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Course 131

Introduction
to CDMA
Scott Baxter
www.howcdmaworks.com
800-890-0829
CDMA 131 Outline
❖ DeploymentOverview and Outlook
❖ CDMA Basics
◆ MultipleAccess Technology Survey
◆ CDMA coding principles
◆ Spread Spectrum principles
◆ Forward and Reverse Channel Structure
❖ CDMA System Architecture
◆ PCSC CBSC BTS OMC-R
❖ CDMA Details and Operation
◆ Power Control
◆ Handoff mechanics
◆ Optimization concepts
2
CDMA
Deployment
Status
Review
80
CDMA Worldwide Subscriber Growth
70
1Q-2000 SUBSCRIBERS 57M
60

50
Millions

40
32 M
30 19 M
20

10
6.5 M
0
1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q 1Q 2Q 3Q 4Q
1997 1998 1999 2000
Source: www.cdg.org
❖ IS-95/J-Std008 CDMA commercial deployment
began in Asia
◆ Hong Kong, South Korea
❖ North America started later but is rapidly growing,
both at 800 MHz and 1900 MHz.
❖ South/Central America is just beginning
widespread commercial deployment 4
United States PCS Auction Winners
The Largest Players, Areas, and Technologies
Sprint PCS ❖ Sprint PCS
CDMA ◆ Partnership of Sprint, TCI, Cox Cable
◆ Bid & won in 2/3 of US markets A or B blocks
◆ Sprint itself has D and/or E blocks in remaining
markets
AT&T Wireless ◆ Technology: CDMA
IS-136 ❖ AT&T Wireless Systems
◆ Bid & won a majority of markets in A&B Blocks
◆ will combine and integrate service between its
new PCS 1900 systems and its former McCaw
cellular 800 MHz. properties
Primeco
◆ Technology: TDMA IS-54, IS-136B
CDMA
❖ Primeco
◆ Partnership of Airtouch, US West, Bell Atlantic,
Western Aerial ◆ Technology: CDMA
Wireless
OmniPoint ❖ GSM Operators
Pacific
Bell
GSM BellSouth
Powertel
◆ Western Wireless, OmniPoint, BellSouth, GTE,
Powertel, Pacific Bell
◆ Technology: TDMA (ETSI GSM)
5
Canadian Wireless
Technologies, Manufacturers, and
Operators
Frequency
Tech-
Network Geographic Area
Band, Manu-
nology British Saskatch- New Nova Newfound-
MHz facturer Alberta Manitoba Ontario Quebec
Columbia ewan Brunswick Scotia land

900 IDEN Motorola Clearnet “MIKE”


1900 CDMA Lucent Clearnet PCS
1900 GSM Ericsson Microcell “FIDO”
1900 CDMA Nortel

AMPS
800 “B”
TDMA
Nortel
Mobilink Canada
1900 IS-136 ? ?
AMPS
800 “A”
TDMA
Ericsson Rogers Cantel

6
3G Wideband CDMA

❖ Regardless of the degree of acceptance of IS-95


“narrowband CDMA” systems, Third Generation
proposals for wideband CDMA are attracting great
attention both from manufacturers and carriers
❖ 3G systems will offer higher bandwidth services,
including medium speed data service at rates up
to 384 Kbs for mobile users, and up to 2 MBs for
stationary users
❖ Operators and manufacturers are presently waiting
and studying the limited number of trials of 3G
systems presently underway

7
2G to 3G Migration Paths
Technology
2G System Family
3G Mode

CDMA cdma2000 Multicarrier

Frequency
GSM WCDMA Division
Duplex

Time
Division
Duplex

GPRS EDGE and


136 HS
outdoor

136 HS
TDMA UWC-136
indoor
8
North American 3G Migration Plans
800 MHz.. 1900 MHz..
Vodaphone/Airtouch Sprint PCS
9,000,000 7,400,000
1xRTT
Verizon/BAMS/GTE Verizon
12,800,000 2,000,000 cdma2000
Alltel 3xRTT
5,060,000
HDR
Other CDMA VoiceStream
2,059,000 ? 3,100,000
PacBell Wireless
2,000,000
Powertel & Others WCDMA
1,000,000 UMTS
UTRA
AT&T Wireless AT&T Wireless
10,800,000 ? 1,900,000
Cingular/SBC/BellSouth

