring. 86 onto. 62 least common multiple. 81 induction. 14 Law of Trichotomy. A. 37 group of units of a ring. 56 inverse. 4 modulo 2. 42 homomorphism (rings). 69 matrix. 78 group of units of Zn. 66 inductive subset of R . 56 implication. 18 one-to-one function. 90 Principle of Mathematical Induction. 6 identity. 63 ordered eld. William Rowan. 69 homomorphism (groups). 71 Hermite. 52 isomorphic (groups). 93 permutation. 28 order of an element of a group. 10 non-isomorphic groups. 3 integers (de nition). 3 natural numbers (de nition). 90 group. 64 INDEX Lindemann. Carl Louis Ferdinand von. 27 partition. 61 parity. 5 modulus. 6 identity function. 65 in x notation.96 greatest common divisor. 65 non-abelian group. 59 isomorphism classes of groups. 33 ordered domain. 67 . 9 group of ratations of the plane. 86 order of a group. 3 rational numbers (de nition). 69 ismorphism classes of groups. 52 number theory. E. 27 one-to-one. 20. 87 identity of a ring. 50 Law of Exponents. 18 onto function. 65 quaternions. 89 O'Brien. 4 n-th root of unity. 41 isomorphism (rings). 59 isomorphism (groups). 4 multiplication modulo n. Charles. 87 irrational numbers. 59 idempotent.. 17 polynomial. 71 rational numbers. 63 Least Upper Bound Axiom. 4. 52 joke. 11 Lagrange's Theorem. 52 odd permutation. 79 natural numbers. 4 moduli. 57 Hamilton. 6 inverse of a function. 57 prime integer. 42 isomorphic (rings).

60 subgroup. 94 ring of polynomials over a eld. 57 ring with identity. 56 symmetric groups. 77 sub eld. 31 subgroup generated by a. 17 transcendental numbers. 3 real numbers as a complete ordered eld. 59 subtraction in a ring. 64 relation. 6 zero of a ring. 56 Royle. 17 two row notation. 90 vectors. 69 transposition. 17 Unique Factorization for N . 32 two line notation. 28 special orthogonal group. Gordon. 34 subring. 26 trivial subgroups. 5 zero. 52 sign of a permutation.INDEX real numbers. 55 97 .