X?
13,090,000 ?
Other TDMA Other TDMA
4,823,000 ? 724,000 ? EDGE
Nextel
5,721,000 ??! 9
Next Generation CDMA Enhancements
❖ IS-95B
◆ Improved handoff, faster data, improved access
❖ 1xRTT (“2.5G”)
◆ 2x capacity in same chip rate & bandwidth
◆ All IS-95B refinements
❖ Qualcomm’s HDR (High Data Rates)
◆ Up to 2.4 Mb/s on a single CDMA signal
❖ 3xRTT
◆ US (CDMA2000) version: 3x chip rate and more
Ð Even faster data: 2 MB bursting
◆ European (W-CDMA) version: GPS not required
❖ UMTS Universal Mobile Terrestrial Services
◆ The European equivalent to 3xRTT CDMA
◆ 3G migration path for today’s GSM systems
10
Capacity of
CDMA
Networks
Wireless System Capacity
Each wireless technology (AMPS,
NAMPS, D-AMPS, GSM, CDMA) AMPS, D-AMPS, N-AMPS
uses a specific modulation type with 1 3 1 Users 2
7 3
its own unique signal characteristics 1
6 4
Vulnerability: 5
❖ Signal Bandwidth determines C/I ≅ 17 dB
how many RF signals will “fit” 30 30 10 kHz Bandwidth
in the operator’s licensed Typical Frequency Reuse N=7
spectrum
❖ Robustness of RF signal determines
tolerable level of interference and Vulnerability: 2
necessary physical separation of 8 Users C/I ≅ 6.5-9 dB 1
3
cochannel cells 4

❖ Number of users per RF signal 200 kHz


Typical Frequency Reuse N=4
directly affects capacity
❖ In the following page, we will CDMA Vulnerability: 1
EbNo ≅ 6 dB 1 1
develop the number of users 1
1 1
and traffic in erlangs per site 22 Users 1 1
for each of the popular 1 1
1
wireless technologies 1250 kHz
1 1
1
Typical Frequency Reuse N=1
12
Wireless System Capacity Comparisons
800 Cellular (A,B) 1900 PCS (A, B, C) 1900 PCS (D, E, F)
Fwd/Rev Spectrum kHz. 12,500 12,500 12,500 15,000 15,000 15,000 5,000 5,000 5,000
Technology AMPS TDMA CDMA TDMA GSM CDMA TDMA GSM CDMA
Req'd C/I or Eb/No, db 17 17 6 17 12 6 17 12 6
Freq Reuse Factor, N 7 7 1 7 4 1 7 4 1
RF Signal BW, kHz 30 30 1250 30 200 1250 30 200 1250
Total # RF Carriers 416 416 9 500 75 11 166 25 3
RF Sigs. per cell @N 59 59 9 71 18 11 23 6 3
# Sectors per cell 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
#CCH per sector 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
RF Signals per sector 18 18 9 22 6 11 6 2 3
Voicepaths/RF signal 1 3 22 3 8 22 3 8 22
SH average links used 1.66 1.66 1.66
Unique Voicepaths/carrier 13.253 13.253 13.253
Voicepaths/Sector 18 54 198 66 48 242 18 16 66
Unique Voicepaths/Sector 18 54 119 66 48 145 18 16 39
P.02 Erlangs per sector 11.5 44 105.5 55.3 38.4 130.9 11.5 9.83 30.1
P.02 Erlangs per site 34.5 132 316.5 165.9 115.2 392.7 34.5 29.49 90.3
Capacity vs. AMPS800 1 3.8 9.2 4.8 3.3 11.4 1.0 0.9 2.6

13
Multicarrier CDMA Capacity
CDMA Carrier Frequencies

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011

Fwd/Rev Spectrum kHz. 12,500 1,800 3,050 4,300 5,550 6,800 8,050 9,300 10,550 11,800 13,050 14,300
Technology AMPS CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA
Req'd C/I or Eb/No, db 17 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Freq Reuse Factor, N 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
RF Signal BW, kHz 30 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250
Total # RF Carriers 416 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
RF Sigs. per cell @N 59 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
# Sectors per cell 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
#CCH per sector 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
RF Signals per sector 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Voicepaths/RF signal 1 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22
SH average links used 1 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.66 1.66
Unique Voicepaths/carrier 1 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3
Voicepaths/Sector 18 22 44 66 88 110 132 154 176 198 220 242
Unique Voicepaths/Sector 18 13 26 39 53 66 79 92 106 119 132 145
P.02 Erlangs per sector 11.5 7.4 18.4 30.1 43.1 55.3 67.7 80.2 93.8 105.5 119.1 130.9
P.02 Erlangs per site 34.5 22.2 55.2 90.3 129.3 165.9 203.1 240.6 281.4 316.5 357.3 392.7
Capacity vs. AMPS800 1 0.64 1.60 2.6 3.7 4.8 5.9 7.0 8.2 9.2 10.4 11.4
14
Current CDMA Network Capacity Issues
❖ Today, CDMA networks for the most part are still single-carrier
◆ this severely limits the capacity of one BTS to approximately 20
erlangs
◆ implementing additional carriers brings logistical problems
involving handoffs and system acquisition by mobiles
❖ Multiple-carrier operation is essential to achieve reasonable
capacities
❖ Within networks, there are strategies for squeezing the most
out of overloaded single-carrier BTSs. Some of the main
points are:
◆ reduce Pilot, Sync, and Paging levels as low as possible, thereby
gaining precious additional energy for traffic channels
◆ reduce BTS traffic channel DGU settings as low as possible
without provoking forward link FER.

15
CDMA
Basics
Multiple Access FDMA
Technologies
Power
y
e nc
Tim qu
❖ FDMA (example: AMPS) e Fr
e

Frequency Division Multiple Access


TDMA
◆ each user has a private frequency

❖ TDMA (examples: IS-54/136, GSM) Power


y
Time Division Multiple Access Tim qu
e nc
e Fre
◆ each user has a private time on a private
frequency
CDMA
❖ CDMA (IS-95, J-Std. 008)
Code Division Multiple Access Power
y
◆ users co-mingle in time and frequency but e nc
Tim
e qu
each user has a private code e Fr

17
Other Technologies:
Avoiding Interference
AMPS-TDMA-GSM
❖ AMPS, TDMA and GSM 1

depend on physical 7
4
2
1

distance separation to keep 1


6
5
3
6
7

interference at low levels 4


2
1
4
5
1

❖ Co-channel users are kept


3 7 2
6 3

at a safe distance by careful 1 5

frequency planning
1

Figure of Merit: C/I


❖ Nearby users and cells (carrier/interference ratio)
must use different AMPS: +17 dB
TDMA: +14 to 17 dB
frequencies to avoid GSM: +7 to 9 dB.
interference
18
CDMA: Using A New Dimension
❖ All CDMA users occupy the CDMA
same frequency at the same
time! Time and frequency are
not used as discriminators
❖ CDMA interference comes
mainly from nearby users
❖ CDMA operates by using Figure of Merit: C/I
CODING to discriminate (carrier/interference ratio)
AMPS: +17 dB
between users TDMA: +14 to +17 dB
GSM: +7 to 9 dB.
❖ Each user is a small voice in CDMA: -10 to -17 dB.
CDMA: Eb/No ~+6 dB.
a roaring crowd -- but with a
uniquely recoverable code
19
CDMA Uses Code Channels
Building a
❖A CDMA signal uses many chips CDMA Signal
to convey just one bit of
Bits
information from User’s Vocoder
❖ Each user has a unique chip
pattern, in effect a code channel Forward Error
Correction
❖ To recover a bit, integrate a large Symbols
number of chips interpreted by
the user’s known code pattern Coding and
Spreading
❖ Other users’ code patterns Chips
appear random and integrate
toward low values, hence don’t
disturb the bit decoding decision
20
CDMA is a Spread-Spectrum System
TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM
Spread Spectrum
❖ Traditional Slow
Narrowband
Signal Slow

technologies try to Information


Sent
Information
Recovered

squeeze signal TX RX

into minimum SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM


required Wideband

bandwidth
Signal
Slow Slow
Information Information
Sent Recovered

❖ CDMA uses larger TX RX

bandwidth but Fast


Spreading
Fast
Spreading

uses resulting Sequence Sequence

processing gain to Spread Spectrum Payoff:


Processing Gain
increase capacity
21
Spreading: What we do, we can undo
ORIGINATING SITE DESTINATION
Spread Data Stream

Input Recovered
Data Data

Spreading Spreading
Sequence Sequence

❖ Sender combines data with a fast spreading


sequence, transmits spread data stream
❖ Receiver intercepts the stream, uses same
spreading sequence to extract original data
22
“Shipping and Receiving” via CDMA
Shipping Receiving

FedEx
FedEx
Data Mailer Mailer Data

❖ Whether in shipping and receiving, or in


CDMA, packaging is extremely important!
❖ Cargo is placed inside “nested” containers
for protection and to allow addressing
❖ The shipper packs in a certain order, and
the receiver unpacks in the reverse order
❖ CDMA “containers” are spreading codes

23
CDMA’s Nested Spreading Sequences
ORIGINATING SITE DESTINATION
Spread-Spectrum Chip Streams
X+A X+A+B X+A+B+C X+A+B X+A

Input Recovered
Data Data
X X

Spreading Spreading Spreading Spreading Spreading Spreading


Sequence Sequence Sequence Sequence Sequence Sequence
A B C C B A
❖ CDMA combines three different spreading
sequences to create unique, robust channels
❖ The sequences are easy to generate on both
sending and receiving ends of each link
❖ “What we do, we can undo”
24
The Three CDMA Spreading Sequences
❖ Walsh Codes: 64 are available
◆ 64chips long -- lasts 1/19200 sec
◆ mutually orthogonal

❖ PN Short Code: one pair is used (I & Q)


◆ 32K long -- lasts 26-2/3 mS, repeats 75x in 2 sec.
Ð generated in 15-bit tapped shift register
◆ Nearly self-orthogonal if compared out-of-sync

❖ PN Long Code: only one is used


◆ 242-1chips long -- lasts 40+ days!
Ð generated in 42-bit tapped shift register
◆ Any short sample is nearly orthogonal with any
other short sample
25
Code Channels in the Forward Direction
MTX BSC BTS (1 sector) Short PN Code
PN Offset 246
Walsh #0 I Q
Pilot FEC
Trans-
Walsh #32 mitter,
Sync FEC Sector X

Walsh #1
Paging FEC
A Forward Channel
Walsh #12 is identified by:
Vocoder FEC
Walsh #23
Σ ❖ its CDMA RF
carrier Frequency
Vocoder FEC ❖ the unique Short
Walsh #27 Code PN Offset of
Vocoder FEC the sector
❖ the unique Walsh
Walsh #44
Vocoder FEC Code of the user

more more more


26
Code Channels in the Reverse Direction
MTX BSC BTS (1 sector)
A Reverse Channel is identified by:
Long Code Gen ❖ its CDMA RF carrier Frequency
Access Channels Channel Element ❖ the unique Long Code PN Offset
of the individual handset
Long Code Gen Long
Code
Vocoder Channel Element
Long
Receiver, Code
Long Code Gen Sector X
Vocoder Channel Element

Long Code Gen


Long Long
Vocoder Channel Element Code Code
Long
Code
Long
Long Code Gen Code
Vocoder Channel Element

more more more


27
CDMA
Network
Architecture

www.motorola.com
Structure of a Typical Wireless System
HLR
HLR Home Location Register
(subscriber database)

SUPPORT
FUNCTIONS

BASE STATIONS
BASE STATION
SWITCH CONTROLLER
Voice Mail System

Mobile Telephone
PSTN
Local Carriers
Switching Office
Long Distance ATM Link
Carriers to other CDMA
Networks
(Future)

29
Motorola CDMA System Architecture
OMC-R BTS (SC614T/611)
OMC-R Motorola
PCSC Processor Advanced
Personal Wideband
Communications Application Interface
Switching Processor (MAWI)
Center (or SC-UNO)

CBSC BTS (SC9600/4800/2400)

Group Line
DSC Mobility Manager
EMX-2500 Interface (GLI)
PSTN or
EMX-5000
Multichannel
Transcoder
CDMA Card (MCC)

PC
Local
Maintenance
Facility
30
The Motorola PCSC

❖ Personal Communications
Switching Center
EMX-2500
❖ Primary functions
◆ Call Processing
◆ HLR-VLR access
◆ Intersystem call delivery (IS-
EMX-5000 41C)
◆ Billing Data Capture
DSC
EMX-2500 ◆ Calling Features & Services
PSTN or
EMX-5000
31
The Motorola CBSC
❖ Centralized Base Station
Controller
❖ Mobility Manager
◆ allocation of BTS resources
◆ handoff management
◆ Call management & supervision
❖ Transcoder
CBSC ◆ vocoding
◆ soft handoff management
Mobility Manager ◆ FER-based power control
◆ routing of all traffic and control
packets
Transcoder

32
The Motorola BTS Family
BTS (SC614T/611) ❖ Primary function: Air
link
Motorola
◆ generate, radiate,
Advanced receive CDMA RF signal
Wideband IS-95/J.Std. 8
Interface
◆ high-efficiency T1
(MAWI) backhaul
◆ test capabilities
SC611 Microcell
BTS (SC9600/4800/2400)

Group Line
Interface (GLI)

Multichannel
CDMA Card (MCC)

PC
Local
Maintenance
Facility SC614T SC4852 33
CDMA
Details and
Operation
Variable Rate Vocoding & Multiplexing
DSP QCELP VOCODER

❖ Vocoders compress 20ms Sample


Pitch
speech, reduce bit rate Filter

❖ CDMA uses a superior Codebook


Feed-
Variable Rate Vocoder Coded Result
back Formant
Filter
◆ fullrate during speech
◆ low rates in speech pauses bits Frame Sizes
288 Full Rate Frame
◆ increased capacity
144 1/2 Rate Frame
◆ more natural sound 72 1/4 Rt.
❖ Voice,
signaling, and user 36 1/8

secondary data may be Frame Contents: can be a mixture of


mixed in CDMA frames Voice Signaling Secondary

35
Forward Power Control
BSC BTS (1 sector) Help!
Pilot
Trans-
Sync mitter, Forward
Paging Sector X RF
User 1 Σ I Q
User 2 Short PN
Vocoder/
Selector User 3
more

❖ The BTS continually reduces the strength of


each user’s forward baseband chip stream
❖ When a particular handset sees errors on
the forward link, it requests more energy
❖ The complainer’s chip stream gets a quick
boost; afterward, continues to diminish 36
Reverse Power Control
800 bits per second

BSC BTS RX RF Digital


Stronger than Reverse Closed
RF Open
setpoint? Loop Loop
Bad FER?
Raise Setpoint Setpoint TX RF Digital
Occasionally, Handset
as needed
❖ Three
methods work in tandem to equalize all
handset signal levels at the BTS
◆ Reverse Open Loop: handset adjusts power up or
down based on received BTS signal (AGC)
◆ Reverse Closed Loop: Is handset too strong? BTS
tells up or down 1 db 800 times/second
◆ Reverse Outer Loop: BSC has FER trouble hearing
handset? BSC adjusts BTS setpoint
37
What’s In a Handset?
Digital
Rake Receiver Symbols
Chips Traffic Correlator
PN xxx Walsh xx Symbols
Receiver
RF Section
IF, Detector
Traffic Correlator
PN xxx Walsh xx Σ Viterbi
Decoder

AGC Traffic Correlator Packets


PN xxx Walsh xx
RF Audio
Messages
Open Loop

Pilot Searcher
Duplexer
PN xxx Walsh 0 CPU Vocoder

RF Audio
Transmit Gain Adjust
Messages
Transmitter
Transmitter Digital Section
RF Section
Long Code Gen.
38
The Rake Receiver
Handset Rake Receiver
PN Walsh
Voice,
RF PN Walsh Σ Data,
BTS Messages
PN Walsh
BTS
Searcher Pilot Ec/Io
PN W=0

❖ Every frame, handset uses combined outputs


of the three traffic correlators (“rake fingers”)
❖ Each finger can independently recover a
particular PN offset and Walsh code
❖ Fingers can be targeted on delayed multipath
reflections, or even on different BTSs
❖ Searcher continuously checks pilots
39
CDMA Soft Handoff Mechanics
MTX BSC Handset Rake Receiver
PN Walsh
Voice,
Sel. RF PN Walsh Σ Data,
PN Walsh Messages
BTS
BTS Searcher
Pilot Ec/Io
PN W=0

❖ CDMA soft handoff is driven by the handset


◆ Handset continuously checks available pilots
◆ Handset tells system pilots it currently sees
◆ System assigns sectors (up to 6 max.), tells handset
◆ Handset assigns its fingers accordingly
◆ All messages sent by dim-and-burst, no muting!

❖ Each end of the link chooses what works best,


on a frame-by-frame basis!
◆ Users are totally unaware of handoff 40
Softer Handoff
Handset Rake Receiver
MTX BSC PN Walsh
Voice,
RF PN Walsh Σ Data,
Sel. BTS Messages
PN Walsh
Searcher
PN W=0 Pilot Ec/Io

❖ Each BTS sector has unique PN offset & pilot


❖ Handset will ask for whatever pilots it wants
❖ If multiple sectors of one BTS simultaneously
serve a handset, this is called Softer Handoff
❖ Handset is unaware, but softer handoff
occurs in BTS in a single channel element
❖ Handset can even use combination soft-softer
handoff on multiple BTS & sectors
41
Pilot Sets and Soft Handoff Parameters
❖ Handset views pilots in sets PILOT SETS
Active 6
❖ Handset sends message to

Max. Members
system whenever: Candidate 5
◆ Itnotices a pilot in neighbor or Neighbor 20
remaining set exceeds T_ADD Remaining
◆ An active set pilot drops below
T_DROP for T_TDROP time
◆ A candidate pilot exceeds an HANDOFF
active by T_COMP PARAMETERS
T_ADD T_DROP
❖ Handoffsetup processing
T_TDROP T_COMP
time usually <<1 second

42
Overall Handoff Perspective
❖ Soft & Softer Handoffs are the best
◆ but a handset can receive BTS/sectors simultaneously only
on one frequency
◆ all involved BTS/sectors must connect to networked
CBSCs (the CBSC must choose packets each frame)
◆ frame timing must be same on all BTS/sectors
❖ If above not possible, handoff still can occur but will
be “hard” like AMPS/TDMA/GSM
◆ intersystem handoff: hard
◆ change-of-frequency handoff: hard
◆ CDMA-to-AMPS handoff: hard, no handback
Ð auxiliary trigger mechanisms available

43
CDMA Performance Optimization

❖ Key Performance Indicators and Objectives


◆ Dropped Calls, Access Failures, system FER
◆ Soft Handoff Percentage
◆ Capacity

❖ Success comes from managing resources


◆ Handoff: keep dynamics fast, delays short
Ð Neighbor lists well-optimized
◆ RF Coverage: holes vs. excessive overlap
◆ PN Planning, optimum Search Window sizes
◆ Per-Cell anomalies: watch parameters for clues

44
Total Blocked Call Percentage Example
Percent Total Block Call Percentage

8.0%
7.5%
7.0% Blkd
6.5%
6.0%
5.5%
5.0%
4.5%
4.0%
3.5%
3.0%
2.5%
2.0%
1.5%
1.0%

Date

❖ This is an example of a cumulative system-wide


total blocked call percentage chart maintained by
one PCS customer
45
Dropped Call Percentage Tracking
Example
Percent

Total Drop Call Percentage

5.0%

4.5% %Drops
4.0%

3.5%

3.0%

2.5%

2.0%

1.5%

1.0%

0.5%

0.0%

Date

❖ Dropped call percentage tracking by a PCS


customer.
46
Total System Daily MOU Example
Daily Total System MOU
MOU

300000 Daily Total System MOU

250000

200000

150000

100000

50000

Date

❖ Total system daily MOU plotted by a PCS


customer
47
“Top Ten” Performance Tracking
Example
Call Attempts

Eng MSC Call %Call Block %Blck Acc %Acc Drop %Drop
Site Site Call Att Succ Succ Calls Calls Fail Fail Calls Calls Call Attempts
6.1 13X 2561 2234 87.2 130 5.1 130 5.1 145 5.7 3000
2.1 2X 2244 2017 89.9 101 4.5 101 4.5 93 4.1
2500
1.2 1Y 1922 1743 90.7 83 4.3 83 4.3 66 3.4
2000
64.3 93Z 1833 1549 84.5 137 7.5 136 7.4 110 6.0
108.2 30Y 1740 1589 91.3 46 2.6 45 2.6 83 4.8 1500

1.3 1Z 1630 1495 91.7 31 1.9 31 1.9 81 5.0 1000


63.2 57Y 1623 1486 91.6 49 3.0 49 3.0 66 4.1 500
102.2 4Y 1615 1495 92.6 18 1.1 18 1.1 70 4.3

Calls
0
108.1 30X 1490 1387 93.1 27 1.8 27 1.8 54 3.6

108.2

102.2

108.1
64.3

63.2

43.3
6.1

2.1

1.2

1.3
Sector
43.3 42Z 1488 1410 94.8 4 0.3 4 0.3 53 3.6

% Blocked Calls September 5, 1997


Eng MSC Call %Call Block %Blck Acc %Acc Drop %Drop
Site Site Call Att Succ Succ Calls Calls Fail Fail Calls Calls % Blocked Calls
64.3 93Z 1833 1549 84.5 137 7.5 136 7.4 110 6.0 8.0
6.1 13X 2561 2234 87.2 130 5.1 130 5.1 145 5.7 7.0
63.3 57Z 1282 1098 85.7 65 5.1 65 5.1 90 7.0 6.0
2.1 2X 2244 2017 89.9 101 4.5 101 4.5 93 4.1 5.0
4.0
1.2 1Y 1922 1743 90.7 83 4.3 83 4.3 66 3.4
3.0
63.2 57Y 1623 1486 91.6 49 3.0 49 3.0 66 4.1 2.0
64.1 93X 1027 926 90.2 30 2.9 30 2.9 58 5.7 1.0
26.3 35Z 855 698 81.6 24 2.8 24 2.8 112 13.1 0.0

108.2
64.3

63.3

63.2

64.1

26.3
6.1

2.1

1.2

1.3
108.2 30Y 1740 1589 91.3 46 2.6 45 2.6 83 4.8 Sector
1.3 1Z 1630 1495 91.7 31 1.9 31 1.9 81 5.0

❖ Many operators use scripts or spreadsheet


macros to produce ranked lists of sites with heavy
traffic, performance problems, etc.
48
CDMA Mobile Analysis Tools
D
❖ Handset Maintenance
318 2 94
Mode X A 7F
❖ Real-Time Data
Collection Tools ❖ Pilot Ec/Io
❖ Finger Information
◆ Qualcomm MDM
❖ RX Level, TX Power
◆ Grayson WMI, Surveyor output, TX Gain Adjust,
◆ LCC Forward FER
◆ Safco ❖ Temporal Analyzer
❖ Markov Call Statistics
◆ Comarco
❖ Messaging Activity
❖ Pilot Set Activity

49
CDMA Network Analysis Tools
❖ Map Plots
❖ Best Ec/Io, PN, FER,
❖ Post-Processing handset RX & TX
Tools Powers, Transmit Gain
Adjust, Number of
◆ Qualcomm ODA active pilots
◆ Grayson IQAnalyzer ❖ Charts, Tables & Graphs
◆ Safco OPAS ❖ Handoff statistics (per-
neighbor tables),
◆ LCC Deskcat parameter distributions
❖ OM Analysis Tools ❖ Access, Drop Call rates

◆ Metrica ❖ Message Search/Analysis


❖ Analysis of Anomalies
❖ Pre-drop parameters

50
Bibliography
“Wireless Communications Principles & Practice” by Theodore S. Rappaport. 641 pp., 10 chapters, 7 appendices. Prentice-Hall
PTR, 1996, ISBN 0-13-375536-3. If you can only buy one book, buy this one. Comprehensive summary of wireless
technologies along with principles of real systems. Includes enough math for understanding and solving real problems.
Good coverage of system design principles.

“The Mobile Communications Handbook” edited by Jerry D. Gibson. 577 pp., 35 chapters. CRC Press/ IEEE Press 1996, ISBN 0-
8493-0573-3. $89 If you can buy only two books, buy this second. Solid foundation of modulation schemes, digital
processing theory, noise, vocoding, forward error correction, excellent full-detailed expositions of every single wireless
technology known today, RF propagation, cell design, traffic engineering. Each chapter is written by an expert, and well-
edited for readability. Clear-language explanations for both engineers and technicians but also includes detailed
mathematics for the research-inclined. Highly recommended.

“CDMA Systems Engineering Handbook” by Jhong Sam Lee and Leonard E. Miller, 1998 Artech House, ISBN 0-89006-990-5.
Excellent treatment of CDMA basics and deeper theory, cell and system design principles, system performance optimization
and capacity issues. Highly recommended.

“Applications of CDMA in Wireless/Personal Communications” by Garg, Smolik & Wilkes. 360 pp., Prentice Hall, 1997, ISBN 0-13-
572157-1 $65. Good CDMA treatment. Excellent treatment of IS-95/JStd. 008 as well as W-CDMA. More than just theoretical
text, includes chapters on IS-41 networking, radio engineering, and practical details of CDMA signaling, voice applications,
and data applications.

“CDMA RF System Engineering” by Samuel C. Yang, 1998 Artech House, ISBN 0-89006-991-3. Good general treatment of CDMA
capacity considerations from mathematical viewpoint.

"CDMA: Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication" by Andrew J. Viterbi. 245 p. Addison-Wesley 1995. ISBN 0-201-63374-4,
$65. Definitive very deep CDMA Theory. You can design CDMA chipsets after reading it, but beware lots of triple integrals;
not very relevant to operations. Prestige collector’s item among CDMA faithful.

"Mobile Communications Engineering" 2nd. Edition by William C. Y. Lee. 689 pp. McGraw Hill 1998 $65.
ISBN 0-07-037103-2 Lee’s latest/greatest reference work on all of wireless; very complete and well done.

"Spread Spectrum Communications Handbook" by Simon, Omura, Scholtz, and Levitt. 1227 pp., 15 illus., McGraw-Hill # 057629-7,
$99.50 Definitive technical reference on principles of Spread Spectrum including direct sequence as used in commercial IS-
95/JStd008 CDMA. Heavy theory.

51
Bibliography (concluded)
“Wireless and Personal Communications Systems” by Garg, Smolik & Wilkes. 445 pp., Prentice Hall, 1996, $68. ISBN 0-13-234-
626-5 $68. This is the little brother of “The Mobile Communications Handbook”. Good explanation of each technology for a
technical newcomer to wireless, but without quite as much authoritative math or deep theoretical insights. Still contains
solid theory and discussion of practical network architecture.

"Voice and Data Communications Handbook" by Bates and Gregory 699 pp, 360 illus., McGraw-Hill # 05147-X, $65 Good
authoritative reference on Wireless, Microwave, ATM, Sonet, ISDN, Video, Fax, LAN/WAN

"Communication Electronics" by Louis E. Frenzel, 2nd. Ed., list price $54.95. Glencoe/MacMillan McGraw Hill, April, 1994, 428
pages hardcover, ISBN 0028018427. All the basic principles of transmission and their underlying math. If you didn’t take
signals & systems in school, this is your coach in the closet.

“Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications” by Bernard Sklar. 771 pp., Prentice Hall, 1988. $74 ISBN# 0-13-
211939-0 Excellent in depth treatment of modulation schemes, digital processing theory, noise.

"Wireless Personal Communications Services" by Rajan Kuruppillai. 424 pp., 75 illus., McGraw-Hill # 036077-4, $55 Introduction to
major PCS technical standards, system/RF design principles and process, good technical reference

"PCS Network Deployment" by John Tsakalakis. 350 pp, 70 illus., McGraw-Hill #0065342-9, $65 Tops-down view of the startup
process in a PCS network. Includes good traffic section.

"The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs (1997)" published by the American Radio Relay League (phone 800-594-0200). 1100+
page softcopy ($44); useful exposure to nuts-and-bolts practical ideas for the RF-unfamiliar. Solid treatment of the practical
side of theoretical principles such as Ohm’s law, receiver and transmitter architecture and performance, basic antennas and
transmission lines, and modern circuit devices. Covers applicable technologies from HF to high microwaves. If you haven’t
had much hands-on experience with real RF hardware, or haven’t had a chance to see how the theory you learned in school
fits with modern-day communications equipment, this is valuable exposure to real-world issues. Even includes some
spread-spectrum information in case you’re inclined to play and experiment at home. At the very least, this book will make
dealing with hardware more comfortable. At best, it may motivate you to dig deeper into theory as you explore why things
behave as they do.

